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Hardback String

A quarterly Journal of Hardback Publications


Hardback String

Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012

Editor Mr. Iqbal Mahmud

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 Copyright Hardback Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Published By

Mrs. Iffat Ara Administrator Hardback publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Price: BDT 80.00 US $ 1.00

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012

Table of content 1

MEASUREMENT OF PLUCKING EFFICIENCY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUP OF PERMANENT TEA GARDEN WORKERS OF DUNCAN BROTHERS (BD) LIMITED

5

2

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 MEASUREMENT OF PLUCKING EFFICIENCY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUP OF PERMANENT TEA GARDEN WORKERS OF DUNCAN BROTHERS (BD) LIMITED: A CASE STUDY Md. Idris Ali* ABSTRACT Tea industry is one of the major foreign currency earning sources of Bangladesh. Around 100000 workers are involved as plucking labors in this industry. As a labor-intensive industry it is badly needed to measure the performance of the plucking labors. For this reason different age group were formed from the plucking labors who were involved in Sooncherra Division of Shumshernugger Tea Estate. This report consists of three parts i.e. quantitative data analysis, qualitative data analysis and finally comparison between qualitative and quantitative efficiency of the labors to find out the best age group in plucking. All collected data were presented in spreadsheet program to get accurate result to measure the plucking efficiency of the labors. Finally, all tabulated data were summarized in a single tabular and graphic format where the best age group was measured in respect of quantity and quality.

1. INTRODUCTION Tea Plantation is a labor-intensive industry. To produce Black Tea from green tea leaves involves huge labor, time, agro-practices and technology as well. All the tea garden wants to increase productivity by minimizing wastage and maximizing efficiency of the labor forces. Duncan Brothers Bangladesh Limited is one of them whose target is also same. Due to this reason, this paper attempts to analyze the plucking efficiency in different age group to fulfill the objectives. 2. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY This report is prepared based on mainly primary data collected from Sooncherra Division of Shumshernugger Tea Estate 195 female workers who are deployed in plucking. At first workers age was determined from the garden line census book, which later was certified and confirmed from the workers’ service record i.e. their PF ‘C’ Form. Then as per age group 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40, 41-45, 46-50, 51-55, worker’s name was classified to make pluckers’ group. The entire group was made a range of five years. Secondary data were also collected from the brochure of the company, books, periodicals, journals and websites. 3. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY All data were fed in the spreadsheet program and were arranged in 12 tables and 3 graphics. In the Table 01 and graph 01 it is shown the summarized data in respect of quantitative analysis. In table 02 to 09 analysis of leaf data were shown according to different age group workers. In the table 10 all the data of leaf analysis were summarized. In the table 11 group wise summary of total average leaf and quality were shown. Finally in table 20 statistical analysis of quantitative and qualitative efficiency were shown. The same data were compared in three graphics. 3.1 Quantitative Data Analysis Following table represents the summarized form of data collected from average plucked leaves of every pluckers in different age groups. Table - 01: Summary of leaf record for eight Age group workers Group No Age group (years) Workers Total Man daysTotal Leaf Plucked 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 *

16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 35 36 - 40 41 - 45 46 - 50 51 - 55

16 20 44 24 45 26 14 6

3837 4558 9651 5680 10379 6212 3328 1434

96127 118531 249191 142598 265895 155278 77527 31753

Average leaf Plucked/ worker/ day i.e. Efficiency 25.05 26.01 25.82 25.11 25.62 25.00 23.30 22.14

Senior Lecturer, Department of Business, Bangladesh Islami University ,Upibagh, Dhaka-1203.

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 Overall

195

45079

1136900

25.22

Source: Field Survey The above table reveals that the age group 21-25 plucked 26.01 Kgs leaves per day on an average and which is the highest quantity among the groups. After that the age group 26-30 plucked 25.82 Kgs leaves per day on an average and which is the 2nd highest quantity among the groups. On the other hand the age group 51-55 plucked the lowest amount of leaves and which was 22.14 Kgs per day on an average. The age groups 16-20, 31-35, 36-40, 41-45, 4650 plucked leaves 25.05, 25.11, 25.62, 25.00, and 23.30 Kgs leaves respectively per day on an average. All these data are presented in the following graph. Quantitative Efficiency Chart [Kgs] 27.00

Quantitative Efficiency [Kgs]

26.00

25.00

24.00

23.00

22.00

21.00

20.00 16 - 20

21 - 25

26 - 30

31 - 35

36 - 40

41 - 45

46 - 50

51 - 55

Age Range [Years]

Source: Field Survey The graph represents average leaves plucked by the workers of different age groups indicating the pluckers’ efficiency. Graph shows that Group 2 consisting the workers of ages 21-25 years has the maximum capacity of plucking leaves compared to other age group classes. On the other hand, Group 8 consisting the ages of 51-55 years has the minimum capacity to perform the plucking operation. Rest of the Groups are plucking an amount of leaf which has fallen in between the above two mentioned classes. There is no systematic rise and fall in the amount of plucking leaves in respect of age classes as because various factors are influencing at the different periods.

