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Next Active Facades

TU Delft, International Facade Masters, June 2012 Harshad P Shitole


Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Title: Detailed application of NEXT Active Facade.

Delft, June 28th 2010 Writing author: Harshad Shitole (student no. 4121570) Tutors: Dipl.ing. T. Klein (Main Tutor) Eric van den Ham (2nd Tutor)

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Preface

This thesis is performed as the finalization of the master degree of the master Building Technology – track Façade Design – at the faculty of Architecture. The topic is about the NEXT Active façade and its detailed application. This final report is the result of the master thesis. The graduation project started in Nov 2011 and included a broad literature study on the background of decentralized systems. The concept of decentralized climate system is comparatively new but it is widely becoming popular especially in Western Europe. This report unfolds the concept of NEXT Active facade with respect to the application of the system in aa given condition. The project has been very challenging and in the end quite satisfying for me and forms a nice ending of my study period in Delft. I would like to thank Roger Cremer from Alcoa, Piet Brosens from TROX and Bertus van den Brink from Somfy for their time and input for this research. As a part of my thesis I conducted Architects interviews. I would like to thank Arie Bergsma (Partner at GAAGA Teacher / researcher at TU Delft), Frank Schnater (Owner at RSW Architecten, lecturer and staff member at TU Delft), Chris de Weijer (Director, DP6 Architects, Delft), Robert Platje(Architect at SPEE Architecten, Rotterdam) and Joost Heijnis (Architect at CEPEZED) for their valuable time and knowledge inputs for my research. Finally, the completion of this thesis would have been impossible without the help of my dedicated mentors so special thanks to Tillmann Klein and Eric van de Ham. Enjoy reading!

Harshad Shitole 28th of June 2012, Delft, The Netherlands

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

6

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

CONTENT 1. Preface

5

2. Introduction

9

Concept - NEXT Active facade Problem statement Scope of study Research objective Research question Structure of study

3. Background Research

Comparison - Decentralized/ Centralized system TROX case study DeAL Study

3.1. Understanding the Products

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19

TROX procucts / Units

3.2. Understanding the existing systems

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Schuco - E2 Facade Schuco - 2degree Facade Wincoa - TE Motion Facade Smartbox Capricon house Evaluation of the systems Comparative overview

4. Analysis 4.1. Understanding the Need (Architects Interviews) 4.2. Understanding functional feasibility

38 38

40

5.2. Redesign - de Studio, Amsterdam

54

5.3. Redesign - Polaris, Groningen

67

Requirement calculations Selection of products Placement of TROX units Climate concepts Sunscreening options

Existing Scenario Architects proposal Proposal with NEXT Selection of products

6. Energy performance calculations

76

7. Conclusion

85

8. Reflection

85

9. Bibliography

87

10. Appendices

89

Input / assumptions Installations Energy distribution Energy consumption comparison Results

10.1. Appendix I (Architects Interviews 1st round)

90

10.2. Appendix II (Architects Interviews 2nd round)

101

10.1. Appendix III (Detail drawings de Studio with NEXT)

105

Office Elderly homes Hotels Hospitals Schools Comparative overview

5. Application 5.1. Building case study - de Studio Introduction Location Existing scenario Architects proposal

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

8

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Subject Title: Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

more efficient and acceptable in the future. (Reference - Somfy)

Concept ‘NEXT’ Façade : NEXT system is not a product but an idea. It is an open system or

2. Introduction : Building envelope and building services have a very big influence on the building comfort. Both of them combine to 40-50% of building cost. In some cases it really makes sense to combine those two depending on the use and type of the building. In past few years the concept of Decentralised Ventilation System (DVS) is becoming popular specially in western Europe because of the flexibility it provides when it comes to spacial planing inside the building as compared to the conventional centralised solutions. Post 2000 more than 50 buildings have been realized in Western Europe. With new trends in façade there is demand for additional modern systems to be added like heat recovery units, which

a tool box like desktop computers with several modules we can choose from depending on the requirement of the building or client. So with the help of this toolbox we can have almost any solution with or even without the services depending on the requirements. In the most advanced form NEXT Active Façades a decentralized system, each user allows the climate on his / her work as needed to control via the PC. Once a workstation is unoccupied, the system can instantly switch to the optimum ‘power mode’. Many of the times in the process, different parties (contractors, sub-contractors and suppliers) who are involved take responsibility of only there product/ services. So the communication between these different parties is usually a problem. Clients ofcourse want one party to take up all the responsibility.

makes already complex building element more complex. There are already some examples of systemised/customized products like 1. E2 Façade prototype by Schuco, 2. 2 Degree system by Schuco 3. ‘Smart Box’ by Cepezed Architects, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), TNO Bouw & Ondergrond, 4. ‘TEmotion’ by Hydrobuilding systems, 5. Integrated façade for ‘Capricorn house’ by Schossing and Gatermann. 6. RADIX building in Wageningen by DP6 Architects There are certain disadvantages of these systemised solutions like limited design possibilities, high maintenance cost, complex control system and different systemised solutions need to be applied for different types of buildings and as these units are quite delicate the cooling load at night is very limited. Compared to the automobile industry where no. of cars are manufactured with the system which are optimised and tested for n no. of times, in the building industry where façade solutions for

NEXT promises exactly the same. NEXT can be the desired one point contact when it comes to system supply or facade building. For that NEXT need to come early in the picture, so that it can advise Architects or facade consultants at very beginning of developing concepts. The best possible scenario will be NEXT taking all the responsibility of consulting and contracting with only one point of contact which will make the whole complex construction process very simple.

each and every building needs to be different but the system still

Client/ Investor

has to be reliable which is a big problem. Complex systems in buildings are always a hassle which leads to complex control sys-

Architect

tems. To overcome this problem we need special solutions like specialised software to control the services like cooling, lighting, sun shading etc. which will make these decentralised solutions

9 Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept. Graduation

Client/ Investor

General Contractor

Consultants

Facade Builder

Architect

NEXT

General Contractor

Facade Builder

NEXT

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Possible Topics 1. Information Flow / stakeholder’s responsibility - Understanding the design process for standard and new integrated concepts - Architects opinion on the system. - Making different design cases - Interview with the parties involved - Conclusion - how it should work? Who to hire? How to communicate? Stakeholders responsibilities/ expectations? 2. Physical construction - Architects/facade builders opinion on the system The communication program written by Eric van den Ham is 1st

- Finding out limitations of the system

step in communicating.

- Using existing casestudies finding out typical problems in construction which are different every time. - Making different design cases

Problem statement : As NEXT Active facade is still just an idea there are still a lot of problems which need to be solved. First of which is the information flow between the players involved and the stakeholder’s responsibilities. The unique selling point of NEXT Active facade is its one point contact for Architects and Clients/Developers. Which means NEXT team will take all the responsibility from consulting Architects to system supplying to facade building, which is quite a complex management issue for which the information flow and responsibilities of all the players involved need to be sorted out after analysing their roles in facade building process. The second thing which need to be addressed is the actual construction of the system. NEXT need to figure out the details of the system and its connection with the building for different configurations of the embedded functional systems. There has been a number of service integrated facade products available in market, for example- Schuco, Smartbox system etc. but these systems are not adapted in commercial market. One of the reason can be the conservative approach of the building industry, also because the high level of technicalities in these products scare off Architects. Even if Architects get convinced to use these products in their projects, there aren’t enough

- Rough estimate of the concept and detail design - Use case study of existing building and redesign it with NEXT system - Prepare detail design (Drawings/ calculations) - Conclusion – Advise to the product development 3. Architecture and Climate design - Testing the tool to deeper level. - Getting initial group of solutions from the tool and then start designing in detail. - Decision matrix - which component needed for which type of building. - Extensive calculation and finding the limit of the concept. - Architect’s reaction on having a tool box - Conclusion – Advantages of NEXT system to the standard process of façade building. Even we chalked out three different Areas of study many of the tasks would over lap with each other such as knowing the opinion of Architect and players involved, getting reaction to the toolbox, understanding the conventional and integrated design process. So finally we decided to focus on one topic but having some overview of others.

convincing decision making tools available to convince the clients/ developers, as clients and developers do not want to do the huge initial investments for decentralise solutions instead of centralised solutions if they are not sure about the payback

Information Flow / stakeholder’s

Physical construction

responsibility

in terms of money/ energy saving in future considering the lifespan of the building.

Scope of study : After extensive 1st discussion in a meeting with Tillmann Klein

Architecture/ Climate design

and Eric van den Ham we came to conclusion that there could be three different direction of study.

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Research objective :

Structure of study : 1. Understanding the design process for standard and new

- To understand the pros and cons of the state of the art sys-

integrated concepts by taking industry inputs.

tems.

2. Exploring the NEXT system/ toolbox and finding out the

- To understand the whole concept behind NEXT Active facade

limitations

system and enhance it in terms of integration of services and

3. Architect’s reaction on NEXT concept and the tool box.

flexibility of design.

4. Study of different existing buildings which use decentralised

- To examine the practical applicability of the NEXT system.

ventilation system and finding out the typical construction problems.

Main research question :

5. Understanding the need of the Market. 6. Use case studies of existing building and redesign it with

How can the concept of NEXT Active Facade as a design flexible solution can be practically applied to given conditions?

NEXT system. 7. Prepare detail design (Drawings/ calculations) 8. Energy performance study. 9. Conclusion - Advantages or disadvantages of NEXT over

Sub question :

standard façade and advice for further product development.

1. What are the pros and cons of existing systemized decentral-

10. Advise to NEXT for further product development.

ized solutions available in the market? 2. What are the the Architects expectations and openions from

Deliverable :

NEXT Active facade?

1. Redesign of 2 case studies / Drawings / calculations

3. What are the technical hurdles in application of NEXT Active

2. Advises for the further product development or research.

facade? 4. Where it needs more product development to make it a better system?

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

3. Background Research Decentralised vs Centralised

TROX Case study In recent times the there is a trend of using decentralised ventilation solution in modern office buildings. So to understand the

Due to the changing requirements a trend in space and building

advantages and disadvantages TROX conducted this study taking

air conditioning is to have decentralised air conditioning or par-

the same reference building.

tial conditioning. These approaches, which have been developed

For the investigations a sample office Tower with 30 occupied

in the last few years, provide solutions for both heating and cool-

floors was selected. The orientation of the faรงades has crucial in-

ing. This is now proving popular in the latest modern offices. The

fluence on the heat loads from solar radiation and hence on the

main arguments for this technology are the high degree of flex-

cooling load required. Thus in the interests of producing gen-

ibility, the individual control as well as the local energy moni-

eralised results the sample tower building was assumed to be

toring and the small spatial requirements. Disadvantages of this

square with the same percentage glazing on each faรงade. It was

system are e.g. increased inlet temperatures from outside, con-

assumed the office floor was open plan and that the required

densation removal and above all maintenance.

temperature was the same over the whole floor.

Technical Concepts Centralised System When comparing the two options the centralised solution for office air conditioning is less suitable due to its higher energy and space requirements. Because of this, the comparison of the two systems is primarily based on conditioning the outside air and meeting the local internal temperature requirements by

With the central air processing plant option the outside air can

the distribution of conditioned air to the occupied spaces. The

be drawn from high level using for example, roof top pent house

energy transfer to cool a space in both cases uses water as the

louvres, whereas perimeter systems by their very nature must

prime source. In the central plant situation cold air is produced

draw air in from specific areas of the faรงade. This can result in

centrally and ducted to the individual rooms. With this solution

summer in higher inlet temperatures and hence higher energy

local/room temperature control and local system shut down can

demands for perimeter systems. Following graphs show com-

be provided but is not essential.

parison of energy required for both systems in cold and warm climate.

Decentralised System In order to have flexibility of space layout the floor plan is crucial. To provide a high degree of layout flexibility decentralised perimeter based systems offer major advantages. In the past, this type of system has only been used for ventilation and heating. In the last few years, the provision of cooling, dehumidification and air filtration have been introduced. Modern perimeter ventilation units also offer the possibility of heat recovery. Apart from the flexibility of the decentralised air conditioning systems, an individual can easily change the local temperature as required. The decentralised air conditioning system issues include concerns of acoustics, heat recovery, maintenance and

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade It is to be considered that the decentralised system has the advantage with respect to constructional complexity. The decentralised systems do not require the costs of the air distribution ducts, and the fire protection dampers that have to be fitted throughout the distribution duct system. The space requirement for the risers, a necessity with centralised air conditioning, is not needed with the decentralised system.

Figure 3 shows the primary energy required for perimeter ventilation equipment to condition outside air in comparison with a centralised system (with air inlet at high/roof level). The primary energy demand of both systems is almost equivalent. Shutting

By saving the false ceiling void and hence the resulting smaller

down the systems outside of normal working periods results in

slab to slab height the overall height of the sample building can

substantial energy-saving.

be reduced approx. 22 m whilst maintaining the same letable

As shown in figure 5 the conditioning of external air in the case

floor area. As the construction costs of a building increase linear-

of centralised plant (with roof mounted intakes) offers primary

ly with building height the benefit of this saving is approximately

energy advantages. In the case of perimeter systems when con-

20 % when comparing decentralised with centralised systems.

sidering office hours between 8.00 and 18.00 hours, the cooling

Figure 7 shows the economic comparison using the annual equiv-

energy required exceeds that for heating. Thus decentralised

alent annuity method. The yearly maintenance and capital costs,

systems can offer energy savings if the usage periods for indi-

which relate to heat recovery are compared with the achieved

vidual offices are concentrated in early and late shifts.

savings of heat recovery. The negative savings for decentralised systems in the variants 1, 3 and 5 have to be regarded as additional costs when compared with air conditioning without heat recovery. That is when heat recovery is used in these variants there is no cost saving rather that additional costs arise. Thus, the variants 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 in combination with a centralised heat recovery are economic. The minimal operational cost savings in comparison with the significant capital costs show that variant 5 is not an economic solution. With decentralised systems heat recovery can only be considered as economic in restricted applications. The influence of these costs on the profitability has been separately examined. The time required for maintenance of each piece of equipment was reduced from 10 min/a to 2 min/a. The results are plotted in figure 8. The decentralised systems with preheaters (variants 2, 4 and 6) require the least amount of time and energy. A further investigation based on a maximum allowed maintenance time of 6 min/a for each piece of equipment has yet to be evaluated. In practice, to achieve these low time rates maintenance can only take place once a year and it must therefore cover filter change, dust removal from the heat-transfer equipment and heat recovery devices at the same time.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

DeAL Study -

The project DeAL was funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology under the “sign for grant 0327386B”, by the Research Association for air- and drying Technology (FLT) and by the Heinz Trox Foundation.

In past few years the concept of Decentralised Ventilation System (DVS) is becoming popular specially in western Europe because of the flexibility it provides when it comes to spacial planing inside the building as compared to the conventional centralised solutions. Since the year 2000 more than six companies provide this type of ventilation systems for office buildings and about 50 buildings have been realized in Western Europe. Within a two year research project the evaluation study DeAL investigated 10 of these buildings in respect of: • how do the DVS operate in reality (reliability, energy consumption, noise etc.)? • are the users and operational staff satisfied with DVS? • are there advantages that can be quantified within the evaluation buildings? • what is the thermal comfort in these buildings? • is maintenance a problem with decentralized systems? • does the necessary “wholes” in the facade influence the building performance (wind, sound protection, water tightness...)? DeAL study gives the detail investigation report of the 10 buildings. DVS monitoring lasted for almost a year. (2008)

Approach Initially a market survey was carried out and the basic experience of the operators of buildings with DVS devices was interrogated via questionnaires and interviews. Secondly 10 buildings were investigated more exactly. Short-term and long-term (for one year) measurements were conducted, plan views and energy consumption were analysed and interviews of users were hold. Results 1. Operators survey

Types of decentralised ventilation devices.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

Satisfaction with the devices.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade An operators survey was carried out for 17 buildings 2005 and

The average electricity consumption of the building stated in the

2006. The aim of the survey was to collect data of the buildings

studies is 83 to 160 kWh / (m² NGFa). The reference value which

and their energy concepts in which DVS are in use. The overall

is drawn in comparison is the average value of the EVA study of

satisfaction of the operators with the decentralised ventilation

90 kWh / (m² NGFa). 204 is occupied by an insurance company

devices is high. Complaints occurred regarding mainly an exces-

and includes a computer centre with a high using-depending

sive noise emitted by the devices and the air temperature, (too

power consumption. In building 201, 203 and 205, a part of the

hot or too cold).

electricity consumption is used for the operation of the heat pump. It explains higher consumption in those buildings.

2. Energy efficiency - Heat 4. Space efficiency

final energy consumption – heat demand

The space efficiency of the buildings is here shown by the ratio of the area used for technical compliances (FF) and the main

Figure shows the annual heat consumption of the buildings with

usable area (HNF) to DIN 277. According to IFMA [6] and BKI [7]

decentralised ventilation technology related to the net floor

the area of efficiency in buildings with a medium technical

area and the results of various research projects (EVA 2006

equipment is 11.5% and 10.3%. The buildings with decentral-

[1], Schweiz 1999 [3], Frankfurt 2002 [4], enerkenn [5]). All this

ised ventilation are significantly more space efficient except two

makes apparent that the buildings with decentralized ventilating

buildings. Four of the buildings with decentralised ventilation

indicates a significantly low heat consumption, in comparison to

require about 5-8% less functional area and show the potential

the average office building with a central ventilation technology.

for efficiency. Higher values in 204,205 are partly due to the fact

The heat consumption of four buildings is about 50% below the

that, besides decentralized ventilation devices in these two

average of the EVA study. However, it should be noted that heat

buildings there are also considerable parts centrally ventilated

pumps are used in buildings 201, 203 and 205 to fulfil the de-

and some large ventilated garages.

mand, and they cover the heat consumption partly or as a whole 5. Comparison of the height between floors

with electricity. 3. Energy efficiency - Electricity

final energy consumption – electricity

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade The benefit of lower ceiling height possible in decentralised

The results demonstrated are very positive except for one build-

system hasn’t been implemented in the buildings, which were

ing. Within the accuracy of measurement the equipment meets

investigated for this study. It is likely that the concept of decen-

the requirement even with modified pressure losses due to dirty

tralized ventilation has been belatedly added in the preliminary

filters etc.. Investigations revealed that the devices in building

design, so that no adjustment has been carried out. Only the

201 were incorrectly configured, and about 50% more air flow

buildings 203 and 204 benefit from the lower height between

was generated. This was also the reason for increased noise pol-

the floors.

lution. Wind pressure on facade can also have some influance.

