& RESIDENT RONALD REAGAN'S
economic policies rev up the
f U.S. economy, but his faith in "trickle-down" distribution theories leaves millions out of the money. Internal reforms initiated by Soviet-leader Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-8os trigger a cascade of events that will lead to the fall of the Berlin wall in 1 9 8 9 and the gradual breakup of the Soviet Union. The new global political order that evolves will be marked by both grisly humanitarian crises and the spread of democratic freedoms to Eastern Europe, southern Africa, and part of Asia and South America Actor Rock Hudson's death from
in 1 9 8 5 , combined
with Surgeon General C. Everett Koop's outspoken criticism of government inaction, finally galvanizes a national response to the epidemic, but not in time to stay its course. By the end of 1 9 9 7 , AIDS
has claimed more than 2. million lives worldwide, and 3 1 mil-
lion people carry the Hiv virus. Heart disease remains America's leading killer, but its long decline, coupled with steadily rising cancer mortality, set the stage for a changing of the guard. At the School of Public Health, 3 8-year-old health policy professor Harvey V. Fineberg succeeds Howard Hiatt as dean. Fineberg will lead the School through an era of prosperity and growth that coincides with a groundswell of support for public health's fundamental principle prevention.
the gathering storm Harvard scientists confront a threat of
bib!ica! dimensions that cha!!enges and transforms the fundamenta! tenets of pubtic heaith. 1985
Cardiologist Bernard Lown and Russian colleague Eugene Chazov accept the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, which the pair co-founded in 1980.
Max Essex and colleague Tun-Hou Lee identify gp-120 and gp-41, t w o structures on t h e surface of HIV-1 t h a t enable the virus to infect cells and are targets for vaccine development.
N 1 9 7 8 , AS A T H I R D - Y E A R M E D -
] ical student doing his hrst clinical H rotations at University of N e w Mexico Hospital, Richard Marlink was shown a patient with an extremely rare form of cancer. The attending resident explained that this malignancy, known as Kaposi's sarcoma, typically was found only in older men of Mediterranean descent and was usually quite benign. He ended his talk by telling Marlink and his colleagues that this was probably the only case of Kaposi's sarcoma they would see in their careers. He couldn't have been more wrong. As an intern at St. Vincent's Hospital in N e w Y o r k City in the early 1 9 8 0 s , Marlink began seeing other patients with the characteristic bruise-like lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma. These cases, however, were different from the one he'd seen as a medical student: the majority were young adults most of whom had other severe symptoms, including Weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, Pneumonia, and diarrhea. Few ever recovered. Marlink, now executive director of the Harvard AIDS Institute, based at the Harvard School of Pubhc Health, recalls the frustration he and his colleagues felt as they saw patient after patient for whom none of the standard explanations applied. " W e knew there was a syndrome," says Marlink today, "but We didn't know what to do about it." B y the time this m y s t e r i o u s n e w syndrome had a permanent
acquired i m m u n e deficiency syndrome ( A I D S ) — t h o u s a n d s of p e o p l e had already died f r o m the disease a n d millions of a p p a r e n t l y healthy people ^ e r e carrying a n d silently spreading
Hunger in America: The Growing Epidemic", a [sport of the HSPH-based Physician Task Force on ^ n g e r in America h e a d e d by J. Larry Brown, finds at some 20 million Americans go hungry every Honth.
the virus that caused it. Since then, the AIDS epidemic has claimed at least 6 million lives worldwide, and an estimated 25 million people are now living with the virus. Within a decade, according to some estimates, as many as 1 0 0 million people may be infected. In certain areas of the world and certain populations, the epidemic has wreaked particular havoc. Over 90 percent of the world's AIDS cases occur in SubSaharan Africa, North America, and Latin America. In the United States, where the disease hrst devastated the gay community, AIDS is now the leading cause of death for all African Americans under the age of 55. In Uganda, researchers estimate that one-in-four adults is now infected with the virus, perhaps foreshadowing a secondary epidemic of children orphaned by the disease. And in Thailand and India, skyrocketing infection rates portend an Asian epidemic that may exceed in scale and intensity anything seen to date. Yet mortality and morbidity figures, no matter how staggering, can't fully describe the impact that AIDS has had on the world. N o t since the 1 9 1 8 influenza epidemic has an infectious agent cut such a broad swath of destruction around the planet. But whereas influenza struck hard and fast and then passed on, A I D S has infiltrated the social body, exposing weaknesses and blindspots and challenging long-held beliefs about disease susceptibility and control. At the same time, A I D S has to a large degree revitalized the held of pubhc health, exposing the limits of curative medicine and rejuvenating the search for preventive vaccines and effective
Karen Quinlan, c o m a t o s e since 1976, dies after being removed from her respirator.
behavioral interventions and creating a sense of urgency and global solidarity in the face of a mounting crisis. Right from the start, faculty and alumni of the Harvard School of Public Health has played a key role in confronting the epidemic. From laboratory discoveries that have set the direction for AIDS vaccine and treatment research to important epidemiologic, data analysis, and human rights work, the School has been a major participant in the fight against A I D S . H
N M A N Y R E S P E C T S , M A X E S S E X WAS
H an unlikely hero in the A I D S saga. H A veterinarian and virologist by training, Essex had spent most of his career studying the animal virus FeLV, which causes cancer in cats. In the early 1 9 7 0 s , he had discovered that this virus also severely impaired the cats' immune system. By 1 9 8 z, Essex, now chair of the School's Department of Cancer Biology, was also researching the human T-cell leukemia virus ( H T L V 1). Like F e L V , H T L V - i caused immune suppression—people infected with H T L V - i had three times the rate of infection with bacteria and other viruses as uninfected people. Essex was struck by the similarities between symptoms of F e L V , H T L V - i , and this new disease, and he was one of the hrst to suggest that the mysterious a g e n t c a u s i n g AIDS w a s , like FeLV a n d
a retrovirus. Essex's insight accelerated the discovery of the AIDS pathogen, now know as the human immunodeficiency virus (Hiv), by the National Cancer Institute's Robert Gallo and the Pasteur Institute's Luc Montagnier the following year. For his role in identifying the cause of HTLV-i,
British scientists discoveraholeinthe ozone layer.
screening. Working with a young research associate Tun-Hou Lee, s.D.'8z, now professor of virology at the School, Essex discovered glycoprotein 12.0 (gpizo), an envelope protein that plays a key role in HIV transmission and is seen as a promising target for an HIV vaccine.
Dz'recfor o/ f^e
A I D S , Essex shared the 1 9 8 6 Albert Lasker Medical Research A w a r d â€” the nation's most prestigious medical research awardâ€”with Gallo and Montagnier. " M a x catalyzed the notion that retroviruses were something to contend with, that they were diseasecausing agents in animals, and that they could play an important role in humans," said Gallo in a 1 9 8 8 interview in the H S P H Alumni Bulletin. " H e went beyond standard biological thinking about animal models. He looked at the importance of retroviruses broadly and widely." Other important discoveries followed. In collaboration with scientific colleagues, Essex confirmed that the A I D S virus could be transmitted through blood transfusions. Further studies showed which viral antigens were most useful for blood bank
In 1 9 8 5 , Associate Professor Phyllis Kanki, s . D . ' 8 5 , Francis Barin, then a postdoctoral fellow at H S P H , and Essex uncovered evidence of a second A I D S virus, now known as H i v - 2 . , when they found cross-reactive antibodies in West African sex workers. With Marlink and other French and Senegalese collaborators, a major research and training program was created that continues today. Their work has revealed that Hiv-2. causes disease more slowly and spreads less readily than the more virulent H i v - 1 , and that people with Hiv-z are 70 percent less likely to become infected with H i v - i . "Once we understand how this happens, we'll know how to manipulate the immune system just as evolution did," Essex says. Because of "the utility of this discovery," Gallo ranked Essex's work on H i v - z among his major achievements. Essex has said that the emergence of A I D S created a sense of urgency in his research that he still feels today. "With A I D S , I think we all felt that putting in the extra hours could make a big difference," he told a Boston Phoenix reporter last October. A I D S also awakened him to the global dimensions of infectious disease, and he has spent much of the last decade continent hopping from North America to Africa to Asia in an effort to finally outflank his adversary.
James 0 . Mason M.P.H.'63, D.P.H/67, succeeds William Foege as head of the
HH rn H I L E L A B O R A T O R Y SCIEN-
tists would be instrumen" " tal in identifying the causative agent of A I D S , some of the first clues about the nature of the epidemic were provided by H S P H graduates working on the front lines of the epidemic. Don Francis, s . D / 7 9 , had recently graduated from the School and was working in the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) hepatitis program when the first reports of gay-related immunodeficiency disease ( G R I D ) began trickling in. The CDC and state public health officials had long been interested in the health problems of gay men because rates of sexually transmitted diseases, primarily gonorrhea, syphilis, and hepatitis B, among this population were so high. T o find out why, CDC enlisted cohorts of gay men throughout the country to answer detailed questionnaires a b o u t their lives and sexual practices. Because they received treatment free of charge, says Francis, these men were "remarkably willing to answer a bunch of stupid questions from epidemiologists." The data collected proved invaluable in understanding the transmission patterns of this new disease. Although no one knew what was causing the disease, once it was e s t a b lished that G R I D , like hepatitis B, was being transmitted through b l o o d and sexual fluids, Francis felt sure it would also begin showing up in o t h e f vulnerable populations: recipients of blood transfusions and injection drug users. (Serum samples g a t h e r e d from these cohorts in the 1 9 7 0 s a n d early 1 9 8 0 s would also shed light on H i v ' s long incubation period.)
Brazil returns to civilian rule after 21 y e a r s of military dictatorship.
It was Francis who called Essex, his former teacher, to alert him to this new disease. As the epidemic took off, Francis's boss, C D C Director William Foege, M . p . H . ' g j , appointed James Curran, M.p.H.'y^, then head of the agency's venereal diseases research branch, to head a national A I D S initiative. Curran quickly moved forward on establishing effective data collection and prevention programs. He also set up a national A I D S hotline to provide information to an increasingly alarmed public. Despite these efforts, Curran and other government officials and academics soon came under fire from A I D S activists for responding too slowly to the epidemic. Francis, who eventually resigned hom the C D C in frustration in 1 9 8 5 when Congress rejected his proposal for a comprehensive A I D S prevention Program, says the C D C was continually undercut by the Administration's lack of commitment to fighting A I D S . "We were told to look pretty and do nothing," he says. "The (Reagan) Administration didn't want to do anything for anybody. It lost all perspective for public health." Curran has since been recognized by AIDS activists and medical experts alike for his clear, decisive leadership during a period in which the unknowns far outweighed the ktiowns. In his 1988 chronicle of the epidemic's early years, BawJ ^ a y e j O?!, journalist Randy Shilts Wrote: "Under Curran's leadership, the CDC had done an admirable job of collecting A I D S data. He had guided ^Dc AIDS research on a course that he eh was the best that could be done 'n a conservative administration."
M<2% Essex, Mary Pro/essor o/^Hea/f^ ^cz'ewces J
"Curran pushed the C D C and the public health service hard to recognize the impending epidemic," says the Harvard A I D S Institute's Marlink. "He organized much of our epidemiologic and prevention response." Another alumnus who would play a central role in the A I D S struggle on the international front was Jonathan Mann, M . p . H . ' 8 o . Mann was working as an epidemiologist and assistant director of the department of health in New Mexico when Curran tapped him to serve as assistant to the director in charge of international activities in Kinshasa, Zaire. Working with Zairian, Belgian, and American colleagues, Mann established Project S I D A , providing training programs that drew upon the resources and skills of each country and collecting the first and most comprehensive scientific information on A I D S in central Africa. In 1 9 8 5 , Mann organized the first African A I D S Conference in the Central African Republic city of Bangui. The following year he left the C D C to develop and run the Global Programme on A I D S ( G P A ) at the World Health Organization ( W H O ) .
Actor Rock Hudson dies ofAIDS. Since 1981 25,000 Americans have been diagnosed with the disease.
Under his leadership, the C P A ' s staff expanded to over zoo and its budget grew from $2.0 million to over $ 1 0 0 million by 1990, making the G P A the largest single program at W H O . During his years at both the C D C and W H O , Mann emerged as a preeminent spokesman for international health strategy reform in A I D S control, emphasizing the need for greater government involvement in A I D S research and prevention and increased attention to regional and local needs in establishing programs. But above all, Mann spoke out for the rights of those infected and against the discrimination to which they were subjected. To combat the disease effectively, he believed, human rights issues must become a priority. In the fall of 1990, Mann returned to the Harvard School of Public Health as professor of epidemiology and head of the Global A I D S Policy Coalition, established to track the epidemic worldwide. Under the direction today of Daniel Tarantola, the program is at the heart of monitoring the pandemic, circulating information
Institute of Medicine report, "Injury in America," declares injuries the nation's principal public health problem. William H. Foege, M - P H ' 6 5 , chaired the panel that produced the report.
CBAR Takes Center Stage White preventive vaccines are still in the r&d stage, the search for safe, effective AIDS drug treatments to keep the disease at bay has produced some important results. The School's Statistical and Data Analysis Center (SDAC), has been at the heart of this search since 1989, when it was designated to oversee most of the governmentsponsored aids drug trials. Since then, SDAC's group of 150 researchers have followed more then 300 different clinical trials involving 37,500 people. Researchers are involved in each step of the trials process—from the earliest planning stages to the final data analysts. Among the many important findings to emerge from these trials, according to Center Director Stephen Lagakos, two in particular stand out: ACTG 076, which showed that AZT reduced the chances of HIV transmission from HIV-positive pregnant women to their babies, from one-in-four to one-in-twelve; and ACTG 019, which showed that AZT effectively slows disease progression in asymptomatic adults. Of all the trials, says Lagakos, ACTG 076 will probably have the the greatest potential for saving lives:" It provides a way to stop the spread of the disease from mothers to their offspring, sparing millions of children from having miserable lives." Because doses are
t h r o u g h articles, AIDS t e x t b o o k s , interviews, a n d participation at conferences. Y 1987, T H E N U M B E R O F A I D S cases reported to the World t ^ Heath Organization was over 100,000. While experts recognized A I D S as a global phenomenon, tracking the disease was complex, as the pandemic evolved, changed, and rapidly expanded. In countries where infection had once been spread predominantly through homosexual contact, infection rates among heterosexuals were on the rise. Minorities and marginalized populations—such as intravenous drug users—were especially vulnerable. And the disease was making inroads into countries once labeled as low-risk.
Health Professionals Follow-up Study launched under the direction of Professor Frank Speizer. A counter part to the 1976 Nurses' Health Study, the study follows some 50,000 men—mostly doctors—and will provide valuable evidence about the links between lifestyle and cancer, heart disease, and other chronic illnesses.
administered short-term, and are thus less costly, the regimen is employable in places like Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where longterm drug regimens would be impossible to implement. Based on the success of the 076 trial, new trials are now under way to determine if lower doses of AZT could provide the same benefits, further lowering the cost of treatments. Scientists and policymakers in Thailand, says Lagakos, are awaiting the results of these trials before establishing a national policy for testing pregnant women. As for the new combination drug therapies, Lagakos describes recent progress as "mind-boggling." SDAC recently cut short a clinical trial (ACTG 320) of a combination therapy of AZT, 3TC, and the protease inhibitor idinovir, when it became clear that the therapy demonstrated true benefits. Earlier trials by a pharmaceutical company had shown the three-drug combination resulted in improved marker effects, but SDAC's trial revealed an actual delay in disease progression, driving down viral load to undetectable levels. The trials have not yet shown how long the results will last, says Lagakos, but if you can keep viral load undetectable for years, it can buy a patient time until another drug might be available. "It's a big,
Within the A I D S research community, early hopes for a swift solution had given way to the sobering prospect of a long, arduous struggle against a highly adaptable killer. After the initial, promising burst of discoveries about H i v , the pace of research had inevitably slowed. With each new finding, the puzzle of H i v / A I D S seemed to grow more complex. Every aspect of this seemingly simple organism—its sugarcoated outer shell, which cloaked it from the body's defenses; its sloppy reproductive apparatus, which generated a continuous series of new mutations; the discovery of different subtypes of the virus—favored its continuing survival and spread. Frustrated researchers stopped talking cures and vaccines and began
Space shuttle Challenger explodes seconds after launch.
calling for more basic research on the virus itself. In an effort to spur a new push toward a solution to the crisis, President Derek Bok and Dean Harvey V. Fineberg convened a group of A I D S experts from the School of Public Health, the medical school, and Harvard's afhliated teaching hospitals to discuss how to integrate and advance Harvard's diverse AiDS-related activities. "If we are to meet the challenge of A I D S , " Fineberg said at the time, "we must mobilize all the intellectual and academic resources at Harvard's disposal." The discussions resulted in the creation of the Harvard A I D S Institute, which drew together the University's formidable body of A I D S expertise included leading hguf^ in virology and vaccine research
Working with colleagues in Dakar, Senegal, retrovirus expert Max Essex and colleagues Ric Marlink and Phyllis Kanki discover a second AIDS virus, HIV-2.
(Essex and Lee, the late Bernard Fields of Harvard Medical School), AIDS treatment (Massachusetts General Hospital's Martin Hirsch, the Deaconess Hospital's Jerome Groopman, and others), epidemiology (Professor Nancy Mueller, Marlink, Kanki, and others), molecular biology (William Haseltine and Joseph Sodroski at Dana Farber Cancer Institute), statistical modelling and clinical trials design (Professor Steven Lagakos and Associate Professor Victor De Gruttola, s.D.'86) and AIDS law and policy (Lawrence Gostin, Harvey Fineberg, and the late William Curran). Officially unveiled in 1 9 8 8 , the Institute, under Essex's direction, has been a catalyst for research and training on AIDS. As hoped, the Institute's creation helped accelerate AIDS research across the university (Harvard ranked hrst among academic institutions in the number of Papers its researchers published on AIDS between 1 9 8 8 and 1992.). The Institute has also succeeded in focusing a t t e n t i o n o n AIDS a n d AIDS
research locally, nationally, and internationally, through Institutesponsored lectures and forums and conferencesâ€”including large panel discussions as well as informal, brown-bag lunches. In addition, the Institute has served as a bridge between the academic world and the broader public realm of AIDS activists and advocates.
AIDS Action Committee (Acc),
Boston's leading service and advocacy organization for people with A I D S . Kessler also credits Essex, Groopman, and other Boston-area physicians and researchers with recognizing early on the need to integrate clinical treatment with the services offered through A I D S Action's "social safety net" â€”particularly in light of the few treatment options available at that time. As the disease has proliferated, the connection between the advocacy group and the research institution has only become stronger, says Kessler. Each organization had something valuable to teach the other. "While we learned about immunology, the docs learned about the psychosocial issues," says Kessler. It was a relationship that would also prove critical when volunteers were needed for clinical trials of new drugs: Harvard researchers turned immediately to AAC, whose clients trusted the organization to steer them in the right direction.
