KTH Royal Institute of Technology STH School of Technology and Health The Lighting Laboratory Stockholm, Sweden
Street lighting = HUMANS + SPACE + LIGHT
A suggestion for lighting design method to enhance the urban nocturnal experience.
Master Thesis in Architectural Lighting design Course code: HS200X, May 2011
Author: Architect & Lighting Designer Hanan Peretz Tutor: Msc. Diana Joels
â€œElectricity is the pervading element that accompanies all material existence, even the atmospheric. It is to be thought of unabashedly as the soul of the world.â€? Goethe, 1825
Peretz Architecture Redefining Urban Spaces
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
4. Street lighting background
4.1 Historical background
4.2 Street lighting today
4.3 Background summary
5. The design method
5.1 Table of components
5.2 Components Description
5.2.4 Humans + Space
5.2.5 Humans + Light
5.2.6 Space + Light
5.2.7 Humans + Space + Light
6. Case study Rudsjรถterrassen Street, Handen, Sweden
6.1 From ANALYSIS to a CONCEPT
6.2 The CCONCEPT
6.3 From CONCEPT to a PROPOSAL
While doing research for this thesis I examined and attempted to determine how to enrich the experience of the street through street lighting. In order to get a better understanding of street lighting, I explored the history of its development over the years, both technologically and in terms of characteristics and ways of thinking. To implement this I have developed a design method which is based on street lighting components; LIGHT, SPACE and HUMANS characteristics. Each of these components contains a rich world within itself. The method connects these three components and examines the overlap between them, and presents the possibility of reaching a sophisticated situation in which each one of the components is expressed in high accordance with the others. The method follows the creative process from site analysis through concept formulation and concept development to practical solutions. The system is complex and has many links, yet simple to understand. The design method was created for the use of architects, lighting designers, urban planners, and decision-makers in municipalities. The design method was developed as a useful tool for professionals who deal with lighting, while at the same time based on a case study that helped to build it and test it during the various phases.
This thesis begins with the desire to design street lighting in a comprehensive approach, claiming that we should understand the complexity of things and look at them as one, as a whole. The significance of the task of designing an urban space is creating places according to our senses and needs. This is a complex task involving the arrangement of elements in order to fulfil a great number of requirements such as function, climate, aesthetics, architecture and not of less importance, street lighting. Traditionally, street lighting has been the basic component of public outdoor lighting. In an urban setting, it is the street lighting, along with traffic signals and signs that organize and define the visual environment at night. The night, customarily a time of darkness and silence, has slowly been colonized by humans. We have been able to cross the frontier of darkness with the help of artificial lighting, which offers us an illusory sense of security. So dependent are we on vision that it is only by prolonging it into the night that we feel secure in our ability to understand and control our surroundings. As we advance in the 21st century, our visual environment at night is increasingly shaped by the predominance of information and communication technologies. The concomitant overstimulation, particularly on a visual level, by street lighting, by images, advertising messages and news information all at the same time, also affects potential ways of perceiving space. These are increasingly predetermined by a clearly goal-oriented flood of messages and statements, depriving the viewer of
FIG.1, FIG.2 Regular situation for urban street lighting
the ability to form an independent opinion. Our urban experience, even our memories, is rooted above all in images. Today, the street lighting condition of our cities is far from optimal. Street lighting was designed mainly for roads, with no respect to the urban environment. It has been adapted to the needs of safety and security without any relation to the urban experience, the architecture or pedestrians. There is a sense of unnecessary repetitive “copy-paste” (in constant distance without any reference???). The situation of lighting up the streets in a monotonous manner neutralizes the experience of the night that the city should produce. Without any hierarchical ranking the city looks dull. The way we think about urban planning, architecture and user experience of the street during the daytime disappears altogether at night and is transformed for the needs of drivers. Doesn’t the way we light up the streets in an equal uniformity cause us to lose the diversity of the city? Instead of using light to emphasize places we choose to illuminate the streets uniformly. Also in terms of energy consumption, don’t we invest too much effort to illuminate the entire street evenly without any special goal or real meaning? This thesis stems from a desire to produce custommade street lighting for the main user of the street – pedestrians, by creating a suitable environment that contributes to the urban experience at night. How to integrate the street lighting as a major element in our urban environment in order to lead and enriches the experience of the street by night and not as a byproduct of planned traffic?
