understanding the design of the future green architecture
Sustainability "Sustainability" must be a part of our daily life. Its magical attraction forms a part of the homogeneous elements of the quintessential characteristics in any place on earth... crossing i across immerse i i hidden in hidd di dimensions... i fl i floating around d trying i to let l us discover its undeniable benefits.
Factors acto s SOCIAL
Emphasized on Emphasized on ¾ Energy gy ¾ Light and air circulation of the building ¾ Greenery, water and waste ¾ Construction and structural considerations ¾ urbanism
Resized by Resized by • Energy – Renewable energy – Get energy from Get energy from • • • • •
Sunlight Air W t Water Earth Wastes
– Consideration of these factors in Building
• We know from Physics We know from Physics‐ – “ Energy is recyclable. It never wastes.”
• Renewable energy‐ gy – Natural sources >> Electricity
Sources • Solar – Solar energy >> Electricity
• Wind – Kinetic energy >> Electricity
• Water – Kinetic energy >> Electricity Ki i El i i
• Geothermal – Volcanic steam >>Kinetic energy >> Electricity Volcanic steam >>Kinetic energy >> Electricity
• Biomass – Natural wastes >> Biogas g
Wind Direction in Bangladesh
April‐ October May‐ September November‐ January February, March, September‐ November October‐ January December‐ February
Wind condition in Bangladesh
Coastal and Portal
Better Direction BetterÂ Direction
Wind shadow WindÂ shadow
Positioning of a wind turbine using advantage of a wind tunnel created between buildings.
Aerodynamic y shape p to the advantage g of building g
• When a structure is expanded vertically, p y, wind pressure also expands with its increasing height • These type of shapes are used to reduce Th t f h dt d impact of wind at high rise structure
1 Kidney Shape 1.Kidney Shape 2.Boomerang shape 2 Boomerang shape
Perl River View Shanghai, China Shanghai China Architect(s)‐Gordon Gill, SOM
CONDOMINIUM TOWER DUBAI, UAE Architect: David Fisher
In skyscraper-crazy Dubai, tall isn’t enough. In a design to be unveiled today in the oil-rich emirate, David Fisher, an Italian-Israeli architect, has dreamed up a 68-story combination hotel, apartment and office tower where the floors would rotate 360 degrees. Each floor would rotate independently, creating a constantly changing architectural form. Each story of the tower would be shaped like a doughnut and be attached to a center core housing elevators, emergency stairs and other utilities. Wind turbines placed in gaps between the doughnuts would generate electricity. The doughnuts won’t rotate fast enough to give guests upset stomachs. A single rotation would take around 90 minutes. “It’s quite slow,” says Mr. Fisher. Mr. Fisher’s isn’t the first plan for a rotating tower in Dubai. Last year, a local developer showed off plans for a 30-story 200-unit condominium tower that would rotate one revolution per day. Solar panels would drive the rotation mechanism.
Typical household use of water
Re use Re‐use • Two ways to use‐ – Direct • Direct re‐use is the planned and deliberate use of treated wastewater for some beneficial purpose, including drinking.
– Indirect • Indirect re‐use refers to water that is taken from a river, lake, or aquifer which has received sewage or sewage effluent.
Usage • In Architecture to In Architecture to – reduce heat – Make cool environment Make cool environment – Design landscape
• Generate electricity G t l t i it
Steps • •
Hydrothermal y ‐ uses steam and hot water Geopressurized ‐ uses hot water (around 350°F) water (around 350 F) and and hydraulic turbines Petrothermal ‐ uses dry hot rocks requiring water injections to make steam.
Advantages – Geothermal energy is clean, no fuel is burned – Once the drilling in the accessible region is complete, the cost for electricity production is extremely low
Disadvantages – Releasing underground steam occurs Earthquake. – Gases like Hydrogen Sulphide create greenhouse effect – The energy sources have a tendency to cool down after an extended period of use. The hot rocks may cool down or the site may run out of steam.
Biomass • Biomass is already used material y • Actually biomass is waste material • Natural wastage of human and animal kind can be used to produce energy • It is less economic than fuels • Such as Bio‐gas Such as Bio gas • This Source totally depended on – Sun – Air – Water
Solar ray theory Solar ray theory
Toward solar architecture The incident radiation on the landmasses of the earth alone is 3000 grater than the worldwide demands. Yet we continue to meet these demands almost exclusively with non-renewable energies generated from fossil fuels. Air pollution, acid rain, greenhouse effect and climate change are the resultant environmental problems. problems Now here came the concept of utilizing the natural sources for energy to save us from up-coming up coming natural disasters. disasters Solar energy became the heart of this new concept and hence began the solar architecture.
Passive use Passive use of solar radiation functions without the need for technical systems. The building itself makes direct use of solar energy by virtue of its placement, geometry, building components and materials. materials This the most simplest and the most effective form of solar architecture. • • • • .
