Ha-Shilth-Sa Newspaper June 2nd, 2022

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INTERESTING NEWS Canada’s Oldest First Nations Newspaper - Serving Nuu-chah-nulth-aht since 1974 Canadian Publications Mail Product Vol. 49 - No. 11—June 2, 2022 haas^i>sa Sales Agreement No. 40047776

Family files hospital mistreatment complaint Man allegedly strapped to a bed once his wife left Nanaimo General By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter

Photo by Karly Blats

Willard Gallic Jr., Tseshaht First Nation artist, has designed artwork depicting the wolf that will be installed at the top of the aging clock tower at the Harbour Quay as part of the city’s redesign plans.

Tseshaht prepares to unveil Wolf Tower Harbourfront’s new design to be revealed National Indigenous Day in Port Alberni By Denise Titian Ha-Shilth-Sa Reporter Port Alberni, BC – The Harbour Quay Clock Tower, built in the 1980s, has gotten a facelift and is about to be unveiled at National Indigenous Day celebrations, hosted jointly by Tseshaht First Nation and the City of Port Alberni. The Clock Tower has been under wraps for months as it goes through its transformation to the Wolf Tower, or ƛuukʷatquuʔis in the Tseshaht language. Port Alberni City Council and the Tseshaht First Nation leadership have been collaborating on the transformation of the clock tower. “When we were first elected we said we can’t have reconciliation without talking about land and territories,” said Ken Watts, Tseshaht’s elected chief. He praised Port Alberni’s city council, led by Mayor Shari Minions, for putting action to their words. “They got the funding in place and partnered with us,” said Watts. “Walking together is an expression of meaningful action and ongoing commitment to reconciliation efforts. We look forward to celebrating Indigenous culture and all cultures that make up Port Alberni and surrounding areas,” reads a City of Port Alberni invitation to the June 21 event.

The city says they will, in partnership with Tseshaht First Nation, celebrate the re-awakening of ƛuukʷatquuʔis with the unveiling of the Wolf Tower. Tseshaht men have been traveling to each Nuu-chah-nulth nation over the past several days, inviting the people to paddle to the shores of Harbour Quay. They will spend the day celebrating a significant cultural event, the recognition of the sacred site that the Tseshaht used for their winter wolf rituals. It was also the winter home of the Tseshaht. “For more than 100 years the Tseshaht people have been kept from performing our Wolf Ritual at our Winter Village site ƛuukʷatquuʔis that was lost under duress without treaty for settler occupation,” the Tseshaht people stated in their invitation. They went on to say that ƛuukʷatquuʔis remains a sacred part of their Aboriginal title territories. Hundreds of guests are expected to attend the day-long event. “During our dawn-until-dusk celebration, we expect to welcome upwards of 1,000 people,” reads the invitation. Ha’wiih from neighboring nations were invited to arrive at the ceremony via chaputs (dugout canoe), where they will be welcomed ashore by Tseshaht beach keepers. “Together we uphold Tseshaht responsibilities and protocols by challenging our

Inside this issue... West coast tourism back to normal.................................Page 3 Illicit drug possession decriminalized............................Page 5 Mysterious fish traps in Nootka Sound..................Pages 8 & 9 Practitioner helps people with their bodies...................Page 10 Journey to reawaken the spirit......................................Page 15

neighbouring Nations and other dignitaries to paddle their chiefs to the ceremonial grounds from their own territory or launch from Clutesi Haven Marina and be escorted by our Beach Keepers vessel for a traditional welcoming protocol of coming ashore,” the Tseshaht added. The event will be open to all people. “Ed (Tseshaht Councilor, Ed Ross) says it is important to share with other cultures,” said Watts. There will be a new installation made by Tseshaht artist Willard Gallic Jr. unveiled that day. Tseshaht people will celebrate with their songs and dances before allowing their invited guests to perform. Guests will be treated to breakfast, lunch, and snacks throughout the day, followed by a traditional feast of salmon and seafood for dinner. There will be space available for crafters, artisans and Indigenous-focused small businesses to sell their wares. Tseshaht will be performing many of our songs and dances and invite other Nations and cultures to take the floor and share theirs as well. It has been decades, if not more than a century, that a cultural event of this magnitude has been held at a site that is sacred to the Tseshaht. “Our people singing and dancing there is really exciting,” said Watts.

One week after being diagnosed with bone cancer, Leo Manson Sr.’s nose started to bleed profusely while visiting his son in Ty-Histanis, a Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation community on Vancouver Island. His wife, Maxine, immediately brought him to the Tofino General Hospital before he was transferred to the Nanaimo General Hospital for further care. After being awake and by his side for nearly 24-hours, Maxine said she left him in the hospital’s care to get some rest. Unable to breathe properly and disorientated from the loss of blood, Manson sat up on the edge of his hospital bed, and intermittently stood up to catch his breath. This allegedly prompted hospital staff to restrain him by strapping Manson to his bed. When Maxine returned, she said she found her husband’s arms, stomach and back covered in dark bruises. The straps were placed over his hips where Manson has “tremendous pain,” disallowing him from laying down comfortably, Maxine said. “They threw him against the wall [and] bent his wrists back,” she said through tears. “They were really roughing him around.” Because of Manson’s bone cancer, Maxine said the doctor was concerned his body was going to have to fight even harder to heal from the bruises. “He’s going to have the fight of his life with this cancer,” she said. On May 25, Maxine filed a complaint against the hospital through the First Nations Health Authority (FNHA). “I don’t ever want to see another native person be treated like that,” she said. “We’re just people too – we’re humans. We just want to be treated with respect. This never should have happened in a hospital when someone is so vulnerable.”

If undeliverable, please return to: Ha-Shilth-Sa P.O. Box 1383, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M2

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Island Health admits patient didn’t get proper care Continued from page 1. The decision to restrain a patient is made “based on a variety of factors and is done at the clinical judgement of the care team to ensure the safety of both the patient and staff,” Island Health wrote in an email. Despite this, Island Health said it acknowledges that Manson did not receive culturally safe care. “We are deeply concerned about the impact of this experience on the patient and their family,” Island health said. “We have connected with this patient’s family to listen and learn from their experience, and these conversations are ongoing.” Island Health said they are also in dialogue with leadership from the Tla-o-quiaht First Nation to ensure their response “goes beyond words and includes meaningful actions.” Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council VicePresident Mariah Charleson said B.C.’s health care system has “a long way to go” before Indigenous populations feel safe accessing care. “It’s really troubling to know the reality that our people are still facing racism in the healthcare system,” she said. “We really need to look at trauma-informed practice and trauma-informed care so that our people are treated like human beings.” In between visits with Manson on May 24, Maxine was told she could wait in the hospital’s cultural gathering area. Upon asking for directions to the gathering area, she said she was told to, “get on your horse and buggy and go around to the main entrance of the building,” by an ambassador.

“We get remarks like that every day,” Maxine said. “That’s what we go through every day.” Discrimination in Canada’s healthcare system is not a new conversation. In 2020, the In Plain Sight report identified “widespread systemic racism against Indigenous peoples” in B.C.’s health care system which resulted in a range of negative impacts, including death. Led by independent reviewer Mary Ellen Turpel-Lafond, the report made 24 recommendations to address Indigenousspecific racism. Over a year after the recommendations were made, Turpel-Lafond said there have been “some” signs of progress but that they don’t go far enough. Stories shared with the FNHA quality care and safety office “demonstrate there is an urgent need to address racism and discrimination in our health care system,” the health authority said. “Many Indigenous individuals who report their experiences accessing health care tell us about the poor treatment they receive,” FNHA said. “Although every story that we hear is different, there are common themes, including, challenges with quality care and treatment, personnel, discriminations and Indigenousspecific racism.” Transforming the health care system will require systemic alterations and behavioural change from health providers, FNHA added. Manson’s son, Tim, said a First Nations support worker should have been there to support his father. “A liaison worker can only be there when they’re called,” he said. If a patient is disoriented, they don’t al-

ways have the capacity to call a liaison worker, he added. Island Health said it acknowledges systemic Indigenous-specific racism occurs within its health authority. “Our patients and communities can be assured we are taking action, and the steps that we are taking will continue to be guided by Indigenous leaders and communities,” Island Health said. Since August 2020, Island Health said cultural safety and humility training has been mandatory for all staff, physicians, midwives, and nurse practitioners Leo Manson went to a hospital with a heavy nose bleed one week after being diagnosed with bone cancer. working in all Island Health emergency departments. “The accord speaks to reciprocal acMaxine said she’s concerned that traincountability that emphasizes collaboraing doesn’t extend to security staff. tion and collective action as a way of acCurrently, there is one Indigenous liaicelerating improvement to First Nations son nurse employed at Nanaimo General health and wellness,” the FNHA said. Hospital and a second will be included Maxine described her husband as a through a contract with Snuneymuxw “very humble” and “quiet” man. First Nation, according to Island Health. “[He’s] always working for the people at A renewed Vancouver Island Partnership home – no matter what situation they’re Accord was signed in May 2022 between in,” Tim described. “He’ll do his best to FNHA, Island Health and the Vancouver accommodate anybody and everybody.” Island Regional Caucus, which represents By sharing Manson’s story, Maxine said the 50 nations on Vancouver Island. It re- she hopes no one else will have to suffer established the commitment to improve in the same way. the health and wellness outcomes of all “I’ve always stood up for the little First Nations people in the Island Health people,” she said. “If they can’t speak, region. I’ll speak for them.”