^ ^ ^ Hiv drug, AZT, was approved ^ ^ by the Food and Drug Administration the demand for safe, effective treatments had reached a fever pitch. Desperate for answers, people with A I D S demanded more attention from government, scientists, and the pharmaceutical industry, clamoring in particular for quicker access to experimental drugs. In 1 9 8 9 , the analysis of AIDS drugs received a big boost when the National Institutes of Health selected Harvard's Statistical and Data Analysis Center ( S D A C ) to analyze and interpret data from most of the federally funded clinical trials of AIDS drugs around the country. Over the next eight years the center would help analyze over 300 clinical trials involving some 3 7 , 5 0 0 people and provide critical insights about the treatment of AIDS (see sidebar, 54).
"We don't even have to work at it," says Kessler of A I D S Action's continuing "good connection" with the Institute and School. "It's in the fabric of what we do."
Y 1 9 8 7 , WHEN THE FIRST ANTI-
By the early 1 9 9 0 s , the emerging picture was that of a relentless epidemic involving shifting demographics. Nearly 2.5 million people had died from the disease, and more than i z million people were now infected with Hiv, a i z o - f o l d increase from a decade earlier.
AssocMfe Pro/essor o/'Pa^o&wfogy, /(g^OMHIV-2., H i v - i ' s /ess w M / e M t
'From the very beginning, Dean Harvey Fineberg saw AIDS as a public health issue and believed that there ^as a role for the public health advocates," says Larry Kessler, executive director and one of the founders of
Center for Health Communication established under the direction of Jay Winsten, to provide reliable health information to the public. The Center will go on to launch the nationwide "Designated Driver" campaign to reduce drunk driving fatalities.
Max Essex, chair of the Department of Cancer Biology, receives the Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award for his pioneering work in understanding the biochemical and genetic characteristics of the AIDS virus.
Women now represented 40 percent of the total A I D S cases. Experts were describing the epidemic as "dynamic, unstable, and volatile." While the great majority of A I D S cases continued to be found in Africa, the United States, and Latin America (90 percent of all adult A I D S deaths to date), the infection rate was rising dramatically in Asia, where the disease had been virtually unknown a decade earlier. By the end of the century, experts now warned, Asia could become the epicenter of A I D S . T w o events that took place in 1992. dramatically underscored the need for international collaboration in responding to the pandemic. The first was the Eighth International Conference on A I D S , co-sponsored by the Harvard A I D S Institute. The second was publication of /M WorM, the first effort to define the epidemic's global contours, by the School's Global A I D S Policy Coalition. The Eighth International A I D S Conference will be remembered as much for the political drama that preceded the conference as for the scientific material presented at the conference. U.S. laws refusing entry to HIV-infected individuals prompted a showdown of sorts between the Bush Administration and conference planners, who threatened to move the conference overseas if the laws were not lifted. T w o years earlier, at the Sixth International Conference on A I D S , the normally soft-spoken and reserved Essex had strongly condemned the government's stand: "This policy...threatens the free and open exchange of information which is critical to international efforts to
conquer the A I D S epidemic. There is no sound public health justification for these restrictions." Ignoring appeals from activists, academics, and foreign governments, the U.S. government refused to lift the ban, and the Institute, in partnership with the Dutch Foundation, moved the conference to Amsterdam, naming Jonathan Mann as conference chair. A I D S activists and the international scientific community cheered Harvard's principled stand. A I D S Action's Kessler, whose organization had been involved in planning the conference, says that while his organization was excited to see the world come to Boston for the conference, he supported Essex's decision to move the conference to ensure that people with A I D S would be able to participate. Despite the eleventh hour change of venue, the conference drew more than 1 0 , 0 0 0 scientists, clinicians, and activists, a remarkable show of solidarity in the midst of a mounting global crisis. The full scope of this crisis was brought into sharp relief with the release of ALD5 w f^e WofM by the School-based Global A I D S Policy Coalition. Edited by Mann, Daniel Tarantola, and Thomas W. Netter, the book detailed, region by region, the status of the pandemic and the global response to it. Describing the epidemic as "spinning out of control" the report's authors predicted major A I D S epidemics in Asia and Oceania and projected that, by century's end, as many as 1 0 0 million people would be carrying the A I D S virus. The publication, updated and revised in 1 9 9 6 , helped crystallize some of the key principles of
Under an a g r e e m e n t signed by Harvard President Bok and Mexico's Minister of Health, the School trains Mexican physicians to run primary health care hospitals being established in the w a k e of last year's earthquake, which killed 5,000 people in Mexico City.
and related risk behavior to larger societal issues. It also breathed a new sense of urgency and purpose into A I D S research. "We tried to plead for an expansion of the response to A I D S , " said Tarantola, "to define what needed to be done from a societal perspectiveâ€”what social interventions needed to take place." The conceptual approach found in both editions, said Tarantola, was employed in two important development efforts. As a result of the publication, the United States Agency for International Development ( U N A I D ) moved from looking at prevention to looking at treatment issues, and the U N A I D S (the Joint United Nations P r o g r a m m e on H i v / A i D s ) strategy broadened from condom distribution and A I D S education and treatment into an expansion of these strategies to look at social issues.
L M O S T I O Y E A R S A F T E R ITS
# % creation, the Institute contin# ^ ues to bring the research conducted at Harvard and elsewhere to bear on the epidemic and to c r e a t e solutions for ending the epidemic. Recent research yielded significant information about H i v - i subtypes, of which there are no less than 1 0 . Essex's laboratory found that subtype E, the cause of an explosive rise in Hiv-infection in Thailand, is spread very efficiently through heterosexual intercourse, unlike subtype B, the subtype found most frequently in the United States and Western E u r o p e . The Institute's search for a vaccine, under the leadership of P r o f e s s o r Tun-Hou Lee, is also progressing. Based on a process called " s e l e c t i v e
Harvard University celebrates 350th Anniversary. Ade Lucas. S.M/64, presented with the Harvard Medal for his lifelong commiitmen* to combatting trop ical diseases.
deglycosylation," in which sugar molecules are selectively deleted from g p i z o ' s surface, this work could lead to vaccine trials within a year. In editorials, Essex has continued to push for development of a costeffective preventive vaccine that can help relieve the growing AIDS burden in developing countries. But where the Institute continues to do the most good, says Marlink, is in the role of advocate—influencing and pushing for important AiDS-related issues. A good example, he says, is HAi's Madison Project, which helped Ptopel the government to establish a national AIDS research agenda. Under the auspices of the Harvard AIDS Institute, some of the country's leading AIDS experts, government officials, and activists—including Essex, Larry Messier, Robert Gallo, and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases head Anthony Fauci—assembled in two separate sessions in 1992. to design a model for establishing a national AIDS research program. The group's work, says Marlink, provided the incentive for federal action in establishing the Office of AIDS Research. Today, Institute faculty are working to have the same impact on vaccine research and testing in developing countries, one of the Institute's highest priorities. The Institute recently held the fourth of six, three-day long conferences, at which leading ^lDs researchers met to discuss strategies for developing a world-wide AIDS vaccine, a project that Marlink says combines two of the Institute's greatest strengths: its discoveries on the basic mechanisms of the AIDS viruses the different subtypes and types—
^ c ' d population ^aches5billion.
First genetically engineered vaccine, against hepatitis B, approved by FDA.
and its international collaborations. Institute faculty are also concentrating on ways to curb the epidemic in two of the United States' most vulnerable groups: African Americans and young people. Today, the African American community is losing more of its young members to AIDS than to any other cause of death, before heart disease, cancer, and homicide. With the help of African-American leaders such Henry Louis Gates, Jr., head of Harvard's W.E.B. du Bois Center for African American Studies, medical school psychiatrist Alvin F. Poussaint, and Children's Defense Fund founder Marian Wright Edelman, the Institute recently launched Leading for Life, an educational campaign focused on stopping the epidemic from making further inroads into communities of color. T o stem the tide of H i v infection in America's youth (one-half of all H i v infections in the United States are in people under age 2.5), the Institute recently teamed with the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at the University of California at San Francisco to convene a group of youth-focused media and marketing experts to develop new marketing approaches to H i v prevention. Together they discussed such strategies as condom advertising on cable and network television and incorporating responsible sexual health messages into him, radio, and television programs geared toward young people. Less than two decades after the hrst cases of A I D S were reported, almost 6 million people have died from the disease, one million of
whom were children. Approximately 2.2. million people are now living with H i v or A I D S , and, last year,
over 3 million new Hiv infections
occurred. Some recent trends appear encouraging: In some industrialized countries, in parts of Africa, and among some populations in Thailand, Hiv prevalence is either decreasing or stabilizing. AZT has been shown to block a majority of perinatal Hiv transmission. And new combination therapies using powerful protease inhibitors have delayed many deaths from A I D S . But the battle against A I D S is far from over. More than 90 percent of the people affected by the disease cannot afford existing treatments, and development of vaccines to stop the disease's further spread is still several years away.
Until then, the School's researchers, faculty, and alumni will continue their vanguard efforts, tracking the epidemic, devising better prevention strategies, uncovering the most effective drug treatments, searching for a vaccine, and pushing to keep A I D S at the top of national and international policy agendas. As a principal player in the A I D S effort over the last two decades, Jim Curran, now dean of Emory University's Rollins School of Public Health, sees the School's contributions to curbing the epidemic as indispensable. "From the dean down, the School has provided important leadership in controlling this disease," says Curran. "From its public policy and human rights work to its work in the laboratory and AIDS modelling, its contributions are i r r e f u t a b l e . " ^
Reactor explosion at the Soviet nuclear power plant in Chernobyl,Ukraine, is the worst nuclear accident in history.
World Health Organization launches the Special Programme on AIDS and n a m e s Jonathan Mann, M.P.H.'80, as director.
D e a n ,
1 9 8 4 - 1 9 9 7
] n 1984, while serving out his final months as dean of Harvard's Faculty of Arts ! and Sciences, Professor Emeritus Henry Rosovsky began compiling a crashcourse in university administration for his successor. Later published as the essay "Deanmg," Rosovsky's collection of anecdotes, caveats, and helpful hints offers a witty glimpse into the intricacies of running an academic institution—a "peculiar art," he wrote, for which few presidents, provosts, and deans arrive prepared. The same year Rosovsky passed the baton of leadership in Cambridge, across the Charles River a 38-year-old health policy professor named Harvey Vernon Fmeberg became the sixth dean of the Harvard School of Public Health. The youngest, by a good decade, of all the School's deans, Fineberg had only recently earned tenure and his only administrative experience to date was a three-year stint directing the School's Graduate Program in Health Policy and Management. On the other hand, few people could claim as intimate a knowledge of the university as Fineberg. He'd been at Harvard for two decades and held degrees from three different university faculties. Under the tutelage of some of the University's leading lights—including statistician Frederick Mosteller, Kennedy School political scientist Richard Neustadt, business school decision science guru Howard Raiffa, and former H S P H Dean Howard Hiatt— Fineberg had earned a reputation as an enterprising scholar with a particularly wide intellectual bandwidth.
Lincoln Chen picked to direct the 13-nation, independent Commission on Health Research for Development.
"One of the things that's most impressive about Harvey is the breadth of his brilliance. He has a gift for thinking in other arenas," says colleague Milton Weinstein, Henry J. Kaiser Professor of Health Policy and Management, who, as a junior faculty member in the 1970s, co-taught a course with Fineberg and collaborated on several studies. Among those who recognized Fineberg's intellectual talents was former Harvard President Derek Bok: "Harvey exemplified the kind of bold, energetic, young scholar (former H S P H dean) Howard Hiatt had championed" during his tenure, tn the winter of 1 9 8 3 , shortly after Hiatt announced his decision to step down as dean, Bok asked to meet with Fineberg. Fineberg was expecting to be asked who he thought should lead the School. Instead, Bok offered Fineberg the deanship. "In retrospect, one can see that it wasn't totally out of character for him to turn to someone like me, but it still struck me as quite stunning at the time," says Fineberg.
Professors Robert Geyer, Jere Mead, and Frederick Mosteller retire from the faculty of public health. Professor Robert Blendon succeeds Mosteller as chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management.
FDA approves cholesterol lowering drug lovastatm and first AIDS-treatment drug, zidovudine (AZT).
Fineberg, who had seen his friend and mentor Hiatt buffeted by faculty dissension during his tenure, had few illusions about the potential pitfalls of leading the School. While the internal furor had subsided, Fineberg, says that his baseline expectation was that his life as dean would be "filled with noise and thunder." What he got, however, was water—several million gallons of it. Three months into his deanship, and just 1 0 days before the start of the 1 9 8 4 - 8 5 academic year, the School's water main burst, flooding the Kresge Building's lower levels and causing massive damage to Snyder auditorium, the building's mechanical room, and several administrative offices. Photos from the time show wrecked offices, damaged files and equipment, and a patchwork of salvaged carpet remnants laid out to dry in the Kresge courtyard. In weathering this baptism hy water, Fineberg displayed a talent for turning crisis into opportunity that would serve him well throughout his deanship. "We worked day and night to get the place ready for the students," he recalls. " I remember standing in the Kresge lobby the day before registration as they were repainting the walls and putting on some finishing touches. Suddenly, the father of a new student came over, shook my hand, and told me how impressed he was with all the Polishing up we did, and the personal attention that I was giving to it." With equal diligence and aplomb, Fineberg presided over a remarkable Period of prosperity at the School during his 13-year career as dean. By any objective measure—dollars raised, growth in educational and research
^-S. expenditure for health care surpasses ^ 0 0 billion, up from $46 billion in 1966.
programs, expansion of facilities—his tenure has been a spectacular success. When he took the helm, the School's total budget was $ 3 5 million: in his final year it topped $ 1 3 5 million. He led the School into its first-ever capital campaign, which so far has raised more than $ 1 3 0 million and added 1 0 endowed professorships (bringing the total to 30) and more than 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 square feet of new and renovated laboratory, office, and classroom space. The centerpiece of this expansion is the seven-story Fran$ois-Xavier Bagnoud Building at 6 5 1 Huntington Avenue, a keel-shaped edifice of polished granite, concrete, and glass that is a fitting monument to Fineberg's deanship: efficient, contemporary, deftly blending form and function. HE IMPRINT OF FlNEBERG'S
! ership also can be seen in the myriad interdisciplinary centers and programs that have arisen during his watch—including the Harvard A I D S Institute, the Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, the Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, and the Harvard Center for Children's Health—which, collectively, define some of the most critical areas of contemporary public health research. He's been particularly adept at steering the School toward new areas of inquiry— health and human rights, molecular epidemiology, health communications, and public health practice—that seek to stretch the very boundaries of the held. "Harvey's very good at the 'wheeler-dealer' aspects of public health," says friend and former colleague Barbara Rosenkrantz, professor of the history of sciences emerita at
President Reagan and USSR Party Leader Gorbachev agree to reduce stores of medium-range nuclear missiles.
Harvard. Mark Rosenberg of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, w h o has known Fineberg for 2.7 years, says the driving force behind Fineberg's success is his "relentless optimism"and penchant for "new, creative approaches" to age-old problems. In action, Fineberg projects the unhurried authority of a man who knows precisely where he's going and how long it will take to get there. A methodical and patient planner, he manages to keep a sharp eye on the details without losing sight of the big picture. And while he prefers to leave nothing to chance, he's able to shift gears abruptly without breaking stride when the situation demands it. " Y o u get the impression that Harvey can handle anything. He's equally composed whether the building's on fire or he's getting an award," says Deborah Prothrow-Stith, professor of public health practice. Fineberg especially excels at the "toastmaster" aspects of deaning, his genial wit and unforced eloquence playing equally well in large lecture halls and intimate dinner parties. "Harvey's so charming, so erudite," says Weinstein. "He's never at a loss for words, and he rarely makes mistakes." And whether through practice or predilection, he has learned to strike just the right balance of gravity and hopefulness, urgency and assurance to win broad-based support for a held that has traditionally failed to capture the public imagination. In his rare free moments, Fineberg relaxes by playing the piano and tinkering with computers. A self-confessed "techno-phile," he enjoys taking his laptop out for a spin on the
Harvard Injury Control Center founded to focus on reducing the 150,000 U.S. deaths a year from injury.
zp^o's, Fme^erg prac^ceJ pMwo LoweM NoM^e Tower roow. Internet and has also tried his hand at electronic composing. (Fineberg's wife, Mary Wilson, says that if he could choose any other profession, he'd probably be a composer). And while his professional demeanor is the essence of level-headed discretion, he is not without a waggish side. For his sendoff from the faculty—billed as a celebration of the occasion "Fineberg Crosses the Charles"—Fineberg and Wilson came costumed as George and Martha Washington, powdered wigs and all. And on a recent trip to Japan, Fineberg purportedly sampled the much-prized but occasionally lethal delicacy known as /MgM—but only after doing a quick risk-benefit analysis that took into account the chef's reputation, the number of physicians at the table, and the distance to the nearest emergency room.
Harvard President Derek Bok and Dean Harvey Fineberg a n n o u n c e creation of t h e Harvard AIDS Institute. The Institute, chaired by Professor Max Essex, facilitates university-wide research on AIDS.
