STUDY GUIDE Hartford Stage Education Programs are supported by: MAJOR SPONSORS Allied World Assurance Company Anonymous Beatrice Fox Auerbach Foundation Fund at the Hartford Foundation for Public Giving, as recommended by Linda & David Glickstein J. Walton Bissell Foundation Ensworth Charitable Foundation Greater Hartford Arts Council Lincoln Financial Foundation National Corporate Theatre Fund SBM Charitable Foundation, Inc. Travelers
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ING XICAT INTO T S O ’S M
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SUPPORTING SPONSORS Barnes Foundation, Inc. Enterprise Holdings Foundation Mr. & Mrs. William Foulds Family Foundation The Ellen Jeanne Goldfarb Memorial Charitable Trust Greater Hartford Automobile Dealers Association Hartford Foundation for Public Giving Aaron Hollander and Simon Hollander Funds Charles Nelson Robinson Fund TD Charitable Foundation Wells Fargo
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For more information about Hartford Stage’s innovative education programs, visit education.hartfordstage.org or call 860.520.7206 Photo of Kate MacCluggage by The Defining Photo
Hartford Stage’s Production of Twelfth Night is part of Shakespeare for a New Generation, a national program of the National Endowment for the Arts in partnership with Arts Midwest.
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HARTFORDSTAGE.ORG •PRODUCTION 860-527-5151ASSISTING PRODUCTION SPONSOR: SPONSOR:
Photo of Kate MacCluggage by The Defining Photo
Hartford Stage’s Production of Twelfth Night is part of Shakespeare for a New Generation, a national program of the National Endowment for the Arts in partnership with Arts Midwest.
ALL PROGRAMS SUPPORTED BY:
STUDY GUIDE OBJECTIVES This study guide serves as a classroom tool for teachers and students, and addresses the following Common Core Standards and Connecticut State Arts Standards: Reading Literature: Key Ideas and Details • Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text (Grade 8). • Analyze how complex characters (e.g. those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the themes (Grades 9-10). • Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced (Grades 11-12). Reading Literature: Craft and Structure • Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning (Grade 7). • Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor (Grade 8). • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including ﬁgurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of speciﬁc word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors) (Grades 9-12). • Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure speciﬁc parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact (Grades 11-12).
GUIDELINES FOR ATTENDING THE THEATRE Attending live theatre is a unique experience with many valuable educational and social benefits. To ensure that all audience members are able to enjoy the performance, please take a few minutes to discuss the following audience etiquette topics with your students before you come to Hartford Stage. • How is attending the theatre similar to and different from going to the movies? What behaviors are and are not appropriate when seeing a play? Why? Remind students that because the performance is live, the audience can affect what kind of performance the actors give. No two audiences are exactly the same and no two performances are exactly the same—this is part of what makes theatre so special! Students’ behavior should reflect the level of performance they wish to see. • Theatre should be an enjoyable experience for the audience. It is absolutely all right to applaud when appropriate and laugh at the funny moments. Talking and calling out during the performance, however, are not allowed. Why might this be? Be sure to mention that not only would the people seated around them be able to hear their conversation, but the actors on stage could hear them, too. Theatres are constructed to carry sound efficiently! • Any noise or light can be a distraction, so please remind students to make sure their cell phones are turned off (or better yet, left at home or at school!). Texting, photography, and video recording are prohibited. Food and gum should not be taken into the theatre. Students should sit with their group as seated by the Front of House staff and should not leave their seats once the performance has begun. If possible, restrooms should be used only during intermission.
Reading Literature: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas • Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry); evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist) (Grades 11-12). Student Performance Series workshops also support the following Connecticut state standards in theatre for grades 9-12: Theatre • 6: Connections. Students will make connections between theatre, other disciplines and daily life. • 7: Analysis, Criticism and Meaning. Students will analyze, critique, and construct meanings from works of theatre. • 8: History and Culture. Students will demonstrate an understanding of context by analyzing and comparing theatre in various cultures and historical periods.
TWELFTH NIGHT SYNOPSIS Orsino, Duke of Illyria, is sick with love for the beautiful countess Olivia, but Olivia is mourning the death of her brother and swears she will not entertain romantic interest from men or marry for seven years. Meanwhile, there has been a shipwreck and twin siblings Sebastian and Viola have been separated, each thinking the other drowned. Viola is rescued by a sea captain and convinces him to help her disguise herself as a man so that she can go to work for Duke Orsino. Olivia’s waiting-woman Maria warns Sir Toby Belch, Olivia’s uncle, that he and his friends drink and party too much. Sir Toby Belch defends his friend, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, a knight who has come to court Olivia. Viola, disguised as a young man named Cesario, quickly gains Orsino’s trust. He charges her with wooing Olivia for him and sends her to deliver a message to her from him. When Cesario arrives at Olivia’s house, the countess is being entertained by Feste the clown, who argues that she is a bigger fool than he. Her steward, Malvolio, reports that there is a young man at the gate and Olivia reluctantly agrees to hear what the page has to say. While Olivia rejects Orsino’s message of love, she takes an interest in the young man she believes Viola to be. She sends Malvolio after Cesario to return a ring she says he left behind. Viola is bewildered since she did not bring a ring to Olivia from Orsino. She realizes that Olivia must be attracted to Cesario. Viola now sees she is caught in a love triangle in which she herself has fallen in love with Orsino, Orsino burns with passion for Olivia, and Olivia seems very smitten with Cesario, the man Viola is pretending to be. After months at sea, Sebastian – Viola’s twin brother – arrives in Illyria with Antonio, the man who saved him from the shipwreck. Sebastian is headed to Duke Orsino’s court; Antonio would like to go with him but can’t because he is wanted in Illyria for a crime. Meanwhile, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, and Feste come home very late one night drinking and singing loudly. Malvolio threatens to kick them out of Olivia’s house. Maria and the others concoct a plan to get back at him: Maria writes a fake love letter “from Olivia” and drops the letter on the ground for Malvolio to find. The letter encourages him to wear yellow stockings with crossed laces and to smile all the time. Malvolio, who is secretly in love with Olivia, swears he will do everything the letter asks of him. Sir Andrew is upset that Olivia fawns over Cesario and doesn’t give him a second thought. Sir Toby Belch convinces Sir Andrew to write a letter challenging Cesario to a duel.
