Ha Shilth Sa Newspaper August 11, 2022

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Hundreds in Mowachaht/Muchalaht’s remote location, First Nations

This year’s gathering marked 30 years since the late Tyee Ha’wilthAmbrose Maquinna started the annual Summerfest “to share Yuquot with the world,” according to Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation.

More than 200 people camped for several days at this year’s event, which culminated with a meal and presentations in Yuquot’s church. Pictured to the left are Davidson Maquinna and his uncle Tyee Ha’wilth Michael Maquinna in the church, holding a new carving of a whaler that was presented at the event.

The Summerfest was immediately followed by the annual Northern Region Games in Yuquot. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, the sporting event and gathering for northern Nuu-chah-nulth nations has not been held since 2019, when it took place in Zeballos.


Turn to pages 10 and 11 for more on this year’s Yuquot Summerfest.

Sammy Johnson (above) holds eagle feathers as he sings with fellow members of the Mowachaht/ Muchalaht First Nation onAug. 6 at the Yuquot dock. They welcomed visitors to their ancestral home on the southern shore of Nootka Island as the MV Uchuck III docked with 100 passengers, joining the annual Yuquot Summerfest.

Canada’s Oldest First Nations Newspaper - Serving Nuu-chah-nulth-aht since 1974 Vol. 49 - No. 15—August 11, 2022 haas^i>sa Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40047776 INTERESTING NEWS If undeliverable, please return to: Ha-Shilth-Sa P.O. Box 1383, PortAlberni, B.C. V9Y 7M2Inside this issue... Canada invests more in ocean protection.......................Page 2 Pope aplogises for residential schools...................Pages 4 & 5 Somass sockeye return doubles......................................Page 7 Yuquot Summerfest photo spread......................Pages 10 & 11 High demands in labour market....................................Page 15 Yuquot marks 30 years of Summerfest gathering


have lived for over 4,000 years

Kevin Somerville, vice president of operations at San Group, said the forestry company donated an undisclosed amount to the Carmanah Main Bypass Road project, coving a “significant” portion of the construction cost. They also donated in-kind services and professional advice.

Bypass road for Ditidaht brings hope during flooding Boats were sent in November for elders, while chum salmon regularly swim over the flooded road by Nitinaht

By Karly Blats Ha-Shilth-Sa Contributor Nitinaht Lake, BC - Construction for a much-needed new bypass road will begin this summer for the Ditidaht First Nation to allow community members in and out of the village during bad floods. For decades, the Ditidaht First Nation have endured chronic flooding of a portion of the Carmanah Mainline that runs parallel to the Nitinat River. This is the main access into and out of the Ditidaht Village of Malachan at Nitinaht Lake.

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Tate added that last year a boat had to be sent to rescue a few of the community’s elders who were trapped in their homes by the floods. “I’m excited to have this road access out during the winter months when the roads are flooding so it’ll be less worry on our people and better safety for our people,” Tate said.

Photo taken from Crystal Watts video Avideo shared online by Crystal Watts shows her truck driving through a flooded road to the Nitinaht Lake community on Jan. 12.

The San Group is donating funds and services to the nation to help construct the new road from the Malachan Village to the Lake Cowichan junction that bypasses the flood prone area along the Nitinat River. Past flooding caused by heavy rain and snowfall has resulted in waters reaching around five feet in some areas of the road. There is a back access road to the village, but locals say it is not always open. Sometimes a forestry company locks the gates or downed trees block the road. “Imagine not being able to have access to your home or having emergency services restricted,” said Kamal Sanghera, co-owner of San Group, in a release. “Safe, reliable access to all our communities is something we all deserve. It should not be considered a luxury.”

The Ditidaht Economic Development Corporation (DEDC) will apply revenues generated from its forestry and tourism operation to help cover costs of the project.“TheDitidaht Economic Development Corporation decided to embark on generating its own funds to create an emergency bypass so that our people, in an emergency situation, have access to either go out to Duncan or PortAlberni during the flood seasons,” said Ditidaht First Nation Chief Councillor Brian Tate. Tate said last year’s winter storms were so bad they caused the road to close several times, resulting in community members being trapped in, or out, of the village.“Weget heavy snows back there in the mountains where the other bypass was and there’s also other flooding zones out there now where there wasn’t before,” Tate said. “In November when the chum are running and the rains are hard enough that it floods the road, salmon will go across the road.”

While Watts said the Coast Guard and WCMRC were quick to respond to the incident and recovered the upwelling of diesel using sorbent pads, the vessel should have been removed “immediately.”“Itshows a gap in terms of how things are dealt with and who deals with them,” he said. “Get it done, and figure out who pays for it later. You can’t put a price tag on the environment.”

Photo supplied by Western Canada Marine Response Corporation Booms are placed around a sinking vessel in theAlberni Inlet on July 13. The fishing boat remains sunk at the location.

According to the PMO, the Oceans Protection Plan is a “whole-of-government effort,” with responsibility shared between Transport Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Canadian Coast Guard, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Natural Resources Canada, and Health Canada, with support from Public Services and Procurement Canada and GlobalAffairs Canada. Joyce Murray, Minister of Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard, maintained in a release that whether it’s responding to marine emergencies, or restoring aquatic ecosystems, the government will be “working in partnership with Indigenous peoples and coastal communities to protect Canada’s mariners, waterways, and shorelines now, and for the generations to come.” Barron said the plan doesn’t go far enough and that prevention pieces need to be put into place. “We need to think holistically,” she said. “And stop committing to bandage solutions and instead focus on preventing disasters and pollution in the oceans from starting in the first place.”

“What ends up happening is that there’s a delayed response time,” said Barron. The Zim Kingston container spill is an example of where there are gaps, she said.“Ifwe had gold in one of these containers that had sunk, I can assure you we’d figure out pretty quickly where it is and how to get it out,” Barron added. There needs to be an “integrated response plan, similar to that of an oil spill,” she said. “We’re seeing more and more containers spilling into the ocean and they have horrible detrimental impacts on our ecosystems,” Barron said. “There’s a lot of work that needs to be done within different areas of the federal government, but also alongside all levels of government. In particular, those who are local and on the ground in our coastal communities.”

Canada invests more in oceans protection

By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced the next phase of Canada’s Oceans Protection Plan on July 19. It comes with a commitment to add $2 billion over nine years.Thisbuilds on the $1.5 billion that’s been directed towards the program, which was launched in 2016. Established to strengthen the protection of Canada’s coasts and wildlife, the Oceans Protection Plan is being labelled as a “Canadian success story” by the prime minister’s office (PMO). “When Indigenous peoples, industry, communities, academia, and government work together to protect our environment, grow our economy, and support good jobs across the country, we deliver real results,” a release from the PMO read. Federal NDP Fisheries critic Lisa Marie Barron said that any commitment being made to protect Canada’s oceans, coastal communities and marine ecosystems is “excellent.”“I’mveryexcited about that,” she said. But, she said, “I also want to see that that money is actually being delivered and being used.” Of the $1.5 billion that was promised in 2016, only $1.2 billion of it has been spent, Barron said. “We’re in a climate crisis,” she said. “We have so many areas that need that funding allocated immediately. The fact that we’re carrying funds is concerning toTheme.”Oceans Protection Plan focuses on mitigating and responding to pollution, said Barron. “I would like to see more happening on the prevention side,” she said. For instance, Barron noted it should be more difficult for boat owners to abandon their vessels in the ocean. “The incentives to actually take care of the boat properly are significantly lower than it is to just abandon it,” she said. According to the federal government, the success of Canada’s Oceans Protection Plan is being measured through increased collaboration with Indigenous peoples and coastal communities, as well as the passing of new legislation. This includes the Wrecked,Abandoned or Hazardous VesselsAct (WAHVA), which became law in 2019 and made it illegal to abandon a vessel in Canadian waters.Andyet, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) recently watched a fishing vessel sink in theAlberni Inlet with 500 litres of diesel onboard in the middle of a salmon migratory route. A34-foot gillnetter that was actively fishing began to sink after getting caught on rocks as the tide was receding in the morning on July 11. The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) received a report around 3:15 a.m. CCG’s Bamfield lifeboat station crew were the first on the scene and observed a “small non-recoverable light sheen about four cables south of the vessel, but no pollution was observed around the vessel itself,” said Michelle Imbeau, spokesperson for the CCG. Western Canada Marine Response Corporation (WCMRC) was mobilized to work alongside the Coast Guard to respond to the incident near Hocking Point. According to Michael Lowry, WCMRC senior communications manager, a boom was positioned around the vessel to contain the spill and sorbent pads were placed within the containment area to absorb diesel that had leaked out. At the time, the coast guard said the vessel owner had hired a contractor to salvage the vessel on July 12.

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 3

Ken Watts

Canadian Coast Guard recently watched fishing vessel sink in the Alberni Inlet with 500 litres of diesel onboard

Tseshaht First Nation Elected Chief Ken Watts said he hoped the boat would have been dealt with and pulled out of the marine environment “as soon as possible.”

Arelease from the PMO maintained that the expanded Oceans Protection Plan will help make further progress to improve the “efficiency, safety and sustainability of Canada’s marine supply chains and mitigate their impacts on the environment, including by advancing research on marine pollution, ecosystems, and wildlife.”Meanwhile, Barron said the plan is “disjointed.”InOctober2021, 109 shipping containers were knocked from cargo ship Zim Kingston while it was travelling through rough seas off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Only four were recovered. “It’s a horrible example of the lack of prevention and planning and work happening with local and Indigenous communities,” said Barron. Rather than responding by integrating local communities and First Nations, Barron said the ship’s owner hired contractors who were not familiar with the area.

