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Student Portfolio

ARCH 473/3522 - DIGITAL DESIGN STUDIO AND WORKSHOP Hania A. Elmahmoudy Spring 2019


The American University in Cairo (AUC) School of Sciences and Engineering - Department of Architecture ARCH 473/3522 - Digital Design Studio and Workshop (Spring 2019) Student portfolio documenting samples of work submitted along the course, including research, experimentation, 3D modeling, digital fabrication, parametric design and modeling, physical model realisation and analysis. Student name: Hania A. Elmahmoudy Student ID: 900150061

Š The American University in Cairo (AUC), May 2019


Hania A. Elmahmoudy Architecture Student /Yogi

body becomes a must! It is normal to experiment with different branches of knowledge to explore the strengths of your mind, soul and body. Having seamingly different explorations does not express a bi-polar personality. However, it requires more exploration to find the ties behind all the experimentations and the strengths gained from it. A very common fact is that architecture students are skilled at communication and marketing branches. It is always related back to the nature of architecture. However, the ties lie within the ability of ‘creating’ and ‘experimenting’. However, is it only possible to experiment with the mind? Experimenting and unleashing the creativity of the body strengthens the mind. Also, the creativity of the body directly reflects the freedom of the soul. From just reading the very first few lines of my story, probably a glimpse and an insight about my story and life is portrayed. We -as students- are always taught to unleash our creativity and think outside of the box. As stepping outside the comfort zone is the way to differentiation. In order to step out of the comfort zone, continous learning and experimentation is needed! As an architecture student who is few steps away from graduating, architecture is usually based on experimentations and trials. A series of trials and errors based on knowledge and supported by creativity and guidance. Throughout the journey, architecture blesses its students with the talent of ‘creating’. Through out the journey of experimenting and exploring the surroundings, exploring the mind, soul and the

Throughout this portfolio, a new journey of experimentations inspired by the human body is illustrated. A journey that starts by recognizing in depth a vital organ in the human body. Inspired by the biomimicry of the heart, a building is designed for the users as activators of the space. A series of trials and errors is represented to figure out the ties between the essence of the phenomenon and the architectural parameters that forms it. A new journey of creation and experimentations is starting...

Bits & Pieces Students are always taught about how to unleash their minds’ creativity, but we do not take it further and unleash our human bodies’ creativity! It is a back and forth relation...


The Biomimichry of the heart to extract phenomenal parameters for a shape shifting mechanism for responsive and adaptive building facades.

Biomimichry of the Beating Heart

The heart beats x101,000 per day!

01 Learning from Nature


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I-Phenomena Extractions: (Group) 1

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Portfolio

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Capillary Transportation Mechanisms: The Fluids move according to its type by filltration & reabsorption due to difference in pressure, by diffusion or through the intercellular clifts known by sinusoids

Electric to Sound Pulse: The brains transmits electric signals to the atria & ventricles resulting in the heart chambers’ contraction through the valve. The closure of the valve flaps creates two distinct heartbeat sounds.

Virtual volume changes in relation to electric pulses creating sound

Sound scraper covered with noise senstivie silica to reduce urban noise

The kickstart is to choose a phenomenon and study its transformation to develop a shape shifting mechanism. The in depth investigation and behavior extraction was divided among the group members.

Heart Valve Kinetic Motion The Motion is caused by pressure of blood contracted by pulses. An Inverse process was concluded as the sound energy comes from outside noise so, the facade moved due to the intensity of the sound, resulting electric energy

Aimed To-Do! Extracting the phenomena in the heart to deduce parameters and relate them to real life architecture skin precedents and the different parameters that could be added

Adaptive structure powered by pressure of people movement (piezoelectricity)

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Blood Motion & Flow Fluids that move through vessels are Plasma (liquid portion), the blood cells (red & white) and the cell fragments (platelets)

What’s NEXT! - Detailing the precedentss to understand the mechanism applied. - Extracting keywords from each biomimicry phenomon and relating them to architectural parameters that affect the skin.

Stage One

ARCH 473/3522 Spring 2019

Triangulated stainless steel acting as a skin exploring medium of light as blood

Elmahmoudy


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II-Precedents &Experimentation: An experiment of a building skin that responds to air control & light & mimics the heart contraction & relaxation movement. Stimuli: Applied voltage--> Attraction of opposing charges that squeezes the film (up to 380 degrees) and repulsion results in expansion of the film. Different patterns & Orientations

Electroactive ShapeShifting Skin

Variables: The pattern (basic rectangles, ornamental different shapes & penrose) orientation affects the durabiliy of the pre-stretched material.