In this thesis I would like to explore how, with street lighting, we can enhance the experience in our city streets after dark, mainly for pedestrians? In order to do this I developed a design method that relates to the street and all its components as a whole. To construct this method I chose to explore the history of street lighting, in order to understand how it evolved, what the principals that stand behind them are, what are the main stages in its development and according to what regulations we create street lighting today. The intention of creating this method is to produce a tool that will serve architects, lighting designers, lighting engineers, and decision makers in municipalities and assist them to design better street lighting in our urban environment. This new approach for street lighting takes into consideration: our perceptual capacities as human beings, the qualities of our urban habitat, the experiences it transmits and light qualities in terms of colours, glare and light distribution.
The method presents ways to analyse a site, exposing weaknesses and questions, and places them with other data. In addition, the system helps build design concepts and is able to guide the designer how to develop the concept from its components into a proposal. The design method is based on the three main components of street lighting: SPACE- the public urban environment HUMANS- the users of the space LIGHT- responsible for the way humans perceive and experience the space by night The main goal of this design method is to establish a rich system of knowledge with connections built according to the three basic elements of street lighting and still be clear and simple to use. The method explores these three ingredients in depth and tries to understand how they influence one another in order to create a better night time environment in our urban spaces.
Street Lighting and the Nocturnal Experience
Research Question: How with street lighting we can enhance the urban experience in our city streets at night time?
Street Lighting Historical Background
Street Lighting Existing Regulations
Design Process Methodology
HUMANS SPACE LIGHT
HUMANS+SPACE SPACE+LIGHT HUMANS+LIGHT
FIG.3 Methodology chart
Case Study HUMANS+SPACE+LIGHT
4. STREET LIGHTING BACKGROUND
To develop this method in more depth, I chose a case study- Rudsjรถterrassen Street, Handen- Stockholm suburb, Sweden. The street is located in a central part of town, connected to the two exits of the train station from Stockholm. Also located in the street are a bus terminal, academic buildings, parking zones, a commercial and office area. The street is very active by day, and a lot of people use it to get to the train platform or school. At night the street is completely empty and uninviting. The idea behind this case study was to use it as a tool to produce and examine my ideas and develop them into the method. The design method and the case study were developed at the same time. The relation between them is direct in all stages, however in this thesis it will be presented one chapter at a time. The case study was analysed to develop a concept and a proposal consolidation. The case study was an essential tool for developing the design method. In order to achieve the right components and the right connections between them it was important to involve in the construction of the method a real design process, and through this evaluate the needs, targets and approaches of the design process. The discussion at the end will be around the construction of the design method, its use and its future stages. The conclusions of this thesis will be derived from the process of creating the design method and the case study.
This chapter is a brief review of the development of street lighting from medieval times to the present, introducing the technologies and characteristics of each and every period. In order to better understand the state of street lighting in our streets today I had to figure out where it all began and how we evolved to the current situation. To understand the field I had to study its roots and so comprehend the problems that developed over the years. I also wanted to know what experiences street lighting provided over the years and what remains of them today and what was the relationship between street lighting and humans in space during various periods? It should be noted that although the review is carried out according to the period discussed there was always an overlap between the different technologies over time.
4.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Ancient & Medieval Times
The initial purpose of street lighting was a function of security. It was used by the Greek and Roman civilizations, utilizing oil lamps, mostly because they provided long lasting and moderate flames. The Romans had a “laternarius”, which was the term for a slave responsible for lighting up the oil lamps in front of their villas. This task was kept up to the MiddleAges when the “link boys” escorted people from one place to another. Each evening, the medieval community prepared itself for dark. At sunset, people began going indoors, locking all entrances. First the city gates, which had been opened at sunrise, were closed, later the same thing happened in individual houses. Paris 1380 decree: “At night all houses… are to be locked and the keys deposited with magistrate. Nobody may enter or leave a house unless he can give the magistrate a good reason for doing so”1. In other big cities like Berlin and Vienna, similar regulations remained in force well into the nineteenth century. Night watchmen carried weapons and torches with them on their rounds. Anyone who did not carry a light was regarded as suspect and could be arrested on sight. The light escort service created dynamic lighting, movement in space, changes with time, with movement, according to people’s needs.