WCMRC Indigenous RelationsAdvisor Jonathan Wray said that days later, the boat’s owner and the salvage company that was hired had gone “completely dark” and were not returning any calls. On July 13, the CCG assured that it was working towards a salvage contract, but did not have a salvage date. “As the vessel owner has failed to take action, the CCG is making plans to have the vessel removed from the marine environment,” the CCG said on July 13. The vessel is now believed to be 120 feet underwater and the CCG said “there are no plans to raise, salvage or remove theThisvessel.”isbased on the “diminished and minimal threat to the marine environment,” the CCG said. According to the Coast Guard, the containment and recovery of diesel on the water was “effective and no oil impacted theTheshoreline.”boomwas removed in consultation with Tseshaht First Nation after there was no observable hydrocarbons on the water for seven days, said the CCG. “Acomprehensive hazard assessment under the authorities granted to the Coast Guard by the WreckedAbandoned and Hazardous VesselsAct is currently underway and the results of the assessment will determine next steps,” according the CCG.

ness the Pope’s apology through online registration.BCAFNRegional Chief Terry Teegee said Indigenous communities called for an “unqualified Overwhelmingly,apology.”Teegee said survivors hoped the Pope apologized on behalf of the Catholic Church that allowed this to happen, rather than on behalf of certain members of the church. There were 18 Indian Residential Schools that operated in B.C., along with over 100 day schools. The majority of these were “run by the Catholic Church under contract by the government of Canada,” said Teegee. “This apology also needs to go further,” he said in a statement after the Pope’s initial apology onApril 1. “The Pope’s claim that only some church members were responsible for these crimes continues to sidestep the role the entire institution played in committing this horrific abuse.”Whilean apology won’t “offer full closure,” Teegee said he hoped it would help many First Nations in their healing Photo supplied by the Vatican Pope Francis had appearances in Edmonton, Iqaluit and Quebec City over five-days in Canada from July 24 to 29. journeys.“There’s more issues to be dealt with,” including addiction issues that were “born” from the residential school system, he said. Williams echoed the sentiment and said “you just have to look to the streets to see the“We’reimpacts.”stillsuffering,” he said. “There are First Nations on the streets with addiction problems from having parents who went to residential [school] – they’re products of that as well.” Indeed, First Nations people have been disproportionately impacted by toxicdrug poisoning.According to the First Nations HealthAuthority, First Nations people died at 5.3 times the rate of other B.C. residents in 2020. Teegee said he planned to travel to Edmonton for the event to help BCAFN offer support to survivors. Traditional healers, elders and other mental wellness supports were available to residential school survivors, their families and communities throughout the papal visit, according to Crown Indigenous Relations and NorthernAffairs Canada. Williams said he wasn’t able to travel to Edmonton because of his health and wondered how many others are in a similar position.“Iwould like to [attend],” he said. “But it’s too much for many of us that are not wellTheanymore.”Tla-o-qui-aht elder said he hoped for “sincerity” from the Pope’s apology, as well as a plan for how the Catholic Church intends to repair the damage that’s been done. “What are they going to do about the damage that’s been done over all the years that these places were operated by the Catholic Church,” Williams questioned. “It’s not over by a long stretch.”

The British ColumbiaAssembly of First Nations (BCAFN) was allocated tickets for each site during the papal visit and worked to coordinate with residential school survivors who wanted to wit-

In May, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau issued a statement embracing Pope Francis’visit to Canada. “I welcome the news of his holiness Pope Francis’visit to Canada this summer to formally deliver the Roman Catholic Church’s apology for its role in operating residential schools that caused lasting pain and suffering to Indigenous Peoples in this country,” Trudeau wrote. The formal, in-person apology to survivors and their families responds to one of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s calls to action, Trudeau said. This is an “important and necessary step,” he added. “For far too long, this has been a burden carried by Indigenous Peoples alone,” Trudeau said. “I encourage all Canadians to watch this historic moment and reflect on the impacts of colonialism.” Pope Francis will be visiting Edmonton, Iqaluit and Quebec City. According to a release from the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, the limited locations and time period of the visit was in consideration of Pope Francis’health. “The locations will limit travel for the Holy Father while still allowing an opportunity for both intimate and public encounters, drawing on participation from all regions of the country,” the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops wrote. Edmonton is home to the second largest number of Indigenous peoples living in urban Canadian centres. There were 25 residential schools that operated inAlberta – more than any other jurisdiction inIqaluitCanada.ishome to the highest population of Inuit of all Canadian cities and towns, and Quebec City provides an eastern hub for those who wish to see the Pope. The federal government committed to provide $30.2 million to Indigenous communities and organizations for community-led activities relating to the papal visit. These include healing activities, events, ceremonies and travel for survivors.

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~ Justin PrimeTrudeau,Minister

“I welcome the news of his holiness Pope Francis’ visit to Canada this summer to formally deliver the Roman Catholic Church’s apology for its role in operating residential schools that caused lasting pain and suffering to Indigenous peoples in this country”

Pope visit addresses residential schools survivors Appearances took place at events in Edmonton, Iqaluit and Quebec City over Francis’s five-days in Canada

By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter Pope Francis toured three regions in Canada between July 24 and 29 on what was called a historic journey of “healing andEarlierreconciliation.”thisyearatthe Vatican, the Pope apologized to Indigenous representatives from across Canada for “the deplorable behaviour” of members of the Catholic Church who caused harm to Indigenous communities through the residential school system. “I feel shame,” he said in his apology speech onApril 1. “Shame and sorrow” for the abuse and lack of respect shown for Indigenous identity, culture and spiritual values, the Pope said. The last of Canada’s 139 residential schools didn’t close until the late 1990s. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it’s estimated that over 150,000 Indigenous children were forced into the system, which tried to strip them of their language, culture and heritage. Many never returned.BarneyWilliams was only six years old when he was taken from his home in Opitsaht, on Meares Island, and transported to the Christie Residential School. To this day, he is triggered by the years of abuse he endured while attending the school on Vancouver Island. Williams never spoke of his abuse, hiding it from everyone he knew – including his wife – until he bared his soul to a set of strangers while giving his testimony during a hearing for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 2005. The 82-year-old, who has been living with the impacts of his time at residential school his entire life, said an apology “should have been made a long time ago.”“It’s about time,” he said.

Justin Trudeau

Crown-Indigenous Relations and NorthernAffairs Canada said an additional $3 million was available to support coordination in the three host regions by Indigenous partners.An added $2 million was provided to support translation of the apology into Indigenous languages, as well as interpretation of the events.

By Eric Plummer Ha-Shilth-Sa Editor Today the Pope concludes his five-day visit to Canada, leaving behind mixed feelings among First Nations communities after he apologised for the pain caused by the residential school system. Pope Francis made stops in Edmonton, Iqaluit and Quebec City July 24-29, addressing former residential school students and Indigenous leaders at each event. His visit follows a meeting with First Nations, Métis and Inuit representatives at the Vatican onApril 1, when he recognised the “deplorable behaviour” of Catholics who abused children while working at residential schools. This message continued while Pope Francis gave a statement at the former site of the Ermineskin Indian Residential School in Maskwacis,Alberta. “I am sorry. I ask forgiveness, in particular, for the ways in which many members of the church and of religious communities cooperated, not least through their own indifference, in projects of cultural destruction and forced assimilation promoted by governments of that time, which culminated in the system of residential schools,” said Pope Francis to residential school survivors and delegates at the event. “What our Christian faith tells us is that this was a disastrous error, incompatible with the Gospel of Jesus Christ.”Manyof Canada’s residential schools were run by the Catholic Church, leading the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to list the need for a papal apology for the church’s role in the institutionalisation of Indigenous children among its Calls for Action.Before the Pope’s visit Terry Teegee, regional chief of the B.C.Assembly of First Nations, expressed hope that the apology would be on behalf of the whole Catholic Church, rather that for certain members who abused children. The BAFN has since accepted the Pope’s apology. “The apology is a signal for all members of the Roman Catholic Church to accept responsibility, and the shame, of the evil atrocities that were committed upon generations of Indigenous Peoples,” stated Teegee in a press release. “Together we are confronting difficult truths that have shaped Canada’s economic, social and cultural institutions that continue to systematically deprive First Nations of freedoms, liberty and rights.” Judith Sayers, president of the Nuuchah-nulth Tribal Council, doesn’t think that Pope Francis went far enough with his words. “I just think he should have made a full, all-out apology from the very beginning of the Catholic Church’s involvement in residential schools - on behalf of the church, on behalf of all those peopleand all the abuses,” she said. Sayers noted that a funding commitment to help survivors with healing would have been much more meaningful, as well as a promise to turn over all residential school records. “Those were the substantial pieces that I thought were missing,” she said. For the better part of a century the Catholic Church operated the Christie Indian Residential School, which housed First Nations children on Meares Island from 1900 to 1973, before it moved to Tofino for a decade. Bernard Jack attended Christie from 1968-73, starting at the age of six when he was taken from his home in Yuquot. At that time the Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation member didn’t speak English, but was punished for using his native language at the school. He recalls seeing graves there, and was discouraged from acknowledging them while at the school. Jack has seen this environment affect many former students for the rest of their lives. “I don’t know how many generations I’ve seen lost through my life, my schoolmates, my uncles and aunts, due to alcoholism,” he said. “There was nowhere else to turn.” For Jack, the papal apology carries no meaning.“It’stoo little too late…I’m just so sickened by this,” he said. “Why was that religion thrown in our face when we had our own custom?” Eldon Yellowhorn has older siblings who attended the residential school that once stood where Pope Francis delivered his apology. Now the next steps will be how the Canadian Congress of Bishops and local diocese follow through with supports, he said. “That’s why the church has an obligation to do ongoing work with communities,” said Yellowhorn, who is a member of the Piikani Nation and a professor of Indigenous Studies at Simon Fraser University. “As apologies go, it’s a start, and I don’t think we can say that this is the last word on it.” The apology has opened up expectations for the Catholic Church to step back more than 500 years to revoke an order that fueled the ensuing wave for European colonialism. Effectively beginning in 1492 with Pope Nicholas V – in the same year that Christopher Columbus began his expeditions to theAmericas – the Doctrine of Discovery was an international legal principle holding that European Christian nations could acquire Indigenous territory by making landfall, raising flags, planting crosses or digging soil. More than five centuries later, some are looking for Pope Francis to acknowledge a cultural dilemma that is still tied to imbalances in Canadian society. “Going forward, Pope Francis’apology will become meaningful and sincere when he rescinds the Doctrine of Discovery and denounces the concept of terra nullius which, under international law, gave licence to explorers to claim ‘vacant’lands in the name of European sovereigns,” said Teegee. But such revisions are slow for the Roman Catholic Church, as shown by the fact that it took the institution 359 years for Pope John Paul II to declare Galileo’s theory that the earth moves around the sun is right. John Paul made this official statement in 1992; under threat of torture, Galileo was forced to revoke his theory in 1633.Asimilar process took place to finally recognise Copernicus. “The Catholic Church is not an institution that changes very quickly,” cautioned Yellowhorn. “Galileo and Copernicus, it took the church over 300 years to admit that maybe Galileo and Copernicus were right and the sun doesn’t revolve around the earth.”