6. Comfort measurements - Long-term measurement of air

8. Comfort measurements - Noise emission of equipment at

temperature and humidity

workplace

Statistics of temperature distribution measuring period 1 year

Noise emissions from the ventilation devices at work

It can be seen, that besides a few exceptions barely excessive

The sound emissions of deactivated ventilation devices add up

heat in the summer exists (temperature> 26 ° C). There are sig-

to 28.5 to 33.5 dB. Looking at building 201 the limit of noise level

nificant periods under 20 ° C measured in building 205. This is

is significantly exceeded with 52.8 dB (A). This is due to a much

based on the fact of faulty adjusted sensors for ambient tem-

higher volume flow than designed. There are no workplaces in

peratures (also users made a complaint). Overall a very good

building 206, therefore, the limit for office buildings isn’t valid

thermal comfort in the offices is noted.

in this case. The noise emissions through the ventilation devices are evaluated very critically and also criticized by some users. In

7. Comfort measurements - Airflow

future, more attention has to be paid to quieter implementation of the devices. 9 .User Survey 10 to 20 standardized and anonymous questionnaires per building were distributed to carry out user survey. Air quality, temperature and overall satisfaction were judged very positive. Smell and draught did not occur. The only critical comments from users are due to dry air and noise. 10. Maintenance and filter change Comparing the measured volume flow with the manufacturer’s specifications.

Determination of the maintenance costs based on the maintenance contracts is not possible. Either there are no maintenance contracts, because the maintenance is made by the technical facility management (FM) of the operator or the maintenance is as a total package assigned to sub-contractors, so that no conclusions regarding the maintenance costs of decentralised ventila-

Volume flow meter

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

tion devices are possible.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

Scope of developement (Relevent to product developement of NEXT) 1. Decision to install DVS in building should not be belated as it can reduce the building height and effectively saving the construction cost. 2. Faulty sensors and incorrectly configured devices can hamper the performance of the system so special care is needed. 3. Some product developement needed to reduce the noise levels. 4. Humidification and dehumidification capacity of the product need to be improved. 5. Individual control has not been used in the studied buildings, partly also because of open plan of offices. To extract the maximum out of these system individual control need to be used whereever possible. 6. Wind pressure and temperature differences on facade can infualce the performance. Some product developement is needed in this area.

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

3.1 Understanding the existing systems : TROX Decentralising ventilation systems and mounting them into or onto the façade brings advantages in terms of design, comfort, and economics to many projects. The space requirement for plant rooms and ducts is no longer required or reduced drastically. This has considerable influence on the slab to slab room height and thus on the entire building investment. For new construction projects, innovative project-specific ventilation systems that offer great flexibility and energy-efficiency are available using façade ventilation units. Since façade ventilation units

Decentralised supply air

require no central air handling plant, they are often the only and ideal solution for the refurbishment of an existing building with ventilation and air conditioning systems. Decentralised supply air – Centralised extract air Façade ventilation units maintain the air quality in rooms by supplying fresh air to the room. In the simplest case, static inflow units let as much air flow into the room as will be removed by the powered extract air system. Supply air units that have a fan allow controlled ventilation with a regulated or limited fresh air flow rate. The fresh air can also be tempered and filtered. The extract air is removed at floor level by room or groups of room using a central extract air system. Application example: refurbishment for the improvement of the indoor air quality using the existing extract air system.

Decentralised supply and extract air

Decentralised supply air and extract air - The entire ventilation is decentralised. A very good indoor air quality is achieved using façade ventilation units since they supply conditioned fresh air directly to the room. Air treatment and air handling are combined in a single unit. Air treatment is performed to meet the project-specific requirements and conditions. Even the room extract air is exhausted to the outside using the façade ventilation unit. For this purpose, combined supply and extract air units are available. Application example: New construction or refurbishment with decentralised ventilation technology. Secondary air - Rooms and zones with high thermal loads are

Secondary air

only supplied with the fresh air flow rate required to maintain the air quality. Any heating or cooling capacities required beyond this can be provided with secondary/recirculation air units. They can effectively supplement both decentralised and centralised ventilation systems. Application example: New construction, refurbishment, or retrofit. Large zones - For the ventilation of large zones, a combination of

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

Large zones

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Functions Supply air module The supply air fan provides fresh air, which is filtered and tempered and is then discharged in the room. it is made out of Nonreturn damper, Shut-off damper, Fine dust filter, Flow rate controllers, Fan, Sound attenuator

Phase change material (PCM) module In daytime operation, the warm fresh air passes through a PCM storage unit, where it is cooled and introduced into the room. This cooling process is effective until the previously solid PCM in the storage unit has liquefied as a result of the heat it has absorbed. In nighttime operation, the colder outdoor air passes through the unit and the PCM solidifies again and can thus be re-used to cool the room during the day.

Products There are two major types of decentralised ventilation units by TROX. 1. Under sill units Heat exchanger module The heat exchanger unit includes cooling and/or heating coils, control valves with actuator, shut-off valves, and a supply air temperature sensor. A condensate drip tray collects any condensate that occurs.

2. Under floor units 1. Under sill units In-flow or out-flow units : Type FSL-B-60

Exhaust air module The exhaust air fan removes the air from the room and discharg-

Features -

es it to outside. This module constitutes of Coarse dust filter,

- Natural ventilation with good acoustic performance

Sound attenuator, Fan, Non-return damper, Shut-off damper.

- Installation below or above a window or in walls - Uncontrolled ventilation - Manually operated air discharge control cylinder - Lined with thermal/acoustic material - Dimension: W: 200 – 3000 mm · H: 60 mm · D: 140 – 600 mm - Airflow: 3 – 42 l/s · 10 – 150 m³/h at 12 Pa differential pressure

Heat recovery With a heat exchanger for heat recovery, a portion of the heat in the exhaust air is transferred to the fresh air. As appropriate

In-flow or out-flow units Supply or extract air units : Type FSL-B-100

from an energy standpoint, during transition periods and to avoid freezing in the heat recovery unit a damper is used to bypass the heat recovery unit.

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Features -

Features -

- Natural or mechanical ventilation with

- Supply air and recirculated secondary air modes possible

- good acoustic performance

- CO2-neutral cooling without refrigerants

- Project bespoke construction

- With air heater

- Installation below, above or to the side of the window

- Project bespoke dimensions

- Modular design:

- Ideal for refurbishment

- Base casing for installation during construction phase

- Dimension : W: 1200 mm · H: 600 mm · D: 300 mm

- Modular inserts for subsequent fitting

- Airflow : up to 42 l/s · up to 150 m³/h fresh air

- Lined with thermal/acoustic material

- Cooling capacity : approx. 280 W when used for 5 hours

- Fine dust filter available

- Heating capacity : up to 2000 W

- Dimension: W: 1000 – 3000 mm· H: 100 mm · D: 230 – 600 mm - Air flow: 8 – 22 l/s · 30 – 80 m³/h fresh air

Supply and extract air units (ZAB) and secondary air units (SEK)

Supply and extract air units (ZAB) : Type FSL-B-190

Features :

Features :

- Mechanical ventilation with good acoustic performance With

- Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery

heat recovery

- Secondary air unit (SEK) for dealing with thermal loads

- Option with heat exchanger for heating and cooling

- Heat exchanger for heating and cooling

- Under sill installation or installation under a window

- Under sill installation

- Modular design: Base casing for installation during construc-

- Quasi displacement flow

tion phase

- Energy efficient radial flow fans

- Modular inserts for subsequent fitting

- Controlled/limited fresh air flow rate independent of wind

- Can also provide static heating

pressure

- Dimension : W: 1200 mm · H: 190 mm · D: 450 – 600 mm

- Low sound power level

- Air flow: 17 – 33 l/s · 60 – 120 m³/h fresh air

- Dimension: W: 1200 mm · H: 630 mm · D: 320 mm

- Cooling capacity up to 560 W

- Airflow : 28 – 33 l/s · 100 – 120 m³/h fresh air (ZAB)

- Heating capacity up to 1735 W

- Cooling capacity up to 780 W, SEK: 580 W - Heating capacity to 1780 W, SEK: 790 W

Supply air units with phase change material : Type FSL-B-PCM Supply air units with secondary air function (ZUS)

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Features -

2. Under Floor Units

- Mechanical ventilation - Installation on the sill beside the window

Supply and extract air units : Type FSL-U-ZAB

- Quasi displacement flow with 2-way air discharge - Heat exchanger for heating and cooling - Energy efficient radial flow fan - Fan speed control in 3 steps - Controlled/limited fresh air flow rate independent of wind pressure - Low sound power level - Dimension : W: 352 mm · H: 1880 mm · D: 301 mm

Features :

- Airflow : 21 l/s · 75 m³/h fresh air

- Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery

21 – 58 l/s · 75 – 210 m³/h supply air

- Heat exchanger for heating and cooling

- Cooling capacity up to 835 W

- Static heating possible

- Heating capacity up to 2150 W

- Quasi displacement flow - Controlled/limited fresh air flow rate independent of

Supply and exhaust air units with secondary air function (ZAS)

wind pressure - Dimensions : W: 1200 mm · H: 200 mm · D: 500 mm - Air flow : 16 – 33 l/s · 60 – 120 m³/h fresh air - Cooling capacity up to 560 W - Heating capacity up to 800 W Supply air units with secondary air function : Type FSL-U-ZUS

Features : - Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery - Façade integrated modular design: Base casing for installation

Features:

during construction phase

- Mechanical ventilation

- Modular inserts for subsequent fitting

- Heat exchanger for heating and cooling

- Quasi displacement flow

- Quasi displacement flow

- Heat exchanger for heating and cooling

- Energy efficient radial flow fan

- Supply and extract air mode, mixing with secondary (induced)

- Fan speed controlled in 3 steps

air, and full secondary (recirculated) air modes are possible

- Controlled/limited fresh air flow rate independent of wind

- Energy efficient radial flow fans

pressure

- Fan speed controlled in 3 steps

- Dimensions : W: from 1100 mm·H:180–230mm·D:550–640 mm

- Controlled/limited fresh air flow rate independent of

- Airflow : 22 – 33 l/s · 80 – 120 m³/h fresh air

wind pressure

22 – 56 l/s · 80 – 200 m³/h supply air

- Dimensions : W: 1065 mm · H: 1065 mm · D: 195 mm

- Cooling capacity up to 930 W

- Air flow16 – 33 l/s · 60 – 120 m³/h fresh air

- Heating capacity up to 1330 W

- Cooling capacity up to 460 W - Heating capacity up to 800 W - Reference project : CAPRICORN Haus, Düsseldorf, Germany

22

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Secondary air units : Type FSL-U-SEK

Features : - For dealing with thermal loads - Heat exchanger for heating and cooling - Quasi displacement flow - Energy efficient radial flow fan - Low sound power level - Dimension: W: from 1200 mm · H: 212 mm · D: 340 mm - Airflow : 22 – 83 l/s · 80 – 300 m³/h supply air - Cooling capacity up to 792 W - Heating capacity up to 1613 W

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Façade

3.2 Study of Existing Systems E2 Façade prototype by Schuco Description of the system The E2 stands for energy saving and energy production. A realization of the concept has been exhibited at BAU 2007 in Munich. The mock-up presented here is in fact a conceptual realization of the concept, but Schüco is able to produce facades according the basic concept using their (newest) post-beam systems, multifunctional panels and decentralized climate units. All opening units in the façade system have a uniform appearance. The steering of the openings of the façade as well as the ventilation systems is done by a fully automatic system. The system monitors the CO2 level in the room, regulates the heating when the windows are open and controls the automatic night cooling. The façade profiles accommodate all the service and wiring systems and provide intuitive operating devices that have been integrated into the façade profiles. The façade combines the intelligent interplay of the four core functions of decentralized ventilation, integrated opening units areas, high-performance sun protection, and solar energy generation with modern thin-film technology. The Schüco E2 Façade is now one of the solution to the company’s overriding aim of offering sustainable and highly efficient solutions for the building envelope, while saving energy via heat insulation and at the same time generating energy, for example through photovoltaics. The highly integrated Schüco E² façade intelligently combines the building services with the building envelope using the modules for decentralised ventilation technology, high performance solar shading and solar energy generation. All service modules are concealed in front of the intermediate floor within the single-skin façade construction. In addition to integration in the Schüco SFC 85 façade with fixed lights and opening units appearing identical from both inside and outside, the integrated façade concept is also possible with other Schüco façades. The tried-and-tested Schüco FW50+.HI and FW60+.HI mullion/transom façades can be installed with a wide range of inward-opening window units. The externally mounted Schüco Solar shading CTB (Concealed Toughened Blind) consisting of anodised micro louvre blades is flush-fitted in the façade. Special glazing beads guide to the blinds.

24

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade It provides solar shading for tall buildings for wind speeds of up to 30 m/s (gale force storm). Complete shading from when the sun is at an angle of 20°. The shape of the blades ensures optimum transparency with maximum penetration of natural light. Different ventilation concepts are possible using the modular device design of Schüco IFV fans. Depending on individual requirements, the incoming air can be heated or cooled on a room-byroom basis, with or without heat recovery from the outgoing air. The individually adjustable system technology offers maximum comfort. The integration of the Schüco IFV fans in the installation space in front of the intermediate floor also allows design freedom for façades and interiors. At the same time, the investment and operating costs for the building are reduced - the duct system for building ventilation is not required, the storey heights are lowered, service areas are reduced and energy savings are made for heating and cooling. Façade-integrated photovoltaics and the resultant solar energy generation have a positive influence on the energy balance of a building. The photovoltaic modules, which can be inserted at full storey height and designed individually in terms of shape, colour and structure, can be translucent or transparent, e. g. in the visible part of the nonventilated façade. (Ref - Text and images / www.schuco.com) Advantages of the system - Sustainable by generating (PV cells) and saving energy (high insulation values) - Integration of functions - High comfort level because of individual control possibility Disadvantages of the system - Limited design possibilities due to a fixed layout - The system combines existing elements, so deals with the same problems as the current metalglass façade

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

25


Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Façade

2˚ Façade by Schuco Description of the system At BAU 2009 Schuco presented the new energy efficient facade system called 2˚ Concept. The aim is to restrict global warming to 2˚ Celsius. This will be achieved with an intelligent façade, which adjusts to its natural environment and, like nature, adapts to the changes in the seasons or the cycle of day and night. A hot day in August calls for quite different properties than a cold night in December. The 2˚ Concept can adjust to this and equips the building envelope with different functions as required – from thermal insulation using solar shading to energy generation with thin-film modules. What makes the 2° System unique are its dual energy-active components consisting of an adaptive system of functional layers and a thermally-active wall element. This layer system allows the adaption of the functions of a building’s façade to suit individual needs. The thermally-active wall element, with its integrated ventilation unit, reduces the amount of energy required to heat or cool rooms. Components : There are two basic energy-efficient components 1. The layer system 2. The thermally-active wall element The layer system consists of an insulation layer, a sunscreen layer and a photovoltaic layer, all of which run on a track system. 1. The Layer system: a. Insulation Layer The opaque insulation layer slides in front of the glass element when demand for thermal insulation, security or privacy increases. When the insulation layer is open, the U-value of a 2° System 2.500 mm x 2.500 mm size element is 0.60 W/m2K. Whilst a Uvalue of 0.5 W/m2K is achievable when the insulating element is closed. b. Sunscreen Layer On hot, sunny days the high-performance sunscreen layer considerably reduces the need for air conditioning. Aluminium micro-louvers, with a concave and convex cross-section, allow enough diffused light into the interior of the room to ensure sufficient illumination. Furthermore, the 35 % transparency provided by the screens ensures a strong link to the outside world even when they are closed. The sunscreen layer can even be slid into position at wind speeds of up to 30 m/s.

26

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade c. Photovoltaic Layer The photovoltaic layer features innovative thin-film technology. Amorphous silicon cells on the substrate that are vapor-deposited, provide an aesthetically pleasing homogeneous surface. Amorphous silicon cells utilize diffuse light, allowing this energyefficient technology to be used on west and east facing façades in addition to south facing façades. 2. The Thermally Active Wall The thermally active wall constitutes the second energy-effective component within the 2° System, the first being the mobile layer system. This can function in two ways: hybrid cooling with heat recovery and nocturnal cooling or passive cooling via phase change materials (PCM). How the thermally-active wall function • Hybrid ventilation • Passive cooling via phase change materials • Integrated ventilation equipment for 85 % heat recovery • Ventilation equipment suitable for 20/40 m3/h or 60/90 m3/h, depending on demand (Ref - Text and images / www.schuco.de ) Advantages of the system - Variable U Value for facade - Integration of PV - Use of PCM for heat recovery - It uses around 80 percent less energy for heating, cooling and

1 Ventilator 2 Heat recovery 3 Insulation

1 Ventilator 2 Heat recovery 3 PCM

air-conditioning than a 2009 German EnEV energy saving regulation reference project. Disadvantages of the system - Limited design possibilities due to a fixed layout - Not applicable for complete transparent facade solution.

Annual heating and cooling load – Reference Building

Annual heating and cooling load – with 2˚ system

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

27


Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Hydro Building Systems: TEmotion Description of the system One of the first in services integration in facade, TEmotion was developed in a multi diciplinary team by Hydro building systems. TEmotion is a synthesis of technology and emotion. The façade is built of a combination of glass elements in which sun shading and natural light improving elements are integrated and functional elements in which building services and solar cells are integrated. Those two elements together form an element, so the façade could be considered an element façade. The combination of the glass element and the functional element can be chosen freely to some extend. The raster of the system can be chosen freely, as can the relation between the number of glass elements and functional elements. Also depending on the size of the room, the office behind the façade needs at least one functional element to equip the room with sufficient ventilation, heating and cooling. Goal and possible applications of the façade system The façade aims to be energy-saving and to achieve a high level of a well-being for the users. The producers also want the façade to be a bridge between building technology and personal architecture. Other specific goals and features of the façade are: 1. Making the façade modular and use a plug-in wire technology (plug & play). By that the amount of wiring in the façade is reduced by up to 60% and the designers and users can chose whether or not they install a certain functional element from the beginning; it can be decided to add or remove elements in a later stage of the user phase. 2. Sustainability and self-sufficiency by using photovoltaic cells to produce electrical energy. Besides this the whole life cycle including recycling has been thought trough. 3. High quality guaranteed by prefabrication 4. Integrated control system; this leads to a reduction in used electronic control units. It controls the ventilation, heating and cooling system, the sun shading, the artificial lighting and the media. In the functional elements the integrated functions are: - Heating - Cooling - Ventilation (mechanical and natural) - Lighting (artificial) - Renewable energy generating systems - Media - Service management system

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade The mechanical ventilation, heating and cooling have been combined in one element produced by Trox. The sizes of this element are 0,30 m x 0,40 m x 1,30 m. The size of the service management system is 20 cm x 15 cm x 45 cm. The total depth of the façade is 45 cm. The figure shows the position of various element positions in the system. Advantages of the system - Integration of decentralized climate units and other functions, like energy gaining - Prefabrication of all elements guarantees a high quality - Reduction of the amount of wiring compared to other service integrated façade systems - Vertical organization of the façade functions, so easy to reach modules. Disadvantages of the system - Limited design possibilities due to a fixed layout; the system is an element façade that offers only six different possible configurations - The system combines existing façade elements with existing products, so deals with the same problems as the current metalglass façade

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

29


Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Smartbox Recuperative Climate Control System Description of the system The Smartbox is a decentral unit which controls the temperature and relative humidity in the space. It combines the functions of heating, cooling and ventilation. The unit is positioned at the floor edge as an integrated part of the facade and can be combined with various innovative facade panels. Goal and possible applications of the façade system: The project aimed to develop an ‘active’ façade concept that uses active and passive solar energy and intelligence in the façade. The result is a potential 50% reduction of building related energy use at market conformable prices, combined with improved comfort. Here are some product features mentioned in Smartbox Technical report: • Heat and moisture are recuperated with the enthalpy heat exchanger for ventilation air.