Sir Andrew’s letter to Cesario is so poorly written that Sir Toby Belch decides to give Viola the challenge by word of mouth instead. He exaggerates Sir Andrew’s fencing skills, making him sound like a fearsome opponent. When Viola tries to talk her way out of the duel, Sir Toby Belch goes to Sir Andrew and exaggerates Cesario’s fencing skills. Both are terrified by the time the duel begins. Antonio comes across the fight and, mistaking Viola for Sebastian, draws to defend his friend. Officers arrive and arrest Antonio. Antonio asks Viola for his purse back, but Viola does not know what Antonio is taking about. Antonio is devastated that his friend would deny him in his hour of need. The officers take him away. Feste finds Sebastian and, mistaking him for Cesario, tries to give him a message from Olivia. Sebastian is confused and offers to pay Feste just to leave him alone. At this moment, Sir Andrew and Sir Toby attack Sebastian. Sebastian defends himself and proves to be a much better swordsman than Viola. Olivia storms in, dismisses her uncle and Sir Andrew, apologizes profusely to her beloved and invites him inside. Sebastian is completely bewildered, yet flattered that the beautiful Olivia has taken a liking to him, so he goes with her. Maria enlists Feste to pretend to be a priest who comes to exorcise the “crazed” Malvolio. Sir Toby Belch is now in too much trouble with Olivia to let the prank on Malvolio continue, so he tells Feste to release Malvolio. Meanwhile, Sebastian is not sure whether to trust his feelings for Olivia or his reason. Olivia brings a real priest and asks Sebastian (who she thinks is Cesario) to marry her. Sebastian agrees and the two go off to be married. Orsino and Viola go to Olivia, but she ignores Orsino and only pays attention to Viola. Orsino is jealous and threatens to kill Viola. Viola displays the depth of her love for Orsino by willingly following him to her presumed death. Olivia is outraged and calls out to her husband. Everything stops. What is she talking about? Viola denies that she is married to Olivia. The priest enters and confirms that the couple is married. Viola denies this. Sir Andrew and Sir Toby Belch enter, calling for a doctor. They have been beaten up by Sebastian, but blame Viola. Viola is completely bewildered and denies this, too. Sebastian enters and apologizes to Olivia in the name of their marriage for hurting her uncle and his friend. Everyone sees that Sebastian and Cesario look just alike; Viola and Sebastian are reunited. Olivia has mistakenly married Sebastian. Orsino, now understanding his attraction to Cesario, proposes to marry Viola. Malvolio bursts in and shows Olivia the letter that provoked his mad behavior. Olivia admits the handwriting looks like hers, but is not. Malvolio exits, pledging revenge on the whole company.
Fearing for Sebastian’s safety, Antonio follows him to town, but admits that he will need to lie low in Illyria or face being arrested. He gives Sebastian his purse so Sebastian has some spending money. Olivia sees Malvolio dressed up and behaving strangely and she thinks he has gone crazy. She asks Sir Toby Belch to take care of him. He and his friends capture Malvolio, tie him up, and leave him in a dark room to taunt him. 4
WHO? WHEN? WHERE? WHAT?! DRAMATIS PERSONAE ORSINO – Duke of Illyria VIOLA – sister of Sebastian (who disguises herself as Cesario) SEA CAPTAIN – friend to Viola SEBASTIAN – brother of Viola ANTONIO – friend of Sebastian OLIVIA – a countess in Illyria MALVOLIO – steward to Olivia MARIA (pronounced MARIAH)– Olivia’s waiting-woman SIR TOBY BELCH – Olivia’s uncle SIR ANDREW AGUECHEEK – friend of Sir Toby Belch FESTE – a clown in Olivia’s household FABIAN – servant in Olivia’s household CURIO – gentleman serving the Duke VALENTINE – gentleman serving the Duke LADIES IN WAITING PRIEST
WHAT IS THE “TWELFTH NIGHT”? The title Twelfth Night refers to the carnival season celebrated between Christmas and January 6, the Epiphany, or Twelfth Night. For the twelve days and nights following Christmas, many European cultures dating back to ancient Rome celebrated a time of giving into impulses and upending strict rules, resulting in pranks, silliness, and fun. The play does not necessarily take place during this “Feast of Fools,” but Shakespeare suggests the play should feel like that festival period. His alternate title, Or What You Will, also implies the story should not be taken too seriously; it is just an opportunity for comedy and fun. To keep exploring the traditions of this holiday, try your hand at making a Kings Cake using the recipe on the next page sent in by Ava, a 4th grader at Morley School!
WHEN DOES THIS PLAY TAKE PLACE? This Hartford Stage production is inspired by the early 1920’s...or what you will!
WHERE IS ILLYRIA? Illyria is a lush, imaginary, exotic locale where anything can happen. It’s a land whose ruler is wrapped up in romantic ideas about love, where a woman who has sworn to mourn for seven years can snap out of her malaise, and where desire, frivolity, confusion, and madness abound. The play takes place in multiple locations in Illyria—Duke Orsino’s court, Olivia’s house and gardens, and the sea coast. The Illyria in Hartford Stage’s production is based on the decadent designs of Paul Poiret and Erte, two fashion designers and illustrators of the early twentieth century.