The first attempts to create permanent street lighting were made in Paris in the sixteenth century. By a parliament decree, during the winter months, a lantern should be hanging out under the level of the first floor windowsills before six o’clock. It was to be placed in such prominent position so that the street received sufficient light2. This “navigation lights” gave the city streets structure and order by putting the attention on the volumes, to the borders that created the space. This system also allowed individual houses to be recognizable by night.
End of 17th Century -Oil Street Lighting
In the late seventeenth century, lanterns were mounted on cables above the streets rather than on the houses, in order to â€œcontrol the streetsâ€?. The diversity of private lanterns was replaced by standard lanterns, consisting of a candle in a glass box. Initially, 2,700 lanterns were installed in Paris. In 1700 there were more than 5,000, and by the second half of the eighteenth century the number had risen to about 8,0003. The lanterns were attached to cables strung across the street so that they hung exactly over the middle of the street, like small suns. To control the precise time at which they should be lit or extinguished lighting schedules were made. These calculated the exact times of sunrise and sunset, as well the hours of moonlight for each month. Early on two lanterns were put in the shorter streets, one at each end. In longer streets an additional lantern was placed in the middle. Over time the variable distance between lanterns was standardized and reduced to every third house. Later the brightness of the lanterns was also improved by using reflectors and changed from candles to oil lantern with several wicks4.
In 1669 Jan var der Haeyden developed an oil lantern for street lighting, which was first used in Amsterdam. The lanterns were hung in the middle of streets using transverse cables. In open spaces (squares, gardens...) they were hung on hangers or brackets attached to iron. The lanterns were set at 5 meters above ground and were lit and monitored during the night by employees, who were assigned 20 lanterns each. In 1694, in the city of London, Edward Heming was granted a licence to hang an oil lamp in front of every tenth house from 6pm to midnight between Michhaelmas and Lady Day. At that time, there already was talk of energy conservation and in 1788, oil guts were replaced by rapeseed oil, which was less expensive, less smelly and provided a whiter flame. Many problems remained. The flow of burning oil caused many accidents; lanterns always shed unpleasant smells and were more likely to extinguish in a gale.
FIG.4 The images represents the lantern of Bourgeois Chateaublanc. This is the first lantern that was actually put in series in the city of Paris. It appeared in 1766. The lantern consisted of a frame, spout oil and metal reflectors that reflected the light which the flame produced.
19th Century- Gas Lighting In 1791, French Philippe Lebon discovered the principle of light by hydrogen gas carbon. In 1792, the Scotsman William Murdoch and French JP Minckelers made gas lamps used with the principle of distillation of coal in a closed chamber. However, only after more than 20 years of various experiments did the industrial production of gas lanterns really begin. The first public street lighting with gas was at Pall Mall, London on January 28, 1807. In 1812, Parliament granted a charter to the London and Westminster Gas Light and Coke Company, and the first gas company in the world came into being. Less than two years later, on December 31, 1813, Westminster Bridge was lit by gas. The Earliest lamps required a lamplighter who toured the town at dusk, lighting each of the lamps separately, but later designs employed ignition devices that would automatically strike the flame when the gas supply was activated. The first street lighting lanterns were set solely on wall brackets or were suspended. In 1830 the first candelabra appeared. It was around 1850 that lighting truly started to spread throughout France. Candelabra were placed all over the country, making way for coexistence between oil lighting and gas lighting. The candelabra had the advantage of having its gas conveyed by pipes. Initially, manufacturers of lamps were more or less free to manufacture their own implements, but after numerous accidents due to poor quality of some candlesticks, they were asked to produce only iron candelabra, which grew stronger and stronger. In Paris around 1840, in order to take into account the moonlit nights on which street lighting is normally reduced, two types of street lanterns had developed. Permanent lanterns which burned from sunset to sunrise, and variable lanterns which were lit only when the moon-light was not bright enough to light the streets.