June 2, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 3

Photo by Melissa Renwick

People enjoy Long Beach in June 2020, with Esowista in the distance. Bookings in Tofino have approached pre-pandemic levels on the west coast, as businesses welcome international travellers following two years of COVID-19 restrictions.

‘Life is ge•ing back to normal’ for tourism in Tofino Bookings approach pre-pandemic levels on the west coast, as businesses welcome more international travellers By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter Tofino, BC - When B.C.’s proof of vaccination requirement expired on April 8, it was the last major COVID-19 measure removed by the province. Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation has followed suit by easing its COVID-19 restrictions, and after more than two years, the nation’s Tribal Administrator Jim Chisholm said “life is getting back to normal.” Face mask requirements have been relaxed, restrictions on the number of people at indoor and outdoor gatherings have been eased, and there is no longer a check-stop at the entrance of Ty-Histanis to monitor people coming and going from the community. This comes as a “relief” to many community members, Chisholm said. “We had a lot of our elders and a lot of our people that hadn’t seen their grandkids in a year,” Chisholm said. “Now, they can get back together with [their] family.” While the community is “joyful” overall, Chisholm said the tribal administration and emergency management continues to closely monitor COVID-19 case counts. The nation remains concerned anytime one of its members gets COVID-19, he

said. “We still do get the odd [case], but obviously not as bad as we had it before,” Chisholm added. The nation is located near Tofino, a popular tourist destination on Vancouver Island that is gearing up for a busy summer season, following a pent-up demand for travel with the easing of these restrictions. Tourism Tofino Executive Director Nancy Cameron said hotel occupancy is expected to be 90 to 95 per cent for July and August. “After a challenging two years for many tourism operators, we are projecting that July and August visitation will be close to pre-pandemic levels,” she said. “We are thrilled to also see the gradual return of international visitors, although not yet at 2019 levels.” With the return of tourists visiting the area, Tofino-Long Beach Chamber of Commerce President Laura McDonald said businesses are “extremely concerned about staffing shortages and the impact on their operations.” While a variety of factors are at play, McDonald said the lack of housing is one of the leading causes of the staffing shortages. The District of Tofino finished construction on a 14-unit affordable housing

project earlier this year and another is expected to be complete in 2023, said McDonald. “While these projects are encouraging, they won’t on their own alleviate Tofino’s housing issues,” she said. “We still require new residential housing developments to be built in the district. The reality of staffing shortages is that businesses have to adjust and sometimes curtail services, and we are seeing this happen.” Lewis and Cathy George have been operating the House of Himwitsa, a First Nations art gallery and lodge, since 1991. While the lodge’s occupancy rate has returned to pre-pandemic levels and is already 95 per cent full for the months of July and August, Cathy said they’re keeping COVID-19 safety protocols in place. Staff are only permitted to enter guest rooms after they’ve managed to disinfect and clean for the next visitors, she said. “We’re having a hard time with staff,” Cathy said. “I don’t want to put any pressure on them above and beyond what’s already going on.” Because of the specialized nature of the art gallery, Cathy said it’s been challenging to retain staff. The business is operating with four fewer employees than normally required. “Everybody here [in Tofino] is struggling for staff,” she said.

Although Cathy said she would like to hire more people from Ahousaht First Nation, it’s not economically feasible for most to charter a boat to and from work every day. “If there was better transportation from Ahousaht, we would probably get a few more people working outside of the reserve,” she said. With more people turning to online shopping since the start of the pandemic, Lewis said the House of Himwitsa is creating an website store for their gallery. “It’s going to make a huge difference,” he said. Visitors are not required to wear masks in the gallery, but Cathy said many put them on before entering the business. For Cathy, it’s a show of “respect.” “I think it’s important,” she said. “Especially in small communities like this where things can spread so easily. “ Despite continuing to wear her mask when the art gallery gets busy and trying to protect family members with asthma, Cathy said she “looks forward” to welcoming international visitors back to her store. “I really enjoy talking to people from all over the world,” she said. “They just love our culture.”


Page 4— Ha-Shilth-Sa— June 2, 2022 Ha-Shilth-Sa newspaper is published by the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council for distribution to the members of the NTC-member First Nations, as well as other interested groups and individuals. Information and original work contained in this newspaper is protected by copyright and may not be reproduced without written permission from: Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council P.O. Box 1383, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M2. Telephone: (250) 724-5757 Fax: (250) 723-0463 Web page: www.hashilthsa.com facebook: Hashilthsa Ntc

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Inquest calls for improvements in police Jury makes recommendations, nearly two years after Chantel Moore was shot dead By Eric Plummer Ha-Shilth-Sa Editor Fredericton, NB- A five-member jury from a coroner’s inquest into the death of Chantel Moore is calling the tragedy a homicide, with a list of measures to improve police response in crisis situations. The inquest released its findings today regarding the death of the 26-year-old Tla-o-qui-aht member on June 4, 2020 during a police wellness check in Edmundston, New Brunswick. A coroner’s inquest is a formal court proceeding that cannot determine legal responsibility, but rather makes recommendations to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future. Moore died after being shot five times by Const. Jeremy Son, who came to the young woman’s home at 2:30 a.m. after police received a call from her ex-boyfriend, who was concerned she was being stalked and was afraid for Moore’s safety. Son reported that he knocked on Moore’s window while she was asleep on the coach. She came out to the deck of her second-floor apartment, approaching Son with a knife, alleged the officer. She refused to drop it despite his commands, said Son, who testified during the inquiry, leading him to fire. After hearing from 16 witnesses, the jury concluded that the death was not accidental. “The classification of ‘homicide’ in a coroner’s inquest is defined as any case of a person dying by the actions of another,” said the New Brunswick Department of Justice and Public Safety in a press release. “Coroners and juries can classify a death as a homicide, suicide, accident, natural causes or cause undetermined. The inquest found Moore’s death was a homicide.” Son was previously not deemed criminally responsible for Moore’s death by the Maritime province’s prosecution service, based on an investigation by the Bureau des enquêtes indépendantes, a police watchdog agency that serves Quebec and New Brunswick. “[T]he officer in question did believe, on reasonable grounds, that force or a threat of force was being used against him by Ms. Moore, that he shot at Ms. Moore for

Photo by Eric Plummer

People gather outside the B.C. legislature in Victoria in June 2020, protesting the death of Chantel Moore during a police wellness check in New Brunswick. the purpose of defending or protecting policy on providing first aid after force himself and that his actions were reasonhas been applied,” to ensure “that officers able under the circumstances,” stated the begin emergency medical aid as soon as prosecutor’s office in the written statepossible and continue that aid until mediment issued in June 2021. cal responders arrive and take over.” The Crown went on to say that the ofIn November an investigation by the ficer’s actions were reasonable given that New Brunswick Police Commission conhe had few options available to him with cluded there was insufficient evidence to “a potential lethal threat approaching him show a breach of professional conduct in Moore’s death. But the coroner’s inquest quickly.” pushed for better police training on “the After reviewing four days of details related to the tragedy, the coroner’s inquest proper procedures following a serious injury recommended better police training cident involving serious injury or death,” in de-escalation and crisis intervention, as and that supervisors be better educated on well as better access to “less lethal tools”. what’s needed “to ensure the integrity of The inquest found that just one taser was evidence and witnesses.” available in the Edmundston Police Force Nearly two years after losing her at the time of Moore’s death, a tool that daughter during police intervention, such Son did not have with him while he was recommendations are hard for Martha on the second-storey deck. Martin to take. Other recommendations addressed the “We want to see hard action, we don’t ability of police to respond to medical want to hear any more recommendaemergencies. The jury called for officers tions,” said Martin to reporters as the to maintain standard certification in CPR inquest was underway. “We’re done, we and first aid, a review of the medical need action now, because we shouldn’t be emergency policy and equipment that doing inquiries to fight for change for our administers “combat casualty care.” children.” The inquest stressed a review of “police

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June 2, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 5

Drug possession decriminalized for small quantities Federal government agrees to B.C.’s request for criminal code exemption, in an effort to slow fatal overdose toll By Eric Plummer Ha-Shilth-Sa Editor Vancouver, BC – On May 31 the federal and provincial governments announced that small quantities of illicit drugs will no longer bring criminal charges, a longawaited move that health authorities hope will curb a fatal crisis that’s escalated since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The federal government granted British Columbia an exemption under Section 56 of the Criminal Code of Canada, making B.C. the first province to not arrest, charge or seize small amounts of illegal drugs from people. Now people in B.C. are permitted to carry up to 2.5 grams of illicit drugs, a criminal code exemption that applies to opioids like heroin, morphine and Fentanyl, as well as cocaine, methamphetamine or MDMA (ecstasy). This measure will be in place for three years, starting Jan. 31, 2023. The exemption represents “a major step in changing how we view addiction and drug use in British Columbia,” said provincial Minister of Mental Health and Addictions Sheila Malcolmson during a press conference. “The fear of being criminalized has led many people to hide their addiction and use drugs alone – and using alone can mean dying alone,” she added. With over 2,220 deaths, last year was the most fatal for illicit drug use since B.C. declared a public health emergency in April 2016. The province has poured millions into the opioid crisis, funding more treatment options, harm reduction support and measures to increase the supply of safer prescribed alternatives to illicit drugs. But after the toll dropped to