The official admission from Pope Francis has opened calls for the original Doctrine of Discovery to be revoked

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 5 250.724.7629 CYPRESS RESTAURANT & LOUNGE

Photo supplied by the Vatican Pope Francis embraces a First Nations delegate in the VaticanApril 1. During an event Edmonton on July 25, the Pope apologised for abuses committed by members of the Catholic Church while operating residential schools in Canada.

Not far enough or the start of something be er?

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Residents can expect to receive new collection carts for organics, recycling and garbage ahead of the program’s launch according to theACRD. TheACRD received a $6 million grant in 2020 to introduce organics collection to the region through the Canada Community Building Fund. In 2021, the Sort’nGo program was kicked off in Port Alberni.“TheSort’nGo service will be a large change for the residents of Hitacu – for decades we’ve relied on community dumpsters that many are used to using for discarding waste at leisure,” said Spencer Touchie, Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ assets manager. “This new change in providing a weekly service, offering organics, recycling, and waste removal, will help us move forward in a more sustainable way.” As Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ nears the launch, Touchie said the nation is working with theACRD to offer information sessions and packages to hitacu residents. “Organic waste diversion is a huge priority for all of us,” saidACRD Board Chair John Jack. “We’ll be working together over the coming months on logistics, education and engagement to ensure a successful pilot project.”

The introduction of recycling and organic waste collection has been a goal of Quick’s since he took on his role around five years ago. “It’s about time,” he said. “To take care of our waste properly and reduce our impact on our climate.”

By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter Tofino, BC - Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation and the Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ Government will be introducing theAlberni Clayoquot Regional District’s (ACRD) residential roadside waste collection service in their communities this fall. There are currently six large containers placed throughout the First Nation communities, which residents can use to dispose of their household waste. This means that there is no waste separation. TheACRD launched a West Coast Solid Waste Working Group in 2019 that included representatives from Ucluelet, Tofino, Parks Canada, and Tla-o-qui-aht, Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ and Toquaht First Nations. Their goal was to find opportunities to improve waste management in the region. It has resulted in the introduction of organics to residential waste collection. This new service will divert food and yard waste from landfills, transforming it into “reusable, nutrient-rich compost,” theACRD said in a release. The nations are anticipating to receive the three-stream roadside collection service for organic waste, recycling and garbage in October, before the program is rolled out more widely across the west coast.Thetowns of Tofino and Ucluelet will receive organics pick-up for the first time in the fall on a weekly basis. Recycling and garbage collection will alternate on a bi-weekly basis. Because the nations are receiving the Sort’nGo service for the first time, it is rolling out in the communities six weeks earlier than in Tofino and Ucluelet.

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Garbage pick up comes to Tla-o-qui-aht

Colonial policies that were put in place to “subjugate” Indigenous communities interrupted how waste was traditionally disposed of, he said. Growing up, Quick said he didn’t see any care given to the disposal of waste. “[The government] put us into little communities that they could manage,” he said. “But now they’re leaving it to us to take care of Tla-o-qui-ahtourselves.”isnowin the midst of learning how to manage different policies and actions, which Quick said includes effective waste removal.

Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation has never had a recycling program within their communities of Opitsaht, Esowista to Ty-Histanis, said Shawn Quick, Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation public works manager. He attributes it to a “lack of direction, help and “Traditionally,understanding.”wedidn’t have to worry about our scraps degrading in a harmful way in the ecosystem,” he said. “But now we have all these plastics and other pollutants - we have to properly manage them to make sure we don’t poison our territory going forward.”

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Quick said organics will be transported for composting to the Tofino airport, recyclables will be brought to the recycling depot in Tofino, and garbage will be brought to the West Coast Landfill. “It’s exciting to see the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation and Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ Government lead the way on the west coast with the expansion of theACRD’s threestream Sort’nGo program,” said Josie Osborne, MLAfor Mid Island-Pacific Rim. “This service gives families another tool to reduce impacts on the environment and makes our west coast communities a healthier plan to work, live, and play.”

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Residential waste collection service begins in First Nation’s communities this fall

Photo by Melissa Renwick

Quick said the move is being made to be “appropriate stewards” of the land. “To ensure we decrease our footprint in the world today, and try to make the best choices [we can] with our solid waste removal,” he said.


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The Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation community of Esowista sits on the edge of Vancouver Island, near Tofino.

By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter PortAlberni, BC - This year’s sockeye salmon return in the Somass River came in around double what the pre-season run size estimate was.

Photo by Eric Plummer Tseshaht member Ed Ross steers his boat on the Somass River in late July during the sockeye salmon run. The pre-season forecast hovered around 400,000, but it was re-forecasted to 950,000 as of July 28.

While the Somass River pre-season forecast hovered around 400,000, it was re-forecasted to 950,000 as of July 28. It’s a trend that is being observed coastwide – from Bristol Bay to the Fraser River, according to Tseshaht First Nation Fisheries Manager Dave Rolston.

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 7

By the time the run-size was re-forecasted, Lane said a lot of the fish had already swam up the river. It’s a balancing act between being “very cautious” about how the run is regulated, while also trying to “provide an opportunity for people to earn a living,” Rolston said.“It[was] kind of a scratch fishery,” he said. “People put hours and hours in and only got small amounts of fish.” Towards the end of the sockeye run, Rolston said there were “quite a number of tired fishermen who spent many, many hours fishing for not a lot of fish.” Les Sam was among the first fishermen on the Somass River at the beginning of the season in June. Because the water was so high and fast, many didn’t risk it and waited until the middle of the run, he said. “The fishing was pretty treacherous in the early part of the run,” he said. “I lost a little bit of gear. I ripped up nets on snags and stuff. If the fast water pushes you onto something, it’s hard to pull it off.”Sam keeps a knife at the front and the back of the boat in case he needs to cut himself free. “You have to have caution and fear and understanding of what can happen if things go wrong,” he said. The 65-year-old has been fishing since he was taught by his father when he was only five years old. For Sam, the risk of losing gear is worth being out on the water early. “I’m a fisherman,” he said. “I have to catch fish to make a living.” Around 28,000 sockeye salmon were given to Tseshaht members through the community distribution, Rolston said. Meanwhile, the total catch between Tseshaht and Hupačasath First Nations’ economic opportunity fishery was just over 90,000, he said. French Creek Fresh Seafood and Hub City Fish Market are two of the economic opportunity fishery’s largest buyers, while smaller brokers and roadside sales make up the rest, Rolston said. If the fishery is able to get sockeye to the market before Bristol Bay or any otherAlaskan fishery opens, Rolston said they’re usually able to charge around $4.50 per pound. But as soon as Bristol Bay opens, Rolston said “they just flood the market withThissockeye.”cancause the market value to drop to around $2.50 per pound, he added. “At that point, there’s more incentive for our members to get more money for their fish by selling roadside or to specialty buyers,” Rolston said. Now that the sockeye run has mostly passed, fishermen are preparing for the Chinook.“It’skind of the money fish,” Rolston said.Although the openings are shorter, chinook are typically more valuable because they’re the largest of the Pacific salmon. The 2022 forecast return of the Stamp River and the Robertson Creek Hatchery adult chinook to Barkley Sound and the Alberni Inlet is 135,000. After a period of a modest increase among wild populations, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) wrote that chinook salmon escapements have been decreasing over the last four years for many wild stocks. Fewer than 100 spawning salmon have been observed in some rivers in the South West Vancouver Island in recent years. “Wild West Coast of Vancouver Island chinook therefore remains a stock of concern,” the DFO wrote. While Rolston said it’s easy to “get caught in depression” around changes to the ocean environment, “there’s always hope.”“Every fisherman has to be optimistic,” he said. “You also need to be realistic – especially if you’re trying to earn a living.”

Uu-a-thluk Deputy Program Manager Jim Lane said the bulk of the returning fish are four years old, meaning that ocean conditions were “favourable for their growth and survival” when they entered the ocean as juveniles in 2020. Forecast models that predict run sizes are made based on the assumed ocean survival at the time juvenile salmon enter the sea, he said. “And that’s unknown until they come back and you can see what their survival is,” Lane said. Amanagement forecast is used to dictate the amount of allowable catch open to fisheries, he added. It’s designed to be “precautionary” so that early returning fish are protected, Lane said. The management model is adjusted during the fishing season as more information on the size of the run is gathered as the fish enter the system. This year’s wet spring and the high snowpack in B.C.’s higher mountain elevations contributed to high water levels that were cool in temperature at the beginning of the run. Because of these “favourable” conditions, Lane said the sockeye salmon quickly migrated up the river. The challenge with this is that it’s difficult to gauge whether the salmon are simply migrating quickly, or if it’s a really big run, Lane said. “It’s confounding,” he said. All of these considerations go into the decision-making process, Lane said. The Somass River sockeye production originates in Great Central and Sproat Lakes.While the increased run size meant there were greater opportunities for fishermen to generate revenue, Rolston said the fishery was “constrained by the initial run-size estimate.”

Somass sockeye return doubles original forecast In a race to beat Alaskan fisheries to the market, First Nation boats sold 90,000 through an economic agreement

“I think all the fisheries benefited from increased numbers,” he said.

Huu-ay-aht and Western Forest Products introduce logo as part of their plan for a more sustainable industry

“It’s time that we showcase to the world that we know how to manage a forest,” said Huu-ay-aht Chief Councillor Robert Dennis Sr. onAug. 2. “We’re very glad to work with Western because, in actuality when got down to the depth of things, we found that we actually have very similar goals, very similar objectives.”