FIG 5. Above right: Lamplighter lighting a gas streetlight in Sweden, 1953. By this time remaining gas lamps were rare curiosities.
FIG 6, FIG 7. Above left and below: Is an excerpt from the catalogue of the Val dâ€™Osnes foundry for gas street lighting dating from 1880 (France):
End of the 19th Century- Moon Light Towers Moonlight towers are lighting structures designed to illuminate big areas of a city at night. The structures were popular in the late 19th century in cities across the United States and Europe, and were most common in the 1880s-1890s. In some places they were used when standard street-lighting systems â€” using smaller, shorter, and more numerous lamps â€” were impractically expensive. Elsewhere they were used in addition to existing gas street lighting. The towers were designed to illuminate areas of several blocks at once. Arc lamps were the most common method of illumination, known for their exceptionally bright and harsh light. As incandescent electric street lighting became common, the prevalence of moonlight tower systems began to wane.
FIG 8. Above: Detroit, Michigan. Campus Martius, showing City Hall and Moonlight Tower. 1900 FIG 9. Left: Moonlight tower -arc light tower, San Jose, California, December 1881 FIG 10. Below: New Orleans, 1883. A levee at night - electric light illumination. Sketches on the levee, New Orleans / by J. O. Davidson. Illustration showing the New Orleans riverfront at night, crowded with people and steamboats, and showing electric lighting.
End of the 19th Century - Electric Street Lighting The first electric street lights employing arc lamps were developed by the Russian Pavel Yablochkov in 1875. This was a carbon arc lamp utilizing alternating current, which ensured that the electrodes burnt down at the same rate. Yablockov candles were first used to light the Grand Magasins de Louvre, Paris where 80 of them were deployed. This improvement was one of the reasons why Paris earned its “City of Lights” nickname. Soon after, experimental arrays of arc lamps were used to light Holburn Viaduct and the Thames Embankment in London - the first electric street lighting in Britain. More than 4,000 were in use by 1881, though by then an improved differential arc lamp had been developed by Friederich von HefnerAlteneck of Seimens & Halske. The technology of these lamps was not yet fully developed, their use was very energy consuming, and the light output unsatisfactory, therefore a poor value for money compared to gas lighting. Not until the early 20th century through the work of Thomas Edison, who took the precaution of filing the patent for this technology, did the electric lights began to compete with gas lighting. Between 1910 and 1940, much work of electrification of major cities was undertaken, and electric lamps using incandescent lamps were gradually replacing the gas lanterns. The last gas lanterns disappeared from France in the mid1960s5.
The first discharge lamps that were heavily used in street lighting emerged in the 1930s6: • These came in the form of a tube in whose ends were placed two electrodes. The tube contained mercury gas and its inner wall was covered with a fluorescent powder. They quickly took the name of fluorescent tubes and their general use started in 1945. • In 1932 the first sodium vapour lamp appeared. In its debut it was presented as a long light bulb, 10 centimetres wide. It emitted a light radiation by passing an electric arc in a medium rich in sodium. This type of lamp emitted a yellow-orange light. Facilities using sodium lamps, today called lowpressure sodium lamps, started developing in 1950. Fluorescence and sodium coexisted; each technology having its own advantages and disadvantages7: • The balloons had a fluorescent colour rendering an index higher than sodium lamps. This means that it is easier to perceive colours in a street at night if they are lit by fluorescent balls. Sodium lamps produced only monochromatic light, which makes it a difficult colour to perceive if surrounded by a background. • Sodium lamps were more energy efficient than the fluorescent balls. This means that at the same power consumption, a sodium lamp provided much more visible light than fluorescent ball.