Feste the clown provides music, entertainment, and wit in Olivia’s court. Costume design by Linda Cho. Set design: Illyria, a labyrinth of possibilities. Set design by Alexander Dodge. 6
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TWELFTH NIGHT CAKE DIR ECTIONS: Ingredients For
The Cake 1/3 cup milk 1 package active dry yeast 2 1/2 cups bread flour, plu s more for dusting 2 large egg yolks, plus 2 eg gs 3 Tablespoons granulated sugar Finely grated zest of 1 lem on 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon freshly grated nutmeg 1 1/2 sticks unsalted butter, melted and cooled, plus mo re for greasing the bowl Ingredients For the Filling and Glaze 1/2 cup golden raisins 1/4 cup bourbon 3/4 cup packed dark brown sugar 2/3 cup toasted pecans, cho pped 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1 teaspoon ground cinnam on 2 teaspoons grated orang e zest 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 dry bean or plastic King Cake baby (available at pa rty supply stores or mardi 1/2 cup confectioners’ sug grasday.com) ar purple, green, and gold san ding sugars for decorating DIRECTIONS To Make The Cake: Heat the milk in a saucepan until scalding; transfer to a food processor, add the yea pulse to combine. Add 1/2 st and cup flour and the egg yolks; process to combine. Pour 2 cups flour evenly over the the remaining yeast mixture; do not proces s. Put the lid on; set aside minutes. for 90 Add the 2 whole eggs, gra nulated sugar, lemon zest, salt and nutmeg to the foo process to make a slightly d processor; textured dough, about 1 min ute. With the machine run add the butter to make a sm nin g, slowly ooth, sticky dough. Transf er the dough to a lightly bu and cover tightly with plastic ttered bowl wrap; let rise in a warm pla ce for 3 hours. Turn the do a clean surface and knead ugh out onto briefly; form into a ball and ret urn to the bowl. Cover tig plastic wrap and refrigerate htly with for 8 hours or overnight. To Make The Filling: Plump the raisins in the bo urbon in a small saucepan over medium heat. Remove heat and add the brown sug from the ar, pecans, vanilla, cinnam on, orange zest, salt and the plastic baby,; mix until com bean or bined and set aside. On a floured surface, roll the dough into a 20-by-7 inch rectangle with the long ed you. Spoon the filling in an ge facing even layer over the dough, leaving a 1-inch border alo bottom. Fold the bottom ng the top and and then the top edge ove r the filling to make a tight seal. Transfer the roll seam roll; pinch to side down to a parchmentlined baking sheet; tuck on other to form a ring. Cover e end into the loosely with plastic wrap and set aside in a warm place doubles in size, about 2 ho until the roll urs. Preheat the oven to 350 de grees. Bake the Cake until firm and golden brown, ab minutes. out 40 Cool on a rack. To Make The Glaze: Mix 3 Tablespoons water wit h the confectioners’ sugar; brush 3 tablespoons over Sprinkle with bands of col the Cake. ored sugar. Drizzle with mo re glaze.
A modern day King’s cake made by Ava. Photo courtesy of Morley School 8
TIMELINE April 23, 1564 – William Shakespeare is born in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. His parents are John Shakespeare, an established glove maker and leather dresser, and Mary Arden. 1570 – Queen Elizabeth is excommunicated by the Catholic Church. June 1572 – Actor/Playwright Ben Jonson is born. It has been said by some that the character Malvolio in Twelfth Night is a parody of Ben Johnson. 1582 – 18-year-old William Shakespeare marries 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. 1583 – William and Anne Shakespeare’s first child, Susanna, is born. 1585 – Twins Hamnet and Judith are born to William and Anne Shakespeare. February 8, 1587 – Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed. 1588 – London is infected by the plague and all theatres are closed. 1588 – Christopher Marlowe publishes Doctor Faustus. 1589-1593 – Shakespeare writes The Two Gentlemen of Verona. 1589-1594 – Shakespeare writes The Comedy of Errors. 1590-1592 – Shakespeare writes Henry VI, Part 1. 1590-1595 – Shakespeare writes King John. 10
LANGUAGE Meter = the arrangement of a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables to create rhythm in a verse Foot = the basic unit of meter Iamb = a metrical foot consisting of one stressed followed by one unstressed syllable Prose = common language resembling everyday speech, which has irregular rhythm and lacks metrical structure Shakespeare did much of his writing in a form called Iambic Pentameter, in which each line of text contains ten alternately stressed syllables (five pairs/feet). There are five iambs in each line. A full line of iambic pentameter has the rhythm: da-DUM da-DUM da-DUM da-DUM da-DUM Or, for example: • but SOFT what LIGHT through YONder WINdow BREAKS (Romeo, Act II Scene 2, Romeo and Juliet) • MeTHINKS his WORDS do FROM such PAssion FLY (Viola, Act IV Scene 1, Twelfth Night) Sometimes the verses in Shakespeare’s plays rhyme; however, Shakespeare often used blank (un-rhymed) verse, as he did in sections of Twelfth Night. Shakespeare also used prose to communicate information about a character’s rank or class, or their state of mind. Prose does not follow a specific rhyme scheme or rhythm; rather, it sounds like everyday speech. In many plays, lower class characters speak in prose, while upper class characters speak in verse. However, this is not a hard and fast rule. In Twelfth Night, Shakespeare often used verse and prose to distinguish between informal, and, as Gibson points out, comic conversations, such as those among Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew and Fabian, who often speak in prose, and formal or serious conversations, such as those about love between Duke Orsino, Viola and Olivia, who often speak in verse. Since Twelfth Night is a comedy, about 60 percent of the text is written in prose. Here, Sir Toby Belch has just received Sir Andrew’s letter challenging Cesario to a duel. The letter makes no sense. Even though the two men are nobility, Sir Toby Belch will deliver the challenge to Viola by word of mouth: SIR TOBY BELCH: Now will I not deliver his letter, for the behavior of the young gentleman gives him out to be of good capacity and breeding. His employment between his lord and my niece confirms no less:
therefore this letter, being so excellently ignorant, will breed no terror in the youth. He will find it comes from a clodpole. (III.4.137-140) Shakespeare used a variety of literary devices in his plays, including imagery, simile and metaphor, repetition, and alliteration. Personification and song appear often in Twelfth Night to describe love and express emotions. Shakespeare’s language also contains many words that seem foreign to a modern audience because they are specific to Elizabethan English and have fallen out of use since that time. In total, Shakespeare used 17,677 different words in his plays, sonnets, and narrative poems, 1,700 of which may have been invented by him. Some questions to ask when encountering an unfamiliar word or phrase: • Does this word sound like another word I know? • Can I look this word up in a dictionary? • Can I rearrange the sentence to give the word context? • Is this meant to be literal or is Shakespeare using figurative language? Is it a metaphor or simile? Personification? • If it is figurative language, what literal thing or phenomenon does this image describe? Take a look at this exchange between Olivia and Viola: VIOLA I am no fee’d post, lady; keep your purse. My master, not myself, lacks recompense. Love make his heart of flint that you shall love, And leave the world no copy. OLIVIA O, sir, I will not be so hard-hearted. I will give out divers schedules Of my beauty. It shall be inventoried, and every particle and utensil Labeled to my will, as: item, two lips, indifferent red; item, two grey eyes, with lids to them; item, one neck, one chin and so forth. Were you sent hither to praise me?