Group Experimentations with the electroactive material

Portfolio

Thin layer of stretched electroactive film attached to acrylic frame sandwiched between electrodes & insulated with liquid silicon & conductive carbon powder.

Experimentation & Learned lessons: The skin moved very quietly as the exact materials were not available such as prestreched acrylic films that was replaced with prestreched microwable film & the conductive carbon powder was replaced by iron powder (printing ink)

Stage One

@Institute of ETH Zurich

ARCH 473/3522 Spring 2019

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III- Capillary Parameters Extraction: (Individual) 1

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Biomimcry Diffusion process Keywords High to low concentration Parameters Skin light & ventilation Architectural Features Single triangulated pattern extruded to a point near the skin, made out of aluminum panels.

The Assembly One Pavillion

Bund Financial Centre, Foster + Partners

From the in-depth study of the capilaries, extractions are analyzed using keywords, parameters and applied to architectural features as follows:

Biomimicry Trancytosis process Keywords Fusion of cell membranes Parameters Privacy & visual connection Physical Architectural Kinetic three tracks of Mg independant tessels veil overlapping with rest of veils for different visual effects

Aimed To-Do! Extracting the capillary transportation phenomenon & researching it with different precedents with parameters identification

Stage One

Biomimcry Bulk Flow Keywords Movement due to difference in pressure Parameters Structure Architectural Features Tensile tendons forming three ribs: Main shoulder for compression, middle for degree of archness & secondary for stability

People Pressure as activators of the space

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Biomimicry Angiogenesis Keywords Blood capillaries formation Parameters Circulation pattern & form Architectural Features Inspired by the heart branching capillaries

What’s NEXT! -From the extracted parameters and analyzed inspirations, design a 3D rhino model experimenting with natural phenomenon.

ARCH 473/3522 Spring 2019

Light motion Vs blood motion

Elmahmoudy


Designing, modeling & fabricating a spaceshifting facade based on the parameters & prececedents extracted from the capillary transportation behviors

Shapeshifting Facade Design From the parameters extracted from capilary transportation behavior & vaulted arches. Applying various proportions between base and elevation creating diverse visual effects

02 Capturing Mobility


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I- Site Analysis: From the three proposed courts, The following court is chosen as it caters different target users with different functions. However, it acts as a circulation and transportation space, while catering different needs. Similarly, the capillaries allows fluids movement in different transportation methods Perspective of architecture court

Accessibility: Accessible by different engineering department

Architecture Court

Different Functions for users: Architecture students workshop & exhibition for projects Construction students experiementation with building materials and storage Mechanical students circulation due to nearby lounge

Conceptual sketch for the building

Portfolio

The context empowers the concept as caters different users with different needs & functions

Experimentation & Learned Lessons As the court has a limited area, meeting the requirements of reaching three floors requires inclining the model to be well proportioned (the most effecient solution).

Stage Two

@Google Maps

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II- 3D Model Experimentations: (First Trial) Similarly, the capillaries allows fluids movement in different transportation methods Skin: The skin takes the form of the circulation logic with future implementation of a triangular perforated skin.

Skin & form logic

First 3D Experimentation

Circulation Logic: Creating overlapping different levels that branches as the angiogenesis & the formation of capillaries

Branching circulation logic

Portfolio

The circulation logic is extracted from the genogenisis & expressed in the facade

Experimentation & Learned Lessons The first experimentation focuses mainly on the form and the circulation logic. However, the model should experiment with skin and the logic behind its shape shifting mechanism. The trial deviated from the exercise objective.

Stage Two

@Rhino 3D Model

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III- 3D Model Experimentations: (Second Trial) The capilaries have the same formation, but differ in the behavior of transportation of different materials. Similarly, the idea came from an abstraction where various proportions between the radius of the base and the elevation acheives different visual effects and adapts to different functions. Inspirational abstraction

Second 3D Experimentation

Logic: The pipes are shaped into parabola like shapes that differ in the number of branches, cross-sections and elevation. The difference in elevation can acheive a shape shifting effect to accomodate different user capacities

Varied Experimentations of different single units

Portfolio

The appication of varied proportions between the elevation and the base to reach diverse units with unique visual effects.