4.1Qualitative Data Analysis Following tables represents the quality of plucking efficiency of different age groups. Table - 02: Leaf analysis of 16-20 years age group workers With a With a Single leaf With a Banji Good % Bad % Growing bud Janam damaged 64 36 1 leaf 10 4 10 2 leaf 22 12 3 leaf 20 16 4 leaf 6 Leaf count taken weekly and average basis. Source: Field Survey From table 02 we are getting that age group 16-20 plucked 64% good leaves which goes for further processing to prepare marketable tea. On the other hand they plucked 36% damaged tea leaves. Table - 03: Leaf analysis of 21-25 years age group workers Single With a Bad With a With a leaf Good % Growing % Banji Janam damaged bud 1 leaf 17 5 8 17 64 36 2 leaf 24 5 4 3 leaf 13 7 4 leaf Leaf count taken weekly and average basis. Source: Field Survey Table 03 reveals that the age group 21-25 plucked 64% good leaves which is the 2nd highest percentage among the age group. Their damaged rate was 36%. Table - 04: Leaf analysis of 26-30 years age group workers With a With a Banji With a Single leaf Good %

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 Growing bud Janam damaged 1 leaf 3 10 4 10 67 33 2 leaf 22 12 3 leaf 20 13 4 leaf 6 Leaf count taken weekly and average basis. Source: Field Survey Table 04 represents that the age group 26-30 plucked 67% good leaves which is the highest percentage among the age group. On the other hand their damaged rate is 33% only. Table - 05: Leaf analysis of 31-35 years age group workers With a Single With a With a Good Bad Growing leaf Banji Janam % % bud damaged 1 leaf 10 15 13 5 59 41 2 leaf 21 7 6 3 leaf 6 12 4 leaf 5 Leaf count taken weekly and average basis. Source: Field Survey Table 05 shows that age group 31-35 plucked 59% good leaves which is the lowest percentage among the age group. They also plucked 41% bad leaves which is also the highest damaged among the age group. Table - 06: Leaf analysis of 36-40 years age group workers With a Single With a With a Good Bad Growing leaf % % Banji Janam bud damaged 1 leaf 4 12 8 6 62 38 2 leaf 6 24 4 3 leaf 16 20 4 leaf Leaf count taken weekly and average basis. Source: Field Survey Above table 06 reveals that the age group 36-40 plucked 62% good leaves and 38% bad leaves. Table - 07: Leaf analysis of 41-45 years age group workers With a With a Single leaf With a Banji Good % Growing bud Janam damaged 60 1 leaf 2 10 8 3 2 leaf 8 24 3 leaf 16 27 4 leaf 2 Leaf count taken weekly and average basis. Source: Field Survey Above table 07 represents that the age group 41-45 plucked 60% good leaves and 40% bad leaves. Table - 08: Leaf analysis of 46-50 years age group workers With a With a Single leaf With a Banji Good % Growing bud Janam damaged 2 4 11 61 7 30 18 28

1 leaf 2 leaf 3 leaf 4 leaf Leaf count taken weekly and average basis. Source: Field Survey Table 08 shows that age group 46-50 plucked 61% good leaves and 39% bad leaves.

Table - 09: Leaf analysis of 51-55 years age group workers With a With a Single leaf With a Banji Good % Growing bud Janam damaged

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Bad % 39

Bad %

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 1 leaf 2 3 6 13 63 37 2 leaf 15 17 7 3 leaf 26 8 3 4 leaf Leaf count taken weekly and average basis. Source: Field Survey And finally the above table 09 represents that the age group 51-55 plucked 63% goods which is the 3rd highest percentage among the age group. On the other hand they plucked 37% bad leaves.

5.1 Qualitative Analysis in summarized format Table - 10: Summary of Leaf analysis record for eight Age group workers. One Leaf Three Leaf Age Group Good Worke Two Leaf and and with a group no % r a bud a banji a bud a banji growing bud (years) 1 16-20 16 10 22 12 20 64 2 21-25 20 17 5 24 5 13 64 3 26-30 44 3 10 22 12 20 67 4 31-35 24 10 15 21 7 6 59 5 36-40 45 4 12 6 24 16 62 6 41-45 26 2 10 8 24 16 60 7 46-50 14 2 3 15 17 26 63 8 51-55 6 2 4 7 30 18 61 Source: Field Survey The above table is representing the quality percentage of leaf plucked by the workers of different age classes. Here in the quality aspect there is no systematic rise and fall. In the table it is shown that the Group 3 (age 26-30 years) and Group 4 (age 31-35 years) are the highest and the lowest class depending on the leaf quality. At the very initial period a plucker has an aim to pluck quality leaf due to fearness and sincerity. She gradually become trained herself up to a certain period. At the stage of age class 26-30 her capability of plucking quality leaf is maximum. But just afterward it falls down to minimum percentage. It is happening so, because of their socio-economic context one worker has to diversify her working capability into various directions. She has to look after her family members i.e. husband and children. That is the reason she always trips to fulfill her task but don’t care about leaf quality. Taking the situation under control she again concentrates herself towards quality at the age of 36-40 years. Though Group 6 (age 41-45 years) is slightly declined than that of previous one due to unspecified reason, which the author could not determine. At the last age group old pluckers become reluctant towards quality control may be due to lack of sharpness of eyesight.