1591 – Shakespeare writes Henry VI, Part 2. 1592 – Shakespeare writes Henry VI, Part 3. 1593 – Shakespeare writes the poem, Venus and Adonis and the play Richard III. 1593-1594 – Shakespeare writes The Taming of the Shrew and Titus Andronicus. 1594 – Shakespeare is both an actor and a playwright for the newly established acting company, The Lord Chamberlain’s Men. 1594 – Shakespeare writes the poem, The Rape of Lucrece, Romeo and Juliet, Love’s Labors Lost, and the Sonnets. 1595 – Shakespeare writes Richard II and A Midsummer Night’s Dream. 1596 – William and Anne Shakespeare’s son, Hamnet, dies, possibly of plague. Shakespeare writes The Merchant of Venice and Henry IV, Part 1. 1596 – John Shakespeare, William Shakespeare’s father, is granted a coat of arms. 1597 – Shakespeare purchases New Place in Stratford as a home for his wife and children. 1597 – Shakespeare writes Henry IV, Part 2. 1597-1598 – The Globe Theatre is built. 1598 – Shakespeare writes Much Ado About Nothing.
1598 – Ben Jonson writes Every Man in His Humor. Shakespeare is said to have appeared as an actor in this production. September 22, 1598 – Ben Johnson murders fellow actor Gabriel Spencer in a duel. When brought to trial, he confesses and claims right of clergy, narrowly escaping execution. He forfeits all of his possessions and is branded as a criminal on his thumb. 1599 – Shakespeare is granted a financial share in the Globe Theatre. He writes As You Like It, Julius Caesar, and Henry V. 1600 – Shakespeare writes Hamlet. 1600-1603 – Shakespeare writes Troilus and Cressida. 1601 – Shakespeare writes Twelfth Night. 1601-1602 – Shakespeare writes All’s Well that Ends Well. February 2, 1602 – The first known performance of Twelfth Night takes place as part of the Candlemas celebration at Middle Temple Hall in London. 1602-1603 – Shakespeare writes Othello. March 24, 1603 – Queen Elizabeth I dies. Her cousin, James I of Scotland, becomes king and unites the two countries. He reigns as King James I until 1625. 1603 – The Lord Chamberlain’s Men are renamed The King’s Men and begin performing at the court of James I. Shakespeare writes Measure for Measure. 1604-1606 – Shakespeare writes Timon of Athens. 12
VIOLA I see you what you are, you are too proud; But, if you were the devil, you are fair. My lord and master loves you. O, such love Could be but recompensed, though you were crowned The nonpareil of beauty. 1. Define each of the underlined words. 2. What does Viola mean when she says “Love make his heart of flint that you shall love, And leave the world no copy?” 3. Viola is speaking in verse and Olivia in prose. What might this tell us about each character? 4. Can you write the scene above in your own words, using modern language?
THEMES FOR DISCUSSION Indulgence vs. Restraint The uptight Malvolio. Costume design by Linda Cho.
MARIA: By my troth, Sir Toby, you must come in earlier o’nights. My lady, takes great exceptions to your ill hours. You must confine yourself within the modest limits of order. SIR TOBY BELCH: Confine? I’ll confine myself no finer than I am. The clothes are good enough to drink in, and so be these boots too. (I.3.3-9) Twelfth Night invites the audience to enter a festival-like atmosphere—a place where rules are discarded and indulgence is encouraged. Sir Toby Belch and his cohorts, Sir Andrew Aguecheek and Fabian, represent the extremity of the festival-like atmosphere. They drink, party, carouse, and refuse to pay any attention to those who tell them to stop. Maria eventually joins their fun-loving pranks, but even she is appalled by their foolery at first. The group is countered by Malvolio, steward to countess Olivia. Maria calls Malvolio a puritan, which was an insult in the 1560s, but by the time Shakespeare was writing, a specific group of Protestant Christians had taken on the term as a source of pride (II.3.107). Puritans were opposed to drinking, gambling, overly elaborate
ceremony, and even plays. They especially disapproved of the pagan traditions included in festivals held during Easter, Christmastime, and other holidays. They believed in sober, simple living and strict rules. Malvolio represents this puritan sense of repression. He rails against Sir Toby Belch and his friends for their behavior, and constantly tries to stop their antics: MALVOLIO: My masters, are you mad or what are you? Have ye no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an alehouse of my lady’s house that ye squeak out your cobbler’s catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons, nor time in you? (II.3.66-70) Sir Andrew Aguecheek, a reveler. Costume design by Linda Cho.
Shakespeare pits Sir Toby Belch against Malvolio: one embodying a frolicking wit, and the other a strict adherence to rules. Their rivalry reaches its height when Sir Toby Belch and Maria develop their plan to trick Malvolio. Finally, Malvolio is forced to relax, wear a bright color, and smile. The trick reveals Malvolio to be so out of his comfort zone when living in a loose world, that everyone believes he has gone mad. In the beginning of the play, Orsino’s indulgence is also compared to Olivia’s restraint. Orsino is obsessed with the idea of love; he is dripping with passion, depressed, and consumed by the fantasy of loving Olivia. ORSINO: If music be the food of love, play on, Give me excess of it, that surfeiting, The appetite may sicken, and so die. (I.1.1-3) Olivia, on the other hand, has sworn to seven years of mourning during which she plans to stay veiled and shut inside. She refuses suitors including Duke Orsino and Sir Andrew Augecheek. While Orsino becomes obsessed with love and binges on music to soothe his aching heart, Olivia puts unnatural restrains on herself that fail her as soon as she meets Viola, whom she believes is Cesario. Upon meeting the youth, Olivia cannot keep up
1605 – Ben Jonson writes Volpone. Shakespeare writes King Lear. November 5, 1605 – The Gunpowder Plot, in which Guy Fawkes intended to blow up the English Parliament House, is discovered. 1606 – Shakespeare writes Macbeth. 1606-1607 – Shakespeare writes Pericles. 1607-1608 – Shakespeare writes Antony and Cleopatra. 1608 – Shakespeare writes Coriolanus. 1609 – Shakespeare writes Cymbeline and The Winter’s Tale. 1610-1611 – Shakespeare writes The Tempest. 1611 – James I dissolves the English parliament. The King James Bible is published in England. Shakespeare writes The Two Noble Kinsmen with John Fletcher, who would later become resident playwright for The King’s Men after Shakespeare’s death. 1613 – William Shakespeare and John Fletcher (allegedly) write The Famous History of the Life of King Henry VIII. June 29, 1613 – The Globe Theatre is destroyed by a fire when a special effect involving a cannon goes wrong during a performance of King Henry VIII. 1614 – The Globe Theatre is rebuilt. 13
1616 – William Shakespeare dies. 1623—The First Folio of Shakespeare’s work is published by his fellow actors John Heminges and Henry Condell. 1820 – An operatic version of Twelfth Night is staged. It was written by Frederic Reynolds and the music was composed by Henry Bishop. 1892 – Romain de Tirtoff is born in Russia. He will become an influential French illustrator, costume and set designer known as “Erte,” the French pronunciation of the initials R.T. Vogue fashion magazine is founded by Arthur Turnure in the United States.