Smartbox recuperative climate control unit Source: Smartbox Technical report

• The heat pump controls the heating and cooling. Fresh air with the right temperature and humid-ity is delivered to the office. • The decentral system makes a complex and voluminous distribution system superfluous. • The absence of suspended ceilings makes the floor height smaller, saving 12 % in facade costs. • Installation costs are minimized by placing the system direct to the facade and using an electrical connection only.

changing the flow direction Source: Smartbox Technical report

• High energy savings. A combination of high effectiveness of the heat exchanger (> 90%) and high COP (>5) of the heat pump • Decentralizing the climate system minimizes “control losses” and gives control to the individual. • Switching the flows (infuse fresh air at ceiling ↔ at window) is possible by using the valves of the enthalpy exchanger. Making displacement ventilation possible for cooling and heating. • 100 % by-pass is possible for night cooling • optional adiabatic cooling • Potential energy savings 9 GJ/yr In order to combine those functions the decentralized unit is built from several elements: - The direction of the flows is controlled by an enthalpy exchanger (kind of heat exchanger developed by Recair). The enthalpy exchanger can regain moist from the exhaust ventilation air to bring the fresh ventilation air on the right humidity. Therefore the Smartbox only needs to be connected to an electrical network.

30

System schematic Source: Smartbox Technical report

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade - The cooling and heating are controlled by a heat pump. The heat pump delivers the power for heating and cooling the space, which can be done in combination with the heat exchanger with the ventilation air. - Adiabatic cooling is possible to save energy of the heat pump. Water supply is however necessary when is chosen to implement an adiabatic cooling device. Adiabatic cooling is cooling by vaporizing moist in the air without external supply of energy. In the Smartbox the waste air is cooled. The high effectiveness of the heat exchanger (air-air) makes it possible to cool the fresh air with the waste air (obviously without mixing the two air

Adiabatic cooling and Enthalpy exchanger Source: Smartbox Technical report

streams). - Fans ensure the ventilation of the space. The energy use is low. Specifications of the system : dimensions- width [mm] 1120 x height [mm] 350 x depth [mm] 400 flow - nominal [m3h-1] 100 maximum [m3h-1] 300 power - cooling [W] 1900, heating [W] 1100 effectiveness heat exchanger [%] 92 @ 100 m3h-1 exchange of latent heat [-] up to 2,5 * the ensible heat, depending on conditions. COP of heat pump individual [-] 5,5. COP of system [-] > 10, depending on the conditions, yearly avarage = 7 Position of unit and airflow schematic Source: Smartbox Technical report

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

potential energy savings

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Heating, cooling and ventilation with the Smartbox is energy effective due to: • The high effectiveness (> 90 %) of the enthalpy exchanger. • The possibility to exchange latent heat as well as sensible heat. • A heat pump with an individual COP of 5,5. • Smart using of the motorized valves. Choose the best flow schedule for all conditions. • The possibility of a 100 % by-pass The potential yearly energy savings depend on the climate. The highest savings can be reached in extreme climates. Especially in hot and wet climates the exchange of latent heat is energy effective. A second important advantage is the decrease of the maximum cooling or heating power of the sys-tem. For a typical Dutch office space in the Dutch moderate climate the energy use for heating and cooling and humidification and dehumidification has been assessed. An all electric system without recu-peration is compared to a Smartbox. The total yearly energy use without heat exchanger, including (de)humidification, is 590 kWhel and 352 kWhel for the Smartbox, both using a heat pump with an average COP of 5.5. The maximum power for the system without the heat exchanger is 359 Wel and only 165 Wel for the Smartbox, see fig. below. (Ref: images/text, Smartbox technical report and Arc hovels) Advantages of the façade system - The use of a very well functioning decentralized climate unit - Regular façade systems are used, so the planning of the façade is relatively free. - The use of adiabatic cooling and heating by electricity could loose the water input in the modules. Disadvantages of the façade system - The façade combines the smart box with existing techniques of façade panels; problems of the current system must be dealt

prychrometric diagram for a winter and a summer situation Source: Smartbox Technical report

with - The product is not developed after a point of time. Need certain improvements to adapt to certain constructions.

system performance in a typical Dutch office Source: Smartbox Technical report

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Schossig and Gatermann: Capricorn Haus The façade has been designed especially for the building, an office for the Capricorn institution. The building is supposed to be a low-energy building, which has been tried to achieve by the meander-form of the building plan and therefore possible implementation of atria, and the compact building form. Besides that the high insulation values, the use of decentralized building services, heat recovery and thermal active mass contribute to an energetically balanced building concept. The Integral Façade In this project’s active outer façade there are a number of newly developed components. The façade is made up from pre assembled elements with installed dimensions of 2.7 x 3.35 m. The perimeter grid modular size is 1.35 m. The configuration of the façade incorporating transparent and closed sections provides a balance between outward visibility and the reduction of internal loads due to solar gain. The closed panels, based on architectural requirements, provide a multifunctional role. They provide a combination of heating, cooling and ventilation functions by use of a decentralised ventilation unit and light through the top section of the panel which also includes a light fitting. The inner metallic surface of the panel is perforated to provide sound absorption. Layout The decentralised ventilation units of the type FSL-B-ZAU model Capricorn consist of a lower part which is firmly integrated into the façade and includes outdoor air and exhaust air dampers, then there is a function box above this. The system layout of units is shown in the ventilation schematic above. The individual components are shown below in the same way that they are located in the unit.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

33


Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Functions of the units in the facade

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Façade

The ‘i-modul Fassade’ has been developed by the architects of the building Gatermann and Schossig together with the firm Trox/FSL, so is specially designed for this building and is not a product from the catalogue. The module was based on the idea of the architects to produce a façade that helps to be free in the interior building planning by placing all kinds of building services inside the façade. The functions that have been placed inside this module are: - Individually controllable ventilation combined with heating, cooling and air circulation - Possibly night cooling In short, the outside air enters the module by a closable gap on the outside of the façade and goes through a fine dust filter, a volume flow limiter, a heat recovery unit (air-air heat exchange with the exhaust air), a ventilator and a heat exchanger to the room. The air enters the room trough a kind of grate in the parapet. The exhaust air leaves the room through a exhaust valve in the parapet and goes through a rough dust filter, a heat exchanger and a ventilator to the outside. The users of the façade can individually control the system. The picture here below gives a complete picture of the functioning of the module. Advantages of the system - Integration of building services and other functions in the façade zone, resulting in a free interior. - Unique appearance of the building Disadvantages of the system - The façade is not so much a system, but is tailored for one specific building; it is therefore hard to judge as a standard system.

34

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

Evaluation of the systems : All the systems studied are successful to integrate different functions in the facade depending on the requirements, specially the decentralised climate units. The system used in Capricon house was tailor-made for that specific building so it is difficult to compare it with other systems. Except for Capricon house all other systems were an attempt to make a standardised product to suit all kinds of buildings. There lies its strength and also weakness. The main vision behind all these standardised systems apart for the energy saving factor was to make these systems available in a catalogue format so that Architects or other decision makers can choose the system directly from the catalogue. All the systems are strategically placed, in most of the cases it is at the edge of the floor which gives the freedom of free interior planning. One of the advantage in most of the systems is the decentralised control systems which enables the personalised comfort levels along with helping in energy and cost savings. Almost all the systems( except Smartbox) use Trox as its main decentralised ventilation unit, so it is difficult to compare them in terms of performance as they will have similar performance. So the major area of comparison can be the flexibility and adaptability in terms of design. As in many cases the system are developed as a standardised solutions they are not flexible enough in terms of the geometrical adaptation to the building envelope. It may be one of the reason why Architects get repelled by all these ready to use products. It may become too technical for Architects to digest. One of the disadvantage might be a huge initial investment needed to opt for these system even if they pay back in long run.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

35


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Schuco E2  System

Decentralised System  

Schuco 2degree  system

Decentralised Unit  position

It’s the  whole  façade  system,  partly  opaque  and  partly   transparent.  Working  together  the  two  energy-­‐efficient   components  –  the  layer  system  and  the  thermally-­‐active   wall  element  –  deliver  maximum  energy  efficiency.  The   layer  system  consists  of  an  insulation  layer,  a  sunscreen   layer  and  a  photovoltaic  layer,  all  of  which  run  on  a   track  system.

Decentralized unit  is  placed  at  the  edge  of  the  slab

Size

(BRa 1300  -­‐  1500  mm). When  using  an  empty  trough,  without  fan,  then  BRa  ≤  1500   mm.  

unit  sizes  of  up  to  six  meters  in  width  and  three  meters   in  height  are  possible.

Ventilation system  supplier

Trox

Integration of  PV

Yes

Integration of  solar  collector

Yes

Integration of  Sunscreening

Control Heat recovery  system Product/Architect  driven Design  flexibility Energy  saving

Trox

Trox thin-­‐film  photovoltaics,  integrates  energy  generation   and  can  additionally  be  used  as  a  semitransparent  solar   shading. Use  of  phase  change  material

The sunscreen  which  is  used  in  the  façade  is  of  high  performance  using  micro  louver  blades.   These  guarantee  optimal  protection  while  ensuring  maximum  visibility  to  the  utside.  The  sun   shading  can  also  be  used  at  very  high  wind  speeds  and  is  therefore  also  suitable  for  high  rise   buildings.

high-­‐performance solar  shading  used  which  guarantees   extremely  efficient  cooling  load  reduction  –  even  when   wind  speeds  are  as  high  as  30  meters  per  second.

Centralized and  decentralized  control

Decentalized control

Part of  Decentralised  unit  placed  at  th  edge  of  slab

Integrated in  thermally  active  wall  using  phase  change   material

Product

Product

Limited design  flexibility

Limited design  flexibility

25% of  heating  load,  40%  cooling  load  saving

Advantages

1. Sustainable  by  generating  (PV  cells)  and  saving  energy  (high  insulation  values)                                                                1      .      I  t  uses  around  80  percent  less  energy  for  heating,   cooling  and  air-­‐conditioning  than  a  2009  German  EnEV   2.  Integration  of  functions                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.  High   energy  saving  regulation  reference  project.                                                   comfort  level  because  of  individual  control  possibility   2.  high  insulation  values

Disadvantages

1. Limited  design  possibilities  due  to  a  fixed  layout

36

1. Not  applicable  for  complete  transparent  façade                         2.  Limited  design  flexibility                                                                                                            

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Temotion

Combination  of  transparent  and  opaque   elements.  Decentral  functions  are  integrated  in   opaque  element.

Smartbox

Capricon Haus

Combination of  transparent  and  opaque   elements.  Decentral  functions  are   Decentralized  unit  is  placed  at  the  edge  of  the  slab integrated  in  opaque  element  the  top   section  of  the  panel

Smartbox measures  40  x  40  x  110  cm

Trox

It is  not  a  product  but  a  cousomised   solution  depending  on  Architectural   needs  so  the  placement  of   decentralised  ventilation  unit  can  vary.

The façade  is  made  up  from pre  assembled  elements  with  installed   dimensions  of  2.7  x  3.35  m.  The  perimeter   grid  modular  size  is  1.35  m.

Custom size

Trox

Trox No

Photovoltaic modules  mounted  on  swivelling   lamellae

Yes

NEXT Active  Façade

Yes

Yes

No Inteligent solar  sunshading   controlled  by  Somfy  control   systems.

Solar shading  and  anti-­‐glare  screening  is provided  by  Venetian  blinds  with  silvered lamellae  in  the  transparent  area  of  the  facade.

Decentalized control

Decentalized control

Decentalized control/  centralized  control

Decentalized control

Part of  Decentralised  unit  placed  in  the  vertical   post  assembly

Part of  Decentralised  unit  placed  at  th  edge  of   slab  Product/  originated  from  the  ‘Zonwel’  research   project

Decentralised unit  placed  opaque  part  of   façade  unit

Part of  TROX  unit

Project driven,  architect  initiated  solution

Solution driven

Product Limited  design  flexibility

Comparatively better  design  flexibility

can easily  reduce  energy  consumption  in  existing   buildings  by  more  than  50  per  cent.

1.  saves  40  to  50%  of  the  primary  energy   otherwise  used  for  heating,  cooling,  ventilation        and                i  llumination.                                           2.  Natural  ventilation  in  all  weather  conditions 3.  Very  good  sound  protection,  even  when   windows  are  open

approx 20%  less  energy   consumption  that  the  centralised   1.    Decentralised  unit  independent  of  facade   system  giving  comparatively  better  design   flexibility. 2.  The  use  of  adiabatic  cooling  and  heating  by   electricity  could  loose  the  water  input  in  the   modules.

1. Integration  of  building  services  and  other   functions  in  the  façade  zone,  resulting  in  a   free  interior. 2.  Unique  appearance  of  the  building

   1.            N      ot          a      pplicable                                    f  or            c    omplete                                  t  ransparent             façade        1.          P    roduct                            n      ot          d      eveloped                                    b      eyond                          a        p    oint                                                    1.          T    he              f  açade                          i  s        n    ot            s    o        m      uch                 a  system,  but  is        2.            L    imited                     design  flexibility                                                                                                                                                 tailored  for  one  specific  building;  it  is   therefore  hard  to  judge  as  a  standard   system

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

1. Flexible  in  terms  of  design                                           2.  Ideal  solution  for  refurbishment   projects.                                                                                                               3.  Easy  to  upgrade                                                                            

1. no  energy  generating  elements   integrated.                                                                                                     2.  All  the  limitations  of  TROX  like   humidification,  Noise  levels  for  high   caacity  or  the  maintanance  cost  also   apply  to  this  system

37


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

4. Analysis

With the design options and results I conducted second round

4.1 Understanding the Need

reactions on the csae studies with NEXT Active Faรงade system

Architects Interviews

and to understand their opinion about NEXT Active Faรงade sys-

of interviews. This time the goal of discussion was to take their

tem. The theme of the interviews was about the applicability of The concept of NEXT Active facade was developed considering

the derived design and climate options with NEXT of the building

the increasing complexity of facade construction and its commu-

case studies, energy and cost saving possibilities, information

nication. As mentioned earlier there are several players and de-

needed to apply this system and their opinion about the scope

cision makers involved in the building/ facade construction pro-

of improvement in NEXT Active facade. The detail interviews are

cess. It was necessary to understand the market need of NEXT

written in APPENDIX I and II.

Active facade to understand the approach and the system. After first couple of discussions with Tillmann and Eric we came to the

Conclusions from interviews:

conclusion that what better way it could be than to interview one of the most important decision maker himself, Architect. Re-

1. In most of the cases HVAC advisors have the decisive say when

search by interviews is not a very conventional method followed

it comes to selection of the system or to decide weather to go

in building technology track but not very unfamiliar to Real es-

with centralized or decentralized system. In most of the cases

tate and housing track. So in the first round I interviewed Joost

they prefer to go for conventional centralized solution. One

Heigns (Architect at Cepezed Architects, Delft) , Frank Schnater

of the major reasons for not going for decentralized solutions

(Owner at RSW Architecten, lecturer and staff member at TU

which all the architects whom I interviewed agreed is that HVAC

Delft), Arie Bergsma (Partner at GAAGA, Teacher / researcher

consultants are not familiar with decentralise product solutions

at TU Delft), Robert Platje (Architect at SPEE Architecten, Rot-

so are not very comfortable working with is, because of which

terdam), Chris de Weijer(Director, DP6 Architects, Delft). The

they try and push architects towards using the conventional cen-

major goal for all the interviews which were carried out was to

tralized solution.

understand the design process for standard and new integrated concepts for facade and to understand Architects views about

2. Most of the Architects mentioned about the high initial invest-

the existing systemized solutions for facade construction and the

ment considering the present market condition. Most of the cli-

NEXT Active Facade. To understand their opinions this question

ents tend to look for short term gains than the long term so the

list was carefully drafted to have a casual conversation instead

argument about the long term savings to go for decentralized

of a formal questioner. These questions address to the conven-

solution is a bit sceptical. Considering cost is one of the major

tional centralised ventilation system and the criteria of selection

factors which influence the decision making the role of a expert

of both centralized and decentralized solutions. It also addresses

cost consultant in the NEXT team becomes very crucial.

how the decision to go for centralized or decentralized solution affects the time line of Architectural design and the actual con-

3. All the people interviewed think that if going for the decen-

struction of a building. As the systemised decentralized solutions

tralise solution then the selection of system and suppliers need

are comparatively new to the industry these interviews also try

to be done at the very beginning of the design stage and also the

to put light on the pros and cons of the system from architects

HVAC advisor need to be involved in the design process at very

point of view. It also highlights the reasons of liking or dislik-

early stage as it has a huge impact on architectural design.

ing the system. Finally this also showcases their opinions about the NEXT Active facade and their suggestion for future improve-

4. Most of the Architects interviewed think that flexibility of inte-

ments.

rior layout and upgradibility of the system is the major argument to convince Architects/Clients to go for decentralized solution.