Experimentation & Learned Lessons The experimentation results in varied units but, lacks experimenting with the whole form. The connections need to be studied more.

Stage Two

@Rhino 3D Model

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III- 3D Model Experimentations: (Third Trial) The experimentations with the form followed the same form of the first initial form, but using the units to create circulation space. Form Logic: The form allows the main entrance towards the architecture and construction doors. It takes an angled shape to allow for space. Shape form from top view in site

Form Experimentation

Units Logic: The units used at the bottom two segment is designed to allow movement along its horizontal access allowing for light with the concentration of the pipes. The top segment allows for movement along the vertical and horizontal direction of units accomodating different capacities

The difference in the height of the single unit repeated units create a variation

Portfolio

The units allow for different shape shifting mechanisms to accomodate different functions

Experimentation & Learned Lessons The experimentation is successful. However, very time consuming and does not allow for too much varations. Thus, the experimentations started with Grasshopper in the next trials.

Stage Two

@Rhino 3D Model

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IV- 3D Grasshopper Experimentations: (First Trial) The experimentations started on grasshopper as to allow for more variations and options. Unit definition: The definition is repeated twice in the opposite directions to allow for branching of the pipes. The same pipe thicknesses are used with different branching density. Grasshopper parabola variations

Rhino to Grasshopper

Form: The form focuses creating a variety that can accomodate different needs. The middle surface is designed for services and

Relation between the units & the required height

Portfolio

Shifting from Rhino to Grasshopper allows for more experimentation and variations within the units and the building

Experimentation & Learned Lessons The more varied and the more random the building is, the more it builds and reaches in the Z direction, the better it becomes.

Stage Two

@Rhino + Grasshopper

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21 Grasshopper Definition

The Outcome:

The Simulation: The simulations started by drawing the three curves that would shape the parapola on rhino. The definition is used twice to create two different groups of parabola’s with different directions. The height and the elevation changes paramitrically by changing the curves’ positions.

Rhino to Grasshopper Shifting from Rhino to Grasshopper allows for more experimentation and variations within the units and the building

@Rhino + Grasshopper

Portfolio

Stage Two

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IV- Grasshopper Experimentations: (Trial Two) The experimentation tackles the circulation, the entrances, the height of the building and slabs are added. However, the upper division of rhino pipes has to be modified in order to be stucturally stable

The first and second floor in relation from the top view

Vertical Configuration

Modifications: In the previous models, the bottom two divisions did not act act mutual points thus, leading th discontinuation between the curves. The previous Grasshopper definition is modified to accomodate the continuation & two prapolas acting at the same point.

The 3D form showing the slabs and the units variation

Portfolio

The building accomodates the height required, slabs and continuation of units, while maintaining the variations

Experimentation & Learned Lessons The building requires a main structural system that would affect its shapeshifting mechanisms. Also, relations between different divisions to allow for variations

Stage Two

@Rhino 3D Model

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25 Grasshopper Fabrication Model Definition

The Outcome:

The Simulation: Connecting between the two definitions by fixing one curve to connect between the two divisions.

Varied Units Continuation Adjusting the connections between the varied units

@Rhino + Grasshopper

Portfolio

Stage Two

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III- 3D Model Experimentations: (ThirdTrial) The upper rhino division is simplified to allow for more stability and for the fabrication. The modified upper division follows the same units but in different connections, direction and variation in pipes number.

Main Structural pipes

Main Vs Secondary Structures

Connecting between non-successive curves: The main units division connects with the middle surface for variation and creating a division of place in the plan same applies to the upper bottom division.

Main & secondary strutures

Portfolio

Main and secondary structures are studies to act based on shape-shifting movement to provide stability

Experimentation & Learned Lessons The structure has to be revised specially in the second bottom division and the upper division by increasing the pipes dimension while providing rails when prapola touches the ground.

Stage Two

@Rhino 3D Model

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29 Grasshopper Fabrication Model Definition

The Outcome:

The Simulation: The only added definition was the extra support pipes to all the existing definitions and differentiated with color switches. The lines of the curves are drawn at rhino initially.

Fabrication Grasshopper Model Shifting from Rhino to Grasshopper allows for more experimentation and variations within the units and the building

@Rhino + Grasshopper

Portfolio

Stage Two

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The Fabrication 3D Model:

As the model consists of many pipes in addition to the main structure. A supportive structure of 0.175m is provided. The size of the pipes is according to 1:1 scale.