THE BACKDROP OF THE TWENTIES 1903 – French designer, Paul Poiret launches his label and influences women’s fashion with empire waists, chemise dresses, and draping silhouettes. 1911 – Paul Poiret hosts a decadent party entitled “Thousand and Second Night.” His wife debuts his signature lamp-shade tunic and pantaloons. 1913 – Poiret introduces his fashions in New York and becomes a contributor for Harper’s Bazaar. Soon Americans take to the Poiret relaxed waists, tunics, and orientalist. 1915 – 1937 – Erte designs covers for Harper’s Bazaar. June 28, 1919 – The Treaty of Versailles is ratified by the League of Nations, effectively ending WWI. 14
her facade and gives in to her desire for the duke’s page. Passion awakens within her and her restraints go out the window. OLIVIA: Cesario, by the roses of the spring, By maidenhood, honor, truth and everything, I love thee so that, maugre all thy pride, Nor wit nor reason can my passion hide. (III.1.130-133) In the world of Twelfth Night, indulgence wins. Shakespeare informs the audience that giving into desire is allowed, for at some point, everyone does it. While Malvolio betrays his sense of self by doing so, Olivia finds release and truth in the experience. QUESTIONS: • In Twelfth Night, Shakespeare gives the characters license to enjoy their lives. Why might this type of indulgence be good for society during the Twelfth Night holiday? • What are your favorite holidays? Are they festive or somber? Think of a somber holiday and festive holiday you celebrate. Try writing a list of rules of behavior for each. Are there rules for one that would be unacceptable for another and vice versa?
The Power of Love ORSINO: Here comes the countess: now heaven walks on earth. (V.1.84)
Countess Olivia and Duke Orsino. Costume design by Linda Cho.
In Shakespeare’s time, arranged marriages were common. One had to face the realities of status and economics, leaving the opportunity to make one’s own choices based on feelings slim. Among the wealthy classes, two people could marry if they held equal or acceptable places in society. In addition, marriage was often an economic decision, joining two powerful families. In
this atmosphere, specific models of love were common. Orsino accepts and practices the “courtly love” model in which the lover places the beloved on a pedestal and worships her. A man must pine for his beloved and work to earn her affections. If he is lucky, he may win her heart. Orsino can stay perpetually in love by believing the myth that Olivia must be unattainable. ORSINO: Come hither, boy. If ever thou shalt love, In the sweet pangs of it remember me, For such as I am, all true lovers are: Unstaid and skittish in all motions else, Save in the constant image of the creature That is beloved.... (II.4.12-18) Orsino expresses his feelings to Olivia in an acceptable way: by sending his page to woo her for him. Despite Orsino’s claim to steadfastly fawn over Olivia, it is his devotion to his page, “Cesario,” that draws him out of this indulgent love-sick behavior. He honestly cares for and appreciates Viola to the point that he assists her when Antonio accuses her of wronging him (V.1.35). “Cesario” draws Orsino out of a fantasy world of theoretical love into the real world of love in action. There, he finds Viola, a strong woman from a high class family, who is prepared to marry him. In contrast to Orsino, Olivia and Viola each throw away expectations of how they should love in order to act on newfound desires. As Twelfth Night begins, Viola and Olivia are each recovering from the loss of loved ones. Viola’s twin brother was lost in a shipwreck and can be presumed dead. Olivia’s father and brother died within the same year. The women share an unspoken connection of lost brothers, yet despite the impulse to mourn and give in to sadness, they each find a beloved on which to dote. Viola thrusts herself into the service of Orsino. She soon discovers her feelings for him and her willingness to satisfy his desires, even if it means courting Olivia. Olivia plunges into her attraction to “Cesario.” She risks her station, her vow, and her reputation for a chance to be loved by the page. It is Viola, dressed as Cesario, who draws Olivia out of her isolation. For both women, the thrills of new love overcome the pangs of loss. Rather than worry about appropriate behavior, Viola and Olivia jump head first into love. In the excitement, Olivia unknowingly falls in love with a woman and Viola must keep her love secret. Yet in the wake of personal tragedy, instead of repressing their feelings and worrying about who they should or shouldn’t love, these two women step freely into the cycle of love and new life.
1920 –Vogue magazine is introduced in France and Italy. January 16, 1920 – The 18th Amendment and Volstead Act come into effect. This prohibited the sale, manufacturing or transportation of alcohol in the United States. This becomes known as Prohibition and gives rise to gang violence throughout the United States. June 8, 1920 – Women are given the right to vote in the United States. 1921 – Coco Chanel introduces Chanel No. 5 September 1921 – The first Miss America Pageant is held in Atlantic City. November 11, 1922 – The Tomb of Tutankhamen is discovered in Egypt. 1923 – One-piece women’s swimsuits become popular. Erte designs costumes, sets, and programs for Ziegfeld Follies. 1924 – The first Academy Awards Ceremony is held. November 27, 1924 – The first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade takes place. 1925 – F. Scott Fitzgerald publishes The Great Gatsby. The book takes place in 1922 and describes the iconic “roaring twenties” among wealthy, high society Americans. June 17, 1928 – Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly over the Atlantic Ocean. 15
QUESTIONS: • Examine the song Feste sings to Orsino and Olivia (II.4.53-68). What story does this song tell? How does it exemplify the model of “courtly love”? • Consider the relationships between Orsino and Viola and Olivia and Viola. How does each character respond to rejection? What does each character believe about unrequited love? What motivates each character to keep trying to win his or her beloved? (Read the scenes between Orsino and Viola in Act II scene 4 and between Olivia and Viola in Act III Scene 1 for clues.) • What models of love are prevalent in our present society? How would you describe ideal love?