FIG 11. Incandescent 1925FIG 12. Incandescent 1931 FIG 13. Incandescent 1945
Between 1950 and 1970 Sodium lamps were installed purely in a functional form such as on highways, major intersections and industrial sites. Monochromatic light provided by sodium nevertheless has another important advantage; its influence is much less dispersive case of humidity and fog8. Metal halide lamps The first metal halide lamp was put on the market in the U.S. by General Electric in 1961. It used a mixture of mercury and iodides (negative ions) of sodium. The light obtained, having a white with pink hue, was unsatisfactory. Work carried out in 1965 was far more adequate. The lamp emitted light of a bluish-white colour. The 1990s saw the spread of metal halide lamps in public lighting. Two main reasons explain this phenomenon9: Firstly, from around 1985, halide lamps emitted different shades of white. These were distinguished in particular lamps emitting a cool white (colour light bluish-white), neutral white light (almost pure white) and warm white light (white to beige highlights). Second, in 1994, halide lamps with ceramic burners were introduced. The quartz discharge tube was replaced by a piece of ceramic in a much more compact form, increasing the lifespan of these lamps by 50% and providing a light that degraded less over time.
FIG 14. fluorescent 1960 FIG 15. HPS 1957-1967
FIG 16. HPS 1985
The many advances in lighting technology and new opportunities they have created had a large influence over time. Until the early 20th century when lighting was reserved only for citizens in cities, most of the achievements of public lighting were brought in from small towns. The facilities were very expensive and so installed for a population that had the means to afford them. After the First World War electric streetlights began to spread and the developments of manufacturers were increasingly brought to the big cities. Until about 1970, requirements for public lighting were primarily functional. Its role was almost exclusively reserved for the purpose of security. Customer requirements were simple: to shed light, at the lowest possible price10. The late 1960s saw the emergence of new needs in terms of lighting, putting more and more emphasis on aesthetics. In this context two major trends have emerged: The style lighting and set mast + lanterns. Generalization of lighting style The aesthetics of the products in daytime had become more and more important. In this framework developed what was promptly called â€œstyle lightingâ€?. The meaning of this is the manufacture of new products by reusing the design of old lanterns and adapting it to electric lighting. It is difficult to date the appearance of lighting styles as most major cities had not replaced some of their old gas lanterns by the late 1950s.
FIG 17. Metal Halide 1990
FIG 18. LEDâ€™s 2010
4.2 STREET LIGHTING TODAY
Today street lighting is designed mainly for vehicles. As shown in the following tables, taken from CIE regulations, we can see that the intensity of illumination is determined by direct relationship to the amount of cars in the street, with almost no reference to the pedestrian. There is also a clear demand for uniformity in the intensity of illumination. There are 3 different sets of lighting classes in the CIE publication 115 from 2007 from which appropriate lighting quality criteria /requirements can be selected: M Lighting Classes for motorized traffic C Lighting Classes for conflict areas P Lighting Classes for pedestrian and low speed traffic areas
Selection of M Lighting Class, Parameters for Motorized Traffic: • Speed: high or moderate • Traffic volume: very high, high, moderate, low, or very low • Traffic composition: motorized only, mixed, or mixed with high percentage of non-motorized. • Separation of carriageways: no or yes • Intersection density: high or moderate • Parked vehicles: present or not present • Ambient luminance: very high, high, moderate, low or very low • Visual guidance, traffic control: poor, good, very good.
FIG.19 M Lighting class
Selection of C Lighting Class, Parameters for Conflict Areas: • Speed: high, moderate, or low • Traffic volume: very high, high, moderate, low, or very low • Traffic composition: motorized only, mixed, or mixed with high percentage of non-motorized • Separation of carriageways: no or yes • Ambient luminance: very high, high, moderate, low or very low • Visual guidance, traffic control: poor, good, very good
Selection of P Lighting Class, Parameters for Pedestrian Low Speed Areas: • Speed: low or very low (walking speed) • Traffic volume: very high, high, moderate, low, or very low • Traffic composition: pedestrians, cyclists and motorized traffic; pedestrians and motorized traffic; pedestrians and cyclists only; pedestrians only; cyclists only • Parked vehicles: present or not present • Facial recognition: necessary or not • Ambient luminance: very high, high, moderate, low or very low
FIG.20 C Lighting class
FIG.21 P Lighting class
Conflict areas occur whenever vehicle streams intersect each other or run into areas frequented by pedestrians, cyclists, or other road users, or when the existing road is connected to a stretch with substandard geometry, such as a reduced number of lanes or a reduced lane or road width. For conflict areas, luminance is the recommended design criterion. However, where visual distances are short and other factors prevent the use of the luminance criteria, illuminance may be used on a part of the conflict area, or the entire area if the luminance criteria cannot be applied to the whole area.