Page 8— Ha-Shilth-Sa—August 11, 2022

Atechnical analysis released by C̕awak ʔqin Forestry inApril found that three quarters of old growth in TFL 44 is either protected or outside of land where timber can be harvested. With current measures in place, the Huu-ay-aht are predicting that the volume of old growth in its territory will actually grow over the next generation, as more stands reach the 250yearAlbernimark.Clayoquot Regional District Chair John Jack says that First Nations and businesses that work together can bring a more sustainable future for natural“I’mresources.veryinterested in the conversations that we’ll have with the contractors and the unions from an Indigenous perspective, because that’s a very important aspect of reconciliation,” said Jack, who is also an elected councillor with the Huu-ay-aht. “This is a solution that will not only serve as an example for the rest of the province and potentially for the rest of the country, but also one that will bring us into the future for generations.”

The need for change in how B.C.’s forests are managed was evident in a 2020 report from the province’s Old Growth Strategic Review Panel, which noted a “paradigm shift” in how the public views the resource’s environmental and cultural importance.Approximately 50,000 people across the province are still employed in forestry, but the government is predicting 4,500 jobs that will be lost as harvests decline by 12 per cent over the next three years, according to the B.C. budget released earlier this year. In a measure to better protect old growth forests, last year the province announced 1.7 million hectares of harvest deferrals across B.C. Workers and people reliant on the forestry industry protested across the West Coast, including hundreds who held up PortAlberni’s main road in December outside of the office of the area’s MLAJosie Osborne. While she addressed theAnacla Old Growth Summit inApril, Forestry Minister Katrine Conroy called the deferrals a “temporary measure to prevent irreversible loss”, while noting that a complete ban on old growth logging isn’t reasonable.The Huu-ay-aht have spoken about lowering the annual allowable cut on its treaty settlement land under what would otherwise be permitted on provincial Crown land. But the First Nation has also contended that ceasing all old growth harvesting would be unviable economically and deprive its citizens of a cultural practice that has taken place for thousands of years.

By Eric Plummer Ha-Shilth-Sa Editor PortAlberni, BC - The Huu-ay-aht First Nation and Western Forest Products unveiled a design this week to be placed throughout their partnership company, with attention to a more holistic approach to using natural resources than what has been practiced in the past. On Tuesday,Aug. 2 C̕awak ʔqin Forestry presented the new logo at its Franklin River Road office south of PortAlberni, with dozens of representatives present from the local Tseshaht and Hupacasath First Nations, as well as municipal and provincial governments. Translating as ‘we are one’in the Nuu-chah-nulth language, C̕awak ʔqin is a partnership between Western and the Huu-ay-aht’s Huumiis Ventures. C̕awak ʔqin Forestry manages Tree Farm Licence 44, a 137-hectare section of Crown forest south of PortAlberni and Great Central Lake. Designed by father and son Huu-ay-aht members Ed Johnson Sr. and Edward R. Johnson, the logo depicts a bear digging its claws into two fish, with a tree growing in the centre. During the unveiling event the younger Johnson told a story of how the bear got its“Theclaws.eagle saw a bear trying to catch a salmon in the river,” he said. “He wasn’t very successful, he didn’t have claws then. The eagle gifted him claws.” C̕awak ʔqin Forestry is using the logo to illustrate how resources will be managed sustainably.“Thebearrepresents the forest, it represents the rivers. The bear hunts, it seeks out the salmon,” said Johnson, who is a Huu-ay-aht elected councillor. “The tree represents our forest. Together it creates aThecycle.”design serves as another indication of the growing role the Huu-ay-aht are taking in the industry through its partnership with Western Forest Products. Forestry now accounts for 60 to 75 per cent of annual revenue generated by the Huu-ay-aht Group of Businesses, and the number of the First Nation’s members employed in the industry has grown from two in 1995 to 44.

Photo by Holly Stocking OnAug. 2 a new design for C̕awak ʔqin Forestry was unveiled outside the company’s office on Franklin River Road, south of PortAlberni.

Design unveiled with pledge for a ‘working forest’

But this wasn’t always the case for the Barkley Sound First Nation and the logging companies that operated in its territory. For generations the Huu-ay-aht were left out of harvesting decisions and profits, as found by a Specific Claims Tribunal in 2014 with a ruling concerning the management of forest from 1948 to 1969, after the land was sold to MacMillanThatBloedel.ruling brought a $13.8 million settlement for the First Nation, but by 1997 historical damage was evident, as 62 per cent of the Sarita River watershed had been logged, including 97 per cent of the flood plain. “I can remember Chief Louie Nookemis telling the logging companies way back in the ‘40s, you shouldn’t log to the rivers, don’t log by the salmon streams, avoid that. Leave some trees on the hillside so there’s runoff,” recalled Dennis. “These were all things that back then were irrelevant to the managers of the day, but if you look at our history, they were talking about stewardship values long before we started putting them on paper.”Butthe future will be different in the region, said Shannon Janzen, C̕awak ʔqin Forestry’s board chair and vice-president of Partnerships and Sustainability with Western.“Todayis about demonstrating shared values, shared commitment, and the change that we want to see in the world,” she said. “We’re going to see the forest for more than just trees - to manage things sustainably going forward, for fish, for wildlife, and to ensure the future is secure for every one who is working here in the working forest.”

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 9 Have You Moved? If you should be getting a copy of the Ha-Shilth-Sa paper delivered to your home and you are not, please contact: Holly Stocking at 250-724-5757 or email holly.stocking@nuuchahnulth.org

Welcome House will function as a visitor centre, community hub and museum on Muchalaht Inlet

Built with cedar wood planks and Douglas fir beams, the house’s design will reflect the traditional style of Nuu-chahnulth architecture, according to ICET. While the trust is contributing $300,000 additional funding is needed to bring the $1,303,000 welcome house to life.

TheAhaminaquus Welcome House will function as a visitor centre, community hub and museum. It will also host ceremonies, workshops and educational sessions focusing on the nation and settler history in the region, including Captain Cook’s first landing in Nootka Sound in 1778.Azar Kamran, Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation CEO and administrator, said the nation’s culture will be highlighted through signage and art. Located 13 kilometers from the village of Gold River, the project represents a key component of the nation’s redevelopment plans for theirAhaminaquus lands. Kamran said the house is a “very small piece of the overall development strategy” the nation is working on. Anew RV park and campground, trail network and satellite museum on Nootka Island are also in the planning phase. “The nation believes economic development in its territories is vitally linked to forestry, fishery and tourism,” said Kamran. “Ahaminaquus Welcome House is a major first step in coordinating [the] tourism industry in the region … further promoting Nootka Sound as an adventure destination on Vancouver Island.”

Kamran said the welcome house will be a place where visitors can stop in to ask questions about the region. “[It’ll be] a launching ground for all the various activities that visitors can do in the region,” he Mowachaht/Muchalaht’ssaid.

plansMowachaht/Muchalahtawelcomehouse for tourism in Nootka Sound

Founded by the province in 2016, the Island Coastal Economic Trust has approved over $55 million towards economic development initiatives which have attracted more than $270 in new investment to Vancouver Island and the surrounding region. “This project significantly expands the region’s tourism infrastructure, providing increased capacity to meet existing and future demand for authentic Indigenous and west coast experiences,” saidAaron Stone, ICET board chair. “The welcome house will support the dispersion of visitors from saturated markets to rural, remote and underserved areas.”

welcome house and tourism development plan has been “long awaited,” said Kamran. “This is just the very start,” he said.

Gold River, BC - Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation is one step closer to building a new welcome house in Nootka Sound, with funding support from Island Coastal Economic Trust’s Capital (ICET) and Innovation Program.

By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter

Photos by Eric Plummer Freight is loaded to the MV Uchuck III onAug. 6 in Muchalaht Bay. The Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation plans to build a tourism centre at the site south of Gold River.

But the agenda paper also notes a historical distrust among the First Nation of Parks Canada “as a result of numerous plans to develop Yuquot in the past”. “These plans were consistently resisted by the community as their views and concerns were never seriously considered but were dominated by the process of government bureaucracy,” continues the paper.

Historian Dylan Burrows, who is a PhD candidate at the University of British Columbia, worked to ensure the project didn’t veer from the First Nation’s perspective. “Quite often outsiders come to simply to extract information to further their own careers, whether you’re an archaeologist or just a scholar,” cautioned Burrows of dealings with remote First Nations. He conducted interviews with key Mowachaht/Muchalaht members, and the film features footage of Tyee Ha’wilth Michael Maquinna, Margaretta James, president of the Land of Maquinna Cultural Society, and Ray Williams, who has lived in Yuquot for nearly all of his life. “The project itself is also supplemental to the histories that already exist within the community,” explained Burrows. “Elders hold a lot of knowledge of what we’ve already spoken about in the video. We presented it in an easy, accessible format for youth to listen to and, importantly, enable them to recontextualize the present.”

Gathering returns to First Nation’

Titled Changing Perspectives: What has been the impact of colonization on the people of Yuquot?, the 15-minute documentary incorporates new footage of the historic village site, interviews with elders, archive photographs and animation to present an overview of Yuquot’s importance. Long considered the centre of the world for Mowachaht/Muchalaht people, by the late 18th century the village site on the southern edge of Nootka Island had become the capital for 17 tribes in Nootka Sound. The West Coast’s first fur trading post was established nearby, after contact occurred with Europeans in the late 1700s. The film is expected to be available for online viewing in January in English and French, as part of a collection of other video pieces to be presented on a website that delves into the effects of colonization on certain First Nations. “Ultimately you’ll come to a website, which is about a one-hour experience of short films that look at the Yuquot story, the Heiltsuk story, an introduction to what was it like before the Europeans came here,” said the film’s producer Timothy Bateman. “And then we unpack why were the Europeans coming here, what were they looking for? What was [Captain] Vancouver trying to do?And finally, we look at navigation and ship design from the European perspective.”“Weeven have some fun ones in there that talk about the language, how sailors speak - when people say, ‘Loose the sheets’and things like that,” added Paul Lowry of Gloo Studios, which produced the film. Atarget audience is school children in Grades 4 to 8. Worksheets and learning materials will also be provided for teachers. “We’re trying to build a really all-encompassing educational experience for middle school kids,” said Lowry. “The end result is an online experience. It’s a digital museum, a virtual museum.” But Bateman emphases that the film is ultimately for the people of the Mowachaht/ Muchalaht First Nation, as close consultations were conducted since the project began in the spring of 2019. “We really wanted to produce something that was useful from their point of view,” heAsaid.central source of research became the YuquotAgenda Paper, a document that the

Film presents Yuquot to a wider audience

A new documentary aims to educate middle school students about the ancestral home of Mowachaht Nation

First Nation submitted to the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada in 1997 to gain Yuquot recognition as a National Historic Site. The primary message in this paper was led by the late Tyee Ha’wilth Ambrose Maquinna. “This region has been the homeland of our ancestors since the beginning of time,” reads the document. “It is our home today and will continue to be for future Mowachaht/Muchalaht generations.”