The

qualitative

efficiency

of

the

above

table

10

is

presented

through

following

Qualitative Efficiency Chart [Good %]

Q ua litativeEfficiency[G o od% ]

68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 16 - 20

21 - 25

26 - 30

31 - 35

36 - 40

41 - 45

46 - 50

51 - 55

Age Range [Years]

chart. 5.2 Statistical Analysis and Discussions Table-11: Summary of average plucked Leaf and quality leaf of eight Age group workers. Group No Age Group (Years) Worker Group Efficiency (Kgs)Group Quality (Good %) 1 16-20 16 25.05 64 2 21-25 20 26.01 64 3 26-30 44 25.76 67 4 31-35 24 25.11 59 5 36-40 45 25.62 62 6 41-45 26 25.00 60 7 46-50 14 23.30 61 8 51-55 6 22.14 63 Overall 195 25.21 63

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 Source: Field Survey The above table is representing the comparative study between average leaf amount and percentage of quality leaf depending on different age groups. Here the table is mentioning the efficiency of pluckers to pluck maximum leaf versus quality leaf. In the first two groups, percentage of quality leaf remains same (64%) though the pluckers’ efficiency of plucking leaves has raised a little in case of Second age group (26.01 kgs) than the First one (25.05 Kgs). Considering the efficiency of plucking, maximum leaf Group 2 is the most efficient group. In case of Third group, pluckers have lost their efficiency up to 0.25 kgs in average but capability of plucking quality leaf has been accelerated from 64% to 67% which is maximum among the groups, although the Group just below third, it has deteriorated its quality efficiency into minimum (59%). The reason behind this declination has already been discussed in the earlier table analysis. Group 5 has some extent better combination of leaf amount and leaf quality than that of previous one. But it is not as good as first three groups, mostly Group 3. Rest of the groups has no certain maximum combination of quantity and quality, which can be considered as ideal. Determining all the factors and combinations of quantity and quality we can assume that Group 3 under the age range of 26-30 years is the most efficient group. Moreover Group 1 and Group 2 can be considered to be as energetic and efficient group.

66

25.00

64

24.00

62

23.00

60

22.00

58

21.00

[Good% ]

68

26.00

Quanlitative Efficiency

Quantitative Efficiency [Kgs]

Comparison of Quantitative Efficiency and Qualitative Efficiency 27.00

56

20.00

54 16 - 20

21 - 25

26 - 30

31 - 35

36 - 40

41 - 45

46 - 50

51 - 55

Age Range [Years]

Table - 12: Statistical analysis of quantitative and qualitative efficiency Group Qualitative Efficiency Group No Age Group (Years) WorkerGroup Quantitative Efficiency (Kgs) (Good %) 1 16-20 16 25.05 a 64 a 2 21-25 20 26.01 a 64 a 3 26-30 44 25.76 a 67 a 4 31-35 24 25.11 a 59 a 5 36-40 45 25.62 a 62 a 6 41-45 26 25.00 a 60 a 7 46-50 14 23.30 a 61 a 8 51-55 6 22.14 a 63 a * Treatments having same letter do not differ significantly at 5 % level. Source: Field Survey The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) were followed to compare the efficiency both in respect of quantity and quality. Statistical analysis shows that there is no significant difference among the age groups in respect of plucking in both quantitative efficiency (Quantity of leaf plucked/worker/day) and qualitative efficiency. 5. CONCLUDING REMARKS The first group of ages between16-20 is adapting the techniques from this initial period. So they may be called as ‘trainee pluckers’. In the second group workers are much more trained than that of the previous one. So they can pluck more. But there is a remarkable observation that Group 3 has deteriorated there efficiency as they are usually getting married or taking first or second issue of child at this period. As such the successive two classes get busier with their family affairs and loosing efficiency level. At Group 5 during the age 36-40 years, they are settled back to their job again as may be their children are little bit grown up and can help in family affairs. So efficiency is increasing a bit in this age group. But within the interval of period they are becoming older when they have reached in the age class of 41-45 years and so on. The quantity efficiency gradually decreases from this stage. Finally, we can reach in this decision that the firm should select the group 1 and 2 as energetic and efficient group and group 3 most efficient group considering quantity and quality. REFERENCES

1. 2.

Akiyama, Takamasa. (1987), A New Global Tea Model: Specification, Estimation, and Simulation, World Bank. Anderson, Jennifer L. (1991), An Introduction to Japanese Tea Ritual. New York: State University of New York Press.