The buildingg components p are interpreted p as a solar system. y Carefully thought out design adapts natural energy potentiality. Clever selection of site, placement, orientation and shape. Deliberate window arrangement, g , considered selection of materials and wall structures.
The house Th h conceptt : timeless ti l principles of solar architecture Minimizing of the surface ( advantageous A/V ratio ) Open towards the sun. Solar zoning â€“ cool rooms on the north side, warm rooms on the south side. Selective shading, protection against high solar attitude in summer. Utilization of storage masses for temperature compensation. Conservatory in sefton park, Liverpool (1986). Design and execution by Mackenzie & Moncur.
Megaron H M House ((circa i 400 BC) BC), Socrates. S t Opening O i toward t d the th sun in a cone shape and equipped with buffer rooms to the north, this is the first design of a solar house.
Points that concerns solar architecture • • • • • • • • • • • •
Location and microclimate Topography Wind protection Form A/V ratio Embedding Orientation and insulation Zoning Building skin Insulation and wind protection Openings Storage masses
The first solar collectors were ere installed on the rooftops in the mid 1970â€™s, 1970â€™s follo followed ed nearly a decade later by the first integrated photovoltaic system. Now that the initial problems such as system glitches and economic hurdles have overcome, active solar technology gy has ggained a solid pposition in architecture.
A key characteristic of integrated solar technology is the visible installation of the components on the roofs or facades, which function as the required interfaces between solar radiation and the building system.
The solar technology gy
Functional diagram of thermal use of solar energy.
Functional diagram of photovoltaic system
1 Collector 1. C ll t
1. Solar generator on mounting
2. Solar cycle
2. Connection solar generator
3. Storage g tanks
3. Direct current
4. Warm water
4. Consumer circuit
A. Heat supply B. Heat return C. Solar supply 1. Collector field 2. House transfer station 3 Solar 3. S l ttransfer fe station t ti 4. Buffer storage
Functional diagram of solar district heating concept
5. Long-term storage
Single-family house in Ohing, Austria, 1999. Poppe prehal.
Low energy house in Bregenz, 2001, Daniel Sauter. The PV system is structurally and aesthetically integrated in to the faรงade.
Lehrter railway station, Berlin 2003. Von Gerkan Marg and partners. The PV modules are integrated into the roof glass, they also serve as shading system.
Photovoltaic array (PVA)
Example A 7’6”X5’ module PV can produce 180 w/h Electricity. For 1000 w/h 6 nos PV which cover 225 sft space.
The cycle of solar energy uses
Heat exchange HeatÂ exchange
Environmental building block
It takes climate and energy gy influences into account,, can be conceived in reference to the demand of the environment. In order to optimize the utilization of the available options for energy reduction, different technical systems should act in unison. nison The most interesting building b ilding blocks at current c rrent times are: * Heat recovery in housing construction •Building core activation •* Seasonal energy storage ••* Sorption technology •* Geothermal heating/cooling •* Power heat coupling •* Intelligent control and regulation
Ways to Minimize the Consumption of Fossil Fuel and the CO2 Emission
• • • • • •
Natural Ventilation Daylighting Utilization of Solar Energy Vegetable Oil as Regeneration Fuel Power-Heat-Cooling Co-generation Seasonal Energy Storage (aquifer)
Examples of controlling sunlight penetration
Administration building in Wesbaden, Herzog and Partners. Light shelves in the shape of scoop re-direct re direct the direct sunlight. sunlight
Use of double-glazed glass faรงade to control sunlight.
Public library, Landao(1998). Lamott Architects. Rigid wooden louvers mounted infront of faรงade providing shading.
Natural Light and Shading Why use shadings??
• To T reduce d th the effect ff t off hheatt gain i ffrom th the sun • To cut down sun glare experienced through the windows •The provision of privacy. This will not normally be a requirement, but it may be important in certain circumstances.
Solar Shading Solutions •External Shading •Internal Shading •Alternative Shading
Natural Light and Shading
The window is designed with the following criteria in mind• The provision of daylight • To solve the problem of mechanically controlled building ventilation without creating draughts. • To cater for adequate thermal insulation • To T provide id adequate d soundd iinsulation l i ffor normall circumstances. i • To control solar gain and diminish sun and sky glare.
Natural Light using Skylight
The window detail shows a projecting light shelf which bounces natural light on to the white concrete arched ceiling into the interior of the room, and although research suggests th t thi that this does d nott iincrease the th llevell off daylight in a space, it assists its distribution, whilst at the same time acting as solar shading. Clerestoreys above the bookcases at the rear of the room allow daylight y g to escape p from the interior of the rooms to enliven the internal corridor beyond what would otherwise be a totally artificially lit space.