Fabrication Model The fabrication model required adjusting the pipes thicknesses to at least 0.35 mm which is the size of the 3D printing nozzle 1:100 scale. @Rhino 3D Model

Portfolio

Stage Two

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Fabrication Model The 3D shot shows the different structures used as illustrated.

ŠAll rights reserved, American University in Cairo (AUC) May 2019 Portfolio

Stage

@Rhino 3D Model


Identifying a parametric logic with in-depth explorations of patterns of mobility using Grasshopper.

Parametric Modelling From the designed Grasshopper model, different parametric mecchanisms of shapeshifting are explored using physical model and Lady Bug Plug in.

03 Patterns of Mobility


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I- The Shapeshifting Narrative The objective of this stage is to use the conclusions of the natural inspiration “the capilaries� and inform the parametric modeling process.

Bloom Installation- Dorris Sung

Shape Shifting Description: Thermo bi-metal is an enviromentally shapeshifting material that responses to sunlight and radiation based on curling of the material. It acts as a sun shading device and ventilate unwanted hot air in semi-open spaces where there is no tensile.

Thermo Bi-metals

Material Nature: When heated, one layer expands more than the other due to difference in thermal expansion resulting in curling movement. The thermo-bimetal sheet is 0.3*0.3m and with a thickness between 0.1 to 3mm.

Thermo Bi-metal material nature

Portfolio

Metals that breathe!

Experimentation & Learned Lessons The shape of the flange has to be tested to acheive the maximum curling effect. Also, the ladybug software has to be used to test the movement according to solar heat and sun light.

Stage Three

@Dorris Sung

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II-Shape Shifting Mechanism: Thermo Bi-Metal

The thermo bi-metal is attached to the secondary structure when it curls according to the lighting and radiation, it moves the secondary structure and the tensile member attached it between. The panels are made stiffer by increasing the number of riveted connections, while, in other areas, the panels are deeper to increase structural capability. Also, several layers of the bi-metals can be used. However, the curling curvature will decrease.

Fixed Main Structure

Expandable secondary structure

Shapeshifting Module Components

Translucent Tensile Fabric

The main stimuli for the shapeshifting is the solar radiation resembling the biomimicry of the diffusion through the capilaries @Grasshopper Portfolio

Stage Three

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III- Thermo Bi-metal Experimentations:

The following video shows the shapeshifting mechanism of the bi-metal tiles due to changing the radiation quantity. After experimenting on grasshopper, the range of the curling movement was set from the zero position till +0.5m. The movement in the negative Z direction is not allowed due to the presence of the tensile fabric. The structure of the thermo bi-metal tiles is the fixed and secondary members.

Portfolio

Stage Three

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43 Grasshopper Shapeshifting Definition

Portfolio

Stage Three

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The Definition Relative to Solar Orientation: The material’s behaviour relative to the sun’s position plays a large role in the distribution of the sizes and shapes on the surface. For this reason, multiple scenarios with different degrees and the amount of sun is illustrated below:

Scenario 1: The bi-metals open by angle of 50% according to solar radiation

Bi-metals & Solar Analysis

By changing the solar radiation quantity, the same bi-metals curl by different angles. The sun quantity is measured relative to the curling factor on a scale of 0 to 100%. Where 100% curling happens when there is no solar radiation and 0% curling when exposed to maximum solar radiation.

Different responses of bi-metal due to solar radiation and sun light at 11 am

@Ladybug

Scenario 2: The bi-metals open by angle of 80% according to solar radiation

Portfolio

Stage Three

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V- Physical Model Experimentations As the thermo bi-metal curls due to difference in thermal expansion of two materials, the aluminum duct tape was sticked to heavy stock paper to form a basic DIY bi-metal.

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However, the bi-metal triangular flap 6 cm heigh as designed before had a minimum curing factor. Thus, the previously designed flap shape had to be changed.

Different experimentations was done by changing the shape of the tile to reach the maximum curling. The bi-metal was exposed direct heat. Aluminium Duct Tape

Bi-metal triangular flap

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After being exposed to heat, the 20*1.5cm bi-metal strip curled effectively and returned to its nature after it cooled down at air temperature after around three minutes.

Aimed To-Do! Extracting different parameters to ensure the maximum curling of the bi-metal.

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The bi-metal flap mixes between the design of the previous experimentations. The bimetal curled perfectly with very noticeable curvature. To conclude, the less the width and the taller the flap, the higher the curvature.