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

Bangladesh Tea Hand Book – BTRP Barker, George. (1884), A Tea Planter's Life in Assam. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink. Behal, Rana P. and Prabhu P. Mohapatra. (1992), Tea and Money versus Human Life, Plantations, Proletarians and Peasants in Colonial Asia, London: Frank Cass. Bhattacharya, S. N. (1993), Entrepreneurship Development in India and the Southeast Asian Countries in Agricultural and Industrial Sectors, Metropolitan Book Co. (Pvt.), New Delhi. Bhattacharyya, D.K. (2002), Human Resource Planning, First Edition, Excel Books, New Delhi, India. Brigham, B. (1996), Five design principles to help you prepare your stores…for more Profits, World coffee & tea, V.37 No.10. P26-27. Cai, Quanbao (1998) The introduction of tea ceremony. Twenty-first century and teaculture, Culture and art press, Beijing. Chaudhuri, K.N. (1978), The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660-1760, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. David, J. & Schapira K. (1975), The book of coffee & tea, St. Martin's Press, New York. Douglas, Mary. (1987), Constructive Drinking: Perspectives on Drink from Anthropology, Cambridge University Press. Duncan Brothers Journal from 1992 to 1998 Fifth Five Year Plan (1997-2002), Planning Commission, Ministry of Planning, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. Forrest, Denys, (1967), A Hundred Years of Ceylon Tea, 1867-1967, London: Chatto and Windus. Forrest, Denys. (1973), Tea for the British, London: Chatto and Windus. Fukukita, Yasunoke. (1937), Tea Cult of Japan, Board of Tourist Industry/Japanese Government Railways. Graham, Patricia J. (1998), The Art of Sencha. Honolulu: University of Hawai Press. Griffiths, Percival Joseph. (1967), The History of the Indian Tea Industry. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. Harler, C.R. (1964), The Culture and Marketing of Tea, London: Oxford University Press. Holcombe, S.H. (1995), Managing to Empower the Grameen Experience of Poverty Alleviation, ZedBook: University Press Ltd. Dhaka. Holt, Geraldene. (1991), A Cup of Tea: An Afternoon Anthology of Fine China and Tea Trades. New York: Simon and Schuster. http://www.duncanbd.com http://www.thunderbolttea.com Labaree, B.W. (1964), The Boston Tea Party. London: Oxford University Press. Liu, Xiouming (1996), One hundred questions of tea culture, Tongji University Press, Shanghai. Lu Yü. (1974), The Classic of Tea: Origins and Rituals, Transl. and intr. by Francis Ross Carpenter, Hopewell: The Ecco Press. Macfarlane, Alan, and Iris M. (2003), The Empire of Tea: The remarkable history of the plant that took over the world, Woodstock: Overlook Press. Milton, Ed S. (2003), Tea: A cultural history from around the world, Astrolog Publishing House Ltd. Moxham, Roy. (2003), Tea: Addiction, Exploitation, and Empire, New York: Carroll and Graf. Okarura, K. (2000), The Book of Tea, Foreword by Elise Grilli. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle Co. Pratt, James N. (1982), Tea Lover's Treasury. With an introduction by M.F.K. Fisher. Santa Rosa: Cole Group. Quimme, Peter. (1976), The Signet Book of Coffee and Tea, New York: New American Library. Rasmussen, Wendy, and Ric Rhinehart. (1999), Tea Basics: A Quick and Easy Guide, New York: John Wiley & Sons. Rosen, Diana. (1999), Steeped in Tea: Creative Ideas, Activities and Recipes for Tea Lovers, Pownal: Storey Books. Rossignol, A. M. (1989), Tea and premenstrual syndrome in the People’s Republic of China, American Journal of Public Health, 79: 67–68. Rubin, Ron, and Stuart Avery Gold (2002), Tea Chings: The Tea and Herb Companion Appreciating the Varietals and Virtues of Fine Tea and Herbs, New York: New market Press. Trapasso, C. (1997), Time for a coffee break… choosing a tea line, World coffee & tea, V.38 No.5 p13-14. Ukers, W.H. (1935), All About Tea, New York: Tea and Coffee Trade Journal. Weinberg, Bennet A, and Bonnie B. K. (2001), The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug. New York: Routledge. Wickizer, Vernon D. (1951), Coffee, Tea, and Cocoa: An Economic and Political Analysis, Stanford University Press. Ziegler, Mel, Bill Rosenzweig, and Patricia Ziegler. (1992), The Republic of Tea: Letters to a Young Entrepreneur. Doubleday.