I N E B E R G W A S B O R N IN 1 9 4 5 ,
I second of three sons of Saul and Miriam Fineberg, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the comfortable, middle class neighborhood known as Squirrel Hill. As a schoolboy, Fineberg participated in the hrst trials of the Salk polio vaccine, an experience he still vividly recalls. He came to Harvard in 1 9 6 3 and has been here ever since. As an undergraduate, he lived in Lowell House, majored in psychology, did thesis research on the sleep habits of birds, practiced piano in the Lowell House tower, and played trumpet in the marching band. By his junior year he had decided on a career in medicine. (He confesses to being unaware, at the time, that Harvard even had a School of Public Health.) Although by the time he graduated, student protest had reached a fever pitch—the following year Cambridge police officers would be called in to evict student activists from University Hall—Fineberg's politics, in spirit and practice, were shaped more by the constructive "ask what you can do for your country" ethos of the Kennedy era than by the angry, anti-establishment mood of the Vietnam War years. "We looked back at the fifties as a time when students were complacent and just looking to get ahead in life," he says. " B y the mid-sixties, hippie-dom had arrived and people were dropping out. But for my peers, the sense of liberation and possibility was very palpable." The turning point in Fineberg's education came after his second year at Harvard Medical School, when he took a year off to participate in an experimental public policy training program at Harvard's newly re-chris-
Author Salman Rushdie is c o n d e m n e d by Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini for material perceived as blasphemous in his book 77;e ^ a f a n / c Verses.
tened Kennedy School of Government. The program was developed and taught by a faculty "dream team" that included Mosteller, Neustadt, Raiffa, game theorist Thomas Schelling, economist Francis Baton, and (as junior course assistants) Graham Allison, Richard Zeckhauser, and Henry Jacoby. The program would introduce Fineberg to many of the academic disciplines—statistics, economics, decision sciences, cost-beneht analysis, and health-care policy—that would underpin his subsequent career. In an era when success in academic medicine was determined primarily by one's laboratory pedigree, Fineberg's request to take a year off to study something as ephemeral as public policy raised eyebrows. He recalls explaining his decision to the dean of students, who sifted through Fineberg's academic hie and said, somewhat perplexedly, "But your record here isn't all that bad!" (Despite the program's all-star cast, Fineberg says that, at the time, public policy was seen as such a fly-by-night held that initially only students from professional schools " w h o would have a profession to fall back on if the whole thing was a bust" were admitted to the program.) Fineberg calls his time at the Kennedy School "the most interesting, intellectually stimulating year that I could have dreamed o f . " Although he would go on to earn his medical degree and practice as a primary care physician for 1 0 years in two Boston-area neighborhood health centers, his intellectual center of gravity already had shifted away from treating individual patients to broader questions related to improving the
Professor Tony Earls launches landmark study of aggressive and antisocial behaviors a m o n g children and adults in Chicago neighborhoods. The $20 million study will follow s o m e 11,000 people for more t h a n a decade.
function of the health-care system as a whole. As it happened, these were some of the same questions on the mind of Howard Hiatt, who became dean of the School of Public Health the same year Fineberg began his medical internship at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital. Hiatt recalls running mto Fineberg one afternoon outside of BI and listening as Fineberg described his burgeoning interest in society and health. " I really wanted to work with him," says Hiatt. " A n d I told him, with the things you're interested in, you should be at the School of Public Health." After finishing his residency, Fineberg accepted Hiatt's offer to join the School as an assistant professor in the Department of Health Services Administration (later renamed the Department of Health Policy and Management). Over the next decade, the two worked closely together, coauthoring one article, developing a curriculum for training graduate students in health care policy, and collaborating broadly with colleagues in the landmark Center for the Analysis of Health Practices. "I learned a great deal from Howard, especially about the value of interdisciplinary w o r k , " says Fineberg today. " I was always inclined to it, hut Howard (Hiatt), Howard Frazier, and Fred (Mosteller) showed me how to make it happen." ERHAPS THE GREATEST SACRIFICE
* involved in Fineberg's accepting the deanship was putting his scholarly ambitions on the back burner. At the t'me Fineberg was a rising star in the School's Department of Health Policy and Management. His research and
he anti-depressant drug is introduced.
writing on the uses and effectiveness of diagnostic technologies—including the influential 1 9 7 9 N e w Ewgi^wJ /oM7*7M/ article, "Evaluation of medical practices; the case for technology assessment," coauthored with Hiatt—had helped launch the held of medical technology assessment. He was a co-founder and one of the first presidents of the Society for Medical Decision Making and had co-authored, with Weinstein, the textbook Cfw/ca/ D<?c;'s;'o7? Awfysz's. Fineberg recently had gained national repute as co-author, with his former Kennedy School mentor Richard Neustadt, of T^e T ^ f Ne^gr a brilliant analysis of the decision-making process behind the government's controversial 1 9 7 6 swine flu vaccination program. The book was based on a confidential study commissioned in 1 9 7 7 by Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Joseph Califano. Along with Neustadt, Fineberg interviewed many of the principals, including poliovaccine pioneers Jonas Salk and Alfred Sabin, both of whom endorsed the swine flu program, and Centers for Disease Control Director David Sencer, M . P . H . ' ^ 8 , who initiated the program and ultimately took the blame for its failure. The report's initial release in 1 9 7 8 had provoked a squall of controversy within the public health community. Some influential persons objected to the book's characterizations and conclusions and accused the authors of undermining future preventive vaccine programs. Among the most vocal critics, says Fineberg, were the deans of the nation's schools of public
Former Surgeon Genera! and Project Head Start founder Julius Richmond retires from the Department of Health Policy and M a n a g e m e n t .
health. For his part, Califano says Fineberg and Neustadt did a "fantastic j o b " of maintaining objectivity and drawing critical lessons from the program's failure. "Nothing like it has been done in public health since," he says. Califano especially praises Fineberg's ability to "instantly grasp the difficulty of making decisions in a political context." (Interestingly, neither the Swine Flu report nor its authors were anti-immunization; indeed Fineberg went on to be something of a champion of immunization. In 1 9 9 0 - 9 1 he co-chaired an Institute of Medicine panel that studied the safety of pertussis and rubella vaccines and concluded that the slight risk of adverse reactions to the vaccines was outweighed by their broader benefits in preventing childhood disease.) Fineberg has continued to publish at a prodigious pace since becoming dean—some 30 scholarly articles, 5 books, and more than a dozen editorials and book chapters in all—a truly remarkable output given the hectic schedule a dean must keep. "Harvey has the ability to block out all distractions and focus completely on what he's doing," says Wilson. "Even on a crowded airplane, he can just sit and work as if nothing else were happening." N o account of Fineberg's career would be complete without mentioning the special partnership he shares with Wilson, his sometime collaborator and wife of years. A native of Indiana and former graduate student in English literature, Wilson is chief of infectious diseases at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge and a faculty
Following a letter-writing campaign s p e a r h e a d e d by Paul Wise, M.P.H.'78, alumna Heng Leng Chee, S.M.'79, is released from a Malaysian prison. Chee w a s arrested and detained for 10 m o n t h s by authorities for advocating for w o m e n ' s rights and welfare for t h e poor.
member in the Departments of Population and International Health and Epidemiology. They met in 1 9 7 1 while doing their residencies at BI (as a second-year resident, Wilson was his superior) and dated for a couple years before getting engaged. In the spring of 1 9 7 5 , in the midst of planning a wedding on Cape Cod, they were invited to join a medical delegation on a 2.2.-day tour of the People's Republic of China— one of the hrst groups of Westerners allowed into the country since the onset of the Cultural Revolution. On the last leg of the trip, while waiting out a four-hour layover in the Shanghai airport en route to Canton, one of the Chinese guides turned to Fineberg and asked if he were married. (Fineberg says this was the hrst time during the journey that any of the guides had asked any personal question of their guests.) Fineberg replied that he was unmarried, but
engaged to marry the woman sitting next to him. "In fact," Fineberg continued in an uncharacteristically impulsive way, "if we could, we'd love to be married here in China." ("We'd never even discussed it," says Wilson.) A few days later members of the delegation arranged a wedding ceremony at the hotel in Canton. The Chinese hosts provided a cake and a silk wedding scroll. As part of the celebration, the newlyweds were asked to sing a song to their hosts. Uncertain what would be appropriate in communist China, the couple serenaded the group with "I've Been Working on the Railroad." In recent years, Fineberg and Wilson have collaborated on a series of studies of the effectiveness of BCG vaccine in controlling tuberculosis. They have also co-authored articles on the social dimensions of disease and the risk to travelers of contracting AIDS.
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France and China authorizeuseof steroid drug RU-486, also known as the "morning after" pill, as an abortifacient.
FTER THE FLOOD THAT CHRIS-
tened his deanship, Fineberg turned his attention to a more subtle challenge facing the School: what marketing consultants would call an identity problem. Both within the faculty and out in the general public, says Fineberg, there was little consensus about what pubhc health was and, by extension, what schools of public health should be doing. "When I hrst became dean, I remember wondering, 'What was the mission? Where was a succinct statement of what we were all about?'" he says. Since then, Fineberg has devoted a considerable part of his time and energy to articulating a common mission and set of objectives for the School and, by extension, for public health as a held. It wasn't easy. Fineberg says that "just getting his arms around everything that was going on at the School" was a challenge. He wisely enlisted the faculty to help define the School's priorities by instituting annual faculty retreats, and he beefed up the School's internal and external communications efforts. Most importantly, he relentlessly reasserted his message in print, speech, and conversation. " I wanted it so you could take anybody in the School, wake them up in the middle of the night, and they could blurt out the School's mission," he says. This may seem a modest objective, but at an institution where molecular biologists, physicians, economists, and statisticians tended to regard each other with mutual incomprehension, a single, shared phrase—advancing the public's health through learning and discovery—provides a critical thread of cohesion and coherence.
New York state d o s e s 15milesofbeachdue to medical waste,
Of course, mission statements, however apt, are oniy part of the institution-building formuia; equally important is a compelling cause around which to rally. For public health in the past decade and a half, that cause was acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( A I D S ) , whose sudden appearance and rapid spread in the 1980s exposed the limitations of curative medicine, reinvigorated the concept of disease prevention, and brought a flood of attention and funding to schools of public health (see article, page 50). Few scholars have become as involved in the struggle against A I D S on as many fronts as has Fineberg. T o date, he has authored or co-authored 1 1 articles, 3 editorials, one book, and 5 book chapters on diverse aspects of the A I D S epidemic tanging from the ethics of compulsory Hiv testing to the effectiveness of bleach programs in preventing A I D S transmission among iv drug users. Most of these are polite scholarly tracts written for fellow scientists; but one, a 1 9 9 1 N e w York Times editorial decrying the government's decision to bar Hiv-infected travelers from entering the country, contains what, in academic circles, might be called fighting Words. Dismissing the idea that the Policy had any public health benefit, Fineberg wrote that "the real reasons behind the exclusionary policy are...irrational fear, misunderstanding and prejudice, salted by political opportunism and cowardice." Fineberg says that any public health dean during the past 1 5 years ^ o u l d have had to contend with A I D S . It Wasn't exactly a hard call," he says. But few would have taken it up as a personal cause, as he has. He's
been on the board of directors of the American Foundation for A I D S Research since 1 9 8 6 and has served on AiDS-related advisory committees at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Institute of Medicine, and the U.S. Agency for International Development, among others. He's been especially active in Mexico, where he has worked with H S P H alumnus Jaime Sepulveda, S . D . ' 8 $ , in drafting a national A I D S policy. Fewer still would have had the insight and influence to mobilize a universitywide response to the disease, as Fineberg did when he launched the Harvard A I D S Institute in 1 9 8 8 (see article, page 50). At the same time he aggressively confronted A I D S , Fineberg also broadened hisâ€”and the School'sâ€”horizons on numerous fronts. With the late Sol Levine, former H S P H Professor and current Wellesley College President Diana Chapman Walsh, and new department chair Lisa Berkman, he reinvigorated the School's Department of Health and Social Behavior. He was instrumental in garnering support for the Frangois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, which, under the direction of Professor Jonathan Mann, M.p.H.'8o, has sought to redefine the relationship between human welfare and human rights. His most telling project for the School may be the Division of Public Health Practice. Launched in June during Fineberg's final month as dean, the Division, under the direction of Prothrow-Stith, will promote collaboration between the faculty and students at the School and the many community-level agencies that underpin public health. A fitting capstone
Project LIFE is a collaborative effort b e t w e e n the School and the surrounding Mission Hill community to reduce the community's high infant mortality rates.
to Fineberg's career, this schoolwide effort symbolizes his ideal of an institution dedicated equally to
scholarship and service in pursuit of global gains in health. "In my last year at Harvard, I spent a day meeting with faculty and students at the School of Public Health," says Bok. "It was a very exciting day. I had the impression of a range of problems being addressed with great enthusiasm and vigor. The feeling of shared commitment was tremendous."
On April 3, 1 9 9 7 , Harvard President Neil L. Rudenstine announced his selection of Fineberg as University Provost. The appointment, applauded by faculty, graduates, and administrators at the School, marked the end of Fineberg's 13-year term as dean. Fineberg knows enough about "deaning" to give his successor a wide berth in which to develop his own agenda and vision for the School. But one senses that he also is confident that the imprint of his leadership is likely to remain visible for some years to come. "I've tried to not so much instill as liberate the concept that we're simultaneously doing scholarship and practical work, and to help people understand how what we're doing here at the School makes a difference out in the world," says Fineberg. " A s you look around at all the work being done today, I feel that this faculty is living out its mission."
Kevin S o t t a k
H j H Hf H A T H A D S T A R T E D O U T A S A S M A L L D I S C U S S I O N G R O U P T H A T F I T
comfortably into the small, iiTH-floor Takemi conference room in
Building i had grown into a standing-room-only crowd. Students and faculty were feeling the intellectual equivalent of an adrenaline rush. The idea under discussion was really quite an old one: that changes in the world's ecology can lead to changes in the diseases that afflict the people who inhabit it. But with Hiv-AiDS,
the Ebola virus and the global rise in tuberculosis all in the news,
there was a new urgency to the subject. Some of the School's most dynamic and accomplished faculty were in attendance. Among the most striking was an older man with a wise mien, snow-white hair and beard, and a weathered face. When he spoke, recalls Mary Wilson, that Richard Levins was truly impressive. " I would sit there sometimes with my mouth open in awe," says Wilson, an assistant professor in the Departments of Population and International Health and Epidemiology. "He would move so easily, so seamlessly, from economics to molecular genetics to political theory to biology. He pulled it together so effortlessly and then would bring in some very practical observations." For over two decades, Levins, the John Rock Professor of Population Sciences, has been one of the intellectual giants of the School. A founding theoretician of evolutionary ecology and one of the world's most brilliant
d i a t e c t i c s of d i s e a s e
James 0 . Mason, D.P.H.'67, named assistant secretary for health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Donald Hopkins appointed acting director of the CDC.
The Exxon Valdez runs aground off Alaskan coast, releasing 240,000 barrels of oil into Prince William Sound.
biomathematicians, Levins has applied ideas from these fields to the problems of disease causation, particularly infectious disease. In over-simplified terms, he is a scholar of, and advocate for, an ecological approach to public health. The 66-year-old professor says this approach is partly a matter of taste: "There are different aesthetics in science. Physicists have an aesthetic for symmetry and simplicity. M y own aesthetic is for complexity, anomaly and, asymmetry." Levins' scientific views are also guided by a philosophical outlook rooted in Hegel and M a r x that eschews the modern tendency to break systems into their smallest identifiable parts. Instead, Levins sees the world as an evermoving process and looks for patterns in the whole. "When someone asks me what Richard specializes in, I answer, 'complex systems,' " says Pamela Anderson, s.M/84, s.D.'c<i, a Colombia-based researcher and consultant in the School's Department of International Health and Population Sciences and someone who has prized Levins as a mentor for a decade. "Problems in health, agriculture, and the environment all span disciplinary boundaries and require the integration of biological and social phenomenon," says Anderson. "Richard applies his integrated, quantitative, and qualitative thinking on complex systems to all these arenas." Levins grew up in Brooklyn's Manhattan Beach section, a comfortable middle-class neighborhood just ^ast of Coney Island, but he was *nrtbued with a radical socialist outtook at a young age. His great-great
t WUIONAL K iNWfUTE
grandmother rebelled against the orthodox Judaism of her day on the grounds that it was sexist. His father, an attorney, was a member of the Young Communist League. As an eight-year-old, Levins set out to raise money for the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, a contingent of left-wing Americans that fought in the Spanish Civil War. "It was an interesting experience," he says, a smile creeping across his face. "After the hrst meeting or two, we realized that we had no resources for actually contributing to the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and furthermore, we were dependent on our parents for transport." Levins laughs. " S o I decided at that point that a political movement needed a material base!" Levins says he grew up "with the sense of the inseparability of science and politicsâ€”that is, trying to understand the world in order to change it." S AN U N D E R G R A D U A T E AT COR-
^ T ^ nell, Levins split his studies between math and genetics. An active member of the Communist Party, Levins figured opposition to his radical politics would block a career in science. "It was the McCarthy period, and I expected the United States to become more repressive and fascistic," he says. So after he graduated, Levins and his wife, Rosario Morales, moved to her native Puerto Rico to farm and work as labor organizers. The 90-acre vegetable farm in the midst of coffee plantation country in the island's Central Mountains was "technically innovative, but barely getting by economically," says
National Cancer Institute a w a r d s $3.2 million to Professor of Radiobiology John B. Little to study health effects of ionizing radiation.
Levins. He and his wife had seed sent from all over the world. They used some novel agricultural methods. But two children made the micro-economics of the farm that much more precarious. Sick in bed with hepatitis, Levins began to look over his old math notebooks and decided that maybe he could contribute something to science. In 1 9 5 6 he returned to N e w Y o r k City as a graduate student in Columbia's zoology department. His family still owns the farm in Puerto Rico, but termites have claimed the farmhouse, and the original 90 acres has shrunk to 35. Zoology, and the life sciences more generally, was in the throes of a titanic struggle as Levins resumed his studies. After Watson and Crick described DNA's structure in 1 9 5 3 , biology based on held work and observation was being increasingly dismissed as old hatâ€”unimaginative "stamp collecting" as Harvard's Edward O. Wilson described it in his 1 9 9 4 autobiography. The way to understand living things, said the upand-comers, was at the molecular level, through genes and biochemistry. Meanwhile, scientists such as G. Evelyn Hutchinson at Yale and Robert MacArthur at the University of Pennsylvania were headed in the opposite direction. Their biology sought to describe life at the population level, and how those populations compete with and compliment one another in an environment. Moreover, they wanted to find underlying mathematical patterns to these inter-species and environmental relationships. With his mathematical gifts and knowledge of genetics,
Ebola virus kills 60 monkeys in a Virginia laboratory, the fist known Ebola outbreak in the U.S.
Levins was a weicome addition to this new held, known variously as population biology, population genetics, and evolutionary ecology. Levins hrst major contribution to this new population-level biology was development of the community matrix, a mathematical model for determining how many overlapping species can co-exist in a shared environment. Levins says he developed the community matrix model after a series of intense scientihc discussions with MacArthur at a meeting on mathematical biology held at Yale in the early 1960s. The community matrix can be thought of as a table in which the rows and columns are species and other elements of an environment and the entries are calculations for describing the interactions among them. It can be used to derive some of the essential ecological features of an environmentâ€”its stability, its sensitivity to change, its vulnerability to catastrophe. Levins eventually trumped his own model with loop analysis, which also deals with species interaction in an environment. More generally, Levins helped change how modern biology views the environment from something that was objective, uniform and largely static to a system that is "selected, transformed, and dehned" by organisms. Richard Lewontin, the Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology at Harvard, who has known Levins for 3 5 years, says Levins has supplied modern biology with the insight that "there is no element of the environment that is not a consequence of the organisms that construct it."