What’s NEXT! The physical model will adapt to the shape of the taller flange with less width.

Bi-Metal Strip

Portfolio

Bi-metal flap

Stage Three

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Physical Model:

The following video shows the physical model consisting of different elongated flaps with smaller thickness. When exposed to the heat of the hair dryer, the strips immediately curl and return back to its normal position after around three minutes. The following video is sped up four times (4x).

Portfolio

Stage Three

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Site Layout: The buidling is inclined to correspond to the small size of the court and create social nodes between its recesses. The building is away from the borders of the existing buildings to enable the circulation around the building and from the exit doors situated in the court.

Perspective site layout shot

Site LayoutArchitecture Court

The buidling is around nine meters high at the south to decrease the exposure to the sun. Also, the existing buildings shade over the building due to its height.

Scale 1:400

@Google Maps

3D shot of building within context

Portfolio

Stage Three

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The Plan:

The main entrance is located infront of the staircase leading to the architectural department as the architectural community are the main target user. To reach the main entrance from the bus gate, the users have to go through an experiential journey which allows them to experience the building from outside.

Ground Floor Plan

The service exit is concealed by the portrusion of the building for privacy. The building is away from the borders of the building to respect the exit doors of the mechanical and construction department and to embrace their functions and experimentations done at the court.

Scale 1:200

The building is recessed at some points to create social nodes.

Portfolio

@Autocad Stage Three

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The Section:

The building allows visual interaction between the different horizontal segements of the building. The floors are overlocking the ground floor of the main core.

Section (A-A)

Scale 1:200

@Autocad Portfolio

Stage Three

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The Elevations:

The northern elevation allows the exposure of the different segments to the sun light and provides a collective experience to the users as it shows the different structures in the building.

North Elevation

Scale 1:200

@Rhino Portfolio

Stage Three

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The Elevations:

The main entrance is emphasized by the double height lobby and the main entrances are close to create a welcoming social node.

West Elevation

Scale 1:200

@Rhino Portfolio

Stage Three

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Shapeshifting Detail: Centenary Cables Cable Clamp

The main and secondary structures are welded to the steel plate to the rail and the rail is connected to ground through a plate. The structures are connected to the centenary cables and to the flange trim that ties the bi-metal.

Main Structure

Trim (Flange)

3D Cable Clamp

Bi-metal Secondary Structure Membrane Plate Metal Plate

Trim Assembly Detail (Courtesy of Dorris Sung)

Portfolio

Rail

Detail Scale 1:20

@Autocad

Stage Three

FLOOR TILES MORTAR SAND ARCH 473/3522 R.C. Spring 2019 D.P.C

0.02m 0.02m 0.06m 0.15m 0.02m

Extruded Section with membrane plate & centenary cables

Elmahmoudy


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Main Structure

Secondary Structure

Extra Supports Tensile Fabric

Slabs & Rails

Exploded Structure Illustrated the different structural types: main, secondary and extra supports.

@Rhino

Portfolio

Stage Three

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Structural Manipulation Creating social nodes around the recesses and manipulating the users’ experience through different structures. ŠAll rights reserved, American University in Cairo (AUC) May 2019 Portfolio

Stage

@Lumion


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Portfolio

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Stage Three

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Experiential Journey The arches are manipulated to create a difference in concentration inspired by the biomimicry of the blood capilaries. ŠAll rights reserved, American University in Cairo (AUC) May 2019 Portfolio

Stage

@Lumion


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Portfolio

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Stage Three

ARCH 473/3522 Spring 2019

Elmahmoudy


Bibliography: Angiogenesis. (2019, May 04). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiogenesis DOSU Studio. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.dosu-arch.com/ https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1358836X9000100202 https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/31d9/18420ec653bb70b4bbb769fd7ea534a821e4.pdf

ŠAll rights reserved, American University in Cairo (AUC) May 2019


Student Portfolio

ARCH 473/3522 - DIGITAL DESIGN STUDIO AND WORKSHOP Hania A. Elmahmoudy Spring 2019

Profile for Hania Alaa Elmahmoudy

The bio-mimicry of the Heart- A Bi metal Shape shifting Mechanism  

ARCH 473/3522 Digital Design Studio & Workshop The American University in Cairo- Spring 19

The bio-mimicry of the Heart- A Bi metal Shape shifting Mechanism  

ARCH 473/3522 Digital Design Studio & Workshop The American University in Cairo- Spring 19

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