The film also uses footage from The Washing of Tears, a 1994 National Film Board documentary that presents life for the Mowachaht/Muchalaht community while living on theAhaminaquus reserve south of Gold River. Starting in 1966, the First Nation underwent a process of relocating from Yuquot to the 3.6 hectare area on Muchalaht Bay. But the new home proved to be a drastic change from the southern shore of Nootka Island.Anew pulp mill was next to the reserve, tormenting the community with noise and pollution for years, according to the late Chief Jerry Jack, who appears in the film. In 1996 the community moved further inland to Tsaxana, where they remain today. Changing Perspectives was funded by Digital Museums Canada, part of the Canadian Museum of History in Ottawa. Submitted video still Changing Perspectives: What has been the impact of colonization on the people of Yuquot? Is a 15-minute documentary film set for release online in January.

By Eric Plummer Ha-Shilth-Sa Editor Yuquot, BC - The 30th anniversary of Yuquot Summerfest included a screening of a recently completed film that introduces the ancestral home of the Mowachaht people to a wider audience.

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Photo by Eric Plummer Sanford Williams sits in his new carving shed in Yuquot at the southern shore of Nootka Island. The workshop is almost complete, giving the carver more room to undertake large projects each summer.

This year’s annual Yuquot Summerfest included several developments for the First Nation. Renovations to the community church at the Nootka Island location are almost complete, and plaques commemorating Chief Maquinna and the history of Yuquot for Indigenous and European peoples are almost entirely installed. The plaques are mounted on carvings by Sanford Williams (right).

members of the Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation continued their annual tradition of camping for a week at Yuquot.

“The view for one is a big difference for me,” he said, comparing Yuquot to Hope. “If I go over there I see mountains all the time. It feels kind of closed in there, here it’s open – plus I can feel our ancestors around here at one time.”

For years Williams worked feet from the shore in a carving shed just below the home of his parents, Ray and Terri Williams.A thick lawyer of cedar shavings collected on the floor, where the carver worked to the rhythm of the nearby waves. But as the years went by the need for a larger, more stable shed that could accommodate bigger projects became apparent. “The waves were starting to reach up in the wintertime against the windows,” said Williams, who now works in a nearly completed 20-by-32-foot structure right next to where his father Ray still lives year-round. “It feels more roomy, more brighter for me.”Much of the construction took place over the summer last year, with major help from the Strathcona Lodge’s head carpenter and his crew. Williams gave them a carved paddle to express his gratitude. “He was interested in doing it for free, but that was a lot of work for him,” he said of the carpenter’s help. “I really appreciate that, getting this shop up for me, so I did a carving for him, a nice paddle.” Along the ceiling of the carving workshop lies a fir log Williams found on Yuquot’s beach, selected for its length and straightness. Measuring over 30 feet, Williams pulled the log up to the workshop location inch by inch with a hand-operated winch. “I rounded it over with my chainsaw, skimmed across it, it took me about four days to clean it up, and a couple more days to pull it up the hill with a come along,” he said.

OnAug. 6 visitors aboard the Uchuck watched children enjoy the summer waters at the dock (below).

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 11

eturns to First Nation’s homeland

Carver hones his craft in a new workshop at Yuquot Sanford Williams returns home each summer to work by the waves, benefiÅing from an established reputation By Eric Plummer Ha-Shilth-Sa Editor Yuquot, BC - When Sanford Williams returns to his home at the south edge of Nootka Island each summer, there is little time to waste. The carver has made a practice to starting work at 6 in the morning, usually finishing by 7 or 8 in the evening. With more than 40 years of experience of crafting with the knife, Williams knows just what lies before him when he returns to Yuquot each June. The period usually lasts three months before he returns to his wife Marlana in Hope. “As soon as I get out here I have a pole project,” said Williams, who strengthens his hands and forearms with dumbbells to sustain the long summer days of carving at the Nootka Sound summer home. “I normally start it right away in June so I can have it done by the time I leave.” Next to him over a dozen hand tools are strategically laid, each one made by the artist to suit his personal preferences. “It’s better if you make your own, then you know exactly what you’re getting,” said Williams. As over 200 people converged in Yuquot to enjoy the Mowachaht/Muchalaht First Nation’s annual Summerfest celebration onAug. 6, Williams worked in the relative quiet of his large carving shed on three poles for a fishing lodge in Mowachaht Bay. He estimates the project will take three years – encompassing nine months of carving time in his new workshop. He works from drawings that specifically plan out the finished product. “I normally draw and scale drawings of my design, what I’m going to put on the log first and I go by that, do all the measurements from the drawing,” explained Williams.Theplace of his upbringing - an ancient village site where archaeological excavations show First Nations have lived for over 4,300 years – provides a drastic change of scenery than where Williams creates for the rest of the year.

Photos by Eric Plummer MargeAmos (left) dances aboard the MV Uchuck III onAug. 6, as the ship lands in Friendly Cove, where the ancient Mowachaht village site of Yuquot is located. During the first week ofAugust

The one-bedroom tiny home, that Naomi has named the ‘Hummingbird Home’, was built by Mint Tiny House Company out of Delta and will be available for professional short-term rentals and possibly personal long-term accommodation as well. “I could rent this short term to somebody who needed housing,” Naomi said. “I do have the ability with my permits that the Tseshaht First Nation has given me, I have that opportunity to do whatever I’d like…I don’t have the same rules as theACRD where [someone] can only stay eight months.”

experiences and a space for sharing. “I never imagined when we got together that we were going to grow all of this,” Ed said. “This is something [Naomi] was talking about when we first met 10 years ago and she’s just never given up.”

Illustration by Ivy Cargill-Martin

Pronounced ‘Cha ii e yama cue gilt Kaalth ka up ooh ma sip laat ars ee clue sap geegilth mmm chumps’, it means, ‘In the old days, we would pick salal berries, clean, wash, mash it, lay flat in a tray to dry, cut it up and store for winter treat . .’Supplied by ciisma.

Photos by Karly Blats Naomi Nicholson stands by as Nuu-chah-nulth elder sings a prayer song at Cims Fest onAug. 6. The second annual Cims Fest included cultural performances, food, storytelling and a fashion show (below).

Business owners look into short-term housing opportunities within their property on the Tseshaht reserve


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Chims Guest House showcases tiny home at event

The goal for Naomi and Ed is to add two more tiny homes on the site’s RV pads.Mint Tiny House Company are certified builders and build under the RV and park model certification, therefore anywhere that land is designated for an RV or a park model, a tiny home can legally be parked on it. In addition, because the company are certified builders, people can legally get financing to purchase a tiny home, which range from around $119,000 to $182,600, and they can be insured.Inaddition to touring the new tiny home, guests at Cims Fest were able to watch a fashion show that showcased Indigenous clothing from Naomi’s personal collection.“Whenyou get an (Indigenous-made) item there’s always a story about it, so this is where you can change; when somebody asks you, ‘Well, are you allowed to wear that?’you can say, ‘Yes, I can,’and then you tell them the story,” NaomiNaomisaid.plans to continue hosting Cims Fest each year to bring Indigenous and non-Indigenous people together in a safe setting that fosters reconciliation. She hopes to continue creating Indigenous

Last year, Naomi and Ed expanded Chims Guest House from one studio suite and a one-bedroom guest house to include four serviced RV sites. This year, they’ve expanded again, adding one new tiny home to the property, with plans to add two more in the near future.

By Karly Blats Ha-Shilth-Sa Contributor PortAlberni, BC - Showcasing what’s possible by Indigenous-owned businesses was the main message behind the second annual Cims Fest at Chims Guest House on Tseshaht territory. Naomi Nicholson and her husband Ed hosted the event for the second consecutive year at their property onAug. 6. The couple, who own Chims Guest House at 6890 Pacific Rim Hwy., want to bring Indigenous and non-Indigenous people together to build a relationship through a shared cultural experience. The festival showcased Indigenous artwork and vendors, a fashion show, traditional food, storytelling, song and dance. The event was also a fundraiser for Haahuupayak Elementary School for their food program and for the Namwayut Cultural Group, who performed at the event, to purchase new regalia. “I want to showcase what’s possible,” Naomi said. “I really am promoting reconciliation. My biological mother would have never been able to do this, so the fact that I get to do this is amazing. That’s why I share the constraints about being on the reserve because a lot of people have misconceptions about Indigenous People. Until you have a new experience to replace your old experience, you can’t change your mind.”

For more informa on, please call Joni or Julia at 250-724-3232.

Sheila Charles and Huu-ay-aht First Nations won’t have to look far back for an example of Hawkins’work and experience. The Bamfield Volunteer Fire Department successfully ran their fishing derby over theAugust long weekend. Rods will be in the water for the Huuay-aht First Nations Fishing Derby August 20 and 21, and the event features prizes for biggest fish, hidden weights and biggest Coho salmon caught. Weighin stations will be operated by volunteers and held at Bamfield’s Upnit Lodge and Marina, formerly known as the Kingfisher Lodge. The event’s salmon barbecue is scheduled to take place at the Bamfield Volunteer Fire Department. Tickets to participate in the fishing derby are now available at various locations in PortAlberni and Bamfield, including Gone Fishin’, Breakers Marine and Huuay-aht government offices. Photo by Leah Paracy Arecreational fishing boat drives in Barkley Sound, near Bamfield, where a fishing derby is plannedAug. 20 and 21.

Looking for...... Usma Nuu-chah-nulth Family and Child Services are looking for individual/s or families who are interested in caregiving for teens with high-risk behaviors.