Photo supplied by the Provinve of BC

Sheila Malcolmson, B.C.’s minister of Mental Health and Addictions, is calling a federally approved exemption under the Criminal Code of Canada a “a major step in changing how we view addiction and drug use in British Columbia.” under 1,000 in 2019, fatalities jumped with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and its related health measures encouraging isolation. The First Nations Health Authority reported that in 2020 Indigenous people were 5.3 times more likely to die from illicit drug use than the rest of the population in B.C. “We know that this was exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic when


people needed to isolate at home,” commented Provincial Health Officer Bonnie Henry at the decriminalization announcement. “Mostly younger men, who were living at home who may have had social connections, have lost those connections and are using alone, afraid or ashamed to talk to family or friends about their drug use.” Henry added that the move to decriminalization is “a philosophical approach” to better support people who use illicit drugs. She noted that this could have impacts on the overrepresentation of First Nations people in the criminal justice system. “Over half of the women in our provincial correctional facilities are Indigenous women, and 80 per cent of the women in those facilities are there for low-level drug crimes,” said Henry. “We need to get out of that cycle.” The provincial health officer noted the shift in how government is responding to calls for decriminalization, after her report Stopping the Harm met resistance four years ago. “When the decriminalization report came out in 2018, there was not a lot of support for it at any level,” said Henry. “For too many years, the ideological opposition to harm reduction has cost lives,” admitted Carolyn Bennett, Canada’s minister of Mental Health and Addictions, during the press conference. Yet Bennett said she would not support Bill C-216 in the House of Commons, legislation which was set to be voted on the day after the criminal code exemption was announced. Introduced by NDP Courtenay-Alberni MP Gord Johns, this bill proposes to decriminalize personal possession across Canada, with record expungement for past low-level drug convictions and measures for more treatment, safer supply and other harm reduc-

tion methods. “I have some discomfort with the bill because I think it doesn’t put in place the guardrails around implementation and how you would actually be able to ascertain thresholds,” said Bennett, who noted that “starting with British Columbia is a prudent way to go.” In response, Johns is calling B.C.’s criminal code exemption a “patchwork approach to the national drug crisis.” “It is hard to understand why the Liberal government seems unwilling to support our legislation that is intended to save lives so that more and more families aren’t forced to bury their loved ones,” said the NDP member of parliament in a statement. Federal and provincial officials at the announcement said decriminalization will be one tool among several others needed to finally curb the rising toll of overdose deaths. Another measure is pushing ahead more prescribed alternatives to illicit drugs, such as methadone and hydromorphone. “Putting in place a regulated safe supply of drugs is the real antidote to the toxicity of the present supply,” said Bennett. In recent years this increase in toxicity is largely due to the prevalence of Fentanyl in street drugs. Originally designed to be a medically prescribed painkiller, Fentanyl has been blamed for a high percentage of overdose fatalities. Amidst the ongoing opioid crisis, the B.C. government has taken aim at pharmaceutical companies with a class action lawsuit launched in 2018. The government claims that drug companies have contributed to an epidemic of addiction by deceiving prescribers and patients of the risks in taking painkillers. “It’s time that they take responsibility for the human and financial toll that their products have taken,” said Malcolmson.

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Eleventh hour deal keeps the Ucluelet clinic open Family doctor shortage leaves patients scrambling across B.C., but situation is particularly bad in Port Alberni By Mike Youds Ha-Shilth-Sa Contributor Island Health has reached agreement with Ucluelet Medical Clinic, assuming the lease to head off closure at month’s end and ensuring another 3,000 patients do not lose family doctors. The move ends months of uncertainty for Ucluelet residents as well as for 1,500 others in outlying coastal communities such as Hitacu and Macoah who rely on the sole clinic in the village. They can consider themselves fortunate in a province where roughly 900,000 residents are not connected to a general physician and primary health care. Dr. Shannon McDonald, acting chief medical health officer with First Nation Health Authority, confirmed the agreement late last week. “They’re going to take over the lease and the clinic will remain open,” said Dr. McDonald. Dr. Carrie Marshall, clinic lead and leaseholder, disclosed recently that the clinic has operated at a loss for some time and closure loomed as a possibility at the end of May when the lease expired. The health authority had been meeting with clinic physicians and the Resort Municipality of Ucluelet in search of a solution. Having a family doctor means access to longitudinal care, McDonald said. Longitudinal care is seamless, providing individuals with ongoing care, maintaining their medical records and co-ordinating referrals to other health care providers. Family doctors, general practitioners, have always performed that critical role in primary care. An estimated 900,000 B.C. residents — one in five — do not have a family physician and the number is rising rapidly as doctors retire or opt out of private practice. The advent of virtual online health care and Urgent Primary Care Centres is not the same, McDonald said. “It’s not the same as a family doctor where you have a longitudinal relationship,” she said. A majority of those unattached to a family physician are left scrambling, “and that’s very sad.” Ucluelet is not any different from hundreds of other smaller communities where recruiting and retaining medical professionals has been a challenge for years. With the general aging of the population, including physicians, and more medical graduates choosing alternatives to family practice, the shortage has reached crisis proportions. Rural residents may feel it more acutely in the absence of options, such as walk-in clinics, but the crisis is universal. “Even a visit to an emergency room is a major effort. It’s become incredibly challenging for people to get urgent care,” McDonald said. On the west coast, there may be compounding factors such as housing and a shortage of people willing to work there for a variety of reasons. Graduates are in short supply and have the pick of career choices, McDonald said. The same shortage is affecting FNHA’s recruitment, she said. A newly founded citizen’s action group maintains there is no shortage of trained medical professionals in the province, only a lack of political will in the face of a health care crisis that is growing steadily worse. B.C. Health Care Matters rallied support last week in front of the B.C. Legislature. “Everybody in B.C. deserves the opportunity to see a family doctor,” said

Photo supplied by B.C. Health Care Matters

A rally in May at the B.C. Legislature declared that, “Everyone deserves a family doctor.” The system needs medical professionals most of the southern part of the province, Camille Currie, who founded the group. attached to patients, Currie said. It also “Longitudinal care is the best way to enoffers no help for valley residents without sure the best health outcomes for people.” needs a records management system that a doctor. The site gives a link to the “pais shareable among medical professionCurrie was spurred to action when she tient attachment mechanism” for Port Alals. and her family lost their doctor in Victoberni, but links instead to the Oceanside “The final step has to be for the health ria earlier this year. Health Connect Registry, which serves ministry to become open and transpar“This is a provincewide problem and only residents of that area. it’s not localized to the main centres,” she ent about the success or failure of the McDonald sees no ready solution to the UPCCs.” said. crisis. Each one costs $2 million to $4 million Physician services among First Nations “I don’t think there is any low-hanging to set up with annual costs ranging from is already 3.3 percent lower than the rest fruit to be had, there are just not enough $3 million to $6 million per centre, she of the population. According to In Plain bodies, not enough trained professionsaid. Sight, the 2020 report on Indigenousals to do this work,” she said. “We can’t “Are they providing the kind of care specific racism and discrimination in B.C. force people to do work they don’t want health care, access to primary care should needed? If not, should funds allocated for to do, and we need the specialists.” those centres be redistributed to others be higher based on greater health needs. Some patients wait as long as 18 months such as general practice offices?” “Lower access to physician services for surgery, she noted. B.C. has enough doctors but fewer are may be reflected in a higher burden of UPCCs have some advantage in that choosing private practice over hospitaldisease, or simply reflect that access is they are multi-disciplinary and allow staff ist positions and specialties because of insufficient to meet the health needs of to provide team care, McDonald said. professional demands, said Camille. the population,” the report states. Administrative support frees up more The possibility of clinic closure in “In B.C., we have 6,800 licensed Famtime for practitioners to focus on patients. Ucluelet came up in legislative debate FNHA is opening 15 primary care ily Doctors, but only 3,200 of them are earlier this month when the Liberal health choosing to work in B.C. as family doccentres across B.C., two of which are critic Shirley Bond took Health Minister tors or to practice at all,” Camille said. operational. McDonald sees opportuniAdrian Dix to task. “Lack of trained individuals is not the ties for collaboration with the mainstream “It’s time he gave meaningful answers cause of this crisis, lack of political will health care system. that give hope to British Columbians and is!” B.C. Family Doctors, the economic and health care workers across this province,” political voice of doctors, predicts 40 Alberni Valley residents fare worse Bond said. percent will retire in the next 10 years, than their neighbours on the west coast Family doctors are leaving their pracin terms of physician attachment. Find which would leave millions more without tices, walk-in clinic wait times are the a family doctor. A Doctor B.C., a web tool that covers longest in the country, and doctors and nurses are overwhelmed, she added. Dix countered that the provincial government is acting, having opened 27 urgent and primary care centres (UPCCs), adding virtual visits and setting up 59 primary care networks, which are local care teams. “It is extraordinarily effective,” he said. He also pointed to addressing a fee-forservice system that favours less serious and episodic care. The government is currently negotiating a new contract with private practitioners. “The honorable members try to pretend that COVID didn’t happen during this time,” Dix said. Currie maintains that COVID is not the cause, though it has exacerbated the problem. She said the government is unwilling to admit that its prescribed approach to the crisis is not working. Band-Aid measures simply don’t cut it, she said. “It’s just a huge disconnect,” she said. “The UPCC was quite a wonderful model when it was first described, but they are not the solution to the crisis and are also not addressing current needs.”