Levins was a professor at the University of Chicago before coming to the School in 1 9 7 5 . Over the years, Levins has challenged his students and his colleagues to view disease in ecological terms rather than settling for standard etiologic explanations. In a class, he might ask students to calculate how a gene that increases the nitrogen uptake of wheat plants might affect the economic independence of women. His admirers say one of the amazing things about him is that he often has answers to just that kind of question. "He makes connections better than anyone I know," says Lewontin. H
HILE AT THE SCHOOL, LEVINS
W W has kept his hand in biology, writing articles for QM^r^r/y RsM^w o^B;o/ogy and elsewhere. Integrated pest management, which seeks to minimize the use of pesticides, has been a practical interest. He travels frequently to Cuba, where he has taught, conducted research, and advised government officials on agricultural practices. And he still proudly wears the label communist (to show people, he says, that "we are still around and kicking.") "Dick Levins has a very gentle and generous spirit," says Mary Wilson. "I have never seen him be mean or sarcastic." Pamela Anderson says, "He is a true intellectual; he listens to others and he engages their ideas, irrespective of the source." That Levins would have interest in new and emerging diseases is only logical. After all, to an evolutionary biologist, a pathogen is just another
species seeking a safe haven for life and reproduction. Levins was a key participant in the pivotal Woods Hole meeting in November 1993 that gave fresh currency to the notion that environmental changes resulted in new opportunities for pathogens. Levins says he is delighted at the public attention that new disease research has gotten as it has put to rest the notion that infectious diseases have been conquered. Working with his close colleague Tamara Awerbuch, a lecturer in the Department of Population and International Health, he is in the midst of a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded study asking why public health was caught off-guard by the emergence of diseases like Lyme disease and A I D S . Drawn to science by politics and philosophy, Levins has the serenity of someone who has been true to his beliefs. As a young man, he says, he found his "intellectual focus" in dialectics, Marxist philosophy, and "a fascination with complexity." And his most recent causeâ€”the need for an "integrated epidemiology" that would take into account the myriad causes and effects that result in diseaseâ€”resonates with ideas that a boy from a radical family in Brooklyn was introduced to about a half-century ago. "Something is not quite right in the way our species' current societies are relating to the rest of nature or in the way we attempt to fix what goes wrong," Levins has written recently"There is a disjunction in science between the exquisite sophistication of the small and the irrationality of the enterprise as a whole."
Nurses Health Study I! launched under the direction of Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition Walter Willett. A complement to the original Nurses' Health Study, NHS II enrolls 116,000 young women.
National Institutes of Health selects the Department of Biostatistics as the Statistical and Data Analysis Center (SDAC) for all federally funded clinical trials of AIDS drugs. Directed by Professor Stephen Lagakos, SDAC will produce some of the most important findings about individual and combination drug treatment.
H E S E D A Y S , E V E R Y T R I A L OF A NEW D R U G OR S U R G I -
erative group studies," says Professor of Biostatistics
cal intervention is closeiy scrutinized by a statistical
Richard Gelber. In doing so, Zelen played a key role in the
"consultant." But before Marvin Zelen came along,
development of cancer treatments that have, just to cite
biostatistics had something of a Rodney Dangerfieid problem: it rarely got the respect it deserved. "Years ago, clinical trials were often the sole province
one example, vastly increased the chances of surviving leukemia. Many of the lessons learned in cancer clinical trials were subsequently applied to
of surgeons and clinicians," says Professor of Biostatistics
including Gelber and his colleague's landmark study
Stephen Lagakos. " M a n y of them didn't view a clinical
showing that AZT can cut the chances of transmission of
trial as what it is—a scientific investigation—and few
Hiv from an infected mother to her baby by two-thirds.
appreciated the importance of statistics." Nobody in this country has done more than Zelen, the
Throughout his career, Zelen has been a fighter and defender as well as an intellectual force. "I think I have
69-year-oM former chair of the School's biostatistics
been very determined and very persistent," says Zelen.
department to "elevate the role of the statistician in clini-
"And I never shirk from battle."
cal trials," says Lagakos. Zelen's theoretical work over his
Zelen grew up in the East Bronx during the Depression,
40-plus year career would make any curriculum vitae
and when he wasn't working long hours in his father's
shine. But during the i $ 6 o s and 70s, he also transformed
candy store, he enjoyed doing many of the things that The
clinical trial research into a large, well-managed, and sta-
Music Man's Professor Harold Hill warned were trouble
tistically sophisticated branch of medical research. First in
for River City: playing pool, poker, pinochle, and z i .
Buffalo and then at the School, Zelen created what were
When Zelen stumbled into a probability class as an under-
tn effect large biostatistical laboratories—equipped with
graduate at the City College of New York, he says one
Powerful computers and capable of administering and
reason the subject was so appealing to him was his famil-
keeping tabs on hundreds of clinical trials at a time.
iarity with games of chance.
Randomization techniques, centralized data management,
The post-war years were halcyon days for all kinds of
quality control, and other solutions to the practical prob-
science research in the United States, including math and
lems of running mullet-centered clinical trials were
statistics. Wielding seemingly arcane formulas, the
Worked out by Zelen and his colleagues. "He set the stan-
nation's math and statistical whizzes solved all kinds of
dard for statistical and data management centers in coop-
practical problems during the war, calculating everything
Epidemiology Department Chair Brian MacMahon, S.M.'58, and Professor of Environmental Health and Safety Benjamin Ferris retire from the faculty. MacMahon is succeeded by Dimitrios Trichopoulos (left).
San Francisco Bay area earthquake causes more than 60 deaths.
from the optimum formation for groups of bomber planes to the best way to search for submarines. (Another former chairman of the School's biostatistics department, Frederick Mosteller, was a member of an elite group of Princeton mathematicians whose understanding of sampling procedures helped the government answer questions like whether an Army base would overtax a local public transportation system.) The federal government established two large applied mathematics laboratories after the war, one at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington and the other at U C L A . After earning a masters degree in statistics from the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) in 1952., Zelen was hired by the National Bureau of Standard's Statistical Engineering Laboratory, which was part of the National Applied Mathematics Laboratory. For Zelen, those 1 0 years at the Bureau are a delightful memory. At age 2.$, he says he was the "baby of the group" and one of the few people without the imprimatur of a PH.D. (which he remedied in 1 9 5 7 by taking evening classes at American University). Zelen thrived in the lively, intellectually rambunctious atmosphere of the Bureau. Zelen says he pursued some theoretical problems, but also gained the invaluable experience of designing research projects up front so that when the results came in they would pass statistical muster. His first real taste of biostatistics came in the early 1960s when Zelen was a visiting professor at the University of Wisconsin's Mathematics Research Center. Asked to work out a statisti-
The Berlin Wall falls as Germany is reunited and the Soviet Union crumbles.
cal problem related to a trial of a childhood leukemia drug, Zelen and his collaborator George Weiss came up with something called the semi-Markov process (Markov was a Russian mathematician), which now stands as one of Zelen's prime contributions to the biostatistical canon. Essentially, the semi-Markov process is a statistical model used for both calculating "sojourn time," or how long a patient might stay in a certain "phase" of cancer treatment (say remission or relapse) and using that sojourn time to predict the next phase the patient will go through. N o w dedicated to biostatistics, Zelen was invited to head the National Cancer Institute's Applied Mathematics and Statistical section in 1 9 6 3 , where he immersed himself in cancer and clinical research for the next four years. After a year in London as a Fulbright Scholar, he was lured back to academe and into the arms of the State University of New York at Buffalo. Zeien spent the next decade on the snowy eastern shore of Lake Erie effectively inventing the biostatistics that make possible today's sophisticated clinical testing of cancer, A I D S , and all kinds of other treatment drugs. Zelen says he wasn't happy dispensing advice to his NCI colleagues. " I decided it was important to have some kind of demonstration project to show how things could be done," he says. So he formed the Statistical Laboratory at the University of Buffalo.
HE STATISTICAL LABORATORY
was a master stroke. Zelen saw that the statistical aspects of the large, complex trials of treatment
drugs needed to be more centrally administered, particularly when it came to treatment assignments and randomization. Leaving treatment choice to clinicians and treatment centers created too many opportunities for cutting corners, steering certain patients to certain treatments, and robbing randomization of its randomness. "There were a lot of complaints in the beginning," Zelen says. "People would say, 'We used to hold the sealed envelope up to the window to see what the treatment would be, and now we can't do that anymore.' " He also saw that poor record keepingâ€” what would be today called data managementâ€”was undermining high quality research. Untrained secretaries were often left in charge of reviewing patient records and filling out the forms for a study. Proper training and some "pretty smart people" were needed to do the job right, Zelen believed, so he created a new job and called it "data manager" because managers are paid more. "We made data management into a profession," he says. "There was really no point in applying sophisticated statistical techniques to data that was garbage." The emergence of the large, multicenter randomized clinical trial also posed some new statistical challenges. Zelen designed "dynamic randomization" techniques so that a roughly equal number of patients would be allocated to each treatment option under study. He also wrote one of the hrst papers on adaptive design of clinical trials, a novel randomization strategy that would have an investigator stick with a treatment until it fails and then switch over to the alternative. Zelen also did some ground-
Enrollment reaches 530 students, up from 230 in 1970.
breaking work in the heid of survival analysis that preceded Sir David Cox's proportional hazard model, a mainstay of contemporary biostatistics. Meanwhile, Zelen was building SUNY-Buffalo into a clinical trials juggernaut by getting grants from NCI and attracting young, smart statisticians and mathematicians. For 1 9 years, Zelen was the top statistician in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Program ( E C O G ) , which becameâ€” partly because of Zelenâ€”the largest program in the world for testing various cancer treatments. By the mid-yos, Zelen was prominent enough to capture the attention of Mosteller, who, at Dean Howard Hiatt's request, had come to the School with the express purpose of building up the biostatistics department. In his negotiations with the university and the School, he asked for just a little more than usual. " I said I would like 1 0 faculty appointments in addition to my own. They were used to hiring faculty. They weren't used to hiring a basketball team," says Zelen, adding that he believed bringing the "team" with him to Boston was essential to the viability of ongoing clinical trials. When Zelen came to the School in 1 9 7 7 , he brought with him an entourage that included 1 0 faculty members, 1 7 non-faculty members, a huge DEC 2.0 computer (they had to knock down a wall to ht it into the basement of the DanaFarber's Jimmy Fund building) and 1 5 0 cancer trials involving several thousand patients. Zelen succeeded Mosteller as chairman of the biostatistics department in 1 9 8 0 and held the post for 1 0 years.
Cancer Causes ancf Confro/, edited by professor of epidemiology emeritus Brian MacMahon, is the first major scientific journal to be published out of the School.
He kept the E C O G trial work going (Professor Dave Harrington has replaced Zelen as the lead statistician) and laid the groundwork for the department's pre-eminence in A I D S clinical trials, now manifest in the Center for Biostatistics in A I D S Research ( C B A R ) . He beefed up the biostatistics curriculum. When one leading professor at the School expressed puzzlement, tinged with disapproval, that there could be that much to teach in biostatistics, Zelen says he answered, "We have only just scratched the surface!" Lagakos says Zelen "really made this department into a wonderful place," fostering creativity and confidence in his colleagues. " H e made you feel like you could do anything." ] N T H E E A R L Y 1980s, T H E W I D E R j world caught a glimpse of Zelen's ' tenacity. Flying in the face of conventional wisdom that such a study could ever produce significant results, Zelen, with Lagakos's help, launched an investigation of the connection between what seemed to be a cluster of childhood leukemia cases in the Boston suburb of Woburn, and the town's contaminated water supply. Three years later, the Harvard Health Study, as it came to be known, showed for the hrst time a connection between Woburn's contaminated water supply and a variety of adverse health effects, including leukemia. As described in A Cwz'/ AcH'oM, the bestselling account of the lawsuit that grew out the Woburn cancer cluster, when Zelen announced the study's results in the basement of a Woburn church in February 1 9 8 4 , someone in the audience said "Thank God for
Marvin Zelen." The crowd burst into applause. A hero to those Woburn parents, Zelen and his study were
attacked elsewhere. In fact, the chair of the School's own epidemiology
department, Brian M a c M a h o n , was sharply critical of Zelen and Lagakos for what he said was an over-interpretation of their data. But Zelen didn't waiver. " H e champions the underdog," says Lagakos. " A n d if he feels something is wrong, he doesn't worry about getting in trouble." In 1 9 9 0 , Zelen stepped down as chairman of the department, but he continues to be a presence at the School, teaching, attending seminars, and supervising post-doctoral students. His fourth-floor office at Dana-Farber overlooking busy Brookline Avenue has the delightful aura of the active, accomplished mind: the haphazard photos of family and colleagues, an eclectic collection of academic journals and textbooks, the desk and tabletop choked by a shifting layer of papers and correspondence. N o longer involved in the day-to-day running of clinical trials of cancer treatments, Zelen has started thinking about how cancer screening studies could be improved, diplomatically describing the current approaches as "suboptimal." And though his back-of-the-candy-shop, card-playing days in the Bronx are long gone, Zelen has given a friend some statistically-based advice on how to play one of the biggest games of chanceâ€” mutual fund investment. Zelen's tip is to "play the winner": stick with the biggest gainer until it is surpassed, and then switch to the new leader.
South African political resistance leader Nelson Mandela is released from prison after 27 years.
prevention as poiitics by Terri L. Rutter H
O N A T H A N M A N N , M . P . H . ' 8 o , IS R E F L E C T I N G O N A
! crucial time in his life, a time when everything he had believed up to that point suddenly seemed incomplete, even skewed. Speaking quickly, eloquently, he describes events 1 3 years and over 5,000 miles removed
course. In Uganda, for instance, a married woman who refused to have sex with her husband risked divorce and economic disasterâ€”even if she knew her husband was infected. Mann asked himself: "What are the barriers to her
from the present and the frustration of trying to slow
actually carrying out her own choice? To really under-
the spread of
stand this woman is to unveil the factors in her society
in East Africa in the mid 1980s.
Guided by the traditional pubhc health paradigm of education begets change in behavior begets disease
that affect her access to employment or to education." For Mann, women at risk for
prevention, Mann, then assistant to the director of the
became a prototype for a new way of thinking about
Centers for Disease Control's AIDS Program in charge of
healthâ€”a so-called "paradigm shift" that seeks to join
international activities in Kinshasa, Zaire, relied primarily
pubhc health theory to political and social realities.
on condom handouts and informational campaigns
Simply stated, he believes that the condition necessary
stressing the importance of using condoms to protect
for every individual to enjoy the highest attainable
against Hiv. But in time he came to realize that no amount
standard of health is a full promotion and protection of
of paper and latex in the world could change the fact
each individual's human rights.
that few of the region's women had the power to say " n o " when faced with unwanted or unprotected sexual inter-
Physiologist Joe Brain, S.D/66, succeeds Donald Hornlg (left) as chair of the Department of Environmental Health.
In 1990, Mann followed this new line of thought back to Harvard, where it eventually culminated in the
Professor of Biostatistics James H. Ware succeeds Elkan Rogers Blout as Dean for Academic Affairs.
the re-awakening of public health's political conscience. of the Frangois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and
disease to recognize and treat the poverty and other social
Human Rights at the School of Public Health. Under
factors that underlay so much human misery. Virchow's
Mann's leadership from 1992. to 1 9 9 7 , the center has been
beliefs were later echoed in the slogans and practices of
the academic focal point for a broad-based movement that
the sanitary reformers w h o gave birth to modern public
seeks to unite two previously distinct enterprises: public
health and human rights. Inherent in this new paradigm is the notion that public health research and practice must
In an interview for T^g People's He^M? a w J f f s Et^ofM^'ow af
actively engage political and social injusticeâ€”a notion that
Rosenkrantz, professor of the history of science emerita,
many public health traditionalists balk at. And yet, Mann
told author Robin Marantz Henig, that early on "public
and others point out that the roots of this radically " n e w "
health was closely allied to social reform, openly, without
vision for public health are, in fact, more than a century
any apologies." Examples of this alliance between health
old. " W e are heirs to a tradition that goes way back to the
promotion and social activism abound. Legendary Harvard epidemiologist Alice Hamilton was an unabashed
beginning of public health," says Mann. One of the first to view health through the lens of politics was German pathologist Rudolf Virchow, the popularized patron saint of public health, who in 1 8 4 9 stirred the placid waters of European medicine by challenging his fellow physicians to look beyond clinical manifestations of
Smoking is banned on U.S. domestic airline flights.
socialist who joined in the international protest over the executions of suspected anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti. Martha M a y Eliot, chair of the Department of Maternal and Child Health and long-time director of the Children's Bureau, was influential in lobbying for federal programs
Jonathan Mann, M.P.H.'80, leaves the WHO's Global AIDS Programme, to join the School as professor of epidemiology and international health.
Harvard Center for Risk Analysis founded under the direction of Professor John Graham.
DMHMg ^/s S years OM ^ e Maww, M.P.H.'8o,
for poor mothers and children. And famed Yale epidemiologist CharlesEdward Amory Winslow called for "the development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health." Yet, notes Rosenkrantz, this activist edge gradually was tempered by the rise of a more empirical brand of public health that viewed social reform as "subjective, politically tainted." By the end of World War II, scientihc advances had given rise to a technology- and biomedicine-based public health paradigm focused more on combating pathogens and vectors than on addressing the broader social context in which they proliferated. Government funding for basic research on vaccines and antibiotics blossomed. The pesticide DDT was the primary weapon in the international malaria control efforts of the 1950s and 1960s. Medicine, meanwhile, had become big business, and doctors defenders of the status quo. In 1948, the American Medical Association, exploiting the prevailing
A poll of HSPH students by faculty member David Hemenway reveals that 9 7 % are non-smokers, 9 6 % support legalizing abortion, 8 9 % wear seatbelts, and 75% support national health insurance.
anti-Communist sentiment of the day, helped defeat President Truman's effort to institute a national health insurance program by branding it "socialized medicine." But even as biology and technology assumed center stage in this brave new era of public health, other forces were paving the way for a new brand of political consciousness. The sheer carnage and suffering unleashed by the Second World War led to the creation of a new global humanitarian doctrine: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Adopted by the U.N. General Assembly in 1948, the declaration asserted the "inherent dignity" and "equal and inalienable rights and fundamental freedoms of all members of the human family" and launched an international movement to protect and promote these rights. And the Cold War that followed raised the specter of man-made annihilation that made all previous disease epidemics seem like child's play. In response to these new realities, the past four decades have seen a rekindling of the political and activist consciousness within the health pro-
fessions, marked by the emergence of international organizations such as Physicians for Social Responsibility ( P S R ) , International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War ( i P P N w ) , and Physicians for Human Rights ( P H R ) . Faculty and graduates of the School have been central figures in the creation and evolution of each of these organizations. Together with Mann's Fran$ois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, which provides a kind of academic counterpart to the advocacy agencies, these organizations embody Virchow's century-old dictum that politics isâ€”or should beâ€”medicine writ large. S THE COLD WAR BETWEEN
the United States and the Soviet Union intensified and nuclear weapons stockpiles grew, the prospect of a nuclear war seemed imminent. By i 9 6 0 the two superpowers had amassed enough nuclear weapons to destroy nearly all life on the planet. Yet, in America, at least, the national mood was one of "can-do" optimismFamilies built bomb shelters in their basements and backyards, while politicians and military experts openly discussed strategies and contingencies for winning a nuclear war. At the School, however, a group of students led by George Saxton, M.p.H.'6i, had been meeting and conducting its own study group and had come to a different conclusion. A Quaker and long-time grassroots activist, Saxton recalls being asked during student orientation what he thought was the most important public health issue facing the world's people.