4.3 BACKGROUND SUMMARY
The data tables reinforce the understanding that the way we plan our city street lighting is dull. The lighting is designed according to the amount of vehicles and by the amount of nodes regardless of the pedestrian street space. There is no real reference to a person’s visual perception and the space that holds the street lighting. Obviously we need to have regulations for street lighting, but should vehicles be the main influential component, when they have their own lights? Are the streets designed for vehicles or pedestrians? What about the human scale? Human’s perspective and visual perception? We have a reference to the amount of cars, why is there no reference to the amount of people who walk in the street? The perspective according to the regulations is very narrow and doesn’t take a lot of factors in account, for example: references to rush and low hours, references to the proportions and materials of the street and other important parameters that affect the experience of the urban space after dark.
There are several things which emerge from the historical overview: •
Things that today are seen as very modern and innovative, such as street lighting which trails the user was actually the starting point for street lighting – just as people in ancient times whose job it was to accompany others who needed light on the street.
Another modern example is facade illumination to highlight its volume, creating diversity and emphasis of each building and structure. It was already done in the 16th century when a regulation was amended obliging the illumination of the street by the installation of a lamp under the windows of house.
An analysis of today’s procedures indicates that the main purposes for street lighting are visual uniformity and vehicle traffic. The amount of pedestrians and their visual perception do not affect the amount of light and how the street is lit.
Tools that were unknown to us, for example illumination of street boundaries, emphasizing facades, creating a reference point of the street at night, today are (stutter???) in the urban experience.
About 400 years ago cities had street lighting schedules not only compatible to sunrise and sunset, but also to the moon. Why, when issues like light pollution and sustainability are of high importance today, we intentionally forget them?
It seems that we fell in love with technology and are carried away by it, and want to lighten up our cities to no end without understanding the essence of the night, the importance of the stars and the moon light and their appearance at night.
Hanging in the street edges in the middle of the street
End of 17th Century - Oil lighting
18th Century Gas Lighting
Gas lighting Candelabra
2 Scheduales: Sunset-sunrise Moon
End of the 19th - Moon light tower
Square, main public places
End of the 19th Century Electric light
Incandescent, HPS, HIT, FL, LED
Ancient & Medieval Times
Planned for cars
FIG.22 Background summary table
These chapters caused me to believe that in order to improve the experience of the street in our cities after dark it is important to create a new structure, different from the existing regulations. To create a system of connections that gives a wide approach to street lighting and with that creates a more complete design, a design method that understands the complexities of the urban environment, humans and light.
5. THE DESIGN METHOD
The design method comes from a very simple principle. Street lighting is contained within three main components: SPACE, PEOPLE and LIGHT. Each of these components contains a rich world within itself. The method fundamentally connects these three components, examines the overlap between them, and presents the possibility of reaching a complex situation in which each one of the components is expressed in high accordance with the others. Much thought has been dedicated to the order of action in the method, what the elements at each stage are, and what is the correct order in the different uses. In this part I will show the complexity of this method, and explain all of its components and its use. The design method was developed as a useful tool for professionals who deal with lighting, while at the same time based on a case study that helped build it and test it during its various phases.
The CONCEPT After having a complete and clear analysis derived from the method system, a concept can be produced. The concept must be built based on components of the third stage. The findings from the analysis can be interpreted in different ways for different purposes and there is no one manner to accurately create the concept but only the cornerstones on which the concept should rely. The concept can be supported by images and other sources, case studies that are not necessarily linked to the specific case which the concept handles.