FESTE’S SONG Come away, come away, death, And in sad cypress let me be laid. Fly away, fly away, breath, I am slain by a fair cruel maid. My shroud of white, stuck all with yew, O, prepare it! My part of death, no one so true Did share it.
Not a flower, not a flower sweet On my black coffin let there be strown; Not a friend, not a friend greet My poor corpse, where my bones shall be thrown. A thousand thousand sighs to save, Lay me, O, where Sad true lover never find my grave, To weep there.
Disguise and True Nature VIOLA: Disguise, I see, thou art a wickedness, Wherein the pregnant enemy does much. How easy it is for the proper false In women’s waxen hearts to set their forms! (II.2.22-25)
Viola in disguise as Cesario. Costume design by Linda Cho.
Viola disguises herself as a man and takes on the name Cesario in order to serve in Duke Orsino’s court. Viola’s quick fix to find employment becomes the basis for much confusion. She finds herself falling in love with the duke, but cannot disclose her love for him while she is dressed as a man. Her conundrum is compounded when Orsino charges Viola to court Olivia on his behalf. Viola is not the only character betrayed by her disguise. Olivia and Malvolio also present false personas to the world. They too are trapped by the confusion their disguises engender. Olivia who wears a veil to mourn the loss of her brother, also uses her veil to trick Viola (I.5.123-168). At first, Olivia does not want to be found by the messenger Orsino has sent. She convinces her ladies in waiting to wear veils, making the women indistinguishable from each other. Yet when Orsino’s messenger seems to be an attractive young man, Olivia is ready to cast off her disguise and expose her face. She must lift the veil in order to reveal her desire for Viola dressed as Cesario. By revealing her face, Olivia exposes her true self and is vulnerable before “Cesario.” Malvolio disguises himself for the chance to be loved by Olivia. His fantasy of marrying Olivia, becoming a count in her court, and wielding the power that comes with a higher station is in reach, if he can just impress Olivia. Upon listening to Maria’s rumors 16
about Olivia’s preferences for his behavior, and reading the mysterious love letter, Malvolio vows to take on the attributes the writer claims suit him. He betrays his true reserved self and puts on a more flamboyant attitude, yellow stockings, and a smile to please Olivia: MALVOLIO: Sad, lady! I could be sad. This does make some obstruction in the blood, this cross-gartering, but what of that? If it please the eye of one, it is with me as the very true sonnet is, “Please one, and please all.” (III.4.18-20) Malvolio, who was once steadfast in his puritan sentiments, behaves very strangely. His new actions are so incongruous with the Malvolio everyone knew before that Olivia believes Maria when she tells her he has gone insane. Neither Olivia nor Malvolio can maintain their disguises and express their truest selves. Likewise, Viola cannot remain disguised if she is to reveal her deepest desire and win her love. QUESTIONS: • Examine Viola’s and Sebastian’s monologues below. In what ways has Viola’s disguise caused confusion? What are the consequences of her dressing like a man? What are the payoffs? • Have you ever pretended to be something you are not? Did you succeed in fooling others? Or did they see through the facade? Why might someone adopt new actions or a new personality? Should a person stay “true to herself?” Why or why not? VIOLA: I left no ring with her. What means this lady? [She picks up the ring.] Fortune forbid my outside have not charmed her! She made good view of me, indeed so much That methought her eyes had lost her tongue, For she did speak in starts distractedly. She loves me, sure! The cunning of her passion Invites me in this churlish messenger. None of my lord’s ring? Why, he sent her none! I am the man. If it be so, as ’tis, Poor lady, she were better love a dream. Disguise, I see thou art a wickedness Wherein the pregnant enemy does much. How easy is it for the proper false In women’s waxen hearts to set their forms! Alas, our frailty is the cause, not we, For such as we are made of, such we be. How will this fadge? My master loves her dearly, And I, poor monster, fond as much on him, And she, mistaken, seems to dote on me. What will become of this? As I am man, My state is desperate for my master’s love. As I am woman (now, alas the day!), What thriftless sighs shall poor Olivia breathe! O Time, thou must untangle this, not I. It is too hard a knot for me t’ untie. 17
SEBASTIAN: This is the air; that is the glorious sun. This pearl she gave me, I do feel ’t and see ’t. And though ’tis wonder that enwraps me thus, Yet ’tis not madness. Where’s Antonio, then? I could not find him at the Elephant. Yet there he was; and there I found this credit, That he did range the town to seek me out. His counsel now might do me golden service. For though my soul disputes well with my sense That this may be some error, but no madness, Yet doth this accident and flood of fortune So far exceed all instance, all discourse, That I am ready to distrust mine eyes And wrangle with my reason that persuades me To any other trust but that I am mad— Or else the lady’s mad. Yet if ’twere so, She could not sway her house, command her followers, Take and give back affairs and their dispatch With such a smooth, discreet, and stable bearing As I perceive she does. There’s something in ’t That is deceivable. But here the lady comes.
The humors provide useful characterization tools in many of Shakespeare’s plays. References to Elizabethan Humors and their related physiological and psychological elements are embedded throughout Twelfth Night. Once actors recognize these references, they can use the clues to help guide their interpretations of the roles as well as their understanding of Shakespeare’s rich language: In Act III, Scene 2, Maria (Olivia’s Lady in Wait), Sir Toby Belch (Olivia’s Uncle), and Sir Andrew Aguecheek make quite a few references to the sanguine and choleric humors in conversation. In one case, Sir Toby declares Sir Andrew’s lack of blood and the Sanguine Humor: Never trust me then; and by all means stir on the youth to an answer. I think oxen and wainropes cannot hale them together. For Andrew, if he were opened and you find so much blood in his liver as will clog the foot of a flea, I’ll eat the rest of the anatomy. (Act 3 Scene 2) Only a few lines later in the scene, Maria enters and grabs the attention of the pair, calling them to follow in order to partake in the violent and vengeful joke they are about to play on Malvolio: If you desire the spleen, and will laugh yourselves into stitches, follow me: yond gull Malvolio is turned heathen, a very renegado; for there is no Christian, that means to be saved by believing rightly, can ever believe such impossible passages of grossness. He’s in yellow stockings. (Act 3 Scene 2)
Sebastian, Viola’s twin brother. Costume design by Linda Cho.