The first major cholera epidemic in the Americas in a century strikes Lima, Peru, causing 100,000 cases and killing 700.
"Holy smoke, it's nuclear w a r , " he remembers thinking. "We have to do something about this." In an article published in the January 1 9 6 1 Alumni Bulletin, Saxton argued that, given the untold death and destruction that would result from a fullscale nuclear war, prevention was the only rational response to the nuclear threat. Around the same time, Bernard Lown, a cardiologist in the School's Department of Nutrition, was invited by a colleague to a talk in Cambridge. The speaker was the British diplomat Philip John NoelBaker, winner of the 1 9 5 9 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in founding
ed to the United States in 1 9 3 $ , says what moved him most to take action was the disturbing parallel he saw between the proliferation of nuclear weapons and Nazi Germany's orchestrated annihilation of 6 million European Jews: "We destroyed Hitler and we became Hitlerized in our a bility to design mass extermination." Lown called together a group of colleagues and friends to discuss how they, as physicians and as health professionals, could educate the public about the fallacy of the belief in surviving a nuclear war. Calling itself Physicians for Social Responsibility ( P S R ) , the group undertook an
On the basis of its study, PSR produced a series of articles that the group hoped to publish in the New E w g ^ w J /oM?*?Mf o^Me&'cz'we. Lown says that when he approached the journal's editor, Joseph Garland, however, Garland scoffed at the idea. "We're a medical journal...not a political journal," Lown recalls Garland saying. But the persistent Lown eventually convinced Garland to look at the articles to see if they met the journal's rigorous publication standards. Lown says Garland called him at the end of the day and agreed to publish the studies, which appeared under the title "The Medical Consequences of
EVERYONE HAS THE RIGHT TO A STANDARD OF LIVING ADEQUATE FOR THE HEALTH AND WELL-BEING OF HIMSELF AND OF HIS FAMILY, INCLUDING F O O D , CLOTHING, HOUSING AND MEDICAL CARE AND NECESSARY SOCIAL SERVICES, AND THE RIGHT TO SECURITY IN THE EVENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT, SICKNESS, DISABILITY, W I D O W H O O D , OLD AGE OR OTHER LACK OF LIVELIHOOD IN CIRCUMSTANCES BEYOND HIS CONTROL. the League of Nations. Noel-Baker spoke about the impending prospect of a nuclear Armageddon. Lown was transfixed. "He was like an ancient Hebrew prophet," he recalled. "Here I was concerned with sudden individual death and here's the potential for mass sudden death." Lown, the son of Lithuanian Jews who had emigrat-
exhaustive study of the medical and public health impacts of nuclear war. Among those present at the founding of PSR was H. Jack Geiger, s.M.'6o, a physician and veteran political activist who would become one of the organizations most active members. Geiger would go on to co-found the group Physicians for Human Rights (see sidebar, page 74).
Yugoslavia breaks up, precipitating a brutal war between the independent regions of Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia.
Thermo-nuclear War," in the May 3 1 , 1 9 6 1 , issue of the journal. In an impressive 29 pages, the articles described what would occur if a single nuclear bomb fell on Boston: Nearly three million people in Boston alone would die; over four million in Massachusetts. Some $,000 physicians would perish. Nuclear fallout would poison the air and ground for decades.
Isabelle Valadian, M.P.H/53, retires as professor and chair of the Department of Maternal and Child Health. Marie C. McCormick succeeds Valadian as department chair.
Lown credits the articles in particular with "bursting the bubble" of the idea that, if enough money was invested, everyone could move underground in a massive network of shelters. "The shelter would be the most dangerous place to be because the firestorms would consume the oxygen and you'd be suffocated miserably and incinerated," he says. Physicians, wrote Garland in his introduction to the articles, should be interested in this problem because "no single group is as deeply involved in and committed to the survival of mankind." Over the next two decades, PSR continued to work towards the elimination of nuclear weapons and other instruments of mass destruction. It saw some hope in 1968 when the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed by the United States and 1 3 7 other nations. But by the early 1980s, when Ronald Reagan won the U.S. presidency on a strong arms build-up agenda, discussions of the strategic use of nuclear weapons and "Star Wars" defense systems prompted Lown to take a new approach to
his campaign for nuclear disarmament. On travels to the Soviet Union, he had met Yevgeni Chazov, then director general of the Cardiovascular Institute and personal physician to Leonid Brezhnev. In 1980, Lown wrote to Chazov, asking if he would be interested in launching an international collaboration of physicians to prevent nuclear war. Chazov agreed, and the following year the organization International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War ( i P P N w ) was born. Like P S R , I P P N W sought to draw on the special status of health professionals as impartial arbiters of political and social trends, individuals whose only objective was to protect and preserve health. Unlike P S R , I P P N W was, from the start, an international partnership that set a high-profile example of cooperation between two ideologically opposed adversaries. Four years later, in 1 9 8 5 , Lown and Chazov traveled together to Oslo to accept the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of I P P N W . To this day, he is Harvard's only Nobel Laureate for peace. In 1 9 9 3 , to mark Lown's 7PPNW BerwarJ Loww f/e/it) awJ Ywgem C^azcw. Loww, pro/essor ewer^MS
retirement from the leadership of I P P N W , President Mikhail Gorbachev sent him a note, dated September 6 and written on the back of the INF treaty, the first substantial antinuclear agreement between the two superpowers. Framed and hanging on the wall in Lown's office, it reads, in part, " I want to thank you for your great contribution to preventing nuclear war." Another faculty member who spoke out against the folly of nuclear war was Dean Howard Hiatt. In 1 9 8 1 , Hiatt joined members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences to make a personal plea to President Reagan to consider the tremendous medical consequences of a nuclear war. Three years later, in an article in J A M A , Hiatt argued further that, given the incredible need for medical care in this country, and especially in the developing world, the cost of the proliferating arms race was an irresponsible waste of resources. There is a distinctly Vichow-ian echo in Hiatt's call for reapportioning military expenditures toward social programs. In 1869, Virchow presented a motion for disarmament to the Prussian parliament, noting that while funding for weapons was increasing, moneys for education had remained stagnant.
NarMrJ's 072/y No^e/ LaMreafe w peace.
Iraqi generals accept U.N. cease-fire terms, ending the one-month long Persian Gulf War. in the war's aftermath, HSPH researchers will travel to both Iraq and Kuwait to study the effects of environmental and infrastructural devastation caused by the war.
V E N AS F E A R O F " T H E B O M B "
E vanized one contingent of health professionals to political action, the rise of repressive dictatorships and regional and civil conflicts in Southeast Asia, Africa, and South and Central America sparked a different form of medical activism. Reports of widespread torture, slaughter, and
Soviet Union dissolves.
Activist's Activist: H. Jack Geiger, S.M/60 There are two things any activist worth his or her salt must own: unflinching principles and a police record. Jack Geiger has both. The principtes were acquired while growing up on New York City's Upper West Side. The record came courtesy of police in Nevada, New York, Chicago, and Setma, Alabama. Most of the arrests were of the orderly, round-them-up-then-send-themhome variety in which getting arrested w a s part of the strategy of the protest itself. But in Setma in 1965, Geiger found himself jailed in hostile territory on trumped-up charges by officers willing to use intimidation or violence to derail the accelerating civil rights movement. Geiger w a s in Selma at the request of Martin Luther King, Jr., as part of a delegation from the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR), an organization Geiger had helped found the previous year. During the voter registration drives of Freedom Summer, MCHR provided a "medical presence" for the thousands of volunteers working throughout Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Geiger w a s being held on charges of practicing medicine without an Alabama license for assisting in the care of the Reverend James Reeb, a Boston Unitarian minister who had been beaten by local thugs. Reeb would die from his injuries. And while the charges against Geiger were ultimately dropped, the experience itself is indelibly inscribed in his characterâ€”one of the many "badges of
displacement of civilians by armed militia and paramilitary groups led to a recrudescence of humanitarian relief efforts. In awJ PzvMc Heaff^, Barry S. Levy, M.p.HL'70, and Victor W. Sidel note that, since the end of World War II, the percentage of civilian casualties during military conflicts has increased from 1 0 to 90 percent of all casualties. Equally distressing to health-care Professionals was the apparent disregard for medical neutrality in many
honor" that he's earned in a career of social and political activism that spans 5 decades. Geiger's entree to activism came as a student at the University of Wisconsin in 1943, when he founded one of the first chapters of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). He subsequently served as civil liberties chairman of the American Veterans Committee leading campaigns to end racial discrimination in medical school admissions and in hospital careâ€”an issue he still pursues with vigor. He would go on to help found Physicians for Social Responsibility and Physicians for Human Rights. It w a s while working in the poor rural reaches of Mississippi and Alabama that Geiger began hatching the concept of the community health center for which he is now best known. The centers combine clinical medical care and public health interventions into a single program and use both to facilitate social change. The original centers that Geiger helped establish in Mound Bayou, Mississippi, and Columbia Point, Boston, became the models for a national network of urban and rural health centers that now numbers more than 800 and serves more than 10 million low-income and minority individuals across the nation. Today Geiger, the Arthur Logan Professor of Community Medicine Emeritus at the City University of New York Medical School, regards the community health centers as his greatest contribution to public health. "I think, in terms of the number of people who they've benefited, the community health centers have been enormously successful," he says. That they were inspired by Geiger's experiences as a political organizer suggests a corollary to Virchow's axiom: sometimes health is politics writ small.
areas of conflict, in clear violation of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, which mandate nondiscriminatory access to medical care and protection of hospitals and health-care workers during wartime. In El Salvador, health-care workers were beaten, imprisoned, or killed for providing vaccinations. In Chile, physicians were arrested for providing medical care to people whom the government considered terrorists. And in many war-torn areas, soldiers entered
hospital wards and shot patients lying in beds. Health professionals had been involved in humanitarian relief missions for over a century, largely under the auspices of the Swiss-based International Committee of the Red Cross ( i C R C ) . Founded on bedrock principles of political neutrality, i C R C volunteers set up held hospitals to care for civilian and military casualties on both sides and ensure that combatants obeyed the rules of war
Pead/y Consequences Mow Wo/ence /s Pesfroy/ng How Violence Our Teenage Popu/af/on, by faculty member Deborah fs Destroying OnrHenage ; Prothrow-Stith, calls for a public health approach to fbpuiationand! a Han to Begin ; halt violence, which has become the second leading SoMngthe ; cause of death for U.S. males a g e s 1 5 - 2 4 . PtuMem !
FDA approves ddl as an alternative to zidovudine for treating AIDS.
police attacks on blacks protesting apartheid. In 1 9 8 6 , Fine and Schaller called together a number of their professional colleagues, among them the ubiquitous H. Jack Geiger, and launched the organization Physicians for Human Rights (PHR).
listed in the Geneva Convention. In the wake of World War II, however, organizations such as Medecins Sans Frontieres arose that challenged the Red Cross's unswerving commitment to neutrality, especially in civil conflicts in which unarmed civilian populations were targeted by heavily armed militias or government forces. In 1 9 8 3 representatives from the International League for Human Rights and the AAAS Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility went to Chile, Uruguay, El Salvador, and South Africa to document the effects of abuse on citizens. One of the physicians to go was Jonathan Fine. Upon his return to the United States, Fine, a long-time member of both IPPNW and P S R , met with another Boston physician, Jane Green Schaller, who had just returned from South Africa, where she had witnessed similar evidence of brutal
PHR's mission is to "bear medical witness" to human rights abuses by documenting the physical and psychological evidence of those abuses. PSR study teams perform autopsies and conduct forensic studies on human remains to determine whether torture, abuse, or murder have occurred; they interview and examine survivors about alleged human rights abuses; and they use the tools of epidemiology to assess the civilian toll of war and armed conflict. The scientific documentation of these abuses, conducted by trained professionals, stands as credible evidence in courtrooms and inter-national tribunals; without such documentation, the stories of beatings and other abuses would only be tales. PHR physicians are "giving pain a face and death a name," said Jennifer Leaning, s.M.'yo, instructor in health and social behavior, speaking at PHR's tenth anniversary symposium last year in Boston. Leaning is one of many H S P H faculty and alumni who have led fact-finding missions under the auspices of PHR. In 1 9 8 8 , Leaning teamed with fellow graduate H. Jack Geiger, s.M.'6o, to report on the status of medical care in Israel's West Bank and Gaza Strip. T w o years later, at the request of exiled scientist Andrei Sakharov, Leaning traveled to Tbilisi in Soviet Georgia under the auspices of PHR to document the harm caused when Soviet troops broke up a peaceful demonstration using entrenching
VIII International AIDS Conference, cosponsored by Harvard and scheduled to be held in Boston, is moved to Amsterdam as conference organizers protest federal restrictions on HIV-infected travelers. Despite the c h a n g e in venues, the Conference d r a w s 10,000 participants.
WoM r inMH!
spades and gas believed to have been toxic. Sixteen people were killed that day, another four died later, and hundreds were injured. The list of faculty and graduates who have been affiliated with PHR is long and growing. Paul Wise, M.p.H.'y8, assistant professor in the School's Department of Maternal and Child Health, was part of a team that investigated the "human costs" of Operation "Just Cause," the U.S.-led invasion of Panama in 1 9 8 8 . Howard Hu, s.D.'9o, M.p.H.'8o, associate professor of occupational health, has led fact-hnding missions to evaluate the use and effects of tear gas. In 1 9 8 7 he went to Seoul, South Korea, and in 1 9 9 1 to Myanmar, formerly Burma. Paul Epstein, M.p.H.'83, lecturer in the Department of Population and Internationa] Health, went to the Turkey-Iraq border region in 1 9 9 1 to assess the medical condition of over 2 million Kurdish refugees following the Persian Gulf War. Leaning's extensive experience in some of the world's hottest hotspots has led her to try a n d identify societal
elements, especially breakdowns in public health, that prime an area for the type of civil unrest and armed uprisings that have occurred during the past decade in Somalia, Haiti, and the former Yugoslavia. Leaning's work as director of the Program on Complex Humanitarian E m e r g e n c i e s seeks to identify the key characteristics, such as massive population dislocation, extensive e n v i r o n m e n t a l destruction, and high levels of civilian insecurity that render a community vulnerable to disintegration. She hopes that by identifying factors that precipitate these crises, public h e a l t h
/t/DS /n f/;e Wor/d' /S G/oba/ Reporf, edited by Jonathan Mann and Daniel Tarantola of the School s Global AIDS Policy Coalition, is the first comprehensive analysis of the global AIDS epidemic. The book estimates t h a t 13 million people worldwide carry the AIDS virus and predicts that, by the year 2000, up M 110 million people will be infected.
professionals and politicians may begin to be able to anticipate, prepare for, and, ideally, prevent them from occurring. The idea of preventing armed conflict would seem a quaint, post-sixties "save-the-world" notion if it weren't for Leaning's clear-eyed determination and the fact that her beliefs echo the hopes of an earlier HSPH graduate who witnessed firsthand the devastating consequences of war. In a 1 9 4 4 essay in the Alumni Bulletin, Brigadier General James Stevens Simmons, S.D/39, who subsequently became dean of the School, wrote: "One might be allowed to hope that eventually, through the development of preventive medicine, it will be possible to prevent the most pernicious of all diseases, war itself." ^ A !
H w ) Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights serves as an intellectual bulwark for and collaborator with PSR and other organizations engaged m front-line humanitarian relief and human rights activities. Mann says that the foundation for the center's mission is the $o-year-old Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Perhaps because only one of the declaration's 30 articles deals explicitly with the tight to health, health professionals did not immediately rally behind the declaration, and the human rights movement for much of the past five decades was dominated by legal and political activists. But Mann, reading the document four decades after it was published, saw it differently: "What struck me Was that reading it from a public health perspective, the whole declaration is about health and the social
conditions people need to be healthy." T o his mind, the right to not be held in slavery or be tortured, the right to privacy and equality before the law, and the right to an education and to practice one's religion—all directly impinged on health. From this realization, Mann devised a simple but profound equation: for each human right denied to an individual or community, there is a negative impact on health. The strategy that grows from that equation—address the underlying human rights issues, and increased health will follow—is the basis for what he proposes as a new framework for public health. " [The authors of the U.N. Declaration] basically said that if the Universal Declaration is realized, then the societal preconditions for human well-being will be met. There will still be Mozarts and there will be people who can't carry a tune, but the basic fundamental principles for human well-being, that allow the individual to flourish, will be set, and the social conditions for health will be advanced," he says. "This is exactly where I position public health." In an effort to spread his new gospel of public health, Mann, upon joining the School's faculty in 1 9 9 0 , introduced the practice of handing a copy of the human rights declaration along with the diploma to every graduate. He also began designing courses on health and human rights, both at the School and at the faculty of arts and sciences and Kennedy School of Government. Mann's pursuit of his new vision got a lift in 1992., when a Swiss countess, Albina du Boisrouvray, gave
AIDS activist and former tennis star Arthur Ashe presented with the Harvard AIDS Institute's first Annual AIDS Leadership Award. Four month later, Ashe dies from the disease.
the School a $2.0 million gift to fund the Frangois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights and the Franqois-Xavier Bagnoud Professorship in Health and Human Rights. " T o me, [Jonathan Mann] was a warrior fighting against AIDS at large, standing for health and human rights, committed to rescuing the discriminated, the most destitute, the most vulnerable ones," said du Boisrouvray at the dedication of the Frangois-Xavier Bagnoud Building in October 1 9 9 6 . Inscribed on the outside wall of the new building, in the six official languages of the World Health Organization, is a phrase from the WHo's Constitution: "The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." Mann, who last year left the School to become dean of the Allegheny School of Public Health in Philadelphia, believes that the health and human rights movement whose seeds he helped sow is finally beginning to flower. During his keynote speech at the Second International Conference for Health and Human Rights, held at Harvard in October 1 9 9 6 , Mann described this new covenant between public health and human rights in terms that suggested a rebirth: "The tectonic plates are shifting, but it is at the intersection of health and human rights that the most radical transformation is occurring, and it is there that the future will lie. We are in the vanguard of a movement. We have a deeper belief that the world can be changed, and in doing that, we give value to the world.
HSPH nutritionists assert that, contrary to popular belief, margarine is no more healthy for the heart than butter.