From CONCEPT to a PROPOSAL
The way to analyse an area by using the design method, is first to understand the components of each of the three elements, to recognise them and control them. Each of the components should be part of the examination, by maps, questionnaires, observations, etc. The second stage is the overlap phase between the three elements. Each stage does the overlap with two of the basic elements. This phase also contains a handful of components which are mainly built on two primary elements. Each one of the components of the overlap phase has to run through an analysis as well. The third stage is the stage of formulating the analysis. After understanding the basic components and the overlap between them it is now possible to understand the issues that emerged throughout the analysis. The best way to consolidate the operation is to coordinate all the information, overlap between the maps, diagrams, photographs, etc. The best way to establish a position is to use the same milestones of the third stage. After having the complete analysis from the different stages overlapping and centred, the problems of the site start to appear,, and become more obvious. The ingredients of the problems and their sources are now very well understood. 18
Another step that the method offers is a stage of developing the concept into logical solutions. At this stage the user moves back to the stages of the basic elements and the overlapping phase in the opposite order and understands how to take into consideration or implement the concept in each step and in every component, until the user reaches the light component from the first stage. There he will already have the knowledge to develop practical solutions to the idea according to the eight components.
Street lighting = HUMANS + SPACE + LIGHT
HUMANS+SPACE Ergonomics Locality Activity Circulation & Accessibility 5 Elements by K.Lynch Rhythm Daily appearance of installed equipment
SPACE Location History and future developments Natural environment Built / Open Dimensions Proportions Functions Spatial Form Borders Fenestrations Elements
HUMANS Culture Emotions Physiology The eye visual mechanism Visual field of view Visual Perception
HUMANS+LIGHT Visual approaches Safety and security Interference by glare Adaptation light-dark
LIGHT Level of lightness Spatial distribution of brightness Shadows Reflections Glare Colour of light Colours Dynamic
HUMANS+SPACE+LIGHT Atmosphere Contextualization Spaciousness Visibility Information Environmentâ€™s visual order Image of the space Schedule
SPACE+LIGHT Focal glow Play of brilliant Ambient luminescence Light zones Economy + Maintenance Sustainability Windows
From ANALYSIS to a CONCEPT
From CONCEPT to a PROPOSAL
5.1 TABLE OF COMPONENTS This table shows all the components of each step of the design method. It gives a brief description of each of the components and also presents options for every one of the elements on how to analyze or to present it in the proposal stage. After the table come the chapter that explains in depth each of the components and their importance in the process. HUMANS Components Culture Emotions
Description The ideas, traditions, religion, arts, customs, social behaviour of a particular society
Way to analyse Observations, Survey, research
Feelings deriving from one's circumstances, event, mood, or relationships. For example: surprise, love, dislike.
Way to present Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections
The way the human body functions, health, Circadian rhythm etc. Spatial vision- giving spatial information (big scale). Foveal vision- giving information on details (small scale). Scotopic-under low light conditions, The eye visual mechanism Photopic-under well-lit conditions, Mesopic- in low but not quite dark lighting situations. The approximate field of view of a human eye is 95° out, 75° down, 60° in, 60° Visual field of view blind spot which is roughly 7.5° high and 5.5° wide.
Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections
Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections
Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections, pictures
The way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted
SPACE Components Location
Description Absolute or/and relative position of the site.
Past and future developments
Past events, particularly in the urban environment and light development. Also future project on site.
Built / Open
The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period. (Sun, rain, snow, wind, temperature, humidity) The mass of the built environment, clearly shows the urban public areas
Measurements of the area, such as length, breadth, depth and height.
Proportions Functions Spatial Form Borders Fenestrations Elements
A part , share, considered in comparative relation to the whole area. For example: proportions of the street; the height of the building in relation to the width of the street. List of shops, public buildings, parks etc.
Way to analyse Maps Research, maps, photos, Aerial photograph Sun diagrams, maps, Research Nolly maps
Way to