After the first round of interviews I took de Studio in Amsterdam

But as mentioned by Chris from DP6 the communication lapses

and Polaris in Groningen as my case studies as refurbishment

between parties involved can hamper the basic motive. So the

projects. Following a concluded demand from the interviews

communication between different parties is very important.

to showcase the different design possibilities with NEXT I tried to workout different design and climate solutions for these two buildings along with the energy consumption calculations and

38

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

5. When asked about the existing systemized solutions presently available in the market e.g Shuco, there was a common notion about the rigidity of the systems in terms of design but some also believed that if given a large project those companies can customize the products as per the Architects wish. About the approach of NEXT Active facade there was positive feedback from all the Architects. About the one point contact there were some mixed views as some thought it would simplify the complex process specially the communication between parties but some were comfortable to go and talk to the individual advisors depending on the project requirement. 6. There were mixed reactions when asked about the significance of the toolbox as some felt it was too technical for architects to digest but some taught it can be a very good design tool and very helpful as a convincing tool to convince clients as in many cases the client decision is influenced by the cost factor. 7. Every one urged to see the various possibilities with NEXT Active facade in terms of design and functionality if possible with respect to a reference project before going for the system.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

39


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

4.2 Understanding the Feasibility

Ventilation: The ventilation rate required for an office building is average (6.5lt/s/person or 1.3 lt/s/m2 as per NEN). As offices

Meeting with NEXT team:

have limited working hours the night draft cooling is possible.

Participants: Bertus van den Brink from Somfy

Heating: Both centralised and decentralised heating is feasible

Piet Brosens from Trox

depending on the interior layout and depth of the office. Partial

Tillmann Klein

heat recovery is feasible as air inlet and outlet can be from the

Harshad Shitole

closeby location.

Goal of discussion : To formulate the structure of study and re-

Cooling: Offices generally have high cooling load compared

fine the direction of the research by taking their point of views

to other functions because of the no of computers and other

on the graduation topic.

equipments used. The rough calculations shown in the comparative table also suggests the same.

The outcome of the meeting was to explore and analyse different functions for application of the NEXT Active facade system.

Sunshading / operable windows: There is possibility of both in-

So we decided, along with offices to also explore elderly homes,

terior and exterior sunshading but if the performance is the cri-

hotels, hospitals and schools to check their feasibility for appli-

teria then the exterior one is more efficient. Sunshading is also

cation of NEXT active facade system and to proceed for further

important in case of glare protection as it would be difficult to

detail design stage with respect to the conclusions of the com-

work on computers.

parative feasibility study. Acoustics: External noise levels do not have much influence on

Feasibility study of different functions of the building for application of NEXT Active facade:

the functioning of offices as the acceptable noiselevels can be a

It was done for different functions of the building those were

Daylight requirements: As per NEN 2.5% of Daylight area need

Offices, Elderly homes, Hotels, Hospitals and schools as con-

to be transparent.

bit on higher side.

cluded in the meeting. This was not a details study but just a overview of existing building in netherlands. I briefly tried to

2. Elderly homes:

find out what different functions for existing building mean for its overall architecture specially in terms of the facade possibili-

Architecturally Elderly homes can be classified in two different

ties, what were the typical facades for different kind of function

ways. First which are very similar to any of the other residences

of the building. I also tried to look into what different technical

with some common facilities like kitchen or dining area secondly

aspects of NEXT system like ventilation requirement, heating,

which are similar to hospital room layout where they need some

cooling, Sunshading, Acoustics, Daylight requirement mean to

special care. In both the cases the typical facades are the same

that particular function which then resulted in proposing suit-

but with comparatively bigger openings than normal residences.

able TROX units for them.

It is very unlikely to find any elderly home to find with completely glazed facade. Following are the typical facades found in the

1. Office building

conducted brief study.

Architecturally the office facades are atypical in Netherlands. They very from full glazed to partial glazed with either parapet construction or opaque elements in the facade. Following are the three typical facade types found.

Ventilation: The ventilation rate required for an elderly home building is low (0.9 lt/s/person or 0.9 lt/s/m2 as per NEN) as the occupance density is comparatively low. As the elderly people are very sensitive to the temperature changes draft cooling at night is a difficult task.

40

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade Heating: Decentralised heating is more logical as everyone

Sunshading / operable windows: There is possibility of both in-

would like to have a personal control to adjust as per their tem-

terior and exterior sunshading but in most of the cases curtains

perature needs. As the air inlet and out let can be only for an

are preferred to block the sun and light. Operable windows are

individual room/ studio partial heat recovery is feasible.

not mandatory in case of hotels as per NEN regulations.

Cooling: Because of the low occupancy density and use of reg-

Acoustics: Low noise levels are required during night time.

ular equipment the internal heat generation is not much so in most of the cases cooling is not required.

Daylight requirements: No regulations for Daylight requirements.

Sunshading / operable windows: There is possibility of both interior and exterior sunshading.

4. Hospitals

Acoustics: Elderly people are sensitive towards the high noise

Focus in this type is only at the hospital patient rooms which also

levels so it is preferable to have no or low noise levels.

has a toilet inside. The typical facades for these functions are similar to residential/ elderly homes with big operable windows.

Daylight requirements: As per NEN 10% of Floor area need to

Full glazed facades are not common. Following are the typical

be transparent.

facade types found in the brief study.

3. Hotels: Focus in this type is only at the hotel rooms not the common areas. Typical architectural layouts for hotels are similar to the studio layouts with toilets and bathrooms inside the rooms. Un-

Ventilation: The ventilation rate required for a hospital room is

like the regular residences outside views have more importance

comparatively higher (12 lt/s/person or 4.3 lt/s/m2 as per NEN)

in hotel rooms so full glazed facades is also a possibility in case

In many cases filtering of air is also required for the exhaust

of hotel rooms along with the typical operable windows. Follow-

along with the inlet. As the toilets are inside the room the cen-

ing are the typical facade types found in the brief study.

tral exhaust is more logical. Heating: Decentralised heating is more logical as everyone would like to have a personal control to adjust as per their temperature needs. Partial heat recovery is possible.

Ventilation: The ventilation rate required for a hotel room is

Cooling: Because of the various equipments used internal heat

similar to the residences as the occupancy is maximum 2 per

generation is high so in some cases there is requirement of cool-

room (0.9 lt/s/person or 0.9 lt/s/m2 as per NEN). If using decen-

ing for hospital rooms.

tralised ventilation the air inlet can be throuch facade but the exhaust can me central as hotel rooms have individual toilets

Sunshading / operable windows: There is possibility of both

inside the room.

interior and exterior sunshading. Sensor controlled preferred. Operable windows are mandatory in case of hotels as per NEN

Heating: Decentralised heating is more logical as everyone

regulations.

would like to have a personal control to adjust as per their temperature needs. As the air inlet and out let can be only for an

Acoustics: Low noise levels are required.

individual room/ studio partial heat recovery is feasible. Daylight requirements: 3% of daylight area as per NEN. Need Cooling: Because of the low occupancy density and use of reg-

of As much natural light as possible for psychological reasons.

ular equipment the internal heat generation is not much so in most of the cases cooling is not required.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

41


Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

5. Schools

the noise levels need to be taken care of as the elderly are quite sensitive to the higher noise levels and also they need to be

Typical school architecture is bigger volumes with large windows

provided with comparatively simpler controls. In case of hotels

to let as much light as possible. Following are the typical facade

using NEXT system is also a good idea but the problem of the

types for school building in netherlands.

exhaust of toilet need to be solved either by having a centralized exhaust system or by means or providing reverse ducts to the ventilation unit. Hospitals and schools are a bit difficult to cater with NEXT system because of their requirements of high ventilation rates and combined with the high cooling loads.

Ventilation: The ventilation rate required for school building is higher (8.5 lt/s/person or 6 lt/s/m2 as per NEN) because of the high occupancy density. Heating: Both centralised and decentralised heating is feasible depending on the interior layout. Partial heat recovery is feasible. Cooling: Because of the high occupancy density the internal heat generation is quite high so there is high demand for cooling especially during summer. Sunshading / operable windows: There is possibility of both interior and exterior sunshading but exterior sunshading is preferred because there is a chance of vandalism by kids if provided from inside. Operable windows are mandatory in case of hotels as per NEN regulations. Acoustics: No Acoustical requirements for this type of building. Daylight requirements: 5% of daylight area as per NEN.

Conclusion: The comparison table (following page) gives overall comparison regarding the feasibility to use the NEXT Active facade system (decentralised concept). After comparison we can conclude that some of the functions like offices, hotels and elderly homes are more suitable than hospitals and schools to use NEXT Active facade as a decentralized climate control concept because of their respective technical feasibilities and challenges. In case of offices NEXT system is perfectly suitable unless the space is too deep to cater. In case of elderly home it is also suitable but still some technical problems with the decentralized ventilation units like

42

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

43


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Catagories

Office

Elderly homes

Arhitecture possibilities

Facade possibilities

Air Quality/ventilation

Low ventilation  rate(As  per  NEN  -­‐  0.9  lt/s/person)               Draft  cooling  at  night  not  possible

Ventilation as  per  NEN

1.3 L/s.m2  

0.9 L/s.m2

Air ventilation  for  100  m2  space   (as  per  NEN)

130 l/s

90 l/s

Heating

Centralised/ decentalised  heating  depending  on  the   Decentralised  heating.                                                                                               layout  and  depth  of  office.                                                                             Partial  heat  recovery  possible. Partial  heat  recovery  possible.

Cooling

Comparative high  cooling  loads  because  of  heat   generating  equipments.  

Low/no cooling  loads

Lighting load  density

10.9 W/sq.m  (1090W)

4.8 W/sq.m  (480W)

Equipment load  density

14.4 W/sq.m  (1440  W)

4.6 W/sq.m  (460W)

People Sensible  heat  gain

73 W/person  (255.5  W)

72 W/person  (72W)

People Latent  heat  gain

59 W/person  (206.5  W)

45 W/person  (45W)

Total Internal  Heat  gain  for   100sq.m  area

2962 W

1057 W

Sunshading (with  open   windows)

Interior/ Exterior                                                                                                             Operable  windows  not  mandatory  as  per  NEN

Interior/ Exterior                                                                                                             Operable  windows    mandatory  as  per  NEN

Influence of  outdoor  sound  as  well  as  noise   generated  by  equipment  is  critical.                                                     Low  noise  required.

Acoustics

N/A

Daylight requirement

2.5% of  daylight  area  as  per  NEN

Suitable Trox  unit

44

Average ventilation  rate  (as  per  NEN  -­‐  6.5   lt/s/person)                                                                                                                                   Draft  cooling  at  night  possible

10% of  floor  area  as  per  NEN

      Units  -­‐  FSL  B  60/100  (if  heating  is  via  floor   Cill  Units  -­‐  FSL  B  190  /  FSL  B  PCM                                                                          Cill   Under  Floor  Unit  -­‐  FSL  U  ZAB/ZUS/SEK                                                        heating               or  radiator)    FSL  B  190  /  FSL  B  PCM                                       ZUB/ZAS ZAB/SEK                                                                                        

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Hotels

Hospitals

Schools

High ventilation  rate  (as  per  NEN    12  lt/s/person)                                                                                                             High  ventilation  rate  (as  per  NEN    12  lt/s/person)                                Ventilation                                            r  ate                r    equired                                a    s        p    er          NEN  -­‐          8.5      Central                              e    xhaust                            p      refered                             as  toilets  are  inside  the   lt/s/person                                                                                                                                             Filtering  required  for  exhaust                                                                                         rooms                                                                                                                                                                 Draft  cooling  at  night  possible Draft  cooling  at  night  not  possible Draft  cooling  at  night  not  posible 0.9  L/s.m2

4.3 L/s.m2

6 L/s.m2

90 l/s

430 l/s

600 l/s

Decentralised heating  for  rooms  and  centralised  for   Decentralised  heating  for  rooms  and  centralised  for   common  areas                                                                                                                                   common  areas                                                                                                                                       Heat  recovery  not  possible  for  rooms  but  partial  heat   Partial  heat  recovery  possible  for  common  areas  . recovery  possible  for  common  areas  .

Decentralised heating.                                                                                                   Partial  heat  recovery  possible.

Low/no cooling  loads

High cooling  loads  because  of  the  high  occupation   density.

Low/no cooling  loads

10.9 W/sq.m  (1090W)

12.9 W/sq.m  (1290W)

12.9 W/sq.m  (1290W)

5.4 W/sq.m  (540W)

12.7 W/sq.m(1270W)

10.8W/sq.m (1080W)

73 W/person  (182.5W)

73 W/person  (730W)

73 W/person  (1825W)

59 W/person  (147.5W)

59 W/person  (590W)

59 W/person  (1475W)

1960 W

3880 W

5670 W

Interior/ Exterior                                                                                                             Operable  windows  not  mandatory  as  per  NEN

Interior/ Exterior                                                                                                                     Operable  windows    mandatory  as  per  NEN

Preferebly Exterior                                                                                                             Operable  windows    mandatory  as  per  NEN

Low noise  levels  required

Influence of  outdoor  sound  as  well  as  noise  generated   by  equipment  is  critical.                                                                                                           Low  noise  required.

N/A

N/A

3% of  daylight  area  as  per  NEN

5% of  daylight  area  as  per  NEN

Cill Units  -­‐  FSL  B  190  /  FSL  B  PCM                                                                                Cill     Units  -­‐  FSL  B  190  /  FSL  B  PCM                                                                                   Cill  Units  -­‐  FSL  B  190  /  FSL  B  PCM                                                                                            Under  Floor  Unit  -­‐  FSL  U  ZAB/ZUS/SEK                                                              ZAB/SEK ZAB/SEK          ZUS/  ZAS ZUB/ZAS

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

5. Application Building case studies

Location

1. de Studio/ GAK gebouw, Amsterdam

near the centre of Amsterdam. A 10 makes it as an important

The project The Studio is located inside the ring road (A 10) and location but creates some challenges regarding traffic noise. 0

As suggested by Eric van den Ham ‘de Studio’ in Amsterdam was

Station Sloterdijk

selected as one of the case study. One of the unique reasons

Westerpark

A10

to select this building was this building which was built in 1959

Jordaan

Centraal Station 0

will be redeveloped as Studio houses, targeting the high student population in Amsterdam, along with some offices and partly

0

as a Hotel. As described in the functional feasibility analysis of

De Dam

NEXT Active facade these functions are most suitable to use the NEXT system. Also it is also and opportunity to explore the refurbishment possibilities with NEXT Active Facade. This building has a socio-cultural significance as a product of the postwar welfare0

rembrandtpark Station Lelylaan

A10

state, and because of its architectural and historical value, as an example of technological innovation. This building was the first

Vondelpark

Museumplein

de Pijp < Haarlem

4

one of American-inspired corporate architecture in the Netherlands. Because of its historical importance, even if the whole facade will be striped off, the new facade was required to have the same Architectural look. So the appearance of the upgraded facade will be the same as the old one but with better energy performance. The design was inspired by American examples and proposed an extremely modern and flexible design. A skeleton of steel structure with thin concrete floors made the floors entirely free layout Enclosed by a transparent curtain wall without operable windows. The facade on the west side is a double skin facade. Two office wings are attached to the central block where the entrance, elevators and escalators are located as well as conference and break rooms. The facade of the central block is different from the wings in terms of materialization and detailing. The building will be redeveloped in 3 different phases. The work for 1st phase which is the studio houses has already started.

46

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Existing scenario

de Studio, Amsterdam (1961) The building facade designed by Architect was state of the art in 1960â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s with unitized systems fabricated in factory and assembled at the site. Even the glass used for the facade was state of the art green insulated glass. The greenish tint helped in protection from the sun. Sunscreening system was installed inside. This was the first building with centrally controlled climate system in Netherlands which gave it a monumental status. As shown in the picture below ventilation has been done through a duct placed along the facade. Preheated and precooled air was supplied through the duct and taken out through the central exhaust to the climate installations placed in the roof of the central part of the building. There is no heat recovery. de Studio, Amsterdam (2012)

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Existing facade

Elevation

Plan

Section

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Proposal by Wessel de Jonge architecten bna bv

Wessel de Jonge architecten bna bv proposed the redevelopment scheme for de Studio building. It consisted of transforming this gigantic but empty office building with socio-cultural importance into a mixed used building. It will comprise of Studio housing, offices and hotels. The work for studio houses has already started. Sections represents the use of services for office and hotel sections of the building. This was the first building to have a completely controlled interior climate. In the picture above we can clearly see the horizontal ducts at window levels which were used for ventilation. The existing ventilation system is through central HVAC plant so there is no ventilation through facade. Wessel de Jonge architecten bna bv have also decided to use the existing ducting system for office ventilation but to use ceiling ducts for ventilation for Hotel section of the building. For offices as there is also cooling demand, there is also proposal for provision of climate ceiling. In the first phase of development Architects proposed three types of studio houses. Corner units, west side units and parkside units. On the west side they maintained the double skin facade to protect the studios from the harsh west sun and the noise from A10.

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Proposed Hotel room section

Proposed office section

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us

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Proposed Studio rooms 11 Parkzijde

De naam zegt het al, deze studio’s zijn gelegen op het westen, aan de kant van de ringweg. De slimme indeling en de raampartij over de gehele breedte van het appartement doen je verbaasd staan van de ruimte. In de serre van je eigen studio kan je genieten van de ondergaande zon.

Parkzijde

Westzijde

corner studio

7

Westzijde

Parkzijde

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

Park side studio

Deze studio’s zijn gelegen op het oosten en bieden uitzicht op het Bos en Lommerpark. Als je op tijd wakker bent – of nog niet naar bed - kun je de zon zien opkomen boven het centrum van Amsterdam. De oppervlakte en indeling zijn gelijk aan die van de appartementen aan de westzijde.

Plattegrond 1e t/m 10e verdieping

1e t/m 10e verdieping

Westzijde

West side studio

9

Plattegrond 1e t/m 10e verdieping

Studio Plus

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Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

1000

1000

1000

1000

3250

245

Floor finish level

Floor finish level

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Eleva 53

harhad shitole / TUD / graduation / N


Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

5.2. Redesign of de Studio, Amsterdam The strategy for application of NEXT Active facade to the de Studio building can be best described in 4 different steps 1st Step - Calculation of requirements: As the brief if redesign of facade is to retain its appearance calculation of the requirements for physical elements of new facade is crucial. So the first step will be to calculate exact requirements of heating/cooling/ventilation of interior space and also explore the possibility of heat recovery using NEXT system. The requirements will be calculated for different functions (housing/ hotel/office). 2nd Step - Selection of elements: Depending on the requirements calculated for different function a matrix of different product combination will be formulated. It will vary depending on the function/capacity/ orientation of the facade and special acoustical requirements if needed. 3rd step - Exploring Design/Placement possibilities: After the product combination matrix is formulated the possibility of different design/placement possibility will be explored. This step is more suitable for the Rabobank building more than the de Studio building as there is little scope of design alteration. 4th Step - Detail design : After the design possibilities are finalized depending on the preselected facade elements the detail design for different options will be done.