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e½eÜz I ¯^vaxbZv: weR‡qi mZ¨ BwZnvm †gv. myjZvb gvngy`* 16 wW‡m¤^i, gnvb weRq w`em| ivR‰bwZK †¶‡Î gZ I c‡_i hZ e¨eavbB _vKbv †Kb †`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv, mve©‡fŠgZ¡ I weR‡qi cÖ‡kœ †Kv‡bv gZ‰ØZZv wKsev weZK© _vKv DwPZ bq| †`ke¨vcx w`emwU cvwjZ nq h_v‡hvM¨ gh©v`vq I bvbvwea AvbyôvwbKZvi ga¨ w`‡q| evsjv‡`‡ki GB ¯^vaxbZv I weRq Lye mn‡R AwR©Z nqwb| cÖvq wÎk jvL knx‡`i GK mvMi i³ Ges cÖvq wZb jvL gv-†ev‡bi m¤£‡gi wewbg‡q AwR©Z n‡q‡Q GB gnvb weRq| ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`k m„wói †cQ‡b 23 eQ‡ii eû Z¨vM, `xN© msMÖvg I A‡bK Kvbœv Ges †e`bvi BwZnvm Rwo‡q Av‡Q| ivR‰bwZK ¯^v_© wmw×i †jv‡f Ave× n‡q `xN©w`b hveZ w`ev‡jv‡Ki g‡Zv ¯úó NUbv I cÖK…Z BwZnvm‡K weZwK©Z, weK…Z, A¯úó I †Nvjv‡U Kiv n‡q‡Q| G‡Z G‡`‡ki Zi“Y mgv‡Ri GK eo Ask ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi †MŠiegq BwZnv‡mi mwVK Ávb I aviYv n‡Z ewÂZ n‡q‡Q `xN©w`b a‡i| 1971 mv‡ji 26 gvP© †NvwlZ n‡q‡Q ¯^vaxbZv Ges 16 wW‡m¤^i †h weRq AwR©Z n‡q‡Q Zvi cÖK…Z BwZnvm I ev¯ÍeZv cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki mwVKfv‡e Rvbv we‡kl cÖ‡qvRb| GB cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi Abyave‡b Avgvi ¶z`ª AwfÁZv we‡kl K‡i wewfbœ cÖeÜ we‡k−lY Ges ¯^vaxbZvi `wjjvw` I BwZnvm ch©‡e¶Y mv‡c‡¶ evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi ev¯Íe wKQy wPÎ Zz‡j aivi GB mvgvb¨ cÖqvm| †hfv‡e 1947 mv‡j 14 I 15 AvM÷ weªwUk kvmb †_‡K cvwK¯Ívb I fviZ gyw³ jvf K‡iwQj wKsev Avjv`v n‡qwQj †mfv‡e evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv AwR©Z nqwb| 1971 mv‡ji 26 gv‡P© ¯^vaxbZv I 16 wW‡m¤^‡ii weR‡qi msMÖvg ïi“ n‡qwQj 1948 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi ga¨ w`‡q| wØ-RvwZ Z‡Ë¡i wfwˇZ Dcgnv‡`‡ki `yB cÖv‡šÍ Aew¯’Z †`o nvRvi gvBj e¨eav‡bi `yB A‡ji †Rvov jvMv‡bv cvwK¯Ív‡bi Rb¥jMœ n‡ZB myweavev`x ivRbxwZwe` Kv‡qgx ¯^v_©ev`x Avgjv P‡µi I D”Pvwfjvmx mvgwiKRvšÍvi ag©xq †jev‡m AMYZvwš¿K kvmb I †kvl‡Yi cÖ_g I cÖZ¨¶ AvµgY Av‡m evsjv fvlvi Ici| ZLb †_‡KB Amv¤cÖ`vwqK evOvwj RvZxqZvev` Av‡›`vjb ïi“| 1952 mv‡ji 21 †deª“qvwi cvwK¯Ívwb kvm‡bi cÖ_g ewji wkKvi nb fvlv knx` iwdK, ReŸvi, mvjvg, eiKZ cÖgyL| 1954 mv‡ji gymwjg jx‡Mi wei“‡× hy³d«‡›Ui 21 `dvi Rqjvf, 1958 mv‡ji AvBqye Lv‡bi mvgwiK kvmb-we‡ivax Av‡›`vjb n‡Z 1966 mv‡ji 6 `dv Av‡›`vjb, 11 `dv `vwe‡Z 1969 mv‡ji QvÎ MY-Afy¨Ìvb mn cÖwZwU MYAv‡›`vj‡b e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi ‡bZ…Z¡ I Ae`vb m~h©v‡jv‡Ki g‡Zv ¯úó| 1970 mv‡ji 7 wW‡m¤^i AbywôZ RvZxq cwil` wbe©vPb Z`vbxšÍb c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi 169 wU Avm‡bi g‡a¨ e½eÜz I Zvi `j 167 wU Ges 17 wW‡m¤^i cÖv‡`wkK cwil‡`i wbe©vPb 310 wU Avm‡bi g‡a¨ 298 wU‡Z AvIqvgx jxM Rqjvf K‡i| wbe©vP‡b Rqjvf Kiv m‡Ë¡I ¶gZv n¯ÍvšÍ‡i Bqvwnqvi Mwogwm, fy‡Ævi †f‡Uv| Ae‡k‡l e½eÜzi †bZ„‡Z¡ Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vjb| jvL jvL RbZvi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z 7 gvP© †im‡Kvm© gq`v‡b e½eÜz Zvi HwZnvwmK fvlY †`b| e½eÜz †Kb evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv Ki‡Qb Zvi cUf~wg wZwb HwZnvwmK 7 gv‡P©i fvl‡Y mywbcybfv‡e e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| wZwb nVvr ûB‡mj evwR‡q ¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYv †`bwb| wZwb HwZnvwmK 7 gv‡P©i fvl‡Y cvwK¯Ív‡bi 23 eQ‡ii †Rj, Ryjyg,AZ¨vPvi-wbh©vZb, †kvlY I wbh©vZ‡bi BwZnvm eY©bv K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi †c¶vcU Zz‡j a‡ib| Ges †kl ch©šÍ ¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYv †`b| e½eÜz 7 gv‡P©i fvl‡Y `„p cÖZ¨q wb‡q †NvlYv K‡ib: ÒGev‡ii msMÖvg gyw³i msMÖvg Gev‡ii msMÖvg ¯^vaxbZvi msMÖvg|Ó wZwb †`kevmx‡K e‡jwQ‡jb, hvi hv wKQy Av‡Q ZvB wb‡q msMÖv‡g Svwc‡q covi Rb¨| wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb: ÒN‡i N‡i `yM© M‡o †Zvj|Ó 1971 mv‡ji 25 gvP© Kv‡jv ivw·Z cvwK¯Ív‡bi mvgwiKRvšÍv XvKvmn mviv‡`‡k MY nZ¨v ïi“ Ki‡j e½eÜz 25 gvP© w`evMZ ivZ 12.20 wg. A_©vr 26 gvP© AvbyôvwbKfv‡e ¯^vaxbZvi ‡NvlYv cÖ`vb K‡ib| †NvlYvwU wbgœiƒc: This may be my last message, from today Bangladesh is independent. I call upon the people of Bangladesh wherever you might be and with whatever you have to resist the army of occupation to the last. Your fight must go on until the last soldier of Pakistan occupation army is expelled from soil of Bangladesh and final victory is achieved. Khoda Hafez, Joy Bangla. (GB nqZ Avcbv‡`i Rb¨ Avgvi †kl evYx| AvR †_‡K evsjv‡`k GKwU ¯^vaxb †`k| †h †hLv‡b _vKzb, †h Ae¯’vq _vKzb