S A RULE, DEATH CERTIFICATES
^ ^ ^ are dreary documents, the * ^ grim bureaucratic reminders of human fraiity. For heaith workers, the death certificate too often symbolizes a failure of the core functions of protecting and extending life. Yet on one occasionâ€”May 8, 1980â€”the signing of a death certificate was a cause for celebration and hope. On that day, the delegates to the 33RD General Assembly of the World
Health Organization (WHO) signed their names to the first death certificate for a human disease: smallpox. Few events in the history of public health have had as much symbolic meaning: for the first time, a lethal disease had been permanently uprooted from the planet through a concerted prevention campaign. Abdul Rahman Al-Awadi, M . P . H . ' 6 $ , presided over the historic assembly and called the occasion a
HSPH atumni and facuity working with the Wortd Heaith Organization have been major ptayers in internationai heaith.
Gioba! Arena Famine exacerbated by civil war kills more than 300,000 people in Somalia. Sudan, Angola, and Mozambique face similar devastation.
The acquittal of white police officers videotaped beating a black man sparks two days of rioting in Los Angeles.
FDA approves the nicotine patch.
"persona! and professional thrill." At the time the Minister of Heaith for Kuwait, Al-Awadi had worked with the WHO in a number of capacities since graduating from the Schooi, including twice serving as a member of the WHO Executive Board. Al-Awadi's presence at the ceremonial signing, coupled with the fact that three H S P H alumni— William Foege, M.p.H/65; Donald Hopkins, M.P.H/70; and Ralph Henderson, M.P.H.'yo—had played prominent roles in the smallpox campaign, meant that the event also had deep significance for the School of Public Health. Hopkins had helped lead the eradication campaign in Sierra Leone, Africa, from 1967-68. In his 1983 history of smallpox, P r i c e s awJ Hopkins traces some of the key moments in a struggle between man and disease that had been waged off and on over 3 millenia. The 1 9 6 6 decision by the World Health Assembly to launch the global eradication campaign— coming precisely 1 7 0 years after Jenner's discovery of vaccination— signaled that the endgame of this struggle had begun in earnest. "One of the most important challenges facing the Smallpox Eradication Program," writes Hopkins, was the need to prove, as quickly as possible, that the disease could be eradicated from poorer countries in spite of their inadequate health services. Many thoughtful public health specialists doubted that could be done to the end of the campaign, but the doubts were especially prevalent during the SEP'S early stages.
T WAS F O E G E , L E A D I N G T H E E R A D I -
< cation effort in West and Central Africa, who achieved this "crucial psychological victory," writes Hopkins. Foege would go on to lead the successful campaign in India, before departing to join the CDC. Henderson, who was part of the West Africa effort, working in Lagos, Nigeria, says, "the experience of working on this program in West Africa was a career highlight. It was a crash introduction to West African culture, public health, and the constraints of colonialism and socioeconomic development. Good tools and good people at all levels made it a spectacular success." A decade later, Henderson was selected to direct the WHO's stunningly successful Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPt). He says that his earlier experience with the SEP, along with the support from many national and international "alumni" of the smallpox eradication campaign, were major factors in making the EPi itself such a success.
was joined there by H S P H Dean James Stevens Simmons, s.D.'39, who subsequently reported in the School's A/M7717?;' that the School was well-represented with alumni serving as representatives from Japan, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and China. Conceived as part of the postWorld War II rebuilding effort with the goal of strengthening national health administrations, the WHO has succeeded where several of its predecessors failed. Nearly a century before, the hrst International Sanitary Conference (isc), held in France in 1 8 5 1 , inaugurated an era of international action in public health. Eventually the isc evolved into the Ofhce International d'Hygiene Publique (01HP), which survived through the end of the First World War, when the League of Nations attempted to establish its own international health agency. World War II, however, brought international health collaboration to a virtual standstill and destroyed or disrupted national health services in many countries. T h e f u n c t i o n s of the o i H P
INCE ITS C R E A T I O N IN J U N E 1 9 4 6
J as a special agency of the United Nations, the WHO has been a hotbed of exchange and collaborative activity for faculty and alumni of the School of Public Health. Among the United States' delegates who signed the WHO into existence was Martha May Eliot, then chief of the United States Children's Bureau and a member of the School's Visiting Committee. Eliot, who would later chair the School's Department of Maternal and Child Health, was also present the following summer for the hrst World Health Assembly in Geneva, Switzerland. She
Swiss Countess Albina du Boisrouvray gives $20 million gift to the School through the Association Fransois-Xavier Bagnoud to create a professorship and center to study health and human rights and to name a new building to house the Center. This is the largest philanthropic gift ever made to the School.
and the League of Nations agency, along with those of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, a temporary organization that assumed oiHP's responsibilities during the war, were ultimately transferred to the WHO. Headquartered in Geneva, the WHO receives funding from its 1 9 0 member states to confront diseases ranging from malaria to mad cow disease to Dengue Fever to AIDS on every continent and in every corner of the globe. The WHO's World Health Assembly has quasi-legislative powers, granted by the United
Resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS), developed over the past four years by Professor William Hsiao and colleague Peter Braun, alters how doctors are reimbursed through Medicare, paying more to primary care physicians and less to specialists.
Nations, to decide which international heaith programs should be undertaken. The WHO Executive Boardâ€” made up of 3 2 members, designated by as many states, but serving in their personai capacitiesâ€”is charged with carrying out the directives of the Assembly. The WHO Secretariat is responsible for providing assistance to individual nations and programs. Much of the WHO's work is carried out through decentralized regional offices for Europe, the Americas, Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacihc. Over the past five decades, the School's faculty and alumni have been active in the WHO as administrators, program ofhcers, collaborators, consultants, and advisers. Henderson, for example, directed the WHo's Expanded Programme on Immunization for 1 3 years before being named assistant director general. When he took over EPi, immunization coverage in developing countries was negligible. By 1 9 9 0 , coverage had increased to some 80 percent of children age one or under. Today, the program prevents an estimated 3 million deaths annually from target diseases. It has also made it possible for the WHO to have the realistic expectation that poliomyelitis will follow smallpox on the path to eradication by the year 2.000. Before stepping down as assistant director general, Henderson oversaw six divisions or programs relating to vaccines and immunization, tuberculosis, leprosy, tropical disease control, research and training in tropica! disease, and the prevention of blindness and deafness.
As an alternative to the USDA's recently released diet pyramid, the School's nutritionists, led by Department Chair Walter C. Willett, develop the Optimal Traditional Mediterranean Diet pyramid, advocating less red meat, more breads and grains, and daily exercise.
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7?MMy H S P H aJMWM? w^o af f^e WHO.
The breadth of interactions between the School and the WHO, formal and informal, make it impossible to give a comprehensive list of W H O - H S P H activities over the years. But a sampling shows that the relationship between the two organizations has been both varied and deeply influential to global health. A poll of the School's graduates taken in 1 9 5 6 revealed that 26 alumni had worked with the WHO in some capacity. Lawrence Roberts, M.p.H.'$5, a regional adviser in tuberculosis for the who Regional Ofhce for the Western Pacihc, and James S. McKenzie-Pollock, s.M.'^z, who coordinated communicable-disease services for the WHo's Regional Ofhce of South East Asia, were typical of the large number of graduates who gained hands-on international health experience working out of regional ofhces of the WHO. In the 1 9 5 7 A & w w BM/fe^w, Hans HelwegLarsen, M . p . H . ' $ i , reported that he had recently been assigned to the position of health statistician for Indonesia after many years at the WHO Tuberculosis Research Ofhce in Copenhagen. In the same report, John A. M . Karefa-Smart, M.P.H.'48, informed his colleagues that he had initiated a malaria and yaws control program in Liberia before being named public health officer for Western Africa. Karefa-Smart c r e d i t ed courses he took in public health practice and Dean Simmons' seminar on international health for sparking his interest in the work of the WHO. In 1 9 5 0 , Vlado A. Getting, D.p.H.'^o, was named a United States representative to the third World Health Assembly. At the time
Hantavirus outbreak in the American South-West is traced to a rare virus carried by rodents.
the Commissioner of Health for Massachusetts, Getting recalls that on his flight to Geneva, he was seated next to J . N . Togba, M.p.H.'45), who had just graduated and was serving as Liberia's representative to the three-week-long meeting. Togba would go on to serve as president of the seventh World Health Assembly, the first of the School's alumni to be so honored. Eighteen years later, a Canadian alumnus, Basil D.B. Layton, M . p . H . '52., would also serve as president, as would Al-Awadi in 1 9 8 0 . Chang Y u o Shu, M.P.H.'47, China's representative to the first World Health Assembly, joined the WHO Secretariat in 1 9 4 9 . Until her retirement in 1 9 7 3 , Helen Martikainen, S.D/65, oversaw the WHo's health education services. Martikainen noted that during her 2.$-year career at the WHO, her only break from her work was the time she studied at the School. Meropi Violaki-Paraskeva, M.p.H.'50, served the WHO in a variety of capacities over a 3 5-year period, including serving as president of the 34th World Health Assembly in 1 9 8 1 . She was the fourth graduate of the School to serve in this capacity. Adetokunbo O. Lucas, s.M.HYG. '64, believes that the greatest challenge of his three-decade-long career in public health was the establishment of the WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, operated in collaboration with the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program. Lucas directed the program from 1 9 7 6 to 1 9 8 6 , during which time he raised some $ 3 0 million annually
and conducted training and research in more than 1 0 0 countries. For his 1 0 years of work, Lucas can proudly point to the more than 50 new products—including an effective multipledrug therapy for leprosy—developed by the program to help combat myriad tropical diseases. ] N THE MID 1 9 8 0 s , WITH TUBER-
] culosis riding the AIDS epidemic to renewed prominence in industrialized nations while continuing to hit developing nations hard, Arata Kochi, M.S.'82, assumed leadership of the WHO's TB program. Kochi was faced with rebuilding a global program that had essentially been neglected for the previous two decades. In an interview for the H ^ r M r J H&3M7 ReMgw in 1 9 9 3 , Kochi said his program's primary function is "to build coalitions between governments, funding agencies, and other major players" and to provide technical assistance to poor countries in managing TB. Among those who have helped Kochi to achieve these goals have been several H S P H alumni, including Peter Eriki, M.P.H.'84, regional adviser for TB and leprosy in Brazzaville; Sergio Spinaci, medical officer for China and India; and WHO scientist Diane Weil, M.S.'88. For Jonathan Mann, M.P.H.'8o, the WHO provided a platform for mobilizing a global response to an epidemic that would re-invigorate— and ultimately redefine—public health: A I D S . Mann, who launched the WHo's G l o b a l P r o g r a m m e on AIDS
in 1 9 8 6 , was recruited to the WHO in 1 9 8 5 by Fakhry Assad, director of the WHO's Division of Communicable Diseases. When Mann arrived in
Newly elected President Bill Clinton appoints a 500-member task force to reform America's health-care system. A poll by Professor Robert Blendon, w h o advises t h e president, reveals that, while public support for health care reform is at a 40-year high, few people are willing to sacrifice their own care or pay more to finance changes.
Geneva, the program's only other staff member was his secretary. When Mann left, four years later to join the faculty of the School of Public Health, the program was the WHo's largest, with a staff of over 300 and a budget of more than $ 1 0 0 million. Under Mann, the GPA established 1 national AIDS programs, achieved true global mobilization against the epidemic, and developed a language and a conceptual framework based on preservation and respect for human rights that Mann believes is critical to help the world address A I D S . Mann points to the WHo's ability to utilize the resources and expertise of universities around the world as one of the keys to its success. "With the larger purpose of ensuring global health, it is the WHo's responsibility to take advantage of the resources available," explained Mann. The recent appointment of alumna Gro Harlem Brundtland, M.p.H.'65, as director general of the WHO represents a fitting culmination of the productive W H O - H S P H relationship. Brundtland, who assumes the post in July 1 9 9 8 , has been one of the world's most influential advocates for international cooperation on health and environmental issues. She has thrice served as prime minister of her native Norway. As chair of the U.N.'s World Commission on the Environment, she oversaw publication of the report " O u r Common Future," which brought the notion of "sustainable development" to the fore of international health efforts. She is the first HSPH graduate—and first woman—to hold the post of director general and those who know
A study by Associate Professor Katherine Swartz reveals that, during the course of a year, up to 58 million Americans go without insurance for some period of time.
her expect that she will bring an energetic management and leadership style to the organization that will help it achieve new prominence in international health. In her presentation to the WHO Executive Board prior to her confirmation, Brundtland proposed a more active role for the WHO as "a catalyst for raising the status of health on the international political agenda. We cannot allow health to remain a secondary dimension as we focus our international resolve into a new century. Health is pivotal. Health is the core of human development." COMPLEMENTING T H E L E A D E R S H I P
on the ground of the School's alumni, H S P H faculty have played important collaborative and consulting roles on WHO research and service projects. Collaborative centers, too, have been an important part of the relationship between the WHO and the School. In 1 9 8 1 , the WHOHarvard University Collaborating Center for Cancer and Biostatistics linked the School's biostatistical expertise with the WHo's planning, conduct, and evaluation of cancer control programs. Center faculty provide consultation and evaluation for the activities of the WHO cancer unit based in Lyon, site of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, which was established under the WHo's auspices, in order to hnd means of preventing cancer that are effective and accessible to the people of the developing as well as the developed world.
In 1988, the WHO designed its first international collaborating center for health legislation. With A I D S as it's first focus, the Center was placed at the School, largely because of the reputation of late faculty member William J. Curran, s . M . H . ' $ 8 , founding director of the School's health law program. The center conducted the first international survey of A i D S related legislation and has tackled such topics as international guidelines for dealing with drug and alcohol abuse. The WHO recently established a similar collaborating center with the Department of Nutrition, which seeks to draw on the School's longstanding strenths in nutritional epidemiology and international nutrition. Perhaps the most important byproduct of H S P H - W H O collaboration is the recently completed G / o ^ / study. Led by Professor of International Health Economics Christopher Murray and WHO colleague Alan Lopez, this landmark study is the first attempt to develop a comprehensive set of estimates for patterns of mortality and disability for 1 0 7 chronic and infectious diseases ranging from A I D S to heart disease to depression. Originally intended to correct many of the discrepancies and inconsistencies in global reporting of disease prevalence and incidence, the study ultimately revealed some startling insights about global disease trends, including the fact that some non-fatal illnesses, such as depression and diabetes, are a heavier health burden to societies and the world than many fatal illnesses.
To do the study, Murray, Lopez, and more than 1 0 0 collaborators around the world analyzed 1 4 million death certificates and used that information to rectify the often glaring gaps in disease incidence and mortality estimates. The first two of a planned 1 0 volumes were released in 1996 and include morbidity and mortality projections through the year zozo. Murray's findings will be critical in planning for national healthcare needs in the coming decades. As the W H O enters its 5 0 T H year of protecting and preserving the health of people around the globe, it has more than 1 5 0 programs coordinated in Geneva and countless others directed by the regional offices. The WHO employs more than 5 , 0 0 0 scientists, researchers, and administrators in the Secretariat alone. From its headquarters in Geneva, it remains the health consultant to the world. The exchange of personnel, expertise, and resources that has characterized the relationship between the WHO and the School over the last five decades of this century will no doubt continue. Brundtland has emphasized the importance to WHO of partnerships with institutions and agencies at every level dealing with health. For his part, Mann believes that one of the things the School ought to be doing even more of is fostering its relationship with the WHO. "There is no meaningful distinction between the national and international arenas when it comes to health," explained Mann. "It is the School's responsibility to continue its partnership with the WHO."
Kevin S o t t a k
Serbian nationalists lay siege to Sarajevo and launch a wave of violence that will culminate in genocidal "ethnic cleansing" campaigns against Muslims and
Netherlands legalizes physician-assisted suicide.
HSPH facutty confront a tmtQAAetv american s^
by Harr/et H/a^/i/ngtonr
H E R E IS C O N V I N C I N G E V I D E N C E , P A R T I C U L A R -
pie, in addition to the 37,000 people killed annually by
LY from the Centers for Disease Control, that
firearms, guns cause 100,000 devastating injuries such as
tells us that the United States may be a more
brain damage or spinal cord injury every year.
violent society than all other industrialized countries,"
Over the past 2.0 years, the violent crime rate has
says Professor Felton Earls, Director of the Project on
decreased slightly, but the rate of violent crimes perpe-
Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. T w o million Americans are beaten, knifed, shot, or raped every year. Of the 1 4 5 , 0 0 0 annual Americans deaths due to injury, at least 56,000 are due to violence; 1 9 9 1 , the year the CDC announced that murder was epidemic in this country, saw 1 0 homicides for every 100,000 citizens. Scotland is a distant second with a homicide rate that is only one-fourth of ours. Not all violence leads to death, of course. Violence destroys lives in a horribly versatile manner: For exam-
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat sign historic peace agreement.
trated by and upon young people has shot up alarmingly. Injury and violence have replaced infectious diseese as the chief killers of the young during the same period that the young have become responsible for a wildly disproportionate amount of violence and crime. The homicide rate among males 15-2.4 years old in the United States is 1 0 times higher than in Canada, 1 5 times higher than in Australia, and 28 times higher than in France or in Germany. One in hve violent crime arrests in 1994 were of someone under 18 years of age.
WHO declares tuberculosis a "global emergency" and estimates that the disease may claim as many as 30 million lives over the next decade.