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Interna?onal'Façade'Masters'_'4121570'

'Detailed'Applica?on'for'the'NEXT'ac?ve'facade'concept.'

NEXT ACTIVEAmsterdam! FACADE De Studio,

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

'



     

    

   

   

   

  

"  !     "  !   

 "  !    

Sun'and'heat' regula?on'

Air'Supply'

Air'Supply'and' exhaust''

Selection of Products

Heat' recovery'

Ven?la?on'

Hea?ng'

Placement of TROX unit

Cooling'

44'

Gradua?on'Presenta?on'3|'20/01/2012'

The table above illustrates the different product combination

Based on the structural, functional and monumental require-

possible in different possible scenarios. The first scenario would

ments and restrictions the possible placement of the TROX units

be considering the existing heating and cooling system are used

were determined. Basically TROX units come in 3 different types,

or there is independent source of heating and cooling and the

Under sill units, underfloor units and wall units with different

exhaust is via central duct. In the second scenario heating/cool-

capacities and functional characteristics. Out of three the un-

ing system is included but the exhaust is through the central

derfloor units were discared because it would mean change in

duct. The last scenario is with heating/cooling included and with

profile sizes to accomodate the airinlet openings in the facade.

the facade exhaust to create the possibility of heat recovery. Be-

The vertical wall units also have limitation as it cannot be placed

cause of the building orientation the two transparent facades of

in facade but there is sufficient amout of gap between column

the building are in the East and the west side so offices/hotel/

and facade to accomodate the vertical unit. The under sill units

studio rooms facing these directions will have different function-

was the third option. The problem of the air inlet openings was

al requirement specially when it comes to sunscreening.

also tackled but 3 different ways which are illustrated further.

After analysing the existing systems and studying the Architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proposal we decided not to consider the first option but to find possible design options from scenario 2 and 3 to get maximum out of it in terms of performance. As the monumental status of the building demands the exterior appearance of the facade need to be kept the same including the greenish tint in the glass. After the brain storming with Tilmann and Eric we came up with 3 different options to potrey the same effect. The first one was to go for the extra clear glass (HR++) and fake the effect with the greenish conventional blinds so as in the second option but with venetian blinds. In the 3rd option we explored the tinted glass by SGG called SGG Parsol Body tinted glass. Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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harhad shitole / TUD / graduation / NEXT active facade / de studio, Amsterdam

Section

OPTION 1

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

3054 3000

Available space for TROX Unit 682 420 100

400

250

420

3640 1000

400

@1200

Available space for TROX Unit 400x250x3000

3250 1000

1000

250

100

1000

420 100

250

400

250

420

3640 1000

1000

1000

100

400

Plan@300

Available space for TROX Unit 400x250x3000

4000 1000

4000

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

harhad shitole / TUD / graduation / NEXT active facade / de studio, Amsterdam

Section

OPTION 2

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

Available space for TROX Unit

400

700 682 437

420

3640 1000

420

@1200

3250

Available space for TROX Unit 1000

1000

1000

420 437 1000

420

3640

Available space for TROX Unit 1000

1000

437

Plan@300

4000

1000

4000

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

harhad shitole / TUD / graduation / NEXT active facade / de studio, Amsterdam

Section

OPTION 3

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

3054 300

Available space for TROX Unit

400

Fresh Air Duct Along the Facade

700 682

@1200

3250 437

Available space for TROX Unit

300

3640 1000

1000

1000

1000

420 1000

Fresh Air Duct 1000

437

437

Available space for TROX Unit

300

3640 420

Plan@300

4000

1000

1000

4000

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

harhad shitole / TUD / graduation / NEXT active facade / de studio, Amsterdam

Section

OPTION 4

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

3054 Fresh Air Duct Along the Facade

2300 400

700

Available space for TROX Unit

682

@1200

Available space for TROX Unit 400x250x2300

3250 250

Available space for TROX Unit

437

250

1000 3000

400

3640 1000 3000

1000

Fresh Air Duct 1000

437

437

420

3640 420

Plan@300

4000

1000

1000

4000

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

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Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

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62

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

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Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

64

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

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Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Sunscreening option 1

Sunscreening option 2

Sunscreening option 3

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

CDKESRDRSQ@@SB QNSSDQC@L

S  E 

ONRSATR @QQNSSDQC@L

HMENL@QBNGDMRRDM MK VVV L@QBNGDMRRDM MK

M@KXRDDM@KSDQM@SHDUDM/.+ 1(2 SQ@MRENQL@SHDUNNQL@KHFD1@ANSNQDM &QNMHMFDM LDH

L@QBNGDMRRDM @QBGHSDBSDMAUQNSSDQC@L

5.3. Building case study 2 2. Polaris, Groningen

The proposal is to redevelop the building to 78-82 small inde-

Another example of office building being transformed into resi-

around 400 m2 of business premises (BOG) to be developed.

dential building. One of the old RABO Bank buildings in Gronin-

Program requirements, building.

gen will be converted in complete studio housing. I chaose this

I will be concentration on the main tower building which will

case study with guidance of my second mentor Eric van de Ham.

house the small individual studios. Total surface independent

The theme behind this refurbishment was transformation with-

units will be at least 28 m2.

pendent units. Besides housing units for young people will be

out dogma and to retain the original character of the building with respect to the contextual, social and cultural aspect.

Existing situation

The building is getting converted in approximately 82 small independent housing provides housing Lefier not only a share of the

On behalf of Rabobank in the early 70â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a regional office was

urban task with regard to social housing, but also a contribution

built for the provinces of Groningen and Drenthe.

to the current discussion transformation of office buildings. (The

The district Paddepoel is one of the three major expansion areas

number of vacant offices will grow over the years to a quarter

to the north of the city. The center of this area is an important

of all office space in 2015, contends ABN Amro March 25, 2011.

part of the spatial structure of the planning area. This center

At present, fourteen percent of the office in the Netherlands is

is emphasized by the high-rise, including former Rabo Tower. In

empty.) The building is conveniently located between the cam-

the central area are currently underway on a large scale devel-

pus and attractive downtown.

opments.

Relationship Small project and immediate living environment

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ENSNRADRS@@MCDRHST@SHD

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

Location The Rabobank Tower is situated on the important main access rotes of the district. The Zonnelaan is a major north-south connection between the Zernike University Complex and the inner city. The location is near the North Station and is well connected to other public transport. Surrounding North of the former Rabo Tower Avenue to the Pleiades, is the ENSNRADRS@@MCDRHST@SHD courtyard with the remains of the original green plan. East of ENSNRADRS@@MCDRHST@SHD

the tower is the parking lot of the building. To the south lies

/NK@QHR /NK@QHR

the green and the water of the canal, however, now deprived of sight by the 1-layer brick garages. On the west side is also green and water containing a work of art of Jacob van der Meij. The quay is cemented by the original design. The original by walking along the quay, partly under the construction of the first floor where the entrance was the high-rise, is put close early eighties with an extension of the ground floor.

ENSNRADRS@@MCDRHST@SHD

/NK@QHR

L@QBNGDMRRDM @QBGHSDBSDMAUQNSSDQC@L

L@QBNGDMRRDM @QBGHSDBSDMAUQNSSDQC@L

L@QBNGDMRRDM @QBGHSDBSDMAUQNSSDQC@L

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Existing construction Polaris is one of the many identical buildings found in Netherlands. This is very common prototype seen for high rise buildings. The support structure is a solid concrete core at the centre and circular peripheral columns. Columns are not connected to the facade so there is a little gap between facade and column. Facade comprise of openable transparent part and a precast concrete elements for the opaque part. Precast concrete elements are infilled with some insulation under sill level and closed with wooden element above the lentil level. The opaque part has a R value of 0.5 m2K/W and transparent part has U value of 5.7 W/m2K which is not very good compared to the state of the art construction today.

70

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CDKESRDRSQ@@SB QNSSDQC@L

S  E 

ONRSATR @QQNSSDQC@L

HMENL@QBNGDMRRDM MK VVV L@QBNGDMRRDM MK

L@QBNGDMRRDM @QBGHSDBSDMAUQNSSDQC@L

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

2BGDSR.MSVDQO/.+ 1(2 SQ@MRENQL@SHDUNNQL@KHFD1@ANSNQDM &QNMHMFDM LDH

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New proposal by Marco Henssen Architects The major design principles were to transformation without dogma, while retaining the character and its socio cultural influence. The existing building can be characterised as mild ‘ Brutalism’. The major visual character of the building are the horizontal strips comprised of the precast concrete elements with rough finish. Architects wanted to maintain this horzontality in the vertical mass. There was also additional requirement of area which was resolved by attaching extra elements to the facade as shown in the image without disturbing the horizontality of the strips. The characteristic concrete precast elements are maintained. The added elements to increase the floor area will also consist of the precast elements but cladded with aluminium sheet to reinterpret the horizontal strips. Figure above shows the proposed facade section. The wooden element has been replaced by some better insulation material. Window frame construction is wooden. As this building was converted from office to residential there is no need of the cooling and also the heating equipment are outdated compared to the modern energy saving technology so the whole climate system will be changed to the more energy efficient centralised system.

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Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade Proposal with NEXT -

and the additional space is achieved for the placement of under sill TROX unit. In the 4th option underfloor units are considered,

The approach to redesign the facade with NEXT system was to

but it may not me the most economical option as it means the

cater the Architectural visualisation. So the exterior appearance

whole facade needs to be dismantled and rebuilt. The final op-

of the facade was maintained as per the Architects proposal.

tion for further detailing will be chosen after consultation with

The redesign approach was directed in two different directions

TROX about the feasibility of the options.

to fine the various possibilities, first was to maintain the existing construction and adding on the required installations (keeping the existing precast concrete as it is) and the second was to remove it if necessary . Option 1 and 2 belong to the first catagory and 3,4 and 5 belong to the second one. There are even more possibilities to explore. In first option the under sill TROX unit is considered where as in option 2 the wall unit is considered. In option 3 and 5 the existing precast concrete element is removed

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Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Selection of products / Product combination Student housing  façade

Category east façade

west façade

north façade

south façade

-­‐ with  independent   heating/cooling  and  central   exhaust -­‐  without   independent  heating/cooling   and  central  exhaust

 -­‐ without   independent  heating/cooling   and  facade  exhaust

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6. Energy performance calculation The energy performance comparison between the existing build-

The heating medium was combined water and air which was

ing, the same building if refurbished with NEXT Active facade

changed to only water in NEXT and conventional building option.

and the same building if refurbished with modern conventional

In the existing building cooling was air based but in the scenario

methods, is done with the help of the application EPU-NPR 2917.

with NEXT system and in the conventional refurbishment it was

As the objective of this task was to compare energy consump-

not considered as the building was changing its function from

tion in mentioned 3 scenarios. Instead of taking the whole build-

office to residential where we don’t require cooling.

ing for calculation I just took a small part for both the buildings, for de Studio, Amsterdam it was a small segment from the office

2. Selection of Function -

wing and for Polaris it was one of the studio. The respective function of the space along with its occupancy The calculations were done with some assumptions for different

group (B1 / B3 / B3 ...) was specified along with the area con-

sectors of comparison like heating, cooling, ventilation, humidi-

sidered for calculation which in case of de Studio was office /

fication, pump energy, lighting energy etc. This program is used

B4 / 72m2 for existing and with NEXT/Conventional input as I

to find the energy performance coefficient (EPC) of the building

have considered only a segment of the building for calculation.

system, but as I was just interested in just energy consumption

In case of Polaris which is originally an office building, the func-

comparison certain aspects in assumption were ignored.

tions were changed to Logistic building which has similar characteristics as residential buildings. The area input was 24 m2

Inputs / assumption steps 1. Selection of climate system First step was to choose the type of the systems used in the buildings in terms of mechanical / natural ventilation, heating / cooling medium (if required). In case of ‘de studio’ for existing situation there was mechanical supply and exhaust of air. The medium for heating was water and air for cooling. Which was decided to use the same for the new refurbishment, so was considered the same for inputs for the NEXT system and conventional system calculations. In case of Polaris building as there was complete change of function with complete different requirements it was decided to change the installation. Original building had mechanical heating and cooling.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Depending on the function chosen the imposed indoor tempera-

Construction data Thermal capacity Pagespecification: 33

version NEN 2916:1998 ture is determined to calculate the heat demand. for both English the

buildings it was 19 °C.

The effective thermal capacity has to be determined based upon

Table 2: Imposed inside temperature θi for the determination of the heat demand

the specific thermal capacity per m2 usable area of the energy

Building type

θi °C

sector. Nature of ceiling, if it open or there is a false ceiling,

sports building, moderate heated

13

both the buildings mass of existing slab was considered 100-400

office building educational building accommodation building cell and penitentiary building catering building shop building assembly building sports building health care building, not clinical health care building, clinical

make a lot of difference in calculation of thermal capacity. For kg/m2 and ceiling as closed.

19

Installations: Heating In addition to description the heating system by means of selection list was specified. Depending on the installations, heating type, flow temperature and if applicable sources were men22

NOTE Moderate heated sports buildings are: - tennis halls; Construction data specification: Transmission - squash courts; - indoor carting halls; In this section the building elements, their dimensions and the - riding schools; - velodromes; boundary conditions needed to be specified. In the next step - boulodromes (for lawn bowling and jeu de boules) the physical properties of elements needed to be specified to - short courts; - racquetball courts; / cooling losses via transmission. In case calculate the heating - boxing facilities; of ‘de studio’ as I have considered only a segment of the office - shooting facilities; and wing- for calculations, which covered roller skating lots. consists of only east and west fa-

cade and two corresponding floors as none of these floor are

tioned. In case of ‘de Studio’ the existing installation is HR ketel - 100 with more than 55 °C flow temperature whereas in case of Polaris existing installation was conventional ketel but for the NEXT/ conventional refurbishment it was assumed that it will be replaced by a better one say HR ketel 100. Installations: Cooling The cooling demand is determined from the solar load and internal loads reduced by the utilised heat losses through ventilation and transmission, the distribution system efficiency and a fixed factor for the latent cooling load. For both the buildings the

It must be demonstrated by the applicant that the capacity of the heating system of moderate either ground floor of roof these were also eliminated from the cooling mechanism is considered to be with compressor coolers. heated sports buildings is clearly designed for this low temperatures.

calculations. In case of existing scenario for the transparent part 6.4 6.4.1

insulated glassheat was loss used(Qwith U energy value approximately of 3 W/m2K Transmission sector per month tr) per

Installations: Warm tapwater-

and the U value for frame construction is approximately 7 W/ Calculation rule

m2K. So the U value of the whole construction was calculated as

As I have considered only one segment of the building in both

K. For the opaque covered 4.2 W/m the Calculate transmission heatpart loss aluminium of an energysheet sector was per month with: the cases I have not taken energy required for warm tap water 2

over composite construction which has R value of approximately Qtr = 2 tr x (θi - θe) x 2,63 K/W . For NEXT and conventional refurbishment the U val0.6 mH

as it will also be independent of NEXT system.

ues of 1.1 W/m2K was considered for the transparent part and where:

Installations: Ventilation -

Qtr is the transmission heat loss in MJ; insulated.

To calculate the energy use for ventilation on the building apart

As per the present standards obviously the existing facade con-

along with amount of re circulated air and the type of heat re-

struction was not very good in terms of transmissions losses.

covery equipment to calculate the amount of heat recovery

So the infiltration factor was important in calculation. The crack

based of the pre-specified efficiency of the equipment.

class was assumed to be ‘C’ for the existing construction and

The minimum air flow rate, qv, min, is automatically calculated

with the state of the art construction with NEXT and conven-

on the basis of the minimum ventilation, and the surface area

tional solution it was assumed as class ‘A’. The building height

occupied area. The minimum required ventilation is based on

which is more than 20m also plays an important role.

the Building Regulations in the ventilation capacity required

3 m K/W fr the opaque construction making the facade more 2

Htr is the transmission heat loss coefficient of an energy sector in W/K, determined according to from the installations and modes which were already specified 6.4.2; Construction data specification: in the climate system section it was very important to consider θi is the inside temperature in °C,Infiltration according to- 13.3.3, taken from table 2; θe is the outside temperature in °C, taken from table 3. the minimum requirement and capacity of the equipment used NOTE

The numeric value 2,63 is explained in appendix C.3.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Façade

for a dwelling area, which is dependent on the usage function (or a portion thereof), and the utilization class of the area (see Table 10 of NEN 2916). FSL B 190 was taken as reference TROX unit for calculation so the maximum capacity was taken as 120 dmÂł/s. In case of both the buildings the recirculation of air was assumed to be around 60%. In the existing scenarios for both the buildings there is no heat recovery but in case of the new proposals with NEXT / conventional it was assumed there will be plate - tube heat exchanger. In case of de Studio there was no natural ventilation but I assumed in the new proposal there will be. Installations: Ventilation fans To calculate the energy of the fans the specifications of the installations were taken into considerations and for the proposal with NEXT the power specifications of the TROX unit were taken in consideration. As I have taken FSL B 190 as a reference TROX unit the voltage and current specificationas were 130V and 0.44A. In case of the existing installation in both the buildings that the power supply was in phase AC and for the TROX units it was considered as DC. Installations: Sunenergy system None of the sun energy systems like solar collectors, PV panels were considered in the calculation as it was niether part of the existing buildings nor the new installations. If they are planned to be installed it will be a bonus energy savings. Installations: Lighting equipments The energy consumption for lighting on the basis of the actually drawn capacity is defined as the product of the installed lights capabilities and the time that the lighting is turned on each year, taking into account the existing circuits. The installed lighting power per m2 of usable is considered 10 W/m2. In case of existing scenario in both the buildings it is central off off system which is turned on or off centrally before and after the office hours respectively. Which in case of the NEXT with its bioclimatic sensors the option of combination of sweep control and day ight control was considered.