June 2, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 7

City holds hearing on Ahousaht’s apartment building Site of former Cedarwood Elementary School would be replaced with a four-storey, 35-unit apartment complex By Denise Titian Ha-Shilth-Sa Reporter Port Alberni, BC – Ahousaht elder Wally Samuel appeared before Port Alberni city council on the evening of May 31 seeking zoning amendments that would allow for the construction of much-needed affordable housing units in the city. He was representing the Citaapi Mahtii Housing Society in its application to amend the Official Community Plan and zoning bylaws at 4210 Cedarwood Street, the site of the former Cedarwood Elementary School, that they hope will be replaced with a four-storey, 35-unit apartment complex. The new building is funded by BC Housing’s Community Housing Fund and is a partnership between the Citaapi Mahtii Housing Society, BC Housing and the City of Port Alberni. The planned complex will also receive funding from CMHC. There are more than 500 registered Ahousaht members living in Port Alberni, many in a tight and very expensive rental housing market. Elected Chief Greg Louie told Ha-Shilth-Sa that his council heard from membership that they need affordable housing. The proposed new complex would deliver 35 affordable new units in a fourstorey building. The structure will have eight studio units, seven one-bedroom apartments, four two-bedroom units, 12 three-bedroom suites and four fourbedroom units. The blend of unit sizes will allow for a more inclusive community atmosphere. In addition to the housing units, the development plans show a one-storey amenity space with a kitchen that can be rented for gatherings. The public hearing allowed proponents of the project speak to the need for the project and for city residents to ask questions. Harley Wylie, Sharean Van Volsen and Archie Little of Tseshaht, Hupacasath and Nuchatlaht respectively all spoke in support of the project, saying their councils and people are aware of the need and

Design by DYS Architecture

A four-story, 35-unit development is planned for a site near the Alberni Fall Fair grounds, offering rental suites for Ahousaht members. The property was formerly used for the Port Alberni Youth Centre. support the idea. “This will not only benefit Ahousaht, but also the city,” said Wylie. Alice Sam is an Ahousaht member residing in Port Alberni who advocates for homeless people. She noted that in today’s housing market, people are losing their homes due to renovictions, zoning changes or just being priced out of the rental market. Add to that, there are no shelters in the city that provide rooms for couples. NTC Vice-President Mariah Charleson mentioned a homelessness forum hosted by the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council a few years ago. At that forum, she said, Port Alberni was one of five cities identified as having a high number of Nuuchah-nulth-aht that identify as homeless. Photo by Denise Titian The other cities are Nanaimo, Victoria, the colour of their skin,” said Charleson. according to Cook. Vancouver and Courtenay. She went to say that moving the projThere were few if any speaking against Charleson noted that racism continues to ect forward would indicate a chance for the project. One business owner was in be a problem for Indigenous people seekreal reconciliation with the city and its favor of the project but worried that the ing rental housing. Indigenous population. Opportunities for noise from his business might be disrup“Many can’t rent once the landlord sees affordable housing for Indigenous people tive to the tenants. The architect assured would contribute to the economy and the him that the building would be well tax base. insulated and highly efficient, and the “There’s a myth out there that we don’t property will be fenced so noise from the pay taxes, but we do,” said Charleson. neighbors should not be an issue. Jeff Cook of Huu-ay-aht and long-time The Citaapi Mahtii Housing Society is Port Alberni resident talked about the seeking amendments to the Official Comhistory of housing projects in the city and munity Plan and zoning bylaws in order the barriers that were broken through. to move the project forward. If successWhen Ma’kola Housing went up in ful, the property will be rezoned to RM3 certain sections of town, people in the High Density Multiple Family Residenneighborhood protested, “Not in my back tial from P2 Parks and Recreation. yard”. Port Alberni City Council said they will Usma Nuu-chah-nulth Family and Child Services are But everything worked out and low vote on the proposed amendments somebarrier housing has been beneficial to all, time in June. looking for individual/s or families who are interested

Looking for......

in caregiving for teens with high-risk behaviors. The Caregiver(s) would provide 24-hour care in a culturally safe and suppor•ve environment, responding effec•vely to challenging behaviours. Compensa•on would be built around the specific needs of the youth and the Caregiver, and could include both direct services and financial support to allow Caregivers to meet the needs of the youth. For more informa•on, please call Joni or Julia at 250-724-3232.

Have You Moved? If you should be getting a copy of the Ha-Shilth-Sa paper delivered to your home and you are not, please contact Holly Stocking at 250-724-5757 or email holly.stocking@ nuuchahnulth.org

Page 8— Ha-Shilth-Sa— June 2, 2022

Mysterious traps found in Nootka Sound reveal comple Eighteen rock-walled fish traps have been documented in the remote area, but the wear of the ages is raising the urgency to share By Eric Plummer Ha-Shilth-Sa Editor Yuquot, BC - A heavy mist chills Nootka Sound one morning in mid May, as Ray Williams scans the rugged shores he has known for his whole life. With the motorboat resting in shallow water, Ray’s son Darrell has jumped from the vessel’s driver seat to search for a painting on a rocky cliff that Ray encountered over 30 years ago while helping with an archaeological survey in the area. “I’d know exactly where it was if I had my eyesight,” admits the 80-year-old as Darrell scales a cliff in Hisnet Inlet. Despite his compromised vision, Ray is able to lead his son to multiple sites that would otherwise be easily missed by other travellers, uncovering hints of the complicated occupations of his Mowachaht ancestors. With Ha-Shilth-Sa accompanying for documentation, their focus today is the stone-walled fish trap, a remnant of the harvesting practices of generations past. Amid the continued battering of the West Coast weather, a handful of these traps can still be found in Nootka Sound’s tidal flats. The rock pilings are still evident, showing “a specialized fishing technology” that could have been designed to collect schools of small fish by using the changing of the tide, wrote archaeologist Yvonne Marshall in 1993. “We know only that fish were captured by driving them into the enclosed pond at high tide, and trapping them behind the walls as the tide fell by closing off openings in the walls with branches or basketry nets,” wrote Marshall, part of her extensive project on the traditional practices of the

The remains of a rosk-walled fish trap can still be found by Cougar Creek in Nootka Sound. Archaeologist Yvonne Marshall speculated that “it may trap salmon which were congregating prior to enter the stream to spawn.” casionally occurring in groups, usually his ancestors carefully placed generations across the mouth of a small bay or cove,” ago. wrote Alan McMillan, from surveys he did “It’s important to keep all these fish traps in Barkley Sound and the Alberni Inlet with intact,” he says. Dennis St. Claire from 1973-75. “Such Across Valdez Bay on the north side, Marstructures are likely to have a long-time shall documented the disappearing traces of depth in this area.” another fish trap that enclosed two ponds. “The walls are so fragmentary the site will probably not survive as a recognizable fish trap for much longer,” she wrote. “The forest, the rivers, the traps, how they fished - it’s been a secret for far too long,” adds Ray. “It would also help our claim about our fishing rights. Claim of the ocean, claim of the land, claim of the forest

“It’s important to keep all these fish traps intact” ~ Ray Williams - what we have out there that still exists.”

700 salmon in 15 minutes

Ray Williams is one of the few people with knowledge of the stone fish traps. Thirty years ago he served as a guide for Marshall’s extensive surveys in the area. Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation. “They would open the trap at high tide,” explains Ray. “The little perch that carry little babies inside, they would probably look for a place to be safe to let out the little ones.” Similar fish traps have been documented elsewhere in Nuu-chah-nulth territory. Surveys have identified 20 on the Toquaht First Nation’s shores, and at least 80 have been surveyed within the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. Another has been identified right across the water from Port Alberni in Shoemaker Bay, and down the inlet stone walled fish traps have been recorded in the Broken Group Islands. “These are loosely piled rock walls, oc-

As a child Ray heard about the stone fish traps from his father and father-in-law, and first encountered them as young man during a hunting trip. Now he reflects on the need to share these little-known traditions of his people while the remains of the traps are still in place. While rain begins to fall, Darrell Williams looks over the rocks of a fish trap in Valdez Bay, the walls arcing out of the tidal area with an opening at the end. “I didn’t even know about these until my dad started showing me,” says Darrell, who grew up in the nearby village of Yuquot. Ray admits some concern as he looks at floating sports fishing cabins in the bay, less than 50 feet from the rock walls that

The intricacies of Nuu-chah-nulth fishing practices have been documented since Europeans first landed in Nootka Sound in 1778. A more widely understood method entailed setting traps for salmon as they travelled along rivers, something that was observed by John Jewitt in his memoir detailing two years of slavery under the Mowachaht Chief Maquinna. As the culmination of an earlier conflict between European traders and the local First Nation, Maquinna’s tribe massacred the crew of the Boston while it was anchored at Yuquot, leaving only Jewitt and another to survive. While he was captive Jewitt documented a trap set in a river at Tahsis during the tribe’s seasonal migration to their winter home. “A pot of twenty feet in length, and from four or five feet in diameter at the mouth, is formed of a great number of pine splinters, which are strongly secured an inch and a half from each other, by means of hoops made of flexible twigs, and placed about

On a rainy morning Darrell Williams looks over a fish trap eight inches apart,” described the Englishman. “At the end of it tapers almost to a point, near which is a small wicker door for the purpose of taking out the fish.” The practice yielded a considerable harvest, indicating why salmon-bearing rivers were often the territory of certain families and chiefs who oversaw the resources. Jewitt observed another method used by the Mowachaht for catching salmon. “This pot or weir is placed at the foot of a fall or rapid where the water is not very deep, and the fish, driven from above with long poles, are intercepted and caught in the weir, from whence they are taken in the canoes,” he wrote. “In this manner I have seen more than 700 salmon caught in the space of fifteen minutes.” Over a century later Phillip Drucker studied the traditional practices of northern Nuu-chah-nulth tribes in 1935 and 1936,

June 2, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 9

eal complex fishing practices

ing the urgency to share their secrets

then a fish might wriggle or flop around and escape, but this did not happen often.”