nv‡Z hvi hv Av‡Q ZvB wb‡q `Lj`vi †mbvevwnbxi wei“‡× †kl wbtk¦vm ch©šÍ cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zzjyb| Z‡Zvw`b ch©šÍ jovB Pvwj‡q hv‡eb h‡Zvw`b ch©šÍ bv `Lj`vi cvwK¯Ívbx‡`i †kl ˆmwbKwU evsjv‡`‡ki gvwU †_‡K ewn¯‹…Z n‡”Q †Lv`v nv‡dR, Rq evsjv|)** * **

cÖfvlK, ivóªweÁvb wefvM, ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vjq| Ab¨w`‡K cÖqvZ ivócwZ †Rbv‡ij wRqvDi ingvb 1977 mv‡j wewkó Kwe-mvsevw`K nvmvb nvwdRyi ingv‡bi m¤úv`bvq evsjv‡`k ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i BwZnvm iPbvi GK cÖKí Aby‡gv`b K‡ib| ¯^vaxbZv hy× msµvšÍ Z_¨vw` hvPvB-evQvB Kivi Rb¨ 1978 mv‡j cÖL¨vZ BwZnvmwe` I ¸Yx e¨w³‡`i mgš^‡q 9 m`m¨wewkó GKwU cÖvgvY¨KiY KwgwU MVb Kiv nq| GB KwgwUi ZË¡veav‡b 1982 mv‡j cÖvq 15000 c„ôv msewjZ 15 wU L‡Ê wef³ evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv hy× `wjjcÎ kxl©K GKwU MÖš’ cÖKvk K‡i MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii Z_¨ gš¿Yvjq| GB `wj‡ji Z…Zxq L‡Êi cÖ_g

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 PÆMÖvg †eZvi †K›`ªwU evOvwj Kgx©‡`i `L‡j _vKvq 26 gvP©, cÖvq 1-30 wg. cÖ_g Awa‡ek‡bB PÆMÖvg †Rjv AvIqvgx jx‡Mi mvaviY m¤úv`K Gg.G.nvbœvb e½eÜzi †NvlYvwU cvV K‡ib Ges mܨvq wØZxqevi cvV K‡ib| Rbve Aveyj nv‡kg m›`xc 26 gvP© ivZ cÖvq 8 NwUKvq msev` ey‡jwU‡b e½eÜz KZ©„K ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYvi evYx cÖPvi K‡iwQ‡jb| †cv÷vi, wjd‡jU Ges ¯’vbxq cwÎKv¸‡jvI e½eÜz KZ©„K ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv I cvwK¯Ívb nvbv`vi evwnbxi MYnZ¨v djvI K‡i cÖKvk K‡ib| 26 gvP© Iqvi‡jm †÷k‡bi Kg©Pvixiv e½eÜzi evYx KwjKvZv †eZvi †K›`ª Ges mgy`ªMvgx Rvnv‡R †cÖi‡Yi e¨e¯’v K‡ib| 26 gvP© iv‡Î we.we.wm msev‡` D‡j−L Kiv nq ‡h, fviZ †_‡K cÖvß Le‡i cÖKvk Ò‡kL gywRe Zvi cÖ‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv K‡i‡QbÓ| Aciw`‡K cvwK¯Ív‡bi †cÖwm‡W›U †Rbv‡ij Bqvwnqv Lvb e½eÜz‡K †MÖdZvi K‡i 26 gvP© mܨvq RvwZi D‡Ï‡k¨ GK †eZvi fvlY †`b| hvi wKQy Ask wbgœiƒc: Ò‡kL gywRe cvwK¯Ív‡bi msnwZ Ges ALÊZvi cÖwZ AvNvZ ‡n‡b‡Q| GB †jvKwU Ges Zvi `j c~e© cvwK¯Ívb‡K m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c Avjv`v Ki‡Z Pvq| weMZ wZb mßvn Kvj Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vjb K‡i †`k‡`ªvwnZv K‡i‡Q, cvwK¯Ív‡bi cZvKvi Aegvbbv K‡i‡Q Ges weKí mgvšÍivj miKvi Pvjv‡bvi †Póv K‡i‡Q| GB †`k‡`ªvwnZvi Rb¨ Zv‡K Aek¨B kvw¯Í †c‡Z n‡e|Ó