The support money raised by this fishing derby will be allocated to an emergency fund for all Cawak ʔqin forestry workers and their families. Forestry can be a dangerous line of work and Dennis says one of Huu-ay-aht’s principles as a nation is to take care of each other. He adds that this is just one way they want to continue taking care of their workers in the best way they can. “We’re setting out a new ground here. And we’re hopeful that things like this will help kickstart the want to work together as a team and support each other,” outlined Dennis. “We want to take care of our workers and do whatever we can. One of the things that we certainly wanted to do as a new owner of a forestry company, or part owners, is to create a culture where we do get along, and where we try to work as a team to support each other.”“Wecan have a good, healthy working environment where we all get along and work together for the betterment of the company,” he added. “So, one of the things we decided to do, sometimes workers end up in crisis situations where maybe a family member gets sick, and they have to go stay in a hospital somewhere, or maybe even a passing in the family. So, we want to set up a fund where we can take care of our workers when it’s needed. So that’s the main purpose of raising money through this derby.”Theevent is the first of its kind for Bamfield and Huu-ay-aht First Nations and, according to Charles, it all came together this year. Specifically, planning started in January. Charles says the event originally featured a traditional salmon barbecue, but a few changes had to be made. “Since we just got word that there’s a fire ban, it will not be a traditional barbecue salmon feast like we had intended, but it will still be a salmon barbecue with burgers and hotdogs and more,” explained Charles. She adds that Gord Hawkins from Bamfield Breakers Marine was a major help in putting the event together. “He provided a lot of help, because he’s the one that planned the Bamfield Volunteer Fire Department Fishing Derby successfully for the past 20 years or so, and they have tons of sponsors,” said Charles. “And so, he had lots of advice for us.”

By James Paracy Ha-Shith-Sa Contributor Bamfield, BC - Huu-ay-aht First Nations is planning a Bamfield-based fishing derby in support of Cawak ʔqin Forestry Workers.Cawakʔqin Forestry is a partnership between the Huu-ay-aht-owned Huumiiss Ventures and Western Forest Products to manage Tree Farm Licence 44, a large section of Crown land south of Port Alberni and Great Central Lake. Chief Counsellor Robert Dennis and Huu-ayaht First Nations want to demonstrate their support with an event that forestry workers and their family can all enjoy. Scheduled forAug. 20-21, Huu-ay-aht First Nations Events Coordinator Sheila Charles says the late summer event will be a perfect event for forestry workers and those in the community to get to know each other and recognize that we are all one. “Cawak ʔqin means we are all one, and so, Robert just wanted an opportunity to gather all of those citizens and workers to just have a fun weekend together,” said Charles. “That way we can all get to know each other and just come together as one and recognize that we are all one.”

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 13

Planned for Aug. 20 and 21 in Bamfield, the open event is a fundraiser for forestry workers during hard times

More stories and job postings at www.hashilthsa.com

The Caregiver(s) would provide 24-hour care in a culturally safe and suppor!ve environment, responding effec!vely to challenging behaviours. Compensa!on would be built around the specific needs of the youth and the Caregiver, and could include both direct services and financial support to allow Caregivers to meet the needs of the youth.

Huu-ay-aht fishing derby to support forestry workers

Elder cautions to watch for hidden dealership fees

Robinson said he was confronted by staff at the dealership, who told him he was required to pay the additional $10,000 in financing. But he refused, and ended up getting his money back when the Nissan Leaf was returned. “I said, ‘I’m going to phone my tribal politicians, they have lawyers and I’m going to put this to the media if you don’t give me my money right now’,” said Robinson. “They did, they gave me a cheque. They took the car back, I signed theAlthoughpapers.”he got his money back, Robinson lost the old car he traded in for the Nissan Leaf. He’s now driving another vehicle that had to be fixed up. “I had an old car, it was parked for 10 months, I had to spend money on it,” he said. “New tires, new alternator, new battery. I had to get it running, and it’s running barely.” He hopes that his experience cautions others to watch out for hidden fees when purchasing a vehicle from a dealership. “What hurts is when they take food off my kids’table and give it to their kid,” said Robinson.

Photo submitted by Arni Robinson Arni Robinson stands with a car he recently had to get fixed up after a new vehicle purchase fell through due to fees that weren’t verbally discussed.

Page 14— Ha-Shilth-Sa—August 11, 2022

Nanaimo dealership tries to stick Arni Robinson with an additional $10K in financing for a new electric car

By Eric Plummer Ha-Shilth-Sa Editor Chemainus, BC - The importance of reading the fine print became blatantly clear toArni Robinson, after he was almost stuck with a payment he didn’t negotiate for while recently buying a new electric car. For years the retired commercial fisherman and his wife have pondered getting an electric car, but it wasn’t until recently that prices became reasonable enough to make the transition viable. “We had been talking about it for years. We were thinking about the earth,” said theAhousaht member who lives in Chemainus. “We kept being told to wait, the batteries are getting better, they’re going to be more environmentally friendly one day that they’ll be able to dispose of them safely.”Inmid June Robinson stopped into a Nanaimo dealership to inquire about the possibility. He was presented with the option of buying a Nissan Leaf, one of the most affordable electric cars currently on the“Theymarket.said, ‘Yeah, we ordered 10, and because we’re a dealer they come in a lot faster than if you order it’,” recalled Robinson of the dealer’s offer. The electric cars were expected inAugust, but a brand-new Nissan Leaf arrived at the dealership much sooner. “The next day they said, ‘Alady ordered one, her’s is coming on Monday on a truck and she cancelled. If you want it, it’s yours’,” said Robinson. The car was originally listed for $44,000, but a government grant lowered the cost and the dealer knocked approximately $2,000 off the price. Robinson also handed over the 20-year-old car he had been driving, cutting another $500 off the Leaf price to $32,300. The dealership encouraged Robinson to have $10,000 of the cost financed, but he insisted on paying for the total price outright with a bank draft. He drove the fully-paid brand-new car for two days before getting the bill of sale, said Robinson.“Ihad to ask them, ‘Hey, I didn’t get a bill of sale,’” he said. “They gave it to me and I signed it.” After driving the car for two weeks Robinson said a phone call came from the dealership telling him he was still on the hook for the financing. He then found this detail in the bill sale, although he verbally refused this option when discussing the terms of the purchase. “They slipped in there that I financed $10,000, which I didn’t, we never talked finance,” said Robinson. According to the Motor VehicleAct Regulation, a seller must provide a copy of the purchase agreement when a car is sold. The Code of Conduct under this act also states that any verbal promises made about the vehicle must be in the purchase agreement.“Underthe legislation, all fees are to be itemized on the purchase agreement,” wrote the Vehicle SalesAuthority of British Columbia in an email to Ha-Shilth-Sa. “We do receive some complaints about additional fees not being discussed but then showing up on the purchase agreement.”Although a dealer is required to mention significant issues with a vehicle, such as extensive damage, there is no legal obligation in B.C. for a merchant to verbally discuss each term of the purchase agreement.“Generally, if all the terms of the agreement are on the purchase agreement when it is signed, it is an enforceable contract,” wrote the Vehicle SalesAuthority. “If you look at the reverse of a vehicle purchase agreement you will see many terms that are not usually discussed.”

To keep people safe during the pandemic, the government’s response was to send workers home – “and pay them to stay home,” said Brown. The Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) provided financial support to employed and self-employed Canadians who were directly impacted by COVID-19.“Butwhat we noticed is that when the benefits ended, [employers] still had a hard time finding workers,” he said. And yet, Canada’s unemployment rate was 4.9 per cent in July – a record low, according to Statistics Canada. Places like Tofino have their own very specific labour market challenges, said Brown.“They need a workforce that’s bigger than the number of people who live there,” he said. “[Tofino] relies on a workforce that comes from somewhere else.And there isn’t housing and there isn’t good local transportation for people to get to their jobs.” Despite only having a population of roughly 2,000 residents, Tofino draws around 600,000 visitors every year.

It’s a sentiment shared by Bill Brown, manager of employer services for Work BC in PortAlberni. “The labour market was tightening up before the COVID-19 pandemic, he said. “The pandemic just made that happen much more quickly.”

By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter Tofino, BC- Communities across the west coast of Vancouver Island are facing labour shortages, forcing some businesses to adjust their operations.

NOTE: Ambulance – If you require ambulance service while in another province or outside Canada, you will need to obtain service from an ambulance company in that jurisdiction and will be charged the fee established by the-out-of-province service provider. Fees range from several hundred to several thousand dollars. When purchasing additional out-of-province health insurance you are advised to obtain insurance that will cover emergency transportation while you are away and, if necessary the cost of transportation back to BC.

Owners regularly work 10-hour days as staff shortages limit business hours of operation during busy season

The skills training for employment offered by INEO are usually operated at 100 per cent capacity. This year, Deakin said occupancy rates have dropped to 60 per cent for the first time. While Deakin said she doesn’t think the labour shortage is caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, “it is correlated.”

“If you can get somebody to stay for a few weeks, at least they’re here for a few weeks and they’re helping,” she said. “It’s just the norm. It’s just how it is.” It’s a trend that causes Cathy to “worry about the next generation.” “I don’t think a lot of people have the same work ethic their parents or grandparents had,” she said. “I try to instill in my kids and my grandkids that this is not a free ride. You’ve got to work.” As the busy season in Tofino comes to an end, Cathy said she just has to make it through another four weeks of worrying about staff.

Labour shortages in all west coast communities

Two-bedroom units saw an increase of 6 per cent to $1,480, and three-bedroom units surged by 38 per cent to $2,200.

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 15 Non-Insured Health Benefits - NIHB Coverage – Travelling Out Side Of Country General Principles 1. Prior approval is required. 2. The client must: a. Be eligible for the NIHB Program; and b. Be currently enrolled or eligible to be enrolled in a provincial or territorial health insurance plan and continue to meet residency requirements for provincial/territorial health coverage.