Rugged, but extensively occupied

Photos by Eric Plummer

ne Marshall speculated that “it may have been possible to

While growing up in Yuquot, Ray Williams heard about these traps from elders, and even remembers seeing the remains of the wooden weirs in some rivers. But even his intimate knowledge of the area was enriched when Yvonne Marshall began her archaeological studies of Nootka Sound in 1989, in partnership with the Mowachaht/ Muchalaht First Nation. The project was initiated to gain a better understanding of why a confederacy of local tribes was formed in Nootka Sound at the time of first contact with Europeans in the late 18th century, and how this political structure was maintained. Much of Nootka Sound is a rugged collection of islands and remote coastal areas, but the project’s three years of surveys revealed that the region was extensively occupied by previous generations of Indigenous people. Marshall documented 25 burial sites, eight pictograph paintings on rock faces and 92 sites related to First Nations habitation. “Virtually any reasonably flat, inhabitable location, and others of less inviting aspect, have evidence of occupation,” wrote Marshall in 1992. The project identified 18 stone-walled fish traps, a relatively mysterious method of harvesting that Marshall speculated could have been used to collect bait fish. “The function of the stone walled fish

“Ray Williams informed us that these locations are popular with seals in winter,” explained Marshall, “the seals like to follow and possibly chase schooling herring and other small fish into the naturally enclosed areas within which many of the fish traps are built.” On the outer coast of Nootka Island near Beano Creek, Ray’s father once used a cave to hunt the pinnipeds. “The stories that my father told me too was that they used to enter a cave back here,” explains Ray. “They would sit on a shelf of rock waiting for the tide to go down so the seals could appear where they were laying…He said they left their harpoons in there for harpooning seal.” Within Nootka Sound Ray recalls a cave in Hannah Channel, near a spot where a pictograph of a bird is still visible high on the side of a rock cliff. Many years ago he found a harpoon attached to cedar rope in the cave, but this tool is now missing, he said.

You belong here The Williams family still eats seal, but this practice has become a rare exception

among their fellow Mowachaht/Muchalaht members. “The meat gets really soft and black when they smoke it,” describes Ray. “The fat is really oily.” His family is the only household to remain in Yuquot since the First Nation began relocating its members to Gold River in the late 1960s. Ray remained over the years, despite repeated offers to move to the lessremote reserve, where a house could be built for his family. When asked what life would have been like if he left Yuquot, he immediately thinks of the place before himself. “It would have been walked over by tourists, campers, fishermen,” says Ray. “That thought never came to my mind. I always thought that my family would continue living here after I’m gone. I already told them so.” He recalls the words of Terri Williams from years ago, his late wife of almost 60 years who passed in 2020. “She told me one day that I belong here. And then I spoke up and I said, ‘I agree with you, dear.’ She felt comfort when I said that, she smiled at me.”

Williams looks over a fish trap in Valdez Bay, which has stone walls that arc out of the tidal area.

ribed the Englishpers almost to a mall wicker door for sh.” considerable harmon-bearing rivers of certain families the resources. r method used by hing salmon. ced at the foot of water is not very n from above with ed and caught in hey are taken in the his manner I have mon caught in the

illip Drucker actices of northern 1935 and 1936,

publishing a study in 1951 that has since been frequently referenced. He wrote little of tidewater stone traps, but observed a lattice composed of fir poles and boughs which was placed in tidal flats by the mouth of a river. The weir was designed to be submerged as the water level rose, and was used in combination with a cone-shaped trap made of branches, held in the river by fir poles. “Such a trap was set with the mouth upstream and well submerged, the closed end downstream and raised by shears just out of the water,” wrote Drucker. “A weir was built to turn the fish into the trap. The force of the water carried them high and dry into the raised end. As the salmon could neither go back down or turn around, they stayed in the end till they died. Now and

traps is poorly understood,” she admitted. “There is little ethnographic information to assist interpretation and Nuu-chah-nulth people today know little of their use.” But the location of the stone traps indicate a similar approach to the well-documented river methods, as the sites were used to conveniently catch a volume of fish where they naturally congregate. “Many of the traps are built in protected, nested bays so that the trap itself forms an enclosure within one or more larger enclosures,” wrote Marshall. “This placement is suggestive of an extended drivelane system, which culminates in the trap itself. Small schooling fish such as herring, pilchards or anchovy could possibly have been captured this way.” It’s also possible that the bays where these stone traps were placed were used to harvest another species.

A pictograph of a bird is still very visible on a rock face in Hannah Channel. Ray Williams recalls a harpoon and cedar rope being found in a nearby cave.

Page 10— Ha-Shilth-Sa— June 2, 2022

Practitioner helps people to challenge their bodies A wrestling injury led to opportunity in helping people’s bodies perform more efficiently in sport and daily life By Denise Titian Ha-Shilth-Sa Reporter Port Alberni, BC – Daley Forbes, 27, loves sports and the natural beauty of Vancouver Island with all the recreational activities it has to offer. She grew up at Sproat Lake where she spent endless hours on the water and walking the rural roads. During her teen years she took part in the school wrestling program. She was well on her way to a competitive wrestling career but in her early twenties was sidelined by an injury. Suffering with a dislocated kneecap, Forbes decided it was time to leave competitive sports behind. The injury, as painful as it was, had a silver lining. That was when Forbes made the decision to train and work as a kinesiologist, helping to treat athletes recover from sports injuries. Prior to her injury, Forbes, a member of Hesquiaht First Nation, considered studying forestry management as a career. “As an Indigenous woman, I thought it would be a good thing to do, looking after the forest while staying outdoors and being active,” she said. Forbes grew up at the family home at Sproat Lake where she spent her free time hiking, swimming, kayaking and paddle boarding. So, it was important for her to have a career that would keep her physically active. But while she was pursuing competitive wrestling in Winnipeg, the injury to her kneecap and ligaments gave her a taste of various rehabilitation methods needed to gently heal while keeping full range of movement in her leg. She moved back to British Columbia and signed up for an athletic therapy program offered at Camosun College in Victoria. She received a bachelor’s degree after four years of study and is now a registered kinesiologist working at Ridgeview Health and Performance in Port Alberni since March. “As a kinesiologist, I look to improve functional movements and overall health, whether it is from an injury or de-conditioning, focusing on moving correctly and prevent re-injury,” Forbes explained. “As an athletic therapist I work on fieldside care with sport teams or events for first aid, or preventive taping for support

Photo submitted by Daley Forbes

Daley Forbes of the Hesquiaht First Nation is a kinesiologist at Ridgeview Health and Performance in Port Alberni. of a re-occurring injury as well as active rehab in a clinical setting.” Physiotherapy, she said, uses similar exercises but the focus is on modalities and manual therapy. Kinesiologists look for ways to improve health outcomes. They focus on how to help the human body perform more efficiently at work, in sport, and in daily life. It wasn’t long after she started her new career in her hometown of Port Alberni when she was hired by the Port Alberni Bombers Junior B Hockey Club, where she serves as first responder for injuries sustained during practice or games. She also follows up with any rehab the athletes may require. Forbes developed a warm-up routine for a local lacrosse team and said she would like to get more involved in local sports, especially Indigenous sports. Before the pandemic started, Forbes was running a wrestling program at a local elementary school, but the close-contact sport could not continue due to public health orders. In the clinic, Forbes sees patients that

are athletes, but she also helps other people with mobility issues like seniors or patients that struggle to maintain movement required for healthier lifestyles. Forbes helps her elderly grandmother to stay active at home so that she can live independently. “I can help people with exercises to stay strong, to build that foundation so that they’re not injuring themselves down the road,” she said. She is developing a physical literacy program as a resource tool for educators. “It’s what kids do during basic play… how to hop, catch a ball,” she explained. This type of program, she added, is necessary because fewer children are outside playing anymore due to more sedentary lifestyles. More children are spending much of their time indoors with the television, social media and gaming. Forbes hopes to see more young people get active and stay healthy through sports and outdoor activities. “I’d love to see more young people involved in sports – it shows them what their bodies can do,” said Forbes.

There are some people who can’t walk down to the end of their street without feeling exerted. Forbes can help those people by setting goals and building on the clients’ abilities over time. “I think I can offer something to all people,” she said. Patients can be referred to Forbes through their physicians. Their treatment may be covered by their health insurance plans. Forbes earned her degree in kinesiology in the fall of 2021 and is in the process of writing final exams in order to be licensed as an athletic therapist. She expects to earn her license by the end of June 2022. “At Ridgeview Health and Performance, we work together to give a whole-body approach to healing,” said Forbes. Open Monday through Thursday from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. and Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Ridgeview Health and Performance clinic offers physiotherapy. In the coming weeks they will add acupuncture and massage therapy to their list of services.

Phrase of the week: Ha%um%ukitniš%a> %uu@its maayi huu%ak Pronounced ‘Haa om ook it nish alth ooh its mah ee who auk’, it means, ‘We loved eating blackberry shoots when we were young’ Supplied by ciisma.