ELIZABETHAN HUMORS Humorism is a now an antiquated theory of medicine based on the works of ancient Greek and Roman theologians. While Shakespeare was writing his plays in the 16th and 17th centuries, Humorism and its tenants dominated medical thought and guided the popular understanding of human physiology and psychology. At the heart of Humorism are four elemental fluids, or “humors,” that fill the body. Each fluid corresponds to an organ of the human anatomy and relates to specific facets of a person’s temperament and health. Healthy people were believed to have balanced amounts of the four humors in their bodies, while disease or disability was thought to be caused by an excess or deficiency of one or more humors. By Shakespeare’s time, the humors and their associations were fairly standardized. Elizabethans believed each humor generated personal qualities and characteristics.
Hot and Moist
amorous, happy, generous, optimistic, irresponsible
Hot and Dry
violent, vengeful, short-tempered, ambitious
Cold and Moist
sluggish, pallid, cowardly
Cold and Dry
introspective, sentimental, gluttonous
QUESTIONS: • How would you use Humorism to describe Olivia’s character? By what humors does she seem most influenced at the beginning of the play and at the end? • Describe Sir Toby Belch’s and Sir Andrew Aguecheek’s personalities. What are these characters’ dominant humors? • Which humor’s personal characteristics best describe you? Do traits from more than one category reflect your personality?
SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Everyday Shakespeare Get more at ease with Shakespeare’s language by applying iambic pentameter to everyday statements and questions. A line of iambic pentameter has ten syllables that can be broken into five pairs of unstressed and stressed syllables in the following pattern: Ta-DUM ta-DUM ta-DUM ta-DUM ta-DUM As a class, sit in a circle and hold a conversation by passing sentences around that scan (meaning follow the rhythmic pattern) of iambic pentameter. For example: A: May I please have another piece of pie? B: Of course. You did not have to ask for it. C: I’ll get the coffee ready while I’m up. D: Please don’t forget the sugar and the cream. And so on. As the exercise continues, you will become more accustomed to the rhythm of the language and will develop greater comfort with reading plays written in verse. 19
Humor Game As previously discussed, Elizabethan psychology drew heavily on the theory of humors that governed a person’s temperament and even sometimes their physical appearance. Unbalanced humors could lead to illness or prompt a person to behave in certain ways. a. Reviewing the qualities associated with the different humors. As a class, begin walking around the room at a comfortable pace and with an easy, casual posture. Then begin improvising the execution of simple household activities such as sweeping the floor, making a bed, washing windows, putting away dishes, etc. The teacher or leader will call out a particular humor: sanguine, melancholic, phlegmatic, or choleric. Continue your household activities, but in a way that reflects the nature of the selected humor. Think about how the humor is affecting you, both in terms of your physical rhythms and how you feel about the task they are engaged in. Do this for all four humors. b. In groups of four, improvise a scene from a simple scenario (for example, the group arrives to dinner at a restaurant but the reservation has been lost, the group arrives for a party at a hotel but the wrong date was booked and no rooms are available). Each actor draws a card, each of which has one of the four humors written on it. Then play out the scenario in a character based on the humor drawn. At the end of the scene discuss: • Did the actors generate a recurring set of responses to the situation or to the other characters? • How did the emotions behind each character influence each character’s objectives? • Do any well-known characters come to mind that exhibit similar behaviors to those in the humor-based scene?
Creating a World on Stage Illyria is a world of excess and extremes where anything goes. For this Hartford Stage production, set designer, Alexander Dodge created a lush, topiary labyrinth to communicate the sense of confusion and beauty. What is your interpretation of Illyria? On a sheet of paper, draw a sketch of your ideas for a set design for Twelfth Night. Incorporate these locations in the script: • Duke Orsino’s Palace • The sea-coast • A street in Illyria • Inside Olivia’s house • Olivia’s garden • A street outside Olivia’s house What colors or textures would you use to create this world? Do you envision a literal or an abstract world? Think about how the environment you create will support the sense of the Twelfth Night holiday. The director and designers of this production chose to use the 1920s in America as an inspiration. Research this era: what were the shapes and sounds of the 20s? What elements of the 20s did you find in the production? 20
Imagine that you are directing Twelfth Night. When and where would you place it? Choose a place or time period for inspiration, and create a collage of images (from magazines, newspapers, photographs, internet research, etc.) of the time period. Share your ideas with the rest of the class.