Lewis and Cathy George have been operating the House of Himwitsa, a First Nations art gallery and lodge in Tofino, since 1991. In previous years, Cathy said their storefront would be open from 9:30 a.m. until as late as 7 p.m. But without enough staff, Cathy said they now have to close their shop as early as 4 “Wep.m.don’t have the staff,” she said. “It’s kind of heartbreaking.” Cathy regularly works 10-hour days to compensate for staffing shortages. “I have to,” she said. “There’s no other way.”When Terry Deakin launched INEO Employment Centres in PortAlberni 22 years ago it was created to facilitate a Services Canada pilot project that aimed to provide services to those struggling to enter the job market. In the 22 years Deakin has been running INEO she said she’s never had a problem filling their programs. “We are struggling right now,” she said. “There are so many job opportunities out there. People can apply for jobs and get them, even if they can’t keep them.”

3. For Transportation to Medical Services: For transportation to medical services outside of the country the client must be referred for provincially/territorially insured medical services by a provincial or territorial health care plan for treatment Shaganappi Plaza: wage change for Building Maintenance and thevideenrolled4.http://www.ammsa.com/content/careers/shaganappi-plaza-ltd-calgaryammsa.comand-superintendent/http://www.windspeaker.com/news/sweetgrass-news/building-maintenance-Windspeaker.comSuperintendentoutsideofCanada.ForSupplementalHealthInsurancePremiums:Full-timestudentsinapost-secondaryinstitutiontostudyoutsideofCanadamustpro-aletterofconfirmationthattuition,whichisnotaneligiblebenefitunderNIHBProgram,hasbeenpaid. be aware that your coverage may not pay all health care costs. Health services provided outside Canada often cost more than the amount paid by the Ministry of Health Services. Sometimes the difference is substantial; for example, the amount we pay for emergency inpatient hospital care will not exceed $75 (Canadian) a day for United States of exceeds $1,000 (US) per day and can be as high as $10,000 a day for intensive Incare.addition, some items/services that may be a benefit in BC are not covered outside the province; for example, prescription drugs and optometric services. Further, the Ministry does not subsidize fees charged for ambulance service obtained outside BC. We advise you to buy additional health insurance to supplement your basic coverage before you leave the province, regardless of whether you’ll be in another part of Canada or outside the country – even if your company or travel agency can advise you about extra coverage to pay for any difference in fees and to provide benefits not covered by the Ministry. If you have a pre-existing medical condition, you must mention this when purchasing additional insurance as most policies will not cover treatment of that condition outside the province. In some cases you may purchase an insurance policy where the insurance company has a signed agreement with the Ministry. This permits the company to pay physician and hospital claims and receive reimbursement on your behalf thus eliminating the need for you to handle your own claims.

“I don’t know what the answer is to the labor shortages,” she said. “It’s hard to say what’s going to come of it.”

The median cost of a one-bedroom rental unit in Tofino and Ucluelet rose by 71 per cent between 2017 and 2020 to $1,200, according to the 2021 Clayoquot Biosphere Trust’s Vital Snapshot report.

“People who were laid off or shut down because of the pandemic and were close to retirement age have decided just to stay at home,” she said. “The other piece of it is that people are able to work from home.”Indeed, PortAlberni’s population is aging.Themedian age in the PortAlberni census agglomeration was 50 years old in 2021. Comparatively, the median age for B.C. as a whole in 2021 was 42.8 years old.And as for the rest of the workers, Deakin said she’d be a “magician” if she knew where the answer. “The demand [for workers] is extremely high all across the board,” she said. “Everybody keeps thinking it’s just the hospitality and tourism sectors that are crying for help right now. But as far as I can see, it’s everywhere – every industry is looking for people.”

What is covered? For Supplemental Health Insurance Premiums:The cost of privately acquired health insurance premiums for approved students or migrant workers and their legal dependents will be reimbursed. For Transportation to Medical Services:Transportation benefits when eligible clients are medically referred and approved for treatment outside of Canada by a provincial or territorial health care plan. For further information on coverage outside of Country you are encouraged to call First Nations & Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB), Vancouver BC toll free @ 1-800-317-7878 What You Should Know- “Before” Leaving British Columbia If you are leaving the province, you should

MSP Contact @ 1-250-386-7171 or fax 1-250-952-3427 – In case the number s have changed the web site is: www.healthservices.gov.bc.ca/msp

While staffing challenges have forced operators to expand their businesses with more caution, Little said it hasn’t deterred anyone.“Itrequires some extra thought and planning under the current times,” he said. “[Business operators] have to be aware of where they’re going to get employmentDependingfrom.”onwhere people are opening or expanding their business, Little said they may be limited by the housing market.Increasing rental prices are making it more difficult to attract employees because the cost of living is “beyond the means of a lot of employees,” he said. Without staff accommodation to offer potential employees, Cathy George said she relies on the local workforce. But even then, she said “we can’t seem to retain staff.”

Al Little has been the general manager for the Nuu-chah-nulth Economic Development Corporation (NEDC) for the past 25NEDCyears.is an organization that assists Indigenous peoples start, expand and acquire businesses through financial and business support.

• Relevant post-secondary education or equivalent experience

• Strong computer skills including Internet, Windows and MS Office

• Knowledge of the labour movement, government departments and community organizations

• Strong organizational skills, ability to work under pressure and to meet deadlines

Office and position applied for must be indicated in subject line of e-mail application Note: A collective agreement is in effect between UFCW (Local 232) and the New Democratic Party Members of Parliament. All applications will be received and held in confidence.

Employment Opportunities

Page 16— Ha-Shilth-Sa—August 11, 2022 Port VolunteersFriendshipAlberniCentreNeeded Need work experience? The Port Alberni Friendship Centre is looking for interested applicants for various positions. Call 250-723-8281 Gord Johns, MP - Constituency Assistant, Permanent, Full-Time Position Office Location: Constituency Office, Parksville, British Columbia Responsibilities: • Manage and respond to constituent casework including outreach and correspondence • Act as media liaison for the Member, including organising press conferences, media events and preparing op-ed pieces, media material, news releases, speeches, and articles • Administer and log incoming phone calls, emails, faxes, and walk-in traffic • Co-ordinate the Member’s visibility in the riding • Represent the Member at events and meetings • Monitor events in riding and advise the Member on issues concerning the riding • Maintain database lists and direct mail to constituents in coordination with Ottawa parliamentary office • Organize, in consultation with Parliament Hill office, outreach activities that offer both visibility for the Member and opportunities to receive constituency feedback • Liaise with various community organizations and federal government departments • Schedule Member’s constituency activities and liaise with Parliament Hill office to coordinate Member’s riding schedule • Liaise with Member’s Ottawa Office • Other duties as required Qualifications: • Proven verbal and written communication skills, including media relations

Closing date: August 21, 2022 (Midnight)

• Bilingualism, an asset • Vehicle and license, an asset Annual salary: (salary$56,250levels subject to clauses 12 and 21 of the collective agreement)

The NDP and NDP MPs actively promote employment equity. Women, Black, Indigenous, and racialized persons, persons with disabilities, 2SLGBTQI+, and anyone from equity seeking groups are strongly encouraged to apply for this position, and qualified applicants from these groups will be given priority. If you are a member of an equity-seeking group, you may choose to identify as such in your application. We are committed to an environment that is barrier free. If you require accommodation during the hiring process, please contact Human Resources at ndphr@parl.gc.ca to arrange appropriate accommodation.

We thank all applicants for their interest. Only those selected for an interview will be contacted.

• Knowledge of Courtenay—Alberni region and riding priorities

• Experience working with social media (Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, etc.)

• Knowledge of the New Democratic Party and sound political judgement

• Desktop publishing, graphic design and layout skills, an asset

Starting date: As soon as possible Send application to NDPHR@parl.gc.ca

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 17 Employment Opportunities More job posting www.hashilthsa.comat

Construction Residential . Commercial

While waiting for help to arrive, cool the person by: Moving them to a cool place, if you can Removing excess clothing. Applying cold water, wet towels or ice packs around the body, especially the neck, armpits, and groin.

Architectural Structures Construction Management & Consulting Forming & Framing Ph/Txt:

• seniors aged 65 years or older • people who live alone • people with pre-existing health conditions such as diabetes, heart problems or breathing difficulties • people with mental illness such as schizophrenia, depression, or anxiety • people with limited mobility issues

• Severe nausea and vomiting • Fainting or loss of consciousness • Confusion or disorientation • Difficulty speaking • Movement and coordination problems • Lethargic (tired, listless)

Signs of heat stroke:

Page 18— Ha-Shilth-Sa—August 11, 2022 Health Corner

• Not sweating • Hot, flushed skin or very pale skin • Not urinating or very little urinating • Rapid breathing and faint, rapid heart rate

Elders may encounter numerous factors that could put them at increased risk during extreme heat events. These factors may include chronic illnesses, medications that interfere with the body’s cooling mechanisms, social isolation, and poverty.Thefollowing people are at risk during extreme heat:

• Body temperature >39°C (102°F)

Think of people you know who may be more susceptible to heat and develop a buddyChecksystem.inwith your neighbour. Check in with your hot weather buddy often, especially in the evening when indoor temperatures are highest. It is also good to check early morning, to see how your buddy has managed through the night.Watch out for severe headache, confusion, unsteadiness, loss of thirst, nausea/ vomiting -- they are signs of dangerous heat-related illness. Check on people at higher risk in-person to evaluate their health and the temperature indoors. If you cannot check in-person, ask them to tell you what it says on their thermostat or indoor thermometer. Encourage those who may not know they are at higher risk to take cool baths, sleep in the coolest room, or stay with friends.Ifyouhave air conditioning and higher risk members of your family do not, bring them to your house. Never leave children, dependent adults, or pets alone in a parked car, leaving windows open will not help. Severe heat illness and heat stroke are medical emergencies. Call 9-1-1 if you are caring for someone with signs or symptoms of severe heat-related illness

Source: BC Centre for Disease Control safety tips in the extreme heat Photo from Ha-Shilth-Sa Archives Elders keeping cool in the shade at the Yu-clutch-aht Music Festival in Tofino 2008. Sam & 250.720.7334 les sam@shaw.ca