"We did have a skyrocketing of adotescent and young adult homicide rates, an epidemic that the biggest cities experienced hrst, in the mid- to late 1 9 8 0 s , " says Earis. "The second tier followed in the early 1 9 9 0 s . For example, Minneapolis saw its adolescent homicide rate double between 1 9 8 7 and 1 9 9 3 . This is a real increase in adolescent violence, and we have learned to pay more attention to it." Easily obtained guns are an essential component of America's violent profile, especially for children, say experts. Shooting is now the chief cause of death for black teens and is second only to motor vehicle accidents in killing white teen-agers. Firearms homicide for youths 1 5 - 1 9 years old increased 1 5 5 percent between 1 9 8 7 and 1994. As a result of the shifting demographics of violence, the focus of research has shifted to the young. At the same time, the nation has fairly recently undergone a paradigm shift that recast violence, formerly within the purview of the criminal justice system, as a public health problem. In 1 9 7 9 , Surgeon General C. Everett Koop hrst included violence prevention as one of the nation's top 1 5 health priorities. Under the direction of Mark Rosenberg, the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) promptly established its Violence Epidemiology Branch. The CDC organized symposia and conferences including the 1 9 8 5 Surgeon General's Conference on Violence as a Public Health Problem. The story of how violence metamorphosed from a task for jailers
ij^^yj^ / / tIlP SH ? ^ ^ ^ ^
and judges to a challenge for public health and medical professionals is closely intertwined with the efforts of a small group of pioneers on the faculty of the Harvard School of Public Health. They include Earls, whose meticulous, prospective studies ask, "Why do communities and their individual members differ so much in their crime rates?"; Professor Deborah Prothrow-Stith, a charismatic writer who clothes the insights of a clinician with the fervor of a proselyte; Professor David Hemenway, deputy director of the School's Center for Injury Prevention, who applies his expertise in economics to original investigations of firearm injuries; and Jay Winsten, director of the Center For Health Communication, whose "Squash-It" antiviolence campaign employs the same sophisticated social marketing strategies as his highly successful designated driver campaign that helped reduce drunk driving in the 1 9 8 0 s . Progress toward understanding a problem as complex and elusive as violence has been slow. " A t the end of the zoTH century, we are as close to understanding violence as we were to understanding medicine in the mid-i 8 0 0 s , " observes Earls. But the extent to which we now define violence as a public health problem is illustrated by the fact that the very criminal justice and law enforcement proponents who once owned violence now call for partnerships with public health practitioners. In 1 9 9 0 , Lee Brown, police commissioner of New Y o r k , decried the city's record 1,905 homicides and called upon the medical profession to study the psy-
On the heels of its successful "Designated Driver" media campaign, the Center for Health Communications launches the nationwide "Squash It!" campaign to prevent adolescent violence. A survey conducted by the Center has revealed that 15% of America's sixth through twelfth graders have carried a gun to school.
chological and physiological roots and interventions, schools to educate children to violence prevention and churches to instill moral values that can discourage violent behavior. ^
SINGLE BULLET CHANGED
THE trajectory of Felton * ^ Earls' career, and, not incidentally, the way we view social science research, forever. Earls had graduated from Howard University School of Medicine in the late sixties and in 1968 was a postdoctoral fellow in neurophysiology at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. In April, he withdrew into a soundproof room for an experiment requiring that he remain isolated for several days. He emerged from his research cocoon into a transfigured world: The campus was in chaos because Martin Luther King, Jr., had been shot. Elegant neurophysiological abstractions were no longer an option, recalls Earls. "King's philosophy of nonviolence crystallized my interest in the issues surrounding violence and crime. M y laboratory had to be the community, and I had to work with children because they represent our best hope. "I've always been interested in urbanization and health, and I see the planet becoming slowly urbanized in an irreversible way. It is a one-way process, and we're not very skilled yet in knowing how to build a healthy city. Where cities have the biggest social impact is on kids, so that's the reason I'm in public health. " During the early 60s, crime rates had risen dramatically. More police
were hired, more job training materialized, and more interventions and treatments were devised for delinquents and the criminally violent. But, says Earls, "The few intervention programs that looked at the outcomes beyond one year of ending the program have found that the effects wear off. In fact, the boys who received help had somewhat higher recidivism rates than the boys in control groups." By the late sixties, as crime continued to spiral out of control, researchers undertook retrospective studies, examining people who were
already exhibiting violent behavior in an effort to identify predisposing factors. These retrospective studies fostered a post hoc ergo propter hoc mentality that long informed how policymakers looked at violence: Poverty, drugs, alcohol, associating with gun-toting friends, and even smoking came to be viewed as directly causative agents of violence. "The limitation of retrospective studies is that you identify people because they're already engaged in the outcomes you are predicting," explains Earls. "It's like loaded dice." Earls believes more subtle
"King's phiiosophy of nonvioience crystahized my interest in the issues surrounding vioience and crime. iV!y iaboratory had to be the community, and t had to work with chiidren because they represent our best hope."
Professor F e / t o n f a r / s
agents of destruction are probably at work, factors that will help explain why, even in the most destitute neighborhoods, only a small fraction of children and adults become violent. "As a scientist I have to say that we are largely ignorant of how and why people become violent. There's been a lot of work on antisocial behavior and violence, but nearly all criminal research to date has studied adults and older teenagers. By these ages, intervention may be too late." In March 1994, Earls launched a massive study that applies the rigors of prospective epidemiologic research to the multifactorial problems of violence and antisocial behavior. The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, sponsored by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the National Institute of Justice, the National Institute of Mental Health and the Department of Education, will track 6000 children in 80 Chicago neighborhoods until 2.003 in an attempt to identify factors that risk violent behaviors. The study encompasses African-American, Latino, white and mixed ethnic neighborhoods and all social classes. " B y a detailed study of Chicago, we sample the whole universe of urban America," he says. " N o other study has attempted to capture in a single design as much of the class and ethnic diversity of urban American. We're looking not just at how individuals shape their environments, but at how changing social and physical environments shape them." By studying human development in changing urban environments over time, Earls hopes to tease out the
"Haiti: Crisis in Humanitarian Action," a study by the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, details widespread health consequences of Haiti's military coup and the subsequent economic sanctions imposed by the international community.
Violence Prevention: Fire With Fire
Television, movies, rap music—even the nightly news—have been blamed for fueling violent impulses among young Americans. Jay Winsten, an associate dean and director of the School's Center for Health Communication, is using some of these same media outlets to send a new message to the nation's youth: keeping control is macho. Winsten and his colleagues are the creative ^ force behind "Squash It!" a nationwide, multimedia campaign that encourages young Americans to walk away from violent confronta-wag tions. The phrase, "squash it," was drawn from ^ ! focus group research with teenagers from . i Boston and other urban centers conducted by ^ Winsten and center colleagues Susan Moses and & Terri Mendoza in 1994. Later, Moses and Winsten developed a hand signal—a modification of the time out "T" from sports— to accompany the phrase. Explaining the project, Winsten commented, "Our strategy relies on a critical observation that emerged from our focus groups and was confirmed in our national survey research: although the dominant social norm is that you must stand and fight, a majority of teenagers in our survey (including a majority of urban youth who have been involved in serious violence) secretly believe that it shows strength, not weakness, to walk away. This finding offers a window of opportunity to make public and validate the privately held belief of a majority of teenagers, use this as a wedge to change social norms, and thereby grant social sanction to what most teenagers already w a n t to do—walk away." Unveiled in 1995, "Squash It!" employs traditional social marketing strategies—public service announcements (PSAs), highprofile celebrity endorsements, and posters—along with tech-
causes of antisocial behaviors such as violence and substance abuse and also to devise interventions and inform policy. Seven age cohorts of from 500 to 1 0 0 0 children are being, followed over an eight-year period; by overlapping the cohorts, the study _
Poputation Poficies Reconsidered
niques that Winsten refined during SPH's Designated Driver campaign, which helped to sharply reduce drunken driving fatalities in the late 1980s and early 1990s. For that effort, Winsten convinced television writers to integrate the designated driver concept into the plot lines of 160 popular prime time shows. This same technique is now being used to promote the central \ message of "Squash It! " — t h a t it's cool to M A walk away. § "Squash It!" PSAs have been broadcast dur^ ^ ing the Grammy Awards, the NCAA men's basketball tournament and on MTV and Black Entertainment Television while subtler anti-violence themes have been incorporated into Fox TV's "Beverly Hilts, 90210" and "New York ^^^ Undercover," ABC's "Dangerous Minds," NBC's "ER," and other prime time episodes. Winsten may be the only Harvard associate H dean w h o has "juice" with rap stars: performers Coolio, Method Man and KRS One have ^ ^ L employed the "Squash It!" slogan and hand signal. "This notion—that you can walk away without losing face—is a very important part of what w e need to communicate to our children," says colleague Deborah ProthrowStith, professor of public health practice and head of the School's Violence Prevention Initiative. For all its visibility, Winsten stresses that "Squash It!" is meant to complement, not replace, other anti-violence efforts. "It's not a panacea," he says. "Violence prevention will take many effective approaches. The totality will make a major difference."An evaluation of the impact of "Squash It!" currently is being conducted by a SPH research team that includes Drs. Steve Buka, Steve Gortmaker, and Penelope Greene.
approximates 2.5 years of research. The study is unique not just for the number of people enrolled and the period of time of looked at, but for the range of individual, family, and community variables being studied.
"We start in childhood, much earlier than legal interventions, and we look at communities as well as family and individual effects," says Earls. "We plan to identify neighborhood influences that affect children for good or ill as they mature....
— — — — — — Popu/af/on P0//0M /?ecofK/oered, coedited by Lincoln Chen, Gita Sen, and Adrienne Germain, refocuses population control efforts on the health of w o m e n and provides the intellectual foundation for the U.N. Conference on Population and Development in Cairo.
Investigators in the School's Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease identify the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine, an amino acid found in the blood, promotes atherosclerosis.
in adolescenceâ€”by setting curfews and having clubs and athletic facilities, so that adolescents have some positive activities. When a community deteriorates, the loss of supervision and opportunities for constructive activities may result in high levels of violence." H N LATE J A N U A R Y 1 9 7 8 , A D E C A D E
"Earty on, we saw that bad environments and substance abuse contributed heavity to the viotent behavior we saw." Many studies don't distinguish between witnessing violence and experiencing violence. They don't include sexual violence. I wanted to get a broad view of violence that could occur in family, home, and school. I think this is important because many studies specialized in one or the other and have not been in a position to answer questions about how they look when you combine factors. " The data gathering is proceeding rapidly, and although it's too early to analyze data, says Earls, "One interesting finding so far is that there are no poor white communities in Chicago. There are many poor white kids, but they're not concentrated in
communities. They are distributed across working-class and mixed-ethnic neighborhoods. That alone tells you that the average poor white kid is growing up in better circumstances than the average poor black kid. The most common neighborhood in Chicago is a poor black neighborhood. This is a stark reality." But Earls is cautious about leaping to the conclusion that poverty per se is the root of all violence. "The fact that violent criminals and victims of crime are disproportionately members of minority groups is not strictly related to poverty," says Earls. "It also has to do with the extent to which families and adults in a community monitor children
"Binge drinking" among college students makes headlines as a study by Henry Wechsler of the Harvard Alcohol Project reveals that nearly half of all undergraduates drink four to five alcoholic beverages in a row.
! after Earls emerged from his ! sound-proof laboratory, a thirdyear medical student at Harvard was coming to terms with the strangely passive mentality toward violence adopted by her colleagues. On a stint in the emergency room during her six-week surgical rotation at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Deborah Prothrow-Stith saw, along with the sore throats, broken bones, and heart attacks, teens who were losing gouts of blood from knife and gun wounds. At 3 a.m. one night, a young man came in with a deep slash across his brow. "If he'd been cut an inch lower, he would have lost an eye," recalls Prothrow-Stith. In the fast-paced milieu of the E R , she concentrated on her training, explaining as she sewed him up that she was suturing patients on her own for the first time. " H e told me he'd been drinking heavily at a party, and he flared into anger at a comment from a guy he barely knew," she recalls. Insults flew, and an argument erupted, punctuated in blood when the other boy drew his knife. "After I stitched him up, he told me, 'Don't go to sleep, because the guy who did this to me will be in here in an hour, and you'll get all the practice stitching you need.' He delivered this with humorous brava-
Harvard AIDS Institute scientists led by Max Essex and Phyllis Kanki discover that infection with HIV-2 may protect against infection with the more lethal HIV-1.
do, and both I and the senior resident laughed. But later, it dawned on me that had he been joking about a suicide attempt, we wouldn't have laughed. In fact we would not have let him leave." Medicine appropriates everything: Why did doctors shy from treating violence as a medical problem, she wondered? "It's not because it's a complicated behavior: smoking, lead poisoning, tuberculosis are all complicated by social aspects and poverty," she says. Prothrow-Stith says she felt from the hrst that the same public health strategies that had been so successful in curbing smoking and drunk driving could be employed to prevent violence. For her senior project, she wrote a curriculum for education in violence prevention under the supervision of Sandy Lamb, who went on to become Boston's deputy health commissioner. After she graduated in 1 9 7 9 , she got support from several quarters, including Boston City Hospital Chief of General Internal Medicine John Noble and Mark Rosenberg at the CDC injury center. Prothrow-Stith's senior project was the precursor to her CMrncM/M??? To Pre^gMf AJo/esceM? that is now used in hundreds of schools internationally. David Nee at the Florence V. Burden Foundation funded writing of the curriculum. After Prothrow-Stith finished her medical residency at Boston City Hospital, she started a program for high-risk youth that became the Boston Violence Prevention Program. "When we hrst started, people thought we were a little odd because we treated violence in a
health-care context. But early on, we saw that bad environments and substance abuse contributed heavily to the violent behavior we saw." Her anti-violence efforts attained higher visibility when, at 3 3 , she became the youngest personâ€”and the hrst womanâ€”to serve as Commissioner of Public Health for Massachusetts. In 1990, she left the post to join the School's faculty, where, as Professor of Public Health Practice, she has continued her crusade to bring violence prevention within the rubric of public health. Her 1 9 9 1 book D e ^ J f y CofMg^MgMces combines anecdote and analysis to support the public health approach to violence. Prothrow-Stith feels that the efficient way to reduce homicide and assault is to focus on defusing the explosive scenario of two armed acquaintances seized by a sudden anger that is fueled by alcohol or drugs. The youth of those involved in killings, the fact that both the "aggressor" and the "victim" tend to be poor, of the same race, exposed to violence in the past, depressed, and know each other argues for treating both as victims, she says. "Each is likely to feel that hghting is his only choice," says Prothrow-Stith. Parents often abet this reaction by socializing children to feel that it is somehow shameful to walk away from a hght. "Children are not to be blamed for their inability to handle anger in non-lethal w a y s " , she says. "We as parents, as teachers, as clergy, as health care providers have failed to teach them this basic skill...I think the outcome of violence is determined by environmental, cultural
First International Conference on Health and Human Rights, sponsored by the Fran^is-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, is held in Cambridge and draws hundreds of human rights and health professionals from around the world.
and social factors: Kids learn to use violence." She points to the shocking hgures on gun-toting students as evidence of kids' vulnerability. "Rarely have I heard of an adolescent who is carrying a gun for reasons other than protection. Inside, kids carrying guns do not feel strong: they feel weak and vulnerable. The gun they carry is their compensation." H o w does she answer those who suggest that violent urges he in the genes and thus are not amenable to social programs or medical intervention? "The problem with such research is that there are such wide discrepancies in the homicide rate from country to country. That makes it hard to ascribe a biologically determined genetic function. If there were a small increase, you might be able to attribute it to some predisposition. But when the U.S. rate is 70 times higher to 1 1 0 times higher, at some point we have to say 'Stop looking for genetic focus and concentrate on social and cultural factors.' We haven't had a homicide in a child under 1 6 in Boston for 1 8 months, and while Boston is an interesting city, we certainly didn't change the gene pool." Hk
H O W H E R E IS T H E P E C U L I A R L Y
] \ ]
American ambivalence toward violence more evident than in the issue of guns. Estimates place the number of guns now circulating in the United States at over 2.00 millionâ€”nearly one for every man, woman, and child. With so many firearms so readily available, it's not surprising that gunshots are the leading cause of death for black
Professor Jonathan Mann leads a threemonth study of health conditions in Bosnia and declares the crisis a "war on public health."
"We're now tooking at a contagion mode in which peopie feei iess safe as their neighbors or ciassmates acquire guns. This causes them to acquire guns in response." Dav/d Hemenway teens—and the second leading cause of death for white teens. "Day after day, 1 0 0 people die from guns— and half of these are suicides. Clearly it's an American problem. Almost no other countries allow handguns for personal enjoyment," observes David Hemenway, deputy director of the Injury Prevention Center and professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management. Hemenway, an economist, points out that there has been relatively little research on guns given their pubhc health importance. Accordingly, he has become something of a one-man firearms think tank, investigating who owns and carries guns and why; how to improve storage practices; the costs and benehts of gun ownership; the use of guns in self-defense; gun use among adolescents, on college campuses, and in suicide; and who belongs to the National Rifle Organization. Hemenway has found, for example, that men are more likely to own guns than women, Republicans are more likely to be armed than Democrats, and whites are more likely to pack hrepower than blacks. Despite conventional wisdom, gun owners who have had hrearms training are more likely than others to be among the i in 5 who store guns
loaded and unlocked "We've assumed that suicide, homicide and accidental gun injuries were reduced by training," notes Hemenway, "but training seems associated with poor storage habits." Most recently, Hemenway and Professor Robert Blendon analyzed two decades worth of public opinion polls that suggest the American ardor for hrearms may have cooled: Gun ownership declined from 48 percent of households in 1 9 7 3 to 4 1 percent in 1994. But, says Hemenway, this promising trend is tempered by the finding that even while shotgun and rifle ownership dropped, handgun ownership rose from 1 3 million to 2.4 million households during that same period. Not surprisingly, this increase in handgun ownership has been concomitant with a marked increase in violent crimes. There were 4 1 7 crimes for every 100,000 people in 1 9 7 4 , but this rate leapt to 746 in 1 9 9 3 . Much of the gun control debate still takes place in the law-enforcement arena, but in 1986 public health physicians declared gun ownership a "public health emergency," and J A M A issued recommendations for stricter gun control measures, citing not only the 38,000 Americans killed by hrearms but the 90,000 gun injuries treated annually in hospital emergency departments.
Phase I! clinical trials o f a Lyme disease vaccine begin on Nantucket and Block Island under the direction of Professor Andrew Spielman.
The rise in handgun ownership may be disquieting, but what does augur well is the discovery that 90 percent of Americans— including gun owners— believe that guns should be withheld from youths under 18 and from those with criminal records. 86 percent of Americans support the Brady Act that includes a 5 day "cooling-off" period and provision for background checks on those who wish to purchase guns. The pubhc also supports the limit of one handgun purchase per month and a ban on assault weapons. Hemenway's research supports Prothrow-Stith's claim that children carry guns for defense. He has found that knowing victims of violence, being threatened with a gun, having friends and family who have guns or are involved in drugs are all associated with a child's gun carrying. Yet 87 percent of children surveyed say they want to live in a world with
English Channel tunnel opens.
fewer guns and 76 percent, including more than half of adolescent gun carriers, want it to be impossible to obtain guns. "Currently, it's easy," adds Hemenway. "We're now looking at a contagion mode in which people feel less safe as their neighbors or classmates acquire guns. This causes them to acquire guns in response," he says. Everyone falls into a categoryâ€” susceptible, infected, or resistant. Just as with TB, isolating and treating a few "carriers" may have profound health advantages; Hemenway's studies suggest that training in conflict resolution and open family discussions may protect children from catching the handgun "bug". "This is such a contentious area. It is hard to research, because the NRA is attacking the CDC for giving money to gun research. Gun-control critics claim guns are more often used in self defense than in crime, but our surveys show this is not even close to the truth." Other studies find it 43 times more likely that a gun in the home will kill someone who lives there than an intruder, and that guns in the home also increase the likelihood of suicide. "The NRA says public health people are opposed to all gun ownership," says Hemenway. "I'm not. I advocate more rational gun policies."