78

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

de Studio, Amsterdam

Polaris, Groningen

Energy consump.on  distribu.on  in   Exis.ng  Building  (84549  MJ)  

pumps 1%    ligh$ng   31%  

humidifica$on   3%   cooling   1%  

Energy consump.on  distribu.on  in   Exis.ng  Building  (81214  MJ)  

cooling 1%  

humidifica$on    ligh$ng   2%   11%  

ven$la$on 10%  

hea$ng 45%  

hea$ng 75%  

ven$la$on 16%  

pumps 4%  

Energy consump.on  distribu.on  with  NEXT   system  (281243  MJ)  

Energy consump.on  distribu.on  in   Building  with  NEXT  (23508  MJ)  

humidifica$on   0%  

ligh$ng   38%  

pumps 1%  

hea$ng 43%  

ligh$ng   20%  

hea$ng 31%  

cooling 0%   ven$la$on   48%  

cooling 10%    humidifica$on   0%   pumps   6%  

ven$la$on 3%  

Energy consump.on  distribu.on  in    default  refurbishment  (29629  MJ)  

humidifica$on   0%   cooling   0%   pumps   1%  

hea$ng 32%  

ligh$ng   34%  

cooling 22%    humidifica$on   5%  

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

Energy consump.on  distribu.on  in  default   refurbishment  (31383  MJ)  

ven$la$on 2%   pumps   5%  

ligh$ng   20%  

hea$ng 31%  

ven$la$on 48%  

79


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Energy consump.on  comparison  (de  Studio)     90000  

Energy consump.on  (MJ)  

80000 70000   60000   50000   40000   30000   20000   10000   0   Building  with  NEXT  system  

hea/ng 10227  

ven/la/on 631  

pumps 1447  

Exis/ng Building  

37972

13624

2954

default refurbishment  

9289

631

1477

cooling 2245  

humidifica/on   0  

ligh/ng   8958  

Total energy     23508  

678

2736

26585

84549

6612

1506

10177

29692

Energy consump.on  comparison  (POLARIS)     90000  

Energy consump.on  (MJ)  

80000 70000   60000   50000   40000   30000   20000   10000   0   Building  with  NEXT  system  

hea/ng 8639  

Exis/ng Building  

60524

conven/onal modern  building  

9808

ven/la/on 14232  

pumps 246  

cooling 0  

humidifica/on   0  

ligh/ng   5007  

Total energy     28124  

8384

738

1191

14904

246

0

1515

8862

81214

0

6425

31383

Results Graphs above shows the energy consumption comparison be-

In case of ‘de Studio, Amsterdam’, heating, lighting and venti-

tween the existing building, the building refurbished with NEXT

lation comprise of major part of energy consumption in the

active facade and the conventional modern (default) way of re-

building. Cooling in the existing scenario used ground water, so

furbishment of facade. I was quite obvious that there will be a

energy consumption is lower but there is no garanty that it will

huge amount of energy saving if the facade was refurbished with

be available in future so for the refurbishment calculations com-

a better performing one but the surprising result was it is more

pression coolers are considered because of which the energy

than 50% in case of both the buildings. Red bars indicate the

consumption in cooling sector is more in case of new solution

energy consumption in existing scenario while blue and green

than the existing one. Heating energy consumption is compara-

indicate energy consumption for NEXT and default solution re-

tively more in case of NEXT to default solution because of the

spectively.

higher heat recovery efficiency in centralised ventilation system than the decentralised one in NEXT.

80

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade In case of ‘lighting energy consumption NEXT performs better to

The graphs shows typical occupancy schedule in an office and

its default counterpart because of the bioclimatic sensors which

in hotel (source - wikihelp/autodesk). With this graph we can

has better lighting control with respect to the availability of nat-

see that the occupancy in the office as well as in hotel is never

ural light and movement detectors. Results are also very similar

constant. There are certain peaks and lows. The ventilation is

in case of ‘Polaris’ building.

designed for the maximum occupancy and tends to be the same during the time of occupancy. In case of office the occupancy

From the total energy consumption comparison we can conclude

drops down around lunch time. This is still just the graph for the

that there will be more than 50% of energy saving if the build-

workstation zone. The occupancy varies even more in the special

ing is refurbished with a better system but there is not enough

rooms like conference room or executive cabins. So in case of

difference in the energy consumption in the NEXT system and

central conditioning even if the space is unoccupied or occupied

the centralised default solution in these schematic calculations.

with less people than it is designed for, it unnecessarily consumes energy to ventilate the space and also becomes a reason

The major difference in NEXT and the default solution is the use

for excessive heating/ cooling losses via ventilation.

of DCV (demand controlled ventilation) system which will have a influence on the ventilation energy consumption. Demand-

As per the graph if the DCV system is used which is part of NEXT

controlled ventilation (DCV) using carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors

solution 22.18% energy for ventilation can be saved in case of

combines two technologies: advanced gas sensing and an air-

office (office timing is assumed to be from 10am to 6pm with

handling system that uses data from the sensors to regulate ven-

buffer time of 1hour in the morning and in the evening) and

tilation. CO2 sensors continually monitor the air in a conditioned

around 41% for the hotel. It will also result in the respective de-

space. Since people exhale CO2, the difference between the in-

crease in ventilation losses of heating and cooling. With these

door CO2 concentration and the level outside the building indi-

assumptions of energy savings with DCV we can say that we can

cates the occupancy and/ or activity level in a space and thus its

save 3156 MJ and 140MJ ventilation energy incase of de Studio

ventilation requirements. The sensors send CO2 readings to the

and Polaris respectively. Reduction of amount of ventilation re-

ventilation controls, which automatically increase ventilation

sults in the heat/cooling losses via ventilation which adds upto

when CO2 concentrations in a zone rise above a specified level.

1659 MJ and 6302 MJ respectively and 2540 MJ of heating losses

Either too little or too much fresh air in a building can be a prob-

in case of Polaris (41% considered and cooling is not essential

lem. Over- ventilation results in higher energy usage and costs

in Polaris) . Total energy saving in de Studio is clculated to be

than are necessary with appropriate ventilation while potential-

8103.9 MJ and in Polaris is 8375.9 MJ.

ly increasing IAQ problems in warm, humid climates. Inadequate ventilation leads to poor air quality that can cause occupant discomfort and health problems.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

Polaris

heating losses

de Studio

heating losses

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

de Studio MONTH

HEATING$LOSSES COOLING$LOSSES

JAN$ FEB MARCH APRIL$ MAY JUNE$ JULY AUGUST SEPT OCT NOV DEC TOTAL REDUCTION$WITH$DCV$ (22.18%$RDUCTION$ FACTOR)

1084 1071 881 723 467 230 131 171 342 513 854 1025 7492

2509 2509 2509 2509 2509 2195 1725 1913 2509 2509 2509 2509 28414

1661.7256

6302.2252

TOTAL,ENERGY,, WITHOUT,DCV

36537

TOTAL,ENERGY,,WITH, DCV

28433.0934

Polaris

VENTILATION$ ENERGY

631

631 139.9558

HEATING$LOSSES

JAN$ FEB MARCH APRIL$ MAY JUNE$ JULY AUGUST SEPT OCT NOV DEC TOTAL REDUCTION$WITH$DCV$ (22.18%$RDUCTION$ FACTOR) TOTAL,ENERGY,, WITHOUT,DCV TOTAL,ENERGY,,WITH, DCV

897 886 728 598 386 190 109 141 283 424 707 848 6197

14232

2540.77

5835.12

90000

80000

80000 Energy  consump.on  (MJ)  

Energy consump.on  (MJ)  

de Studio

90000

70000 60000   50000   40000   30000   20000   10000   Exis0ng   Building  

84549

Conven0 onal contemp orary   building   29692  

60000 50000   40000   30000   20000  

0

Building with   NEXT  

23508

Building with  DCV  

90000

90000

80000

80000

70000 60000   50000   40000   30000  

40000 30000  

10000

Building with  NEXT  

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

15404.0934

50000

10000

81214

Building with  NEXT  

60000

20000

Default refurbishm ent   31383  

84549

Conven0o nal contempo rary   building   29692  

70000

20000

Exis0ng Building  

Exis0ng Building  

Building with  DCV  

Energy consump.on  (MJ)  

Energy consump.on  (MJ)  

Polaris

12053.11

70000

Building Without  DCV  

Without DCV  

20429

10000

Building without  DCV  

0

14232

Building with  DCV  

Building without  DCV  

0

VENTILATION$ ENERGY

MONTH

28124

0

Building with  DCV  

Exis0ng Building   81214  

Default refurbishm ent   31383  

Building with  NEXT   19748.11  

83


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Energy consump.on  with  change  of  direc.on  

The requirement of energy can be different for the same 9200

function, same area and same occupancy but with different ori-

9000 Energy  consump.on  ()MJ  

entation. As illustrated in the graph below for Polaris building heating requirement change for the studios in east, west, north and south part of the same building. With centralised system it is very difficult to control the conditions separately for these

8600 8400   8200   8000  

different parts of the building with same specifications but with

7800

NEXT it can be possible to regulate it differently for different parts of the building resulting into further energy savings. In

8800

7600 Energy  consump9on  with  change  of   direc9on  

west

south

east

north

8639

8196

8865

9135

these graphs only heating energy is illustrated as cooling is not applicable for Polaris.

orienta-on difference  

energy consump-on  (MJ)  

30000 25000   20000   15000   10000   5000   0  

84

hea*ng

ven*la*on

pumps

cooling

ligh*ng  

Total energy    

0

humidifica*on   0  

west

8639

14232

246

south

8196

14232

246

5007

28124

0

0

5007

27681

east

8865

14232

north

9135

14232

246

0

0

5007

28350

246

0

0

5007

28620

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

7. Conclusion

3.

There can be several design possibilities to apply the

NEXT system in most of the given conditions making it a design My main research question was ‘How can the concept of NEXT Active Facade as a design flexible solution can be practically applied to given conditions?’ Sub Questions: 1. What are the pros and cons of existing systemized decentralized solutions available in the market? 2. What are the Architects expectations and opinions about NEXT Active facade? 3. What are the technical hurdles in application of NEXT Active facade? 4. What are the different possibilities to apply NEXT in given condition? 5. Where it needs more product development to make it a bet-

flexible toolbox. But after having an overview of the functional feasibility I could conclude that NEXT is much more suitable to offices, hotels or residential functions than schools and hospitals because of their high ventilation rates and technical hurdles caused by the high occupancy and internal heat generation. 4.

In terms of application the unique selling point of NEXT is

it is not a standardized product but a customized solution which allows it to be integrated with the façade and also be modular detached assembly which makes it much more flexible in terms of design. It was demonstrated with the case studies. So in comparison with the existing systemized products NEXT is much more design flexible. 5.

Cost is one of the major deciding factors. In case of refur-

ter system?

bishment projects there is not much difference in cost savings in

From the previous chapters I can have following conclusions:

system there is considerable amount of savings. In case of new

1.

height.

After getting of an overview about the existing system-

ized solutions like Schuco, TE motion façade etc. and the customized solutions like Capricon house and RADIX building it was realized that there was not much of a difference between all

terms of energy consumption if used without DCV but with DCV building further savings can be done by reducing the building

Scope for Further research Advise to NEXT

these solutions in terms of performance as most of them used

As mentioned earlier after the first discussion with Tillmann

TROX as a basic climate unit so the differences were mostly in

and Eric three directions of study were chalked out, out of

terms of the geometry and placements of the products. It was

which I concentrated more on the construction and application

also realized that the placement options of the systemized solu-

part. So still an extensive study needs to be done on the Stake-

tions with respect to varying architectural design was limited.

holder’s responsibility and climate design for NEXT.

2.

In case of the functional feasibility of NEXT system I did a com-

With the interviews conducted of Architects it was evi-

dent that even if they are major decision makers in the building

parative overview of different functions with NEXT system but it

process the final decision to go for centralized climate system

still demands a detail study. Also in case of the detail drawings

is vastly influenced by HVAC advisors as they are used to work

more input and detailing is required to be done to understand

with conventional means of climate system and are resistant

the problems during construction for a specific building.

to change. Initial investment cost is an critical factor in decision making so the recovery time to for extra investment for

As a result of interviews apart from design flexibility and upg-

decentralized solution over the centralized one has to be as less

radability of the system cost was one of the major influential

as possible or in the best case scenario same as the central-

factors. Every building has different things to offer in terms of

ized solution. During interviews many architects urged to see

cost savings depending on different factors involved. So the

various possibilities with the NEXT in terms of either projects

cost savings analysis is much more complicated because of the

or prototypes. Flexibility of interior space and upgradability

number of variables involved. A special study needs to be con-

of the system seemed to be the major arguments to convince

ducted about the cost saving possibilities for example, savings

Architects and cost savings in terms of change of function and

due to smart automation products by Somfy, savings by means

energy to convince clients.

of demand controlled ventilation, savings considering the future plans of function change or the man hours saved during construction. Also an economic comparison between NEXT and different types of façade like conventional single skin, double skin etc needs to be done. These studies will help to formulate the role of an expert cost consultant in the NEXT team.

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Service Integrated Responsive Façade

8. Reflection All the stake holder involved in a construction of a façade from

Before coming to TU Delft I was working as an Architect. During

architects to the system suppliers have different things on their

3 years of my professional experience one major thing I realised

agenda for the selection of a particular system. So in case of

that all the things which we learn at school during bachelors

NEXT, which is very flexible to adapt to many construction prob-

level is not even 5% of the actual practice as most of the time in

lem needs to come up with different marketing strategies for

office was spent in management and coordination with consult-

different parties involved. For example Architects are more in-

ants, contractors, material suppliers etc. So when the first time

terested in the geometrical aesthetics and flexibility in terms of

Tillmann mentioned about this topic I got very much interested.

design, Clients on the other hand would be more worried about

Because of the past experiences I could really understand the

the initial investment cost and the refurbishment costs if there

relevance of the one point contact approach of NEXT Active fa-

is change of function in future, the financial benefits over the

cade, which is still just one of many advantages of the system.

years in terms of selling value and energy saving potential. Con-

When I started working on this topic I faced some difficulties in

tractors would be more concerned about the ease of installation

doing the background research. As this is comparatively a new

of the system and integration with the façade. The users will be

concept, not much research has been done on this topic and all

more interested in the user interface, controls and the comfort

the research which is available is mostly in German. So there

levels of the space. There is also need to investigate what does

was a lack of reading material. Only way to clear the concepts or

BREEM or GREENCAL mean to NEXT as there can be a possibility

difficulties was to talk to either Tillmann or Eric as initially I had

to get additional finances from the financial institutions if they

some hard time just understanding the whole approach.

have certain green ratings. This will be an interesting point to

Interviewing the Architects about the system, which may be a bit

convince investors.

unconventional method of research for a facade masters thesis but not very strange for real-estate and housing track, helped

Energy saving with NEXT is very evident but to take NEXT to the

me understand the real need of the solution based product rath-

next level it needs to consider the integration of energy generat-

er than a product based solution. I got some great insights about

ing elements like PV cells. There is also a need to further product

the opportunities of the system. Most of the Architects inter-

development when it comes to the noise levels in TROX units to

viewed were looking for flexibility, possibility and performance

cater high occupancy spaces. The concept of split system and its

as the keywords. This was where I think NEXT should change

integration with the façade needs to be investigated. Another

the marketing approach. I visited the NEXT stall in ‘Gevel 2012’

area of development in TROX is its humidification capacity and

exhibition where NEXT prototype was placed very close to one

moisture recovery. During the interviews there were concerns

of the Schuco prototypes and to be frank as a layman It looked

about the high maintenance of the system.

the same not in terms of appearance but the impression. I think NEXT Active facade should not be sold as a product but as an

As NEXT is trying to integrate different expertise to have a one-

Idea where there are numerus possibilities in terms of function

point contact for Architects or clients they need to have inter-

and design. As concluded from the Architects interviews, they

mediary person or a team with knowledge of all expertise from

want to see the possibilities with the system by means of proto-

climate systems to façade components to automation systems

types or actual projects but not as a rigid product.

to assembly work.

Application of the NEXT to the existing buildings takes as a case study demonstrated the potential of NEXT as a design flexible solution. With the modern day buildings getting more and more complicated in terms of geometry the conventional way of communicating is going to be very much time consuming so there is absolute necessity of NEXT even today. It not because I did graduation in this topic but I can confidently say that NEXT is the future of facade building of dealt with the minor technical limitations and marketed well

86

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

9. Bibliography

Websites -

U. Knaack, M. Bilow, T. Klein, Thomas Auer

Smartbox - www.smartfacade.nl

Facades: Principles of Construction

Zon-WEL - www.ecn.nl/egon/extra/extranet/zon-wel

TU Delft

Trox home page - www.trox.de Schossig und Gatermann -www.gatermann-schossig.de

U. Knaack, M. Bilow, T. Klein

Wicona - www.wicona.com/en

Imagine

Schuco - www.Schuco.de

TU Delft

Cepezed - www.cepezed.nl MIT - designadvisor.mit.edu/design/

B. Russell Building Systems, Industrialization and Architecture British Library Cataloguing 1981 M. Davies A wall for all seasons RIBA Journal February 1981 M. Wigginton, J. Harris Intelligent Skins Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford 2002 Andrew Watts Modern Construction Envelope, Springer Wein NewYork Thomas Herzog, Roland Krippner, Werner Lang Facade Construction Manual Birkhauser edition detail

Somfy - www.somfy.nl

Thesis, reports and presentations Comparison between Centralized and decentralized ventilation system by TROX Deel Study by Federal Ministry of Economics and technology, Germany Schuco Building B study by Dragos Stan Thesis report by Joep Hรถvels - The Open Modular Faรงade Concept Thesis report by Chang Yu Chou - Decentralized building service components for Taiwanese climate Phd report by Thiemo Ebbert - ReFace

Jenny Lovell Building Envelopes: An Integrated Approach Architecture briefs

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

10. Appendices

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

APPENDIX I Architects interviews (1st round) Interview with Joost Heijnis, Cepezed. Goal of discussion: 1. Understanding the design process for standard and new integrated concepts for façade. 2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Façade system Questions

1. Process and Architectural design: How things work in Cepezed when it comes to façade design? We do care a lot how things are made. We don’t hire façade consultant, try to do it in-house therefore we get in contact with contractors and companies like Alcoa early in the design phase. If we don’t find the things we want in there brochures we ask them to custom make them.

What are the criteria to choose between centralized solution and decentralized solution? What are things you need to know beforehand while choosing Decentralized service integrated façade systems? We unfortunately haven’t worked with decentralised solutions for the projects till now. Most clients think it’s too exotic, expensive and difficult to maintain. But its never has been proven that these are the valid reasons for not to accept decentralised solutions. The biggest problem is the HVAC consultants are not familiar with these systems. Clients never initiated for decentralised systems. We need to know requirements of the room, capacity of the system, if there is change in type then will the system still be able to be efficient to create the desired comfort level and cost of course. Minor problem is that there aren’t many fabricators of this system; there is TROX who provide a lot of custom made products. So we have to talk to these people very early in the design stage but then we don’t have any possibility to change to other company. The clients usually don’t commit to the system suppliers at the early stage of design. I think that could be a problem. Previously we decided to go with decentralised solution for a hospital project we are doing but the problem we faced was the air which is had to be filtered which reduces the efficiency of the decentralised unit or the size of the unit need to be increased which makes the solution more expensive.