†cÖwm‡W›U Bqvwnqvi fvl‡Y Avi Kv‡iv eySvi evwK _vK‡jvbv †h, e½eÜz †kL gywRe c~e© cvwK¯Ívb‡K ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`k wn‡m‡e c„_K iv‡óªi †NvlYv w`‡q‡Qb Ges i³v³ ¯^vaxbZv hy× Avi¤¢ n‡q‡Q| ¯^vaxb evsjv †eZvi †K‡›`ªi Ab¨Zg msMVK mvgmyj û`v †PŠayix wj‡L‡Qb, PÆMÖv‡gi AvIqvgx jxM †bZv Gg G nvbœvb 26 gvP© ‡ejv `yÕUvi w`‡K PÆMÖvg †eZvi †K›`ª †_‡K me©cÖ_g e½eÜzi ¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYv cÖPvi K‡ib Ges †gRi wRqv 27 gvP© e½eÜy †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi c‡¶ ¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYv †`b|*** ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i `wjjc‡Îi Z…Zxq L‡Êi wØZxq c„ôvq cv`UxKvq ejv nq: †gRi wRqvDi ingv‡bi 27 gv‡P©i ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv cv‡Vi HwZnvwmK g~j KwcwU wbivcËvi Kvi‡Y bó K‡i †djv n‡qwQj| Z‡e wRqvi ¯^K‡Ú †UcK…Z †h Bs‡iwR †NvlYvwU cvIqv hvq Zv wb‡gœ DׄZ nj: The Government of sovereign State of Bangladesh on behalf of our great leader, the supreme commander of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, we hereby proclaim the independence of Bangladesh, and that the Government headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman has already been formed. It is further proclaimed that seventy –five million people of Bangladesh and that the Government headed by him is the only legitimate government of the people of independent sovereign state of Bangladesh which is legally and constitutionally formed and is worthy of being recognized by all the government of the world. I, therefore, appeal on behalf of our great leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman to the government of all the democratic neighboring countries to recognize the legalll government of Bangladesh and take effective steps to stop immediately the awefull genocide that had been carried on by the army of occupation from Pakistan. To dub out the legally elected representatives of the majority of the people as secessionist is a crude joke and contradiction to truth which should befool none. The guiding principles of the new State will be, first neutrality, second peace and third friendship to all enmity to none. May Allah help us. Joi Bangla.

(Avgv‡`i gnvb †bZv, evsjv‡`‡ki me©vwabvqK †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi c‡¶ Avgiv, mve©‡fŠg ivóª evsjv‡`‡ki miKvi, GZØviv evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv KiwQ Ges †NvlYv KiwQ †h, †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ B‡Zvg‡a¨B miKvi MwVZ n‡q‡Q| GZØviv Av‡iv †NvlYv Kiv n‡”Q †h, †kL gywReyi ingvbB evsjv‡`‡ki mv‡o mvZ †KvwU gvbyl KZ…©K wbe©vwPZ cÖwZwbwai GKgvÎ †bZv Ges

***

c„ôvq ¯^vaxb evsjv †eZvi †K›`ª n‡Z e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi bv‡g cÖPvwiZ ¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYv wk‡ivbv‡g ewY©Z| G‡Z Av‡iv ejv nq †h, e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYvi evZv©wU BwcAvi (eZ©gvb wewRwe) UªvÝwgUvi‡hv‡M 26 gvP© cÖ_g cÖn‡i PÆMÖv‡g †cÖwiZ nq|

ivócwZ wRqvDi ingv‡bi g„Zz¨‡Z 3 Ryb, 1981 evsjv‡`k RvZxq msm‡` ZrKvjxb w¯úKvi gxR©v †Mvjvg nvwdR †h †kvKcÖ¯Íve DÌvcb K‡ib Ges hv msm‡` M„nxZ nq Zv‡Z ejv nq, wRqvDi ingvb 1971 mv‡ji 27 gvP© PÆMÖv‡gi KvjyiNvU †eZvi †K›`ª †_‡K e½eÜzi c‡¶ evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv K‡ib|