^ ^ ^
NE OF THE IMPORTANT
H strengths of Harvard's vio^ ^ lence-prevention strategies is the cooperative nature of faculty efforts. Their diverse approaches often converge synergistically. For example, Prothrow- Stith and Earls have taught a course, "Violence in America," for several years. " I am the scientific presenter about causation," says Earls, "and Deborah brings an interventional and therapeutic approach. We constantly have crosstalk about what we know from social and behavioral sciences and how that relates to prevention." David Hemenway is now collaborating with Earls' study, helping his groups to better assess injuries that stem from violence. Jay Winsten, director of the Center For Health Communication, also lectures to the violence class. And he literally got a hand from Earls in designing his nation-wide violence prevention media campaign, (see sidebar) " I was discussing with Jay work on nonhuman primates showing conflict avoidance," recalls Earls. "Gesture is extremely important in getting a creature to back off. This got Jay and me to talking about incorporating the .S^M^-?;.' hand signal with his verbal message."
Despite the large gaps that still exist in understanding how and why violence occurs, the School's experts express optimism that a multifaceted approach from publichealth practitioners, schools, parents' groups, the churches and law enforcement will continue to reverse the deadly trends. Prothrow-Stith predicts that parents' groups such as the National Coalition of Survivors for Violence Prevention will have the impact of Mothers Again Drunk Driving. " I find the activism of survivors of violence very exciting," she says. As of March 1 9 9 7 , Boston had seen no homicide involving a minor child for eighteen months. " I don't think this is an artifact," declares Earls. "It's a real effect that demonstrates something. What happened here is that many parts of the communityâ€”police, schools, afterschool programsâ€”all combined. But it's easy to back off. If that happens, I expect violence rates to rise again.
Biostatician Richard Gelber, member of study team that discovers AZT blocks mother-to-infant HIV transmission.
U.S. Postal Service unveils a stamp honoring public health pioneer and former faculty member Alice Hamilton.
E L E V I S I O N V I E W E R S T U N E D INTO
] the A B C News program K H "zo/zo" one Friday night last June were offered a glimpse of what co-anchor Barbara Walters called a "revolutionary" new treatment for heart disease. The segment was narrated by the network's Medical Editor, Timothy Johnson M . P . H . ' y 6 , whose characteristic professional yet compassionate persona has earned the respect and trust of two generations of television-watchers. For the next 1 3 minutes, Johnson guided the program's roughly 1 9 million viewers through a complicated story about a renegade Brazilian cardiac surgeon's new technique to treat an enlarged heart by cutting a chunk of heart muscle away from the lower left ventricle. The fast-paced segment intercut shots of Dr. Randas Batista, the Brazilian cardiologist, in his "jungle" operating room with footage of Batista being interviewed by Johnson, Batista riding a horse on his 300-acre brush ranch, and animated graphics illustrating the procedure. Much has changed, both in television and in medicine, since Johnson's first 30-minute broadcast aired nearly 2.0 years ago, when he hosted a local program called "Housecalls." In that time, Johnson—"Dr. Tim," as he is known to his colleagues and public— has led the way in the competitive world of broadcast medical journalism. Practically every day, he shifts between reporting on new medical hndings or controversies and providing basic information about the importance of screening for colon cancer and hearing tests for children. "Some say that I'm providing cheap entertainment for hypochon-
National Center for Health Statistics predicts that by the year 2000, cancer will overtake heart disease as the nation's #1 killer.
driacs, but I like to think it's more than that," says Johnson. "He has the best public health education job in the country," says colleague Terry Schraeder, who interned with Johnson before becoming a medical reporter at w c v B News (Channel 5) in Boston. Former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, a friend and colleague of Johnson, agrees. "When you educate patients the way Timothy Johnson is doing, you empower them to take a larger role in their health care," he says. "It changes the paradigm of passive patient and active physician." A graduate of Albany Medical College, Johnson was practicing emergency medicine in Lynn, Massachusetts, when he was recruited to host the local television venture "Housecalls." The half-hour show's low-key format consisted primarily of Johnson and a guest discussing a single health topic, such as cataracts or chest pain. The few graphics employed were decidedly low tech. In the early 1980s, Johnson hosted a half-hour-long newsmagazine called "Healthbeat"—a precursor to his current Channel 5 News segment of the same name—that included five or six short segments. In 1984, Johnson went national when he joined the ABC News organization as medical editor.
tagaw Timothy Johnson, MPH '76
During this time, Johnson's on-air patter has quickened a few beats to keep time with the new demands of the mediuim. But while the pace of broadcasting has changed, Johnson has earned respect for not abandoning his unique, physician cum journalist style, which integrates the perspectives of the patient wanting infor-
Ebola outbreak in Zaire
^ ^ ^ ^
mation, the physician concerned that his patient get the right information, and the reporter asking the tough questions to get it. "He is enough of an expert that he rises above the daiiy grind of news stories and becomes an educator, an on-air adviser to the pubiic on health matters," says Phil Hilts, medical writer for T/?e New Yor^ T;'we.s. Johnson came to the School in 1 9 7 5 specifically to learn to evaluate studies more rapidly and accurately and to hone up on statistics. He credits Professor Marge Drolette with providing an "excellent" instruction in biostatistics. Drolette, who earned her M.p.H. from the School in 1 9 5 4 and taught most of the required biostatistics courses, was known for her unbridled enthusiasm towards both her students and her subject. In a memoriam that appeared in the Alumni Bulletin in 1 9 8 7 , she was called the "best-loved teacher in the history of the Harvard School of Public Health." (She also served as chief coordinator for the M.P.H. program from 1 9 7 7 to 1 9 8 5 , and every year at commencement, to show their appreciation, graduating students kissed her as she handed out diplomas. This tradition led former Dean for Academic Affairs Elkan Blout to call Drolette "the most kissed faculty member" he had ever known.) While at the School, Johnson also collaborated with Steven Goldhnger, dean for continuing education at
Alumnus Donald Hopkins, M.P.H.'65, named a MacArthur Fellow for his efforts to eliminate guinea worm disease.
Harvard Medical School, to create the Harvard Health Letter, a lay person's newsletter on medicine and health. "Tim was a man full of ideas that were well thought-out and creative," says Goldhnger, who now heads the Harvard Health Publications Group, the umbrella organization that publishes the Harvard Health Letter as well as five additional letters dedicated to specific health topics, such as women's, digestive, mental, and cardiovascular health. Johnson was also having a great time, says William Ira Bennett, who replaced Johnson as editor-in-chief in 1 9 7 9 . Headlines from the hrst few issues of the Letter reflect Johnson's sense of humor toward his subject: "What You Should Know about Heart Attacks Before You Die from One," and "What You Always Wanted to Know about Colds and Flu, but Felt too Rotten to Ask." But the Harvard Health Letter also sought to provide useful information to people, especially about preventive measures such as tests ad screening, and to do so in a way that was informative and respectful. "The basic decision not to talk down to people was something I really respected," says Bennett. Today the health letter started by Johnson and Goldhnger reaches some 2.50,000 people every month. Through his new medium, however, Johnson numbers his audience in the
tens of millions. During any given week, Johnson appears several times on ABC's news programs " 2 0 / 1 0 " , "Nightlme", "ABC N e w s " , " G o o d Morning America", and "World News Tonight". He also continues to do spots called "HealthBeat" on the local ABC news afhliate. "He's always on the go," says Judy Burke, who has been his assistant for 1 0 years and who produced some of his earlier programs. Johnson has won two Emmy Awards from the Boston/New England Chapter of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, and the Lewis Thomas Award for Communications from the American College of Physicians. And in a 1995 T V Guide poll of the most trusted television news personalities in America, he ranked second, behind Walter Cronkite. "What is so good about what Tim does," says Marcia Angell, executive editor of the New England Journal of Medicine, "is his ability to put science into language the public can understand." Angell describes Johnson as an essential "link" in the chain of health information. " A link to people being healthier and receiving better health care is good accurate information," says Johnson. "I like to see myself as a public heaith teacher, albeit in a different way than many."
Terri L. R u t t e r
Tropical disease specialist Sam Telford III identifies a new disease, HGE, that resembles Lyme disease and is carried by the same tick.
HE FIRST-EVER HSPH A L U M N I D A Y
H was scheduled to coincide with commencement in 1 9 6 3 . Unfortunately, scheduling conflicts resulted in the event being postponedâ€”for 34 years. It wasn't until April 2.6, 1 9 9 7 , that the School would finally host returning graduates as part of the 75th Anniversary Celebration. But few of the more than 350 alumni who attended the event complained about the delay. Most were too busy reminiscing, socializing, and enjoying the day's activities, which included roundtable discussions, a panel presentation, and a reception.
The event was organized by the School's Alumni Association, now in its 61st year of existence. Officially formed by a vote of the class of 1 9 3 7 , the Association held its first meeting in New York in October of that year. Ninety-five of the School's approximately 1,000 alumni attended-an auspicious start to an organization that has evolved over time to meet the changing needs of the School's graduates.
of the American Pubhc Health Assoc-
For the first several years, the association limited itself to organizing and hosting an annual meeting in conjunction with the annual meeting
Vlado A. Getting, D.p.H/40, who served as the HM/fe^'s editor from 1944 until 1 9 4 9 , recalls that the early days of the Alumni Association were
i a t i o n (APHA). A t t h e 1 9 4 4
however, members of the association unveiled plans to publish the hrst H^r^rJ^c/yooJo^PMMzcHeaM? BM^efz'M. The magazine, written and edited by alumni, would be the primary link to the School and each other for a majority of graduates for the next 45 years. (In 1 9 8 9 , the BM/Jefz'w was re-christened the H a r f a r J PM^/z'c HeaM? ReMew.)
Six Decades of the HSPH Alumni Association
U.N. holds Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing.
g^ ^ ^
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oriented toward socializing and professional networking. "There weren't that many schools of public health at the time, and the Harvard graduates were always out in fullforce for the APHA meetings. It was fun to get together with one another during the meeting and catch up."
involved in the day-to-day life of the School. Dumbaugh had served first on the Student Coordinating Council, from which she was directly recruited to serve on the Alumni Council, the 8- to 10-member committee that helps determine the course of the association's activities throughout the year.
Thomas F. Whayne, Sr., D.P.H.'$o, became president of the association in 1 9 5 8 and, working with then-Dean James Stevens Simmons, s.D/39, began a more concerted outreach effort to alumni. "Dean Simmons was anxious to keep alumni connected to the School," explained Whayne. In addition to helping with the formation of regional alumni associations in the Philippines, Ceylon—now Sri Lanka—and Japan, Simmons also introduced fund-raising to the association's agenda. By the 1960s, alumni were being asked by Association President Edmund G. Zimmerer, D.P.H.'4i, to help underwrite the costs of the BM/fefv! and provide students with much-needed scholarship funds. Zimmerer also pointed to the challenge of keeping the School's large percentage of international alumni connected to the School.
"When the association first started, its focus was completely on communication among alumni, and it received a lot of administrative support from the School, like in maintaining address lists," said Dumbaugh. "But by the time I got involved, the Alumni Association had become more peripheral to the School. The Bulletin wasn't supporting itself, Alumni Day had not gotten off the ground, and the mailing list was woefully out of date."
T w o years later, under the leadership of Zimmerer's successor, Fred Mayes, M.p.H.'^i, the association voted to establish a standing committee on the Alumni Fund and Service Program. The committee was responsible for securing, on a continual basis, the resources for an active alumni program that included a revolving emergency student loan fund. The association also began exploring the possibility of increasing its fundraising activities to support
"Harvard Report on Cancer Prevention," prepared by faculty in t h e Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, is a comprehensive, cause-by-cause u p d a t e on w h a t is known about preventing cancer.
W a J o GeHMg, D.p.H/40, /row 1944 ^roMg^ student fellowships, the newly established Henry Lee Shattuck International House, and scholarships for foreign students. ^
R A N K L. B A B B O T T , J R . , S . M L ' 5 4 ,
who served as president of the association in 1968 and 1 9 6 9 , noted that, "The Alumni Association for the School, by its nature, was different than that of a college. Graduates of the School may share a class year, but are different ages and have different professions. Yet we have the bond of being alumni, and we bump heads professionally. The Alumni Association faced the continual challenge of finding ways to keep in touch with graduates living around the globe pursuing vastly different interests." By the time Karin A. Dumbaugh, M.H.s.'72, s . D / 7 7 , became a member of the Alumni Council in 1 9 7 2 , students at the School—like those at other institutions around the country —were becoming more vocal and
Dedication of the Fran^ois-Xavier Bagnoud Building.
One of the first tasks Dumbaugh and her colleagues tackled was the creation of the School's first Alumni Directory. "For many years, alumni records were kept at the School by staff who helped out with the association's activities, like Margaret Penrose (the long-time director of Shattuck International House) who had done a wonderful job. But over the years, addresses were lost or not updated, and the alumni list was in bad shape," said Dumbaugh. The Alumni Association also began to focus more intensively on fundraising for student aid. One of its early fund-raising efforts relied heavily on support and assistance of the faculty. The association planned an auction to add funds to a revolving loan fund for students, particularly international students who sometimes wound up strapped for cash while awaiting funding from their home country.
Former HSPH Journalism Fellow Laurie Garrett wins t h e Pulitzer Prize for her book 7?]e Com/Tip P/apue.
"Faculty really rallied around the idea for the auction," reported Dumbaugh, "and were instrumental in its success." Dumbaugh recalls that Dean Howard Hiatt auctioned off a baking lesson, which included dinner at his house as well. Alonzo Yerby, M.p.H/48, chair of the Department of Public Health Service Administration, auctioned off a loaf of bread, a jug of wine, and a copy of the Rubaiyat, and Margaret Penrose auctioned off her famous cheesecake recipe. The auction raised enough money to keep the revolving loan program operational.
The U.S. FDA approves use of the fat-substitute Olestra, despite opposition by Nutrition Department Chair Walter Willett, who believes that the synthetic fat robs the body of essential nutrients and may increase rates of cancer.
WW Dean Hiatt and the support of a significantly larger and increasingly enthusiastic alumni body, the association also completed a successful fundraising drive in 1 9 7 9 to establish a scholarship in honor of Penrose. The following year, the association organized a trip for 2.0 alumni to visit the People's Republic of China. Alumni came from across the United States and from as far away as England, Barbados, and Haiti for a tour that also included stops in Egypt, Pakistan, and Hong Kong. Proceeds from the tour benefited the council.
President Clinton signs the welfare reform bill, which effectively cuts funding to millions of impoverished mothers and children.
When Dumbaugh hnished her term as president of the association in 1 9 8 5 , the association was able to award two scholarships annually. Moreover, regional alumni associationsâ€”which held meetings and were involved in recruitment of students as well as some fundraisingâ€”were in place in many parts of the United States, Australia, Asia, and Europe. Stephen C. Schoenbaum, M.p.H.'74, got involved in fundraising activities at a phonathon, and was then recruited directly to the Alumni Council. Schoenbaum served as president from 1993 to 1 9 9 $ .
"The Global Burden of Disease" is a landmark report on the world's leading causes of death and disability cosponsored by the HSPH, WHO, and the World Bank. The 10-volume report, edited by Professor Christopher Murray, left, and Alan Lopez, analyzes the health impact of 107 major diseases and injuries in 9 different global regions.
During his tenure, the association began to explore an area of special interest for him, student diversity. "If you look at which schools of public health are most likely to attract students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds from within the United States, you will see that they are the public institutions with lower costs," said Schoenbaum. To help Harvard reach a more diverse population, the association raised enough funds to establish the School's hrst minority student scholarship in 1 9 9 5 . NE OF THE MOST NOTEWORTHY
^ ^ recent efforts of the association was the creation and annual awarding of the Alumni Award of Merit. First bestowed in 1992., the Award of Merit recognizes graduates whose accomplishments in public health set them apart, even from the many distinguished leaders produced by the School. As a council member, Myron Allukian, Jr., M.P.H.'67, helped spearhead the creation of the award of merit. Allukian would go on to serve as association president from 1995 to 1 9 9 7 . Responding to requests from recent graduates for help in finding jobs, the association has also worked with the School's Career Services to create the Alumni Career Advisory Network. The network now includes some 1,000 alumni, which represents
about a quarter of the alumni body. Also under Allukian's leadership, the election of class ofhcersâ€”president, vice-president, and secretaryâ€”was reinstated in 1995 for each graduating class. The success of the first two Alumni Day programs in 1 9 9 7 and 1998 confirms the fact that, while you can take the alumni out of the School, you never really take the School out of the alumni. "It's obvious that the School's graduates want to stay connected to the School. The challenge for the association is to continue to make it easier to do so," said Allukian. "The primary role of the Alumni Association has been, and always will be, connection and communication," adds current President Joel Finlay, M . P . H . ' 9 1 . " N e w a d v a n c e s in
communication, like e-mail and the World Wide Web, are helping us keep in touch with the School's far-flung alumni. But it is really up to the alumni to keep the momentum going, to send information in for the Class Notes section of the H a r t w J PMM;c HeaM? ReM'ew, to return to the School on alumni day, to visit or become active in regional alumni associations, and to attend the School's alumni reception at the a n n u a l APHA m e e t i n g . W e a r e
the School's best spokespeople." MarceHa Bernard
The A!umni Award of Merit S/nce 7992, 27 gracfuafes Aat/e rece/yecf tbe /t/umn/ /) ward of Mer/f, f/re A/gAesf Aonor fAe 5c/!oo/ of Wea/fA bestows on graduates.
Gretchen G. Berggren, S.M.'66 Warren L. Berggren, M.P.H.'63, D.P.H/67 Frederick T. Sai, M.P.H.'60 James Steele, M.P.H/42
Paul R. Torrens, M.P.H.'62 Joan M. Altekruse, M.P.H.'65 Jaime Sepulveda, S.D.'85
Abdul Rahman Al-Awadi, M.P.H/65 William J. Curran, S.M.'58 Samuel Ofosu-Amaah, M.P.H/70
Dorleena A. Sammons-Posey, S.M.'59 Nevin S. Scrimshaw, M.P.H.'59 John B. Wyon, M.P.H/53
Gro Harlem Brundtland, M.P.H/65 William H. Foege, M.P.H.'65 Alonzo S. Yerby, M.P.H/48
James W. Curran, M.P.H/74 Jack Ditlenberg, M.P.H/78 Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., S.M.'65
H.Jack Geiger, S.M/60 Carl E. Taylor, D.P.H.'53
"Gateway to World Health: New Sciences and Strategies in Public Health," a three-day symposium staged in honor of the School's 75th Anniversary, draws key faculty, alumni, and public health experts from around the world.
Dean Harvey V. Fineberg announces that he will step down at the end of the academic year to become Provost of Harvard University. James H. Ware, Frederick Mosteller Professor of Biostatistics and Dean of Academic Affairs] is named Acting Dean of the School.