Illustration by Ivy Cargill-Martin

June 2, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 11

Give nations $1M each for their own museums: Wa•s Tseshaht chief councillor sees be•er ways for province to spend $789 million than replacing Royal B.C. Museum By Denise Titian Ha-Shilth-Sa Reporter Port Alberni, BC – When Tseshaht Chief Councilor Ken Watts heard about the province’s plan to spend $789 million to replace the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria, he thought about the province’s First Nations and all the artefacts in the museum that belong to them. Watts told Ha-Shilth-Sa that there are Tseshaht artefacts in the RBCM collections and the Tseshaht were not consulted about the rebuild or whether or not they will repatriate their belongings. “There are 204 First Nations in B.C.… .How about you give each of them/us $1 million to repatriate THEIR artifacts and each build their own small museum, contribute to larger BC indigenous museum, or for Tseshaht maybe a Nuu-chah-nulth wide museum $14 million (14 nations),” posted Watts on social media, referencing the 14 First Nations in the Nuu-chahnulth Tribal Council. “That would only be $204 million out of your $789 million!” In a May 13 press release, the provincial government said it would build a new state-of-the-art and seismically safe Royal B.C. Museum in Victoria. “The new museum is made possible through a $789-million investment from the province,” stated the release. “The new museum will also be one of the first government projects of this size that partners with local First Nations on the project team, participating in both project development and delivery, including design influence to reflect the Lekwungen peoples, and members of the Songhees Nation and Esquimalt Nation,” said Melanie Mark, minister of Tourism, Arts, Culture and Sport. In three building assessments dating back to 2006, it was discovered that there is a need for major seismic and structural improvements at the RBC Museum, putting at risk the museums’ extensive collection of artefacts. The RBCM was founded in 1886 and spent its first few years in smaller facilities in downtown Victoria. In 1941 six building lots at the corner of Belleville and Douglas Streets were transformed into Thunderbird Park, where totem poles were put on display. They were eventually moved indoors to preserve them and were replaced with replica poles. In 1963, then premier W.A.C. Bennett announced plans to build a new museum as part of a centennial project. A few years later Queen Elizabeth and the Queen Mother dedicated the RBCM cornerstone. By 1969, the new museum

Photo supplied by Province of B.C.

Premier John Horgan announces the construction of a new Royal B.C. Museum over the next seven years at a press conference in Victoria May 13. BC Liberal leader Kevin Falcon promised “It costs a lot to repatriate, conserve and to scrap the plan if elected, calling it a exhibit artefacts,” he noted. vanity project in the NDP Premier John Watts says he wants to look at solutions. Horgan’s backyard. “Maybe we should be scaling back (the In response, the province released its provincial museum), we should at least business case on May 25, outlining the have these conversations but it’s not even rationale for its decision to build a new on the table,” he said. museum. They said that the business case In order to make way for new construcwas developed to enable the RBCM to tion the museum will close its doors on meet its legislated mandate to protect Sept. 6. B.C.’s natural and human history for BritOver the seven years that it will be ish Columbians today and in the future. closed, the Royal BC Museum will deThe business case arose from a five-year liver provincewide travelling exhibitions, evaluation project which confirmed the regional satellite displays and an interacmuseum is at the end of its useful life, tive walking tour in Victoria. with costs to upgrade existing buildings “Unique events, community programs more than those to replace them with a and learning experiences will be offered new, modern facility. throughout the province, along with Ken Watts Watts says Tseshaht was not consulted innovative virtual programs and digital was complete. about the plan to build a new museum, tools available to all,” states the RBCM Nearly 60 years later it was determined noting that some of what they have in on their website. that it would cost more to renovate rather their collection belongs to Tseshaht. BC Archives services will remain open than rebuild. “I’m not okay with that,” said Watts. at the downtown site until it moves to its The new museum, to be built on the He said that he will be writing an open new permanent home at the collections same site, promises to be more accessible letter to the provincial government citand research building in 2025. Imax Vicand more inclusive of the various cultures ing Tseshaht concerns about the lack of toria, the museum’s gift shop and the that make up the province. In addition, it consultation. He knows of at least two food trucks located at the museum will will be energy-efficient and seismically Nuu-chah-nulth nations that have repatri- stay open through early 2023. safe. ated some items from RBCM. But he also The new modernized provincial muBut the backlash to the news was imknows that a museum facility has specific seum is expected to open in 2030. mediate with opposition leaders balking temperature and humidity requirements at the hefty price tag of the new museum. to conserve delicate artefacts.

Page 12— Ha-Shilth-Sa— June 2, 2022

Health Corner

Salmon season is here Summer is nearly here and people are starting to get excited about salmon and fishing season! Salmon season brings the community together and is an important summer activity. Families gather when the salmon is harvested to provide and preserve enough to feed everyone. How salmon is harvested, cut, cleaned and preserved is an important part of culture and community. And salmon is important for health, at every age! Each part of the salmon offers different nutrients that keep us healthy. This is why Nuu-chah-nulth people ate all parts of the fish, wasting none of them. Salmon Meat: The meat of the salmon is an excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Our bodies cannot make these fatty acids, so we need them in our diet. Omega-3 fatty acids help keep our hearts healthy, they maintain skin health and are important for joint health and hormone balance. They also are linked to reducing asthma, high blood pressure, eye health and reducing the effects of rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Fish are brain food! Omega-3 fatty acids are a part of reducing age-related brain loss and improving memory. And important for brain development for babies. Did you know that what makes the salmon a pink colour is also good for our hearts and our heads?!? The pink colour of salmon comes from its rich levels of a protective antioxidant called astaxanthin. This compound has been linked to lowering the risk of heart disease by improving cholesterol and protecting the brain. Salmon meat, skin, head and eggs are good sources of protein and B vitamins. Protein helps us repair and maintain our muscles and support healthy blood sugar levels, and B vitamins are important for making sure the body’s cells are working properly. B vitamins help the body convert food into energy (metabolism), create new blood cells, and maintain healthy skin cells, brain cells, and other body tissues.

Salmon heads and soft bones are a good source of calcium. We need calcium for strong bones and teeth. If you jar salmon, try eating the bones too! Salmon eggs are an excellent source of Vitamins A and C. We need these nutrients to fight infection and keep our gums, skin and eyes healthy. Salmon eggs are also high in a type of omega-3 fatty acids that crosses the placenta, so are especially good for pregnant mothers. Salmon is an excellent source of vitamin D, which our bodies need to keep our bones strong and to help protect us from arthritis, cancer, and other diseases. Photo supplied by Nootka Sound Watershed Society

Dried salmon is a fair source of iron. Our bodies need iron to carry oxygen in our blood, and to help with brain growth (babies). If you are low in iron, or are under 2 years old, aim to eat high iron foods such as lean red meat, beans (lentils, kidney beans, chick peas etc), and green leafy vegetables more often, to help provide even more iron in your diet. Also, you can talk to a dietitian, like Jen Cody at NTC for more ideas. Today and traditionally, there are many ways to preserve salmon, to keep the harvest ready for us all year. Some ways to preserve salmon are: Freezing Canning Drying Smoking Resources that can help are: the First Nations Health Authority Canning Guide! The Bernardin How To Guide and “Before you Get Started Guide”. Contact Kathleen Yung at FNHA for more canning resources/training opportunities- Kathleen.yung@fnha.ca Every family has their own favorite recipe for salmon. Below is a great recipe from the Nuu-chah-nulth cookbook for diabetes for Salmon Patties. The recipe is from the Nuu-chah-nulth cookbook for diabetes and is available online. If you would like to see how to make this recipe, Rachel Dickens and Fiona Devereaux have a wonderful video on youtube. Enjoy the season!

-Jen Cody, dietician

Clearcuts, a warming ocean and poor reforestation in riparian zones have stressed salmon and steelhead in Nootka Sound. Pictured is the Muchalaht River.

Nootka Sound Watershed Society receives funding Clearcuts, a warming ocean and poor reforestation in riparian zones have stressed salmon and steelhead By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter Gold River, BC - In April Fisheries and Oceans Canada announced over $30 million dollars in support for 22 projects under the British Columbia Salmon Restoration and Innovation Fund (BCSRIF). The investment from the federal and provincial governments is designed to support monitoring, research and planning to better understand what’s impacting wild salmon populations. Of the 22 projects, 18 will be led by or conducted in partnership with Indigenous organizations and communities, according to the province. The Nootka Sound Watershed Society received $324,953 to develop an action plan to improve and monitor habitat for steelhead trout and other Pacific salmon species. Roger Dunlop, Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation’s lands, resources and fisheries manager, launched the society in 1998 to protect, restore and enhance Pacific salmon and steelhead trout in Nootka Sound, and the surrounding watersheds. The funding will be used towards developing a dynamic visualization tool to evaluate habitat impacts, said Dunlop. Users will be able to click on any stream or watershed within the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify if riparian zones have been logged, if small tributary streams have been logged, road density ratios, along with stream crossing impacts. This will allow the society to prioritize restoration work and determine which sites to focus on, said Dunlop. The GIS mapping system will also provide the society with potential opportuni-

ties for underground side-channel work. “That’s the future,” said Dunlop. “The ocean has heated beyond belief and it’s not going to cool down.” This impacts steelhead population, which travel west towards Hawaii “right into the hot water in the ocean,” he said. Historical clear-cut logging practices have exacerbated the issue, Dunlop added. Old-growth forests have been replaced with younger, faster growing trees that have much higher rates of transpiration, he said. In the summer, those trees are “sucking up all the creek water and our creeks are drying up,” he added. “It’s pretty big legacy of liability.” Since BCSRIF was launched in 2019, 83 projects have been funded representing a total investment of more than $116 million. “We have a once-in-a-generation opportunity to protect and rebuild wild Pacific salmon stocks,” federal Fisheries Minister Joyce Murray said in a release. “Our government is committed to making the needed investments in programs that work to help salmon populations grow and thrive. We aim to build the foundation for a sustainable future.” Despite the federal and provincial governments’ recent commitment to invest in the regeneration of salmon, Dunlop said more support is needed. “We’re still causing far more impacts than we’re repairing,” he said. The current phase of funding is aimed to determine where restoration work needs to take place, Dunlop said. “[Restoration] is always more expensive than the planning,” he said.