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Volume 01. Number 01. October 2012 Zvi †bZ…Zv¡ axb miKviB ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`k iv‡óªi RbM‡Yi GKgvÎ ˆea miKvi, hv AvBbm¤§Z I wbqgZvwš¿Kfv‡e MwVZ n‡q‡Q Ges hv c„w_exi mKj miKvi KZ©„K ¯^xK…wZ cvIqvi AwaKvix| AZGe, Avwg Avgv‡`i gnvb †bZv †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi c‡¶ mKj MYZvwš¿K I cÖwZ‡ekx †`kmg~‡ni Kv‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki ˆea miKvi‡K ¯^xK…wZ `vb Ges cvwK¯Ívbx `Lj`vi ‡mbvevwnbx KZ©„K fqven MYnZ¨v Awej‡¤^ eÜ Kivi Rb¨ Kvh©Ki e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi Av‡e`b Rvbvw”Q| ˆeafv‡e wbe©vwPZ msL¨vMwiô RbM‡Yi cÖwZwbwaeM©‡K wew”QbœZvev`x e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv GKwU wbg©g cwinvm Ges m‡Z¨i ei‡Ljvc gvÎ, hvi Øvivv KviI weåvšÍ nIqv DwPZ bq| bZzb ivóª cwiPvjbvi bxwZ n‡e cÖ_g wbi‡c¶Zv, wØZxq kvwšÍ, Ges Z…Zxq mevi mv‡_ eÜzZ¡ KviI mv‡_ kΓZv bq| Avj−vn Avgv‡`i mnvq nDb| Rq evsjv|)

AZGe GK_v wbtm‡›`‡n ¯^xKvi Kiv hvq †h, e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingvb evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi RbK| e½eÜz‡K evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv Z_v evsjv‡`k iv‡óªi mgv_©K wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv hvq| ¯^vaxbZvi AMÖ`~Z e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingvb ïay GKwU bvg bq GKwU BwZnvm| †h gnvbvq‡Ki Rb¥ bv n‡j evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¥ n‡Zv wKbv m‡›`n Av‡Q| evOvwj RvwZi ¯^vaxbZvi mv‡_ wZwb av‡c av‡c Rwo‡q wQ‡jb| ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi BwZnvm Avgv‡`i BwZnvm| GB BwZnvm hv‡Z weK…Z bv n‡q e¯‘wbô nq †m `vwqZ¡ Avgv‡`iB, wKš‘ ¯^vaxbZv AR©‡bi ci cÖvq 40 eQi AwZµvšÍ n‡jI Avgiv †m `vwqZ¡ mZZv, AvšÍwiKZv, wbôv Ges mvnwmKZvi mv‡_ h‡_ó cvjb Ki‡Z e¨_© n‡qwQ| GKwU RvwZi R‡b¨ 40 eQi Lye Kg mgq bq| ZvB Avi mgq AcPq bv K‡i Avgv‡`i meviB DwPZ ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi BwZnvm iPbvi ‡¶‡Î †h hZUzKz cvwi ZvB w`‡q mnvqK kw³ wn‡m‡e GwM‡q Avmv| GL‡bv A‡b‡Ki Kv‡Q _vK‡Z cv‡i gyw³ msMÖv‡gi Ag~j¨ †Kv‡bv `wjj| GMy‡jv miKvwi D‡`¨v‡M msMÖn Kiv GKvšÍ cÖ‡qvRb| †`‡ki wewfbœ †kªYxi gvbyl hviv gyw³hy× K‡i‡Qb, †`‡L‡Qb, †Kv‡bv-bv-†Kv‡bvfv‡e wbh©vwZZ n‡q‡Qb, †hv×v‡`i mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Qb Zv‡`i mv‡_I h_vm¤¢e †hvMv‡hvM K‡i cvIqv †h‡Z cv‡i BwZnv‡mi A‡bK Dcv`vb| GKwU K_v Avgv‡`i fy‡j †M‡j Pj‡e bv †h, B‡Zvg‡a¨ ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi BwZnvm weK…wZi A‡bK Ac‡Póv n‡q‡Q| AvMvgx‡ZI Zv n‡e bv GUv wbwðZ K‡i ejv hvq bv| ZvB AvMvgx cÖR‡b¥i Rb¨ e¯‘wbô BwZnvm iPbvq Avgv‡`i GwM‡q Avmv AZ¨šÍ Avek¨K| ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi HwZn¨ I BwZnvm aviYKvix `wjjcÎ Ges Z_¨vw` cÖKvk Awbevh© n‡q D‡V‡Q eZ©gvb †cÖ¶vc‡U| †`‡ki cÖwZwU gvbyl hv‡Z Gme g~j¨evb `wjjcÎ Ges Z_¨vw` myj‡f †c‡Z cv‡i ZviI e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e| GB KvR AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ mK‡jiB Kiv DwPZ| Z‡eB iw¶Z n‡e e½eÜz, ¯^vaxbZv I weR‡qi mZ¨ BwZnvm| Z_¨m~Î 1. 2. 3. 4.

Avby gvngy`(m¤úv.), e½eÜz: evsjv‡`k GKwU BwZnvm, (XvKv: †R¨vrmœv cvewjkvm©, 2010)| Aveyj dRj nK, evsjv‡`‡ki ivRbxwZ: ms¯‹…wZi ¯^iƒc, (XvKv: Abb¨v, 2007)| mvgmyj û`v †PŠayix, gyw³hy‡× gywRebMi (XvKv: NP, 1985)| evsjv‡`k RvZxq msm`, weZK© (miKvwi cÖwZ‡e`b), LÊ 7, msL¨v 8 (3 Ryb 1981)|

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