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How does it affect the timeline of design and decision making? Going for decentralised solution will not affect the timeline much, at least in case of Cepezed, but you have to choose the system and suppliers at very beginning not in the middle or at the end.

What are Advantages and disadvantages of decentralised system? Advantage of decentralised systems – Plug and play nature of the system (Upgradability), Suitable for change in use of building, Flexibility in terms of planning, Ease of control Disadvantages of decentralised system – People are unfamiliar about the system, Maintenance, More suitable for multitenant building but not for open office building.

2. Smartbox and NEXT Active facade: What was the vision behind developing the SmartBox system? Was there any project where you tried to convince the client and what was his feedback on the system? We developed Smartbox system in collaboration with Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), TNO Bouw & Ondergrond, and a number of innovation-oriented market parties. Our mission was to invent and design a façade system which when applied will result in reduction of energy use to half or zero. Main goal was to design a façade system which will be applicable all types buildings like residential, commercial, healthcare etc. We focused on the main market then, which was office buildings, new and renovation projects. It took a very long time to convince all the partners that to make it a success it has to be very very simple, almost invisible, and at the same time an energy saving facade. We all could invent very fancy façade with lamella and PV panels or second skin façade which most of the times its one of a solution. So the trick was to invent something which was very smart and adaptable to all kinds of buildings. We still haven’t incorporated Smartbox in any project but we tried it in 2007-08 in commercial building market but unfortunately the market collapsed.

There are similar products in market like Schuco E2 Façade. As an Architect will you opt for that system? As an Architect I will not opt for Schuco because of the rigidity of the product instead I will go to TROX which is the most flexible company I know.

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

One of the advantages of NEXT Active façade system is the one point contact for Architects/clients/developers. Would it be helpful for Architects?

sure that is going to work. The only way this approach will work if developer prescribes while giving out tenders that he specifically wants to use NEXT system.

It depends on the Architect. It may be easy to convince clients to choose that particular system saying that all other things are

In terms of decision making NEXT should come early in the pic-

already taken care of. Also it will be helpful for developers. In

ture but I am not sure which stakeholder they should approach,

case of Cepezed it may not be very helpful because we know the

Architect, Client, Developer or the construction company which

system so if one of the parties involved is not very cooperative

is renovating the building. So somebody at some point, decision

then we can go for another one.

maker should say that I want to use NEXT and I am not convinced that client is going to do this, may be a developer. So it should

What is your reaction on the toolbox? Will it help in initial decision making for Architects?

be an Architect.

Many Architects that doesn’t include our company are really

Conclusions of discussion:

not interested in energy saving but just the appearance of the façade. I think for clients and developers it would be helpful. I

1. From clients perspective decentral solutions are too exotic,

am not really convinced about these numbers and the savings

expencive and difficult to maintain.

as these are more of approximations. It’s too technical for many

2. HVAC consultants are not familiar with decentral product

architects.

solutions 3. There are not many fabricators of these systems so it is dif-

Future of NEXT Active façade system:

ficult to compare the systems or change them in the process. 4. If going for the decentral solution then the selection of system

Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system?

and suppliers need to be done at the very begining of the design

I think what Architects need to know is how system works, what

5. The difficulty to convince the parties involved and the market

they can do with it and what they don’t and how can they incor-

crash specially in office building sector halted the developement

porate it in their design. So I think there shouldn’t be any techni-

of the Smartbox system.

cal improvement but into the marketing strategy. People need

6. Reaction on Toolbox - It is too technical for architects to un-

to see the system to believe that it exists. Design wise I think

derstand the calculations but the savings figures will help.

it is quite flexible but it needs to be clear to an architect what

7. Inprovement in NEXT system - No technical improvements

it can do and can’t do. For NEXT to be commercially successful

needed but there is scope of improvements in marketing sta-

its first project should be very good with all the parties involved

ratagy as Architects/ developers need to see the actual proto-

because for Architects or developers to opt for this product they

type or some reference project before opting for the system.

stage as it has a huge impact on architectural design.

have to see, experience it physically. They need a very strong marketing image. The difficulty for the partners like Alcoa is they are partner in NEXT who will deal with all the aluminium profile but what if Architect wants a wooden facade? What are they going to do? So it would be better if there are more options in terms of system suppliers.

Do you think the conventional decision making process needs some changes if you opt for the integrated solutions? How? In case of many architectural practices it need to be changed. The difficulty for the NEXT approach is, where in the timeline of the design phase these guys step in? It’s the most difficult question. I don’t think it’s a right approach to go to developers and say that we have this system and do you want to apply? I am not

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Interview with Frank Schnater, TU Delft

4. Who are the decision makers when it comes to selecting decentralised solution? For our projects its usually me(Architect), unless client has an very specific wish. But when it comes to selecting particular systems it’s the façade builders job to select systems as per the

Goal of discussion:

specifications provided by us.

1. Understanding the design process for standard and new inte2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Fa-

5. How does is affect the timeline of design and decision making?

çade system

I don’t have enough experience but I can imagine it will make life

grated concepts for façade.

a lot easier because with the centralised solution you need to Questions

have a very precise planning about the building services which

1. Process and Architectural design:

in turn effects the building layout and architectural design of the building. With decentralised solutions its more flexible but

1. Tell me something about your office and the process to deal with façade design?

it need to be considered in a very early phase of design as it will have an impact on the whole project planning.

We are a small office. We do everything from start to finish on our own. We have two architects, one draftsman and one con-

Architectural Design:

tract maker. The concepts about façade design are dealt at very and the given budget we do initial sketch details of façade to ex-

6. How does it affect the flexibility in terms of design? How important is flexibility and upgradability?

plore the possibilities in early stage of design. It implies certain

As I said the interior layouts will have a lot of flexibility com-

kind of façade, quality and materials etc. For example if we have

pared to the centralised solution. We can also gain in terms of

a traditional client who wants a brick façade we start with brick

ceiling height. It will also be good in terms of upgradability, but

details in our mind.

there is always the factor of uncertainty involved as the time

early stage of design. Depending on the impressions of client

span to upgrade the system varies depending on the function

2. What are the criteria to choose between centralized solution and decentralized solution? What are things you need to know beforehand while choosing Decentralized service integrated façade systems?

change, it may be 5 years to 15 years or may be more.

We don’t have any experience working with the decentralised teria would be the installation and maintenance cost. The space

1. One of the advantages of NEXT Active façade system is the one point contact for Architects/clients/developers. Would it be helpful for Architects?

requirement for the installations is also a major driving force.

As an Architect I don’t think it’s a problem to talk to all the play-

We need to know beforehand the cost and the functional pa-

ers involved in the façade construction process if you have in-

rameters like capacity, ventilation rate etc. before choosing the

sights of the whole process. It also depends on the scale of the

system.

project. But from the client/developer’s point of view the one

solutions, but if we have to select between the two the main cri-

NEXT Active façade system :

point contact is good. 3. The cost factor which you mentioned is the initial in-

vestment cost or the complete cost including the maintenance cost for the total lifespan of the building?

92

Most of the times its just initial investment but life time invest-

2. How do you compare other systems with NEXT Active façade? What will be the criteria to select a system from these existing solutions?

ments is always an argument to convince the client to invest

Cost is the major driving force for comparison but requirements

his money in new type of façade or installations. It depends on

like heating, cooling, energy consumption, lighting and venti-

the clients and the site conditions also. For example, for one of

lation is also important; it should fulfil the functional require-

the project we were working on had a very high sound load so I

ments. It is also important that the system compliments the ar-

could make an argument about spending more in façade.

chitectural design in terms of aesthetics.

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

3. As you mentioned cost is major driving force to go for a decentralised solution, then will the readymade toolbox which shows you the cost saving per square meter of façade area help in initial decision making?

5. Tool box can be a very strong argument tool to convince cli-

Of course it will help the decision making process. It will also be

or prototype.

ents as their decisions are very much influanced by the money factor. 6. Improvements in NEXT system - Need to see reference project

a very strong argument tool to convince clients. The cost figures need to be clear showing the savings in the initial investment cost and maintenance cost.

Future of NEXT Active façade system : 4. Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system? Need to see a reference project or mockup or complete product brochure or atleast need to have quality assurances mentioned on paper or a contract by system suppliers.

5. Do you think the conventional decision making process needs some changes if you opt for the integrated solutions? How? If you want to do something experimental in façade you need to invest in research, experiments and mock-ups. In general architectural practice not many architects want to travel that road as most of the times they are not paid for that so they opt for the conventional solutions. Even the information given by suppliers is for the standard applications. They are not very flexible in terms of their working method. They have their standard brochures but they don’t want to invest in any nonstandard thing unless they are assured of getting the job. That is something I feel need to change if you have to develop a new kind of façade or integrated solutions as most of the integrated solutions are non standard types. So there need to be change in working approach of players involved in terms of information flow and monetary investments to develop the new kind of façade.

Conclusions from the discussions : 1. Installation and maintanance cost are major factors which influance the selection of the system. (central vs decentral) 2. Architects are decision makers when it comes to system selection unless Clients/ Developers have any special wish. 3. Decentral solutions are more flexible but it need to be considered at very early stage of design. 4. NEXT’s USP is one point contact for Architects/ clients. From Architects point of view it many not make much difference but from clients/ developers point of view it will.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Interview with Arie Bergsma, TU Delft

system is done considering these factors. Not always the best solution is chose for the building but the solution which is more comfortable for the building services guy is chosen.

Goal of discussion:

3. Who are the decision makers when it comes to selecting decentralised solution?

1. Understanding the design process for standard and new inte-

The building servises guy has major influence on the selection

grated concepts for façade.

of the system as he is comfortable working in a certain way so

2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Fa-

he tries to push Architects to go in his direction which in most of

çade system

the cases is the centralised solution. In some of the projects it is combined decision by Architects, advisors and client considering

Questions

the user needs and specially costs.

1. Process and Architectural design: 1. Tell me something about your office and the process to deal with façade design? I used to work as a building physics consultant but now I work

4. How does is affect the timeline of design and decision making? To make use of all the benefits which are provided by Decentralised systems you need to incorporate it in your design very early.

on more dwelling buildings which is totally different scale than office buildings. As our office is growing, we started with smaller projects and going towards bigger projects. Still we haven’t worked with any high rise project and very complex façade solu-

Architectural Design:

tion. Façade design process is most of the times aesthetically performance, light control, ventilation, fire safety and Building

5. How does it affect the flexibility in terms of design? How important is flexibility and upgradability?

acoustics. In my case I deal with all these requirements all by

It has advantage of flexibility but you shouldn’t over estimate

myself as I have some experience as building physics consult-

it. For example in hospital building everything can be decen-

ant. Consulting with consultants depends on the complexity of

tralised but you still need a lot of machinery for which may be

the façade but usually in dwelling buildings most of the times

centralised system is more suitable, so in many cases it will be

they are not much complex. In an conventional Architectural

a combination to two systems. But in case of dwellings it is very

office involvement in the functional and performance oriented

interesting. You can also reduce the floor height by 10-20cm

details depends upon the skills of an Architect. Some Architects

but it will be significant only in case of high rise building, it will

are more interested in the appearance of the façade but some

not affect much for G+1 or even G+4 building. Upgrading the

are very much interested in the technical aspects of it.

building is generally not the case except if they are forced by

driven and supported by functional requirements like energy

some regulation. The same function upgrading is dependent on

2. What are the criteria to choose between centralized solution and decentralized solution? What are things you need to know beforehand while choosing Decentralized service integrated façade systems?

the psycology of people. Very few would want their buildings

It really depends on the project to project. The type of the project,

accept higher energy bills. It depends on the life span of the

size or volume of the space, requirements from the clients, build-

building, personal choices, emotional values and most impor-

ing standerds, cost. The selection is not always dependent on the

tantly the costs. Upgrdibility advantage of decentralised system

most energy efficient system but lot of other factors involved.

will be more helpful to the office buildings of bigger companies

The energy performance of the system, the cost of the system

where there organisation keeps changing every now and then. I

and more importantly its maintanence and operation costs, and

was involved in the Shell headquarter project where the used to

how comfortable the space will be for its respective function.

change their interiors every year.

to be upgraded as it involves a lot of money. Some people have some emotional attachment to their building, e.g they like the detailng or materials so they try to restore existing things and

User requirements are also very important in decision making. Initially there are usually 8-9 solutions but the finalisation of the

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

NEXT Active façade system :

Summary of discussions :

6. What is your reaction on NEXT Active façade system? One of the advantages of NEXT Active façade system is the one point contact for Architects/clients/developers. Would it be helpful for Architects?

1. Because of the technical background the office give alot more

It is a very promising concept to minimize the complexity of the

tion but is more comfortable to HVAC advisor.

process. It actually depends on Architect to Architect if they like

3. Initial investment cost is one of the major factors which influ-

to have just one point contact. I personally I don’t mind talking

ence the decision making.

to individual parties depending on my requirements.

4. To exploit all the benefits provided by the decentralized solu-

importance to building physics aspects to support the architectural design. 2. In many cases the chosen climate system is not the best solu-

tion the decision to incorporate the system need to be taken at very early stage of Architectural design.

7. How do you compare other existing systems with NEXT Active façade?

5. Flexibility of interior layout is an advantage for the decentral-

I think these systems are too technical for many architects ex-

6. The upgradibility advantage can be exploited to its maximum

cept some like Cepezed. In many practices facades are supposed

in the office projects specially for the bigger companies like Shell

to support and emphasise the architectural idea. All the existing

which have organisational changes on very frequent basis.

systems are very rigid and indifferent to the ‘architecture’ of the

7. The office doesn’t mind talking to individual parties depend-

building. They lack in terms of flexibility of the design.

ing on the project requirement.

ised system but it should not be overestimated.

8. Existing systemised solutions are kind of rigid or indifferent to

8. Will the readymade toolbox help in initial decision making? I think it will be a convincing tool for clients but again it also depends on the type of the project and client. Usually in all

‘Architectural design’ of the building. 9. Calculation toolbox is a convincing tool for Architects to convince clients. 10. Architects need to see the possibilities with the NEXT system.

projects building services guy is already making these kind of calculations but are very complex to understand to Architects and clients. This tool will be helpful in the projects where the building services guy is not very active and architects can change the values and see the differences in terms of costs. I feel it not much like a calculation tool but a design tool, which can be very helpful for architects in their initial decision making.

Future of NEXT Active façade system : 9. Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system? Architects need to see the possibilities of the concept.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

95


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Interview with Robert Platje, Plus Architecten, Rotterdam

the building and its façade, requirements regarding performance specially acoustics if it facing to highway or any high noise zone and also height of the building. Advisors need to know about the system as conventional advisors try and push architects towards central solution as they are comfortable working with it because

Goal of discussion:

it is easy to calculate compared to the decentralized solution.

1. Understanding the design process for standard and new integrated concepts for façade. 2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Façade system

3. Who are the decision makers when it comes to selecting decentralised solution? It is actually clients, architects and advisors together with each

Questions

other’s consents take the decisions. If client wants more flexible

1. Process and Architectural design:

building for the change of the function then the decentralized approach is more suitable. The decision also depends on the time

1. Tell me something about your office and the process to deal with façade design?

span of the building as we can save with decentralized system

In the traditional architectural office, architect makes designs

of the building, what he wants to do with the building. Cost is

and advisors or consultants tell architects if it is going to work

the major driving force for decision--making. Long term savings

or not in conventional methods or if architect is stubborn on

used to be a valid argument to convince clients 5--6 years back

his idea, advisors try and work it out in an unconventional way.

as at that time economy was doing good but now it is becoming

Because of incapability to deal with more technically complex

much more difficult as clients tend to consider only short term

problems Architects and advisors need to work hand in hand.

gains. Clients today are hesitant to invest where there is a lot of

The conventional architects are many times just interested in

initial investment, even if the long-- term gains are higher. So if

the appearance of the building skin and advisors are more wor-

you have to develop a new kind of working methodology when

ried about its performance. So there are bound to be clashes

it comes to decentralized solution then the role of a specialized

between these two. In our office we follow a different approach.

building cost consultant who understands the whole process, is

We work with advisors from the beginning of the design phase.

very important.

if it is used for longer time. So it depends a lot on clients vision

We ask for their ideas or requirements even before we start dedesign tools. As many of advisors are used to working with the

4. How does is affect the timeline of design and decision making?

drawings or pictures given by architects so there are not many

It of course will change the timeline for a building design pro-

advisors there who will work with you even from the start of the

cess. All the responsible advisors need to get involved at very

building design. We believe with this way of working you can get

early stage of the design stage as each and every small decision

a better building from users point of view.

is going to affect the cost savings.

2. What are the criteria to choose between centralized solution and decentralized solution? What are things you need to know beforehand while choosing Decentralized service integrated façade systems?

Architectural Design:

The major criteria to choose between centralized or decentral-

Flexibility of layout is a big advantage of decentralized solution

ized solution is the kind of the user. If you are doing a building for

but it also depends on the project, if you need flexible layout.

old people the will not be able to handle decentralized system

When the savings by reducing the height of the building is not an

but it is the opposite case with the younger people where the get

argument especially in the case of a refurbishment project then

involved in what is provided to them. For in office building you

the flexibility of interior layout and flexibility to change it be-

have to go for a more mixed building. The things which I need

comes very important. The individual control for the users make

to know before I go for any of the climate solution are building

them more involved in the climate control of the buildings with

costs, kind of users, location (global and local) and orientation of

which more comfortable user environment can be achieved. the

signing and when we have their requirements, which we treat as

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5. How does it affect the flexibility in terms of design? How important is flexibility and upgradability?

Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade Upgradability when it comes to change of function of the build-

Future of NEXT Active façade system :

ing or change of building regulations is also an advantage for investments, maintenance and influence of wind on its perfor-

10. Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system?

mance.

I think I don’t think any improvements are needed as a product

decentralized system. The dis advantages can be the larger initial

as it is a combined effort of all the industry leaders but needs

NEXT Active façade system :

some improvement in marketing strategies. Architects need to know what they can do with it. As you said it is not a product but

6. What is your reaction on NEXT Active façade system?

an Idea so NEXT need to show them what can they do with this

I completely agree with the approach of NEXT to have an inte-

Idea. One of the ways is to organize some design competitions

grated approach to avoid the communication lapses to make a

to show what are the possible options for the specified condition

better façade. I think this will be the future of façade building

or specified building. Other thing that can be done is to make it

as presently we are spending a lot of unnecessary time in com-

as interactive as possible. Let people visually know what their

munication. But as an Architect I would still like to see various

façade is performing. For example, how the performance of the

possibilities and capabilities of this system, aesthetically and

façade changes when you open the window. The users need to

functionally.

be made more aware about the operation, functioning and performance of the façade by visual means such as performance

7. One of the advantages of NEXT Active façade system is the one point contact for Architects/clients/developers. Would it be helpful for Architects?

displays, which are easy to understand to a layman.