Are you facing a difficult situation, is life hard? Call us now. 24 Hour Crisis Line - KUU-US Crisis Line Society

Adult/Elder Crisis Line: 250-723-4050 Child/Youth Crisis Line: 250-723-2040

June 2, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 13

Employment Opportunities Port Alberni Friendship Centre Volunteers Needed Need work experience? The Port Alberni Friendship Centre is looking for interested applicants for various positions. Call 250-723-8281 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT & HEALTH PROGRAM MANAGER POSITION SUMMARY The Tseshaht First Nation Administration Office is now accepting applications for the position of Social Development & Health Program Manager. This position is full time at 75 hours bi-weekly (37.5 hours per week) on a term. The TFN Administration Office requires an individual with health administrator and social services experience to provide professional support and leadership for the delivery of community-based Social and Health services. Flexibility is required for workdays and hours of work. PRIMARY/CORE RESPONSIBILITIES This position is responsible to manage a comprehensive range of social and health programs involving varying degrees of complexity and multiproblem situational needs for case management. As the Program Manager for delivery of social and health programs this position supervises staff involved in family support, crisis care, wellness, home care and patient travel. This position works with clients residing both on and off reserve, building relationships with community, families and clients. This position maintains and builds relationships with NTC, and other First Nations or government authorities involved in the social services and community health fields and works with these organizations to ensure support services effectively attend to needs. The Program Manager contributes to and/or is responsible to directly oversee programs, services and initiatives associated with the Income Assistance, Patient Travel, and Social Services. This position is accountable to professionally advocate on behalf of Tseshaht families, children and individuals on matters involving homecare support, primary health care, mental health and disabilities.

HOUSING MANAGER The TFN Administration Office requires an individual with housing program management experience to provide professional support and leadership for the delivery of community-based housing services. Flexibility is required for workdays and hours of work. RESPONSIBILITIES This position is responsible to manage a comprehensive range of housing programs involving varying degrees of complexity and multi-problem situational needs for case management. As the Program Manager for delivery of housing programs this position supervises staff involved in residential rehabilitation, maintenance and repairs, rental agreements, and property management. This position works with members residing both on and off reserve, building relationships with community, and families. This position maintains and builds relationships with NTC, CMHC, and other First Nations or government authorities involved in the housing field and works with these organizations to ensure support services effectively attend to needs. The Program Manager ensures housing management is delivered in accordance with all pertinent legislation, acts and policies. As a professional, community-based resource, this position is fundamental to the achievement of objectives for membership housing. •

The Program Manager ensures Child & Family Services case management is delivered in accordance with all pertinent legislation, acts and policies. As a professional, community-based resource, this position is fundamental to the achievement of objectives for membership wellness and social development.


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A Diploma in Human Services, or related field 3 to 5 years of management experience preferably acquired while working in a First Nations community A combination of education and experience will be considered to meet qualifications Familiar with Tseshaht culture, spiritual beliefs, and language an asset Good understanding and/or ability to interpret the application of social work theories, practices, and procedures and of all pertinent legislation and policies, including the Mental Health Act, Child and Family Services Act, Adoption Act, Young Offenders Act and Criminal Codes Experience and understanding of Social Development policy and procedures, as well as an understanding of First Nations Health Benefits and Health and Wellness planning Experience with case management, case conferencing, investigation and intervention theories and practices is an asset Well-developed organizational, verbal, and written communication skills, interviewing and analytical skills and good computer skills Demonstrated team leader abilities; flexible, adaptable, and able to work effectively in a variety of settings Must pass a Criminal Record Check suitable to the Employer and the Position, if requested.


Administers the Housing Program and coordinates a comprehensive range of housing services including preparation of short and longterm strategic housing investment plans. Monitors the administration and development of, and compliance to TFN housing policy, BC building code and health and safety standards. Handling of social housing, independent rental housing and mortgage tenancy arrangements including maintaining all records including payments, housing files, waitlist, repairs, maintenance, renovations, etc. Liaison for CMHC housing programs and administers the Residential Rehabilitation Assistant Program (RRAP) and other housing plans and initiatives that qualify for CMHC and ISC funding. Prepares budgets and financial forecasts for community housing needs. Assists with financing and rental arrangements; address property management issues; prepare work orders and coordinate repair estimates. Apply for and manage renovation, new construction, governance, and capacity funds, including: planning, writing proposals/ applications, implementation, monitoring, and reporting requirements. Acts as a resource to the TFN Housing committee.


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Extremely detail-oriented administrator who is able to work one on one with community members to review housing applications and tenancy situations. A solid understanding related to administering First Nation Housing projects, budgets, tenancy arrangements, and reporting deadlines. Demonstrates excellent public relations, oral and written communication, and has strong interpersonal and leadership skills. Grade 12 equivalency, plus post-secondary training relevant to Social Development or to Housing and Property Administration; or equivalent experience. Combined education and experience will be considered to meet requirements. Familiar with Tseshaht cultural and spiritual beliefs and the living environments of Tseshaht Membership. A minimum of 3 years of work experience at an Administrator/Coordinator level with administering social programs, with experiences specific to CMHC housing a definite asset. Must possess a valid Driver’s Licence and a vehicle. Business-related office skills, including computer skills are essential for maintaining budgets, client files, payment plans and housing subsidies.

HOW TO APPLY Submit a cover letter, resume and three (3) current references to: Tseshaht First Nation, Attention: Victoria White, Executive Director by mail: 5091 Tsuma-as Drive, Port Alberni BC, V9Y 8X9; or by email: vshrimpton@tseshaht.com CLOSING DATE: June 15, 2022

Submit a cover letter, resume and three (3) current references to: Tseshaht First Nation, Attention: Victoria White, Executive Director by mail: 5091 Tsuma-as Drive, Port Alberni BC, V9Y 8X9; or by email: vshrimpton@tseshaht.com CLOSING DATE: June 15, 2022

More job posting at www.hashilthsa.com

Page 14— Ha-Shilth-Sa— June 2, 2022

Framework made for modern treaty implementation Treaty implementation is an ‘ongoing’ process, says alliance of First Nations with a modern formal agreement By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter The Alliance of BC Modern Treaty Nations has developed a framework with the province to advance treaty implementation in British Columbia, which was announced on May 24. It is the first of its kind within the province and renews B.C.’s commitment to effectively implement modern treaties, according to the Ministry of Indigenous Relations and Reconciliation. “Modern treaties create the blueprint for Indigenous self-governance and effective government-to-government relationships,” Toquaht First Nation Chief Anne Mack said in a release, on behalf of the alliance. “However, you can’t live in a blueprint. You still need to build the house, and then you need to maintain it and expand it as the family grows.” Treaty implementation is a work in progress that “requires ongoing efforts and attention,” she said. Three priorities were identified in the framework, including: developing fiscal arrangements to fulfil treaty rights and obligations, establishing meaningful participation in B.C.’s legislative and policy initiatives, as well as initiating policy changes in the BC Public Service to advance a whole-of-government approach. “The Shared Priorities Framework is B.C.’s commitment to modern treaty nations to create and strengthen relationships that are dynamic, evolving and improving over time,” Premier John Horgan said in a release. “Treaties are important living documents that provide a foundation for renewed relationships and certainty for all First Nations in the treaty process.” The Alliance of BC Modern Treaty Nations was formed as a collective of the eight nations operating with modern treaties in British Columbia. It was established in 2018 by Tla’amin Nation, Tsawwassen First Nation and the Maanulth Treaty nations. Nisg̱a’a Nation joined later in 2019. According to the alliance, modern treaty nations needed a way to collectively engage with the provincial government to advocate for improved implementation of the final agreements. “Having the alliance being heard by B.C. is the first of many steps in the right direction for modern treaty nations to achieve reconciliation,” said Huu-ay-aht First Nation Councillor Brad Johnson. “What is needed is to continue building our government-to-government relationships and have a good working relationship so they understand our need to achieve our strategic goals.” Over a decade ago, the Maa-nulth treaty was signed as one of the first final agreements reached under B.C.’s treaty process. The government-to-government agreement between Canada, British Columbia and five Nuu-chah-nulth nations was signed on April 1, 2011. It established Huu-ay-aht, Uchucklesaht, Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ, Toquaht and Ka:’yu:’k’t’h’/ Che:k’tl7et’h’ First Nations as self-governing under provincial and federal law. “Ten years feels like a long time in one’s life,” said Toquaht Nation Director of Operations Angela Polifroni, on behalf of the alliance’s technical team. “But it’s a very, very short time for First Nations entering into a self-government under a modern treaty.” Especially, she said, “since a lot of what we’re trying to achieve is new to us and