Like Martin, Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation


Besides their spiritual and cultural significance within Nuu-chah-nulth communities, wolves also play a vital role in the ecosystem, explained Todd Windle, coordinator of Parks Canada’s Wild About Wolves project. “Wolves are the top predator that we have in our ecosystem on Vancouver Island,” he said. “They’ll even hunt bears forEnteringfood.” “a wolf territory and seeing a wolf is a privilege,” said Windle. “It also comes with a responsibility to treat wildlife with the respect that they deserve to survive in their own habitat,” heInsaid.2018, Parks Canada launched the WildAbout Wolves project because there was an increase in human interactions with the animals. “It was not a healthy balance,” Windle said.When interactions become more frequent, the animals start to become really comfortable with people. “That’s when you start seeing them in the middle of the day, or in a parking lot, or beside the road,” he said. “They’re actually seeking food – that’s an unhealthy type of observation.” Since the program began, Windle said there has been a decline in the number of interactions with wolves. Teachings from traditional knowledge holders from seven different First Nations, including Tla-o-qui-aht, are incorporated into the program. These include lessons on coexisting with wolves and the greater ecosystem, Windle shared. Remote cameras have been set-up to collect data on how to protect wolves, prey species and other animals that wolves are in competition with – such as cougars.Wolfscats are also being collected to look into their diet, and surveys are being conducted to better understand the attitudes, beliefs and values of people which ultimately drives their behaviour around wolves.Through more understanding about wolves, Windle said he hopes people develop more respect for the animal. Keeping dogs on-leash and not feeding wolves, either directly or indirectly, helps to protect them, he said. “Doing what we can to prevent habituation, or having them become desensitized or less wary around people, is what keeps them safe,” Windle said. For several decades leading up to the ‘60s, Windle said wolves were extirpated off of Vancouver Island. “All predators in most parts of North America were seen as nuisances,” he said.Atthe time, Windle said it was common for there to be campaigns to remove predators by killing them. “It’s a little hard for us to think about now because it’s not how we are in society anymore,” he said.

Tribal Parks Project Coordinator Terry Dorward has only seen a wolf once in his life.“We try to keep our worlds separate from them,” he said. “We try to create the space for them to flourish. It helps with keeping a healthy ecosystem intact.”

August 11, 2022—Ha-Shilth-Sa—Page 19

Wolves started naturally re-establishing themselves on Vancouver Island in the early ‘70s as they began swimming from mainland British Columbia to the northeast part of the island. Since then, they’ve slowly migrated farther south and from the east to the west coast of Vancouver Island. This is also the reason the number of interactions with wolves started to increase, Windle said. “Alot of people hadn’t been living wolves for decades,” he said. “They were not in a position where they knew how to coexist with wolves, or maybe they needed to Dorwardre-learn.”recalledbeing taught not to video record wolves by his late-uncle. “We shouldn’t go out looking for them,” he said. “We shouldn’t go out trying to take their picture because what happens is that they’ll become habituated.”


During wolf encounters, Windle said people should give them at least 100 metres of space. Windle said it’s also important to report wolf sightings so Parks Canada can come up with strategies to help prevent the situation from getting worse.

Wolves bring an awareness to the roles and responsibilities Nuu-chah-nulth people are expected to uphold to ensure the wellbeing of their traditional territories, said Dorward.

“Sometimes there’s a misconception that if somebody reports a sighting or interaction, somebody’s going to come out and shoot the animal,” he said. “And that’s just not true. The more information we have, and the earlier we have that information, the better.”

By Melissa Renwick Local Journalism Initiative Reporter Tofino, BC - In all of Joe Martin’s 68 years of living on the west coast of Vancouver Island, he said he’s only encountered a wolf once. Alone in the forest just outside of the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation community of Esowista, Martin recalled when a pack of wolves ran past him over 20 years ago. Their presence stopped him in his tracks, and with wide eyes he turned around to get another look. But just as quickly as the wolves ran by, they disappeared into the forest. Martin said the experience still plays vividly in his mind. Within Nuu-chah-nulth culture, wolves areDuringsacred.winter solstice, in between a new and full moon, Martin said there would be a sacred ceremony held to initiate members into the wolf clan. It was a lesson about fear, Martin described.“Tonever have fear,” he said. Martin recounted how elders would say that without fear, “you can learn anything.”Wolves were also used to teach about the importance of family unity, he added. “Alone wolf is not very successful,” he said. “But if there’s a pack of wolves that all work together, they’re so much more successful.”Manyofthese teachings were disrupted when the IndianAct was enacted in Canada in 1876. The act was aimed to eliminate Indigenous culture, with the goal of assimilating First Nations, Inuit and Métis into a Eurocentric society. This meant that the winter wolf ritual of the Nuu-chah-nulth peoples was forbidden, said Martin. To protect it, Martin said elders kept the ritual secret from the Indian agents and they stopped sharing it with younger generations for fear of being thrown in jail. There are people within Nuu-chah-nulth communities who continue to keep the wolf ritual secret, he said. “But when I think back to the former days, it was free,” Martin said. “Anyone could talk about it – it was not secret. It was a thing that was widely known in our communities. The initiation into the wolf clan was a very important thing.”

Respecting order with animals by avoiding top hunter

Photo submitted by Parks Canada

Awolf is photographed in the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve as part of a program to track the presence of the animals and educate the public on how to avoid them.

Since the 1970s wolves have returned from extinction on Vancouver Island to pose a hazard on the west coast

When entering the forest, Dorward said he was taught to say a prayer to acknowledge that he was stepping into the Ha-houlthee (traditional territory) that belonged to the animals. “We ask for protection,” he said. “And [share] that we come in peace.”

“There is order in the animal kingdom that we need to respect,” he said.

• Spend a few hours in a cool place. It could be a tree-shaded area, swimming facility or an air-conditioned spot.

• Skin rash

• Heavy sweating Dizziness Nausea or vomiting Rapid breathing and heartbeat Headache Difficulty Muscle cramps thirst urine and decreased urination

• Lack of coordination

• If you don’t have an air conditioner, find an air-conditioned spot close by where you can cool off for a few hours on very hot days.

• Plan strenuous outdoor activities for cooler days, or choose a cooler location, like a place with air conditioning or with tree shade.

Some individuals are at higher risk for heat-related illness, including:

Signs of heat stroke body temperature Fainting or decreased

• People with mental illness such as schizophrenia, depression, or anxiety • People with substance use disorders

concentrating •

Submerge some or all of the body in cool water, remove clothes and apply wet towels.

• Newcomers to Canada

• Be alert for signs that your child is experiencing heat illness and needs to go inside. These include thirst, fatigue, leg or stomach cramps, and cool, moist skin, which can be a sign of heat exhaustion. Bring your child inside or into a cool, shady area, and offer frequent small sips of water. Removing extra clothing and fanning can help your child cool down slowly.

• Seniors aged 65 years or older. They may be particularly vulnerable if they are socially isolated, or live in older buildings without air conditioning

• Cover your baby in loose clothing and always wear a hat.

• People with pre-existing health conditions such as diabetes, heart disease or respiratory disease

• People with limited mobility, including those who are confined to bed, need assistance with daily living or who have sensory/cognitive impairment

• High

• Frequently visit neighbours, friends and family members, especially those who are chronically ill, to make sure that they are cool and hydrated. Tip 4: Drink Liquids; Water is Best Tip 5: Stay Cool • Wear loose-fitting, light-coloured clothing made of breathable fabric.

• Make sure your child’s favourite play areas have a shady spot, or bring along a sun umbrella.

• People who are socially disadvantaged due to low income, being homeless or living alone

Source: https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthlinkbc-files/heat-related-illness

Source: www.canada.ca

Safety Tips: Tip 1 : Prepare for the Heat • Tune in regularly to local weather forecasts and alerts so you know when to take extra care.

• Remember to put sunblock on ears, nose, back of neck and legs, and tops of feet.

• Very hot and red skin If you think someone might have heat stroke, call 9-1-1 or seek medical attention immediately.

*If you are taking medication, particularly for mental illness, heart disease or Alzheimer’s disease, ask your doctor or pharmacist whether it increases your health risk in the heat and follow their recommendations.

Fact 1 Older Adults Older adults may be faced with compounding factors that could put them at increased risk during extreme heat events. These factors may include chronic illnesses, medications that interfere with the body’s cooling mechanisms, social isolation, and poverty.

• People taking certain medications, including high blood pressure medicines, antidepressants, antipsychotics or anti-Parkinson’s agents.

Page 20— Ha-Shilth-Sa—August 11, 2022

• People who live alone

• Reapply sunscreen every 2 to 3 hours, and after swimming or vigorous play. To prevent heat illness or dehydration

Children don’t necessarily feel thirsty while at play.

Tip 2: Know the Signs of Heat exhaustion or heat stroke Tip 3: Pay Attention to how you and Those Around you Feel

• Dark

• Encourage your child to drink plenty of fluids, especially water.

Fact 3 Chronic Illness/ Special Medication Individuals with breathing difficulties, heart problems, and psychiatric illnesses are at a higher risk of heat-related health effects.

Anyone with these symptoms should be moved to a cool space, given plenty of water to drink, and cooled down with water applied to the skin (e.g. cold shower, submerging body or legs in a cool bath, wearing a wet shirt, applying damp towels to the skin).

• Extreme

• At least 30 minutes before heading outside, apply sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 on all areas of your child’s skin that will be exposed to the sun. Use a lip balm with SPF 15 as well.

• Always protect babies from the sun

• Properly apply a small amount of sunscreen with SPF 30 (sun protection factor) on exposed areas. Note that sunscreen is not recommended for babies under 6 months old, because they can rub it in their eyes and mouth.

Fact 2 Infants and Young Children Given the unique physiological characteristics of children’s bodies and their high dependency on caregivers, they are likely to be at risk during extreme heat events.

Sun Safety for All Ages - Know the signs of heat illness, how to respond and who is most at-risk.

• Use a stroller sunshade to cover your baby.

Who is most at risk in extreme heat?

To prevent sunburn

• Confusion

• Take cool showers or baths until you feel refreshed.


• People who are physically active with increased physical strain with a reduced perception of risk • People who are pregnant • Infants and young children

• If you have an air conditioner, make sure it works properly.

• Occupational groups who work outdoors or who have increased physical strain

Signs of heat exhaustion

• Limit sun exposure, especially during peak hours.

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