Summary of discussion :

I think there is a good possibility of having a very intelligent building if you go with the one point contact approach but con-

1. Major criteria to choose any particular system is the user re-

ventional architects are more comfortable to go to a specific

quirement along with the cost, location and orientation of the

consultant as per their requirements and needs. It actually de-

building.

pends on office to office, as some times architects don’t want a

2. Clients today look for short term gains than the long-term be-

conventional aluminum glass façade. For those situations also

cause of the present market scenario.

NEXT needs to come up with some solutions. About our office I

3. To use the decentralize solution HVAC advisor need to be in-

think NEXT would be a perfect option.

volved in the design process at a very early stage. 4. Larger initial investment and influence of wind on the perfor-

8. How do you compare other systems with NEXT Active façade?

mance of the system, specially in case of high rise buildings need

It is difficult to compare different systems as different companies

5. Agree with the NEXT approach but still need to see the vari-

cater to different needs like Schuco has a very niche market, they

ous possibilities and capabilities of the system, aesthetically and

highly engineered product but not very flexible but if you see the

functionally.

companies like Oskomera and Permasteelisa they do customized

6. For Architects the readymade toolbox is very technical to

solutions for buildings. Both of them cater to different market

digest, but can very useful for performance driven design ap-

altogether.

proach.

to be dealt with.

7. The visual interaction between the facade and its users in

9. Will the readymade toolbox help in initial decision-making?

terms of the performance is very important.

It again depends of office to office. As also a building technologist it is very interesting for me but I am not sure how much it will help conventional architects as they may fail to understand the whole significance of the calculations. The design decisions are based on lot of other factors as the location, orientation, client requirement, regulations etc. If you plan to do a performance driven design I think it would be very interesting to use a toolbox like this for initial decision making.

Graduation Report (P4 ): Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Interview with Chris de Weijer, Director, DP6 Architects, Delft

3. Who are the decision makers when it comes to selecting decentralized solution? Who were the decision makers in RADIX project? In conventional project Architects are the main decision makers,

Goal of discussion:

of course they are advised by consultants. In case of RADIX pro-

1. Understanding the design process for standard and new inte-

ject as the client was not sure about the type and capacity of the

grated concepts for façade.

function of the building and also its future use of it as that time

2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Fa-

the University (RADIX is one of the building in University com-

çade system

plex) was shrinking in its operation. So they wanted us to design something very flexible. We investigated and compared central-

Questions

ized and decentralized options also with respect to energy con-

1. Process and Architectural design:

sumption, saving and maintenance. After having many intense meetings with the consultants and clients we jointly came to the

1. Tell me something about the conventional process to deal with façade design? How different was it in case of RADIX building?

decision to go for decentralized ventilation scheme.

We in our office follow the typical European method when it

4. How does is affect the timeline of design and decision making?

comes to façade design. Every project is different so as its need

It dose affect the timeline of decision making as you have to fi-

of façade. We don’t have any specific façade consultant but fa-

nalize involve the consultant in a very early stage of design. In

çade builders are involved in the design process. In a conven-

case of RADIX project there were 3 façade builders who were

tional project after architectural expression is finalized we take

consulted very early in the design stage but as the project pro-

façade builders opinion on the feasibility and other aspects. RA-

gressed because of certain circumstances we had to appoint

DIX project was different. It had different requirements about

the 4th façade builder for actual execution. So things worked

energy, façade, client expectations and site conditions. The brief

a bit differently for that particular project. Unlike China, here in

was for a flexible and transparent building offering space for in-

Netherland we have a very long timespan for every project as

novative office concepts with flexible use of laboratories. So re-

we lose a lot of time communicating things between so many

quirement of flexibility of the interior layout was very influential

parties involved.

in further design decisions. After considering several factors we the building but with central exhaust system. Talking about the

• What do you think are the Advantages and disadvantages of decentralized system?

process façade builders were involved in the decision making

Flexibility of interior layout is one of the major advantage which

process from the very start.

we tried to exploit in the RADIX project. I am not sure about

decided to go for decentralized ventilation system for a part of

performance advantages over centralized systems. As you don’t

2. What are the criteria to choose between centralized solution and decentralized solution? What are things you need to know beforehand while choosing Decentralized service integrated façade systems?

need ducting space you have bigger volume and larger façade

In any conventional project the client requirements are the most

can be removed if there are any interior layout changes but the

important. We definitely need to know the expected energy

control guy have integrated all the control systems in the wall

use of the building. Geography, site location and orientation of

next to façade so there is extra cost involved if you have to do

the building also play an important role. In Wageningen project

some changes. Also, they have installed one control panel per

there was some underground heating system which was used

3-4 offices so even individual controls are on the toss. So com-

for the existing building. Along with DGMR we investigated the

munication between different parties involved is very important.

area to get more light inside the building. I think the disadvantage can be the complexity of system and communication. If I have to give example we wanted all the walls to be free so they

required energy use and different possibilities for the building. There isn’t any hard and fast rule to choose between centralized of decentralized solution as it depends on variety of factors like consultant suggestions, client budgets, size of the building etc.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Architectural Design: 5. How does it affect the flexibility in terms of design? How important is flexibility and upgradability?

9. Will the readymade toolbox help in initial decision-making?

Flexibility of layout is a big advantage of decentralized solution

Ya, it would certainly be helpful in initial decision making but I

but it also depends on the project, if you need flexible layout.

think it should incorporate more options. For some Architects it

When the savings by reducing the height of the building is not an

may be a bit more technical. But overall as the cost of the façade

argument especially in the case of a refurbishment project then

has major influence on decision making it is good to have a tool

the flexibility of interior layout and flexibility to change it be

like this.

comes very important. The individual control for the users make them more involved in the climate control of the buildings with

Future of NEXT Active façade system :

which more comfortable user environment can be achieved. the

NEXT Active façade system :

10. Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system? I need to see a reference project before having any concrete

6. What is your reaction on NEXT Active façade system? One of the advantages of NEXT Active façade system is the one point contact for Architects/clients/developers. Would it be helpful for Architects?

improvement suggestion. The concept is very promising. One suggestion can be about the controls display, most of the times it is complex to operate for many people. It can be more minimalistic.

I have already heard and seen the prototype of this system. It is a very interesting concept. One point contact will be very help-

Summary of discussion :

ful for architects as I mentioned earlier communication between different parties involved is very critical. If I have to give one ex-

1. Process of Architectural and facade design differs with each

ample with respect to RADIX building there was debate about

and every project. For RADIX project the brief was flexible and

scope of work of the wiring for the controls of sunscreening, be-

transparent facade for flexible interior layout.

tween the electrical guy and sunscreening guy. There is always

2. Selection of system differs from project to project depending

a discussion about the holes to be drilled to pass the cables.

on the various factors. HVAC advisor has a major influence on

In collective these small conflicts and discussions increase the

the decision.

project timespan unnecessarily. So if there is one responsible

3. HVAC advisors need to be involved in the design process from

person who can take responsibility of all these things I think it

very early stage of design.

would be great for the project.

4. In a decentralized solution as you dont need any ducting space, you can have bigger interior volumes and larger facade

8. How do you compare other systems with NEXT Active façade? As the system which is used in RADIX project is somewhat similar to the systemized solution available in the market like Schuco’s E2 façade solution. Why didn’t you go for the systemized solution?

areas to get more light in your building.

I am aware about the systems available in the market for exam-

chitects.

ple schuco. But I think these are very rigid in its existing form. I

7. The readymade toolbox can be very helpful for Architects as a

assume that if they get a bigger project they will modify to suit

design tool but need to incorporate more options.

Architect’s requirement of aesthetics. It is difficult to compare

8. Need to see a reference project before going for NEXT system

NEXT to them before its actual implementation in mainstream

for facade construction in any of our projects.

5. Communication between different parties involved is very important when going for DVS as communication lapses can hamper the advantages and budget. 6. The one point approach of NEXT will be very helpful for ar-

market. But the concept is very promising. When this project was in the design phase Schuco system was not in the market. If it was available we would have used it but not in its existing form as it is very rigid. I hope they would have modified it as per our requirements as they would have got huge amount of façade area to work with.

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Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.


NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

APPENDIX II Architects interviews (2nd round)

and the end user is someone else he will not care much about

Interview with Arie Bergsma, TU Delft

interested in the initial investment cost.

Goal of discussion: 1. Reaction on the case studies with NEXT Active Façade system. 2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Façade system Questions

the energy savings over the time of use but he would be more

3. Communications: 4. What information do you need to apply NEXT? As an architect if I have to apply this system I would be interested to know the geometrical, economical and performance based

1. Flexibility and Possibilities:

comparison between different systems to choose from. It would

1. After seeing these various possibilities what do you think about the applicability of these solutions?

texts with different systems. And of course the technical specs,

I am sure there is a huge market for these systems also depends on the cost of the system if it is almost the same cost as the centralized solution or little bit higher, not much, then I think it makes a lot of sense to go for this kind of system. From the quality point of view I see potentials as from the users point of view the comfort quality I assume to be much better.

also be interesting to see comparison in different climate concalculations, contact person and the guarantees etc..

4. Future of NEXT Active façade system: 5. According to you what can be possible problems or benefits with NEXT? Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system? Maintenance can be an issue if you have to compare with the centralized system. May be the initial investment cost can be a

2. Will this approach be helpful for Architects in terms of design flexibility?

problem. The dB levels of noise when it come to the high re-

After seeing these options I think it is helpful for Architects to

when it comes to upgrading the system in case of function, ca-

have an option palette. From an Architects point of view it would be interesting to see the comparison in terms of geometrical placements and economics between NEXT and different kind of facades existing today like closed cavity façade, curtain wall façade or double skin façade in combination with the centralized

quirements of ventilation can be one of the issues. About the benefits the plug and play nature of the units is an advantage pacity or regulations change. With the decentralized system it is easier to detect problems and can be solved it on a local level without disturbing other spaces. Also Architects will love it if the interior layouts are not dependent on the service ducts. In terms for scope of improvements NEXT need to have different

climate system.

marketing strategy for different players involved as the interests

2. Energy and cost savings:

tractors.

and requirements are different for Architects than clients or con-

3. What do you think about the energy saving possibilities compared to default solution? Will the argument about cost savings in long term convincing for clients to have more initial investment? What I see in terms of numbers here is very impressive but energy savings as a convincing argument in most of the cases depends on the client. If the client is the owner/user of the building he will think about investing a bit more initially and recovering it over the time span of few years which also has to be as low as possible, but if the client is just a developer of the building

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Interview with Frank Schnater, TU Delft

3. Communications: 4. What information do you need to apply NEXT?

Goal of discussion: 1. Reaction on the case studies with NEXT Active Façade system.

Apart from the typical building physics requirement the most

2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Fa-

important aspect I would like to know are the size possibilities

çade system

to place those units and what is the impact on the architectural design.

Questions

1. Flexibility and Possibilities:

4. Future of NEXT Active façade system:

1. After seeing these various possibilities what do you think about the applicability of these solutions?

5. According to you what can be possible problems or benefits with NEXT? Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system?

It is a good alternative to the conventional centralized solution. As mentioned by you the major concerns about the energy con-

As I told before the one point contact is the biggest advantage

sumptions are also negated. With so many possibilities to choose

for NEXT Active façade. The design flexibility will impress the ar-

from Architects will be the happiest of them all. According to me

chitects, energy saving is more interesting for the advisors and

the most important factor is the one point contact, which will

long term cost savings will push clients to go for this system. To

make the whole process very time efficient.

talk about the improvements there is still some scope to integrate the energy generating elements in the system such as PV. But the simplicity of the product should not be lost other wise

2. Will this approach be helpful for Architects in terms of design flexibility?

it will become very complicated for clients/ architects to understand. May be it can be just an add on to the very basic system.

Yes of--course it will be.

2. Energy and cost savings: 3. What do you think about the energy saving possibilities compared to default solution? Will the argument about cost savings in long term convincing for clients to have more initial investment? As you have compared there seems to be a lot of potential in terms of energy savings with NEXT system. It is going to be one of the most important aspects in future. About the argument for initial investment it actually depends on the type of the client, scale and function of the building. For example in case of a dwelling if you say you can recover the additional initial investment in the span of 10 years by means of energy savings it is acceptable but in case of commercial buildings it has to be less than 5 years as no one knows the future of the business of the organization considering the present scenario. But I believe in case of new buildings the cost savings by reducing the height of the building can also save a lot. The argument is more prominent when it comes to the refurbishment projects.

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Interview with Robert Platje, SPEE

the combination of both, the initial investment and the energy label. Even if the initial investment are higher than the central-

Goal of discussion:

ized solution the recovery time for the extra cost has to be mini-

1. Reaction on the case studies with NEXT Active Façade system.

mum as possible.

2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Façade system

3. Communications:

Questions

4. What information do you need to apply NEXT?

1. Flexibility and Possibilities: It will vary from building to building but basically I would like to

1. After seeing these various possibilities what do you think about the applicability of these solutions?

know the difference between the initial investments for both the systems and the amount of energy saving for the time span of 5-10 yrs. Most importantly the measurements of the box and its

NEXT is interesting in case of low ceiling height. Many of the post

technical specs. What kind of flexibility is in the system if I had

war buildings, which now are getting converted in other func-

to change or add something? How much the maintenance costs

tions, had low ceiling height, so if we try put centralized system

for a year? And of course the standard drawings.

in these buildings it is very difficult and the decentralized option can be a perfect solution for it. So according to me considering

4. Future of NEXT Active façade system:

the huge market for refurbishment NEXT can have a suitable application. But of course it is a bit difficult when a building has a monumental status like de Studio.

2. Will this approach be helpful for Architects in terms of design flexibility?

5. According to you what can be possible problems or benefits with NEXT? Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system? There are many benefits from design flexibility to individual comfort to energy savings. The problems I can state will be noise production in case of high ventilation requirements and the draft

You have already shown the different possibilities that can be

problem. Another important factor is the higher maintenance

very interesting in terms of flexibility in Architectural design but

cost.

most important question from Architects point of view is the size

Talking about improvements, the toolbox is a very impressive

on the TROX box as no architect would like to loose even a single

tool but it can be further developed also to shot the sizes and

sq.m of floor space.

placement of the TROX units to get the overall feel of the geometry of the units. For further development, energy generating

2. Energy and cost savings:

elements like PV can also be integrated in the system. A study from a user point of view can also be done to under-

3. What do you think about the energy saving possibilities compared to default solution? Will the argument about cost savings in long term convincing for clients to have more initial investment?

stand the behavioural characteristics. Some times a simple psychological gestures can make wonders. For example, there was a study which stated if the users are given opportunity to open the windows they accept couple of degrees higher internal temperatures.

Energy cost savings are of course important but more than that at this moment considering the economic situation initial investment is the most important factor. You can investigate what NEXT means to BREEM or GREENCAL. There are a lot of discussions now a days when you score high on that level then finances becomes a bit easy with the banks. It also helps while selling the property when you have 2 properties at the same cost the comparison criteria will be the energy grades. So then it becomes

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Façade

Interview with Chris de Weijer, DP6

particular building was more expensive as an installation cost but the cost saving in terms of energy and interchangeability ne-

Goal of discussion:

gated that which in turn turned out to be cheaper option. It may

1. Reaction on the case studies with NEXT Active Façade system.

not be the case in all the buildings. NEXT need to come up with

2. Understanding an Architect’s opinion about NEXT Active Fa-

the economic model to convince clients. 5--10 years is good time

çade system

to recover the additional investment cost to convince clients for higher initial investment. Now a day more and more clients are

Questions

getting interested in energy saving solutions specially when the

1. Flexibility and Possibilities:

energy prices keep rising.

1. After seeing these various possibilities what do you think about the applicability of these solutions?

3. Communications: 4. What information do you need to apply NEXT?

The idea of NEXT is very good where you have integrated system of all required parts coming together in façade but what I don’t

As an architect I would require technical details and as you

like so much is then you always have to go to a fixed set of sys-

shown the different placement options. The technical engineers

tem suppliers. For example if I have to build a wooden façade

have to know the capacities and other technical specs. The con-

so are the suppliers of wooden elements part of NEXT system.

tact person, preferably one person who has knowledge about all

Many architects will think if they could have NEXT system with

the technical elements involved.

other or additional system suppliers. If the customization of the system products is possible then it is a very good solution with

4. Future of NEXT Active façade system:

good flexibility for architects.

2. Will this approach be helpful for Architects in terms of design flexibility?

5. According to you what can be possible problems or benefits with NEXT? Do you see any area of improvement in NEXT Active façade system? The flexibility in terms of design is one of the major benefits in

As an Architect I would prefer decentralized climate solution as

this system.

you don’t have any ducts running on the ceiling so interior can

Talking about the improvements as I mentioned earlier it would

be much more flexible. Of course you have to solve the place-

be nice if there are more options for system suppliers involved.

ment of these units in the façade but that’s no problem. For a

Different placement options are very good but I would also like

new project and also for refurbishment project I would like to

to see different possibilities for sunshading in terms of architec-

use decentralized option, always. There is a huge market for re-

tural expression.

furbishment projects right now here in Netherlands. Refurbishment projects are mostly with low ceilings or less area for shafts or ducts, so NEXT/decentralized climate solution can be an ideal option for that.

2. Energy and cost savings: 3. What do you think about the energy saving possibilities compared to default solution? Will the argument about cost savings in long term convincing for clients to have more initial investment? For our project in Wagningen there was a financial study done by Deerns which concluded as decentralized systems for that

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NEXT ACTIVE FACADE

Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

APPENDIX IIl Detail Drawings of de Studio with NEXT

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Existing column (420x360mm)

L brackets (50x50) 200x200x12 fixing Bracket 75 mm thk soft insulation

Bracket fixing assembly

2 mm thk Aluminium sheet TROX unit (FSL-B-ZUS type)

125mm thk composite panel

ALCOA 2500 PG Unitwall (50x150) (Kawneer)

Sc - 1:5

H1

Harshad Shitole/ TUD / Graduation / NEXT Active Facade

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


Harshad Shitole_TU Delft _ Faculty of Architecture_ Department of Building Technology

NEXT ACTIVE FACADE Service Integrated Responsive Faรงade

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Graduation Report (P4) : Detailed Application for the NEXT active facade concept.

Graduation report_ Next Active facade  

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