Photo by Debora Steel

Nuu-chah-nulth-aht celebrate in 2011 when the Maa-nulth Final Agreement was implemented. new to our treaty partners.” Part of that discovery is learning what’s needed to succeed, she said. “Modern treaty governments need sufficient resources to succeed,” Polifroni said. “Modern treaty governments are responsible for lawmaking and enforcement, land management, social programs and services, and so many other obligations – many of which were B.C.’s responsibility pre-treaty.” To date, Polifroni said B.C. has contributed “very little to our fiscal arrangements.” “The shared priorities framework affirms B.C.’s commitment to working collaboratively with modern treaty nations to rectify this major gap,” she said. A whole-of-government approach requires education for staff to understand treaty rights and treaty implementation obligations, Polifroni said. “It requires effective communication

and fully resourced engagements,” she said. “It requires accountability and oversight at the highest levels in all of the B.C. public service.” That’s why it was important to the alliance that the framework be signed by the premier – to affirm the whole-of-government commitment to treaty implementation, said Polifroni. One of the major benefits of becoming a treaty nation was that Huu-ay-aht was no longer “restricted” on how to allocate their funding and budget, said Johnson. “Treaties recognize the inherent rights of Indigenous peoples and enable them to rebuild their communities and governments on their own terms,” Murray Rankin, minister of Indigenous Relations and Reconciliation, said in a release. “To uphold our treaties with the intent they were written, we must be intentional about how we implement them and grow our government-to-government relation-

ships through collaborative action. This framework gives us the vision to do just that.” It’s important to consider that modern treaties were negotiated at a specific point in history, Polifroni said. “Canadian and B.C. laws and policies have changed,” she said. “And part of treaty implementation is ensuring that modern treaty nations are aware of the changes and can benefit from [them].” Because the treaty is a “living relationship,” Polifroni said agreements and relationships are going to continue to grow and evolve. “Treaty implementation is ongoing,” Polifroni said. “We will never be able to say that the treaties are fully implemented because the work will be ongoing as long as the modern treaty nations, the province of B.C., and Canada continue to exist.”

Ahous Business Corp PO Box 1245 Tofino BC V0R2Z0 www.MHSSahousaht.ca

-2% 23325781,7,(6 Ahous Fuel Stop & Wild Side Trail Guest Services Position Overview Job Title: Customer Service Representative Hours of Work: Estimated 30 hour work week Place of Work: Ahous Fuel Stop in Ahousaht Reports to: Fuel Station Manager Wage: $16/hr

MHSS Ahousaht Stewardship Guardian (multiple positions available)

Summer Student Employment Opportunity

Start: ASAP End: TBD Hours: estimated 40 hour work week Place of Work: Ahousaht territories. Applicants must reside in Ahousaht, Tofino or surrounding communities and have the ability to commute to the MHSS office in Tofino on a daily basis. Reports to Lead Ahousaht Stewardship Guardian Salary: Commensurate based on education and experience.

Position Overview Job Title: Guest Services & Administrative Assistant Hours of Work: Estimated 40hour work week for July and August, with possibility of extension Place of Work: MHSS office in Tofino Reports to: Assistant General Manager Wage: $16/hr plus Ahousaht/Tofino travel stipend


June 2, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 15

Photo submitted by Tammie Myles

The community liaison workers from northern Nuu-chah-nulth First Nations recently gathered in Campbell River to focus on a healing program.

Northern NCN take journey to ‘reawaken the spirit’ Healing program resurfaces trauma for further examination, allowinga person’s historic pain to lose weight By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter Over the past 18 months, the northern Nuu-chah-nulth region has been coming together to participate in a series of landbased trauma treatment programs. Centered around collective healing from colonization and the intergenerational trauma caused by the residential school system, 196 people have been involved in “Reawaken the Spirit.” Tammie Myles has been facilitating the project with the help of community liaison workers from the Ka:’yu:’k’t’h’/ Che:k’tles7et’h’, Nuchatlaht, Ehattesaht Chinehkint and Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nations. By guiding community members through a series of five-day land-based healing programs, Myles said she hopes participants leave feeling lighter, more open, more confident, and with a commitment to communicate with those around them in a more positive way.

Reflecting on triggers The programs begin with conversations about the impact of the residential school system, and the legislation that was used to assimilate and colonize Indigenous populations. It opens the door for participants to look at their own life and how they’ve been harmed by those legacies, said Myles. “As human beings, we get triggered all of the time,” she said. “But if we can examine and self-reflect on those triggers in a space that’s supportive, we can learn to live with them, cope with them and start to see life in a different way.” The Coast Salish woman started working in addictions when she was in early 20s. Early on in her career the now 57-yearold said she learned that “we can only

take people as far as we have come ourselves.” “There was lots of personal development,” Myles said. “Lots of personal awareness, lots of processing [my] own history to be able to step into that space to work with other people.” It was “life altering,” she said. When you allow pain and trauma to resurface so you can examine it, Myles said you’re able to look at it differently and shed some of its weight. “People don’t want to [relive] pain that they’ve experienced in their life,” she said. “They think that by not opening it up, they don’t have to ever experience it again.” But if you don’t confront it, it’ll always be there, Myles said.

‘The land is foundational’ The project places a strong emphasis on land-based treatment because “nature is one of our chief healers,” she said. By removing participants from the “chaos” that can exist within their communities, Myles said they’re able to focus on themselves. “The land is foundational” to Indigenous identity, the First Nations Health Authority (FNHA), who funded the project, wrote in a report. Reconnecting to the land allows Indigenous communities to reclaim traditional wellness practices, the FNHA added. “Through colonization and residential schools, we’ve really been socially conditioned by a dominant culture that thinks they’re superior to us,” said Myles. “Sometimes we give away our own power … we look to Western culture to tell us what we need to do because it’s almost like we don’t trust ourselves anymore.” It’s a mindset that needs to be “unlearned,” she said. “We underestimate the power of our

ceremonies and our spiritual connection,” Myles said. A recent study, Restoring Our Roots: Land-Based Community by and for Indigenous Youth, was published in the International Journal of Indigenous Health and aimed to demonstrate the many ways learning from the land is beneficial for Indigenous youngsters. Targeted assimilation and land theft are central to the historical and ongoing dissociation of Indigenous people from their traditional connection to the land, read the study. “It is thus paramount that Indigenous youth be given the opportunities to (re) connect with their cultures in safe, accessible spaces [and] places,” the study concluded. Cliff Atleo was one of the elders who stepped in to support the healing workshops and engagement sessions. The Ahousaht man said the experience was “very satisfying” because of the progress he saw in participants’ mental and spiritual health. Through sharing his own life experience as a residential school survivor, along with the importance of connecting to the spirit world, Atleo said he aimed to support participants with new perspective. “We can’t afford to think that we don’t need counseling,” he said. “What we can afford to do is assume that we all need counseling and healing.” The workshops provide participants with “some good tools that are only as good as how well they’re used,” Atleo said. “If you can generate a positive attitude, positive friends, a positive environment, you attract fun,” he said. “If you hang on to the dark, dark things always hang around.”

‘Hurt people hurt people’

One of the three workshops was specifically designed for elders. As knowledge keepers and teachers, Myles said “it’s vital that they’ve done their own healing work.” “We don’t want to bring forward the intergenerational trauma that has happened to us and unknowingly share it with the next generation,” she said. “We need to do our work in order to be able to be solid and move forward to create a healthier next generation. Hurt people hurt people, so we need to deal with our hurt.” Margaretta James, Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation community liaison worker, said the project provided her with a “strong” sense of direction on how to move through her own life. “The value of the program is being reminded of who you are,” she said. James’ mother attended residential school, along with all of her aunts and uncles. The impact manifested through addiction issues within her family, she said. Before colonization, “life was so simple,” James said. “The Indigenous way of life was the best,” she said. “We’ll probably never get back to that simplistic way of living, but we can at least know who we are. And show and model for the young ones that are coming after us.” Myles will be facilitating an additional healing program in September after receiving a project extension and said she recommends that a minimum of six healing programs are offered annually going forward. “My hope is that people can be more kind, loving, supportive, be open to opportunity, be more innovative, more creative, and see their potential,” she said. “It takes practice, and it takes work – it’s about how much are you willing to invest in yourself to create change.”

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Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council Education with N.E.T.P.

2021-2022 Graduation and Scholarship Ceremony Where: Alberni District Secondary School 4000 Roger Street, Port Alberni, BC

When: Friday, June 10th & Saturday, June 11, 2022 Scholarship Ceremony—June 10th Doors @ 4:00pm; Dinner @ 5:00pm; Ceremony @ 6:30pm And Graduation Ceremony—June 11th Doors @ 2:30pm; Ceremony @ 3:00pm; Dinner @ 5:00pm

Nuu-chah-nulth nations participating in The K-12 + Post-Secondary Ceremony are: AHOUSAHT HUPACASATH DITIDAHT HUU-AY-AHT EHATTESAHT/CHINEHKINT KA:’YU:’K’T’H’/CHE:K:TLE7ET’H’ MOWACHAHT/MUCHALAHT


Also, participating Nuu-chah-nulth Employment & Training Program *All Trades and Vocational program graduates please contact the N.E.T.P. Office to confirm attendance: (250) 723-1331 For more information, please contact Richard Samuel at (250) 724-5757 Or by e-mail: richard.samuel@nuuchahnulth.org

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