The daylight penetrates from the top down to the first floor level. Side day lighting enters to the first floor level. Side day lighting enters from both the south and the north elevations, and controls sunlight, and light shelves at the first and second levels lights upwards to the ceilings. (Students Union, University of Warwick)
Rain water collection Rain water collection • Simple Rainwater Harvesting System in Five Easy Steps p g y y p Sizing the system Choose the right cistern. Placement of the cistern Placement of the cistern. Set up a conveyance system with a large particle filter between gutters and cistern. – Set up a distribution system to remove water from the cistern to the S di ib i f h i h landscape
– – – –
GREENROOFING A green roof is the roof of a building that is completely of partially covered with vegetation or a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. membrane
Types Intensive Semi Intensive Extensive
Additional Design Issues Other items to be discussed in the design stage should i l d th include the ffollowing: ll i · types of plants desired; · maintenance requirements; · disability access; · liability ab y issues; ssues; · architectural accents.
INTERNATIONAL BUILDING ANALYSIS
CENTRE INTERNATIONAL ROGIER, MARTINI TOWER Brussels, Belgium
SPOND BRUSSELS BUSINESS CENTRE
KOHN PEDERSEN FOX ASSOCIATES
The CIR Martini Tower will be a self sustained 33 storied high-rise which would be a renovated version of an existing 8storied tower block of 1950’s on the site of the north Brussels station. It is designed to be a low energy high-rise, self supported by the means of wind turbines, double façade, chilled ceiling, solar radiation and natural light and ventilation.
Noise Noise Wind Flow
Noise o se
Wind Flow Hot air
Wind Flow Cool air
Sustainable Features • Primary fresh air supply to the active chilled beams takes further advantage of free cooling for up to 60% of the year. • Ice store led chilled water system taking maximum benefit from night time off peak chiller operation. • A double wall system that reduces external noise, provides a zone for services distribution, a natural office air extract path and a means for controlling and collecting solar radiation. radiation • The possibility for the installation of wind turbines and an innovative adaptation of architectural design can provide up to 5% of the buildings annual electrical demand. • An A active i chilled hill d bbeam comfort f cooling li system has been designed for this development in conjunction with roof mounted cooling towers, which provide the facility for free cooling for 55% oof tthee yea year without t out tthee need eed for o mechanical refrigeration.
Local Analysis of Energy
Annual Average Max. Temperature in °C T Temp.(°C) (°C)
33 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Annual Average Rainfall in mm Annual Average Rainfall in mm Rainfall
Annual Average Wind Velocity in Knots g y Velocity
0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Monthly Average Sunshine Hours Data of Dhaka Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 1992 ***** ***** ***** ***** 7.1 6.1 4.0 4.9 5.7 6.4 7.2 1993 6.3 7.4 7.8 7.8 6.2 5.4 4.1 3.6 4.8 5.8 7.4 7.5 1994 6.9 7.6 7.3 7.4 7.2 4.6 5.4 5.4 6.2 7.1 6.1 7.3 1995 7.2 6.2 7.7 8.5 6.6 4.7 4.2 4.6 3.9 7.1 6.8 7.1 1996 7.5 8.9 9.0 7.0 7.7 4.5 3.9 3.8 5.4 7.8 8.6 6.6 1997 5.2 7.5 7.7 7.3 7.6 5.6 4.1 4.8 4.6 8.5 6.2 5.6 1998 4.0 6.1 8.1 7.3 5.8 6.8 2.8 3.7 4.3 5.8 7.4 7.8 1999 8.3 7.5 7.2 8.4 5.5 5.0 3.9 3.8 3.8 5.2 8.3 7.4 2000 6.1 5.8 8.5 8.5 5.2 4.6 5.0 4.8 4.6 5.8 8.3 8.2 2001 7.9 7.2 8.7 8.6 6.1 3.5 4.6 5.1 4.6 5.6 6.4 7.2 2002 7.4 8.8 7.8 8.2 5.6 2.5 1.8 4.3 5.5 6.7 6.6 6.3 2003 5.2 7.4 7.2 8.0 7.4 2.1 5.0 5.7 3.7 4.7 8.3 5.9 2004 5.3 7.6 7.6 6.5 7.8 2.9 3.8 5.6 2.7 6.6 7.8 6.7 2005 6.3 7.9 7.0 8.4 7.8 3.2 4.1 3.5 4.8 4.6 6.6 7.0 2006 5.3 6.1 7.3 7.8 6.5 2.2 4.8 6.2 5.1 5.1 6.0 5.5 2007 5.7 5.7 8.2 6.4 7.8 4.7 3.3 4.9 3.0 5.2 5.7 5.5 2008 4.7 6.6 5.9 8.5 7.7 4.2 3.1 4.0 4.4 5.8 7.9 3.9 2009 5.7 8.7 7.3 8.3 6.8 5.9 4.7