Telegram Monologues Many of the speeches in Twelfth Night include complex grammatical constructs that can be confusing to the reader on first glance. Actors performing in plays like Twelfth Night must ensure that they thoroughly understand the through-line of their characters’ thoughts and communicate that clearly to the audience. The following exercise will help you to find the core meaning of a speech by reducing it down to its most essential words. These words are the skeleton of the speech; if one or more words were removed, the speech would lose its meaning. Try rewriting the following monologues, using only the words that are absolutely necessary. For example: CAPTAIN. True, madam; and, to comfort you with chance, Assure yourself, after our ship did split, When you, and those poor number sav’d with you, Hung on our driving boat, I saw your brother, Most provident in peril, bind himself,—Courage and hope both teaching him the practice,— To a strong mast that liv’d upon the sea; Where, like Arion on the dolphin’s back, I saw him hold acquaintance with the waves So long as I could see. (I.12.8-17) Would become: CAPTAIN. Madam to comfort you Assure yourself, after our ship split, When you, those sav’d with you, Hung on our boat, I saw your brother, in peril, bind himself,-Courage and hope -To a strong mast Where, I saw him hold So long as I could see. (I.12.8-17) Try these: VALENTINE. So please my lord, I might not be admitted, But from her handmaid do return this answer: The element itself, till seven years’ heat, 21
Shall not behold her face at ample view; But like a cloistress she will veiled walk, And water once a-day her chamber round With eye-offending brine: all this to season A brother’s dead love, which she would keep fresh And lasting in her sad remembrance. (I.1.25-33) VIOLA. There is a fair behavior in thee, captain; And though that nature with a beauteous wall Doth oft close in pollution, yet of thee I will believe thou hast a mind that suits With this thy fair and outward character. I pray thee, and I’ll pay thee bounteously, Conceal me what I am; and be my aid For such disguise as, haply, shall become The form of my intent. I’ll serve this duke; Thou shalt present me as an eunuch to him; It may be worth thy pains, for I can sing, And speak to him in many sorts of music, That will allow me very worth his service. What else may hap to time I will commit; Only shape thou silence to my wit. (I.2.49-63) DUKE. There is no woman’s sides Can bide the beating of so strong a passion As love doth give my heart: no woman’s heart So big to hold so much; they lack retention. Alas, their love may be called appetite,— No motion of the liver, but the palate,— That suffer surfeit, cloyment, and revolt; But mine is all as hungry as the sea, And can digest as much: make no compare Between that love a woman can bear me And that I owe Olivia. (II.4.94-104) OLIVIA. Will it be ever thus? Ungracious wretch, Fit for the mountains and the barbarous caves, Where manners ne’er were preach’d! Out of my sight! Be not offended, dear Cesario!— Rudesby, be gone!—I pr’ythee, gentle friend, (Exeunt SIR TOBY, SIR ANDREW, and FABIAN.) (To SEBASTIAN) Let thy fair wisdom, not thy passion, sway In this uncivil and unjust extent Against thy peace. Go with me to my house, 22
And hear thou there how many fruitless pranks This ruffian hath botch’d up, that thou thereby Mayst smile at this: thou shalt not choose but go; Do not deny. Beshrew his soul for me, He started one poor heart of mine in thee. (IV.2.34-46)
12-minute 12th Night Twelfth Night has a complicated plot with lots of twists and turns. Working in small groups, try telling the story of Twelfth Night in 12 minutes or less, covering only the most important plot points. Start by having each group work on a summary of each subplot: • • • •
Sebastian and Antonio Viola and Orsino Viola and Olivia Maria, Sir Toby, Sir Andrew and Malvolio
Once you have each subplot outlined, work as a whole group to put the pieces in order and determine which parts of the story are most important to tell. Assign parts and act out the entire play. Time it! See if you can cut it down any further. How much can you cut it down without cutting out anything that is crucial to the story?
Free Writing Choose one of the following prompts and write a response in your journal. 1) One of the most famous lines in Twelfth Night is “Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.” Do you agree or disagree? Why? 2) Think about the prank that Sir Andrew, Sir Toby, and Maria play on Malvolio. Do they take it too far? Have you ever played a practical joke on someone or had one played on you? How did it feel? How do you think Malvolio feels? How do Sir Andrew, Sir Toby, and Maria feel when Malvolio swears revenge at the end of the play? 3) Orsino listens to music when he feels lovesick. What music do you listen to when you’re feeling sad? When you’re feeling happy? How does music affect our moods? If you were choosing songs for the soundtrack to a film version of Twelfth Night, what songs would you include?
MACBETH SEPTEMBER 14-NOVEMBER 10, 2013 By William Shakespeare • Directed by Darko Tresnjak
STUDENT TICKETS NOW ON SALE! Contact Chelsea Caplan at 860-524-7244 or email@example.com 23
REFERENCES “17th Century.” n.d. timetoast. 2 May 2013. <http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/95361>. “1920s News, Events, Popular Culture, and Prices.” 2013. The People History. 2 May 2013. <http:// www.thepeoplehistory.com/1920s.html>. “1920’s Timeline.” n.d. timetoast. 2 May 2013. <http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/37604>. Barber, C.L. Shakespeare’s Festive Comedy: A Study of Dramatic Form and its Relation to Social Custom. New York: Meridan Books, 1959. “French ship Thérèse.” 2011. Wikipedia. 2 May 2013. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_ship_ Th%C3%A9r%C3%A8se_(1665)>. Gibson, Rex. Cambridge Student Guide: Twelfth Night. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. “Queen Elizabeth I Timeline.” n.d. History Timelines. 2 May 2013. <http://www.history-timelines.org. uk/people-timelines/06-queen-elizabeth-i-timeline.htm>. Services, United States Department of Health and Human. “The Great Pandemic.” n.d. 2 May 2013. <http://www.flu.gov/pandemic/history/1918/>. Shakespeare, William. No Fear Shakespeare: Twelfth Night. Ed. John Crowther. New York: Spark Publishing, 2003. Shakespeare, William. “Twelfth Night, Or What You Will.” The RSC Shakespeare William Shakespeare Complete Works. Ed. Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen. New York: The Modern Library, 2007. 645697. Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night. n.d. 9 May 2013. <http://www.wpsu.org/edservices/12th/index.html>. Spradley, Dana. “Twelfth Night Dramatis Personae.” 2000. shakespeare.com. 9 May 2013. <http:// shakespeare.nowheres.com/FirstFolio/TWELFTH_NIGHT/>. “The 1920’s - It’s Prosperity and Demise.” 2011. America’s Best History. 2 May 2013. <http:// americasbesthistory.com/abhtimeline1920.html>. “Twelfth Night.” 2013. Wikipedia. 2 May 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twelfth_Night>. “Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare.” 2010. Project Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. 9 May 2013. <http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=1446018>. “Twelve Days of Christmas and Twelfth Night.” 2013. Religion Facts. 9 May 2013. <http://www. religionfacts.com/christianity/holidays/twelfth_night.htm>. “William Shakespeare Timeline 1531-1592.” 2005. William Shakespeare info. 5 May 2013. <http://www. william-shakespeare.info/william-shakespeare-timeline-1531-1592.htm>. “William Shakespeare Timeline 1593-1646.” 2005. William Shakespeare info. 2 May 2013. <http://www. william-shakespeare.info/william-shakespeare-timeline-1593-1646.htm>. For more information about education programs at Hartford Stage, please call 860-520-7244 or email firstname.lastname@example.org Contributing Editor Aurelia Clunie Education Programs Associate With Contributions by Alexandra Truppi Joseph Entenman Education Intern Emely Larson Training Programs Manager Nina Pinchin Associate Director of Education
Jennifer Roberts Director of Education
Study Guide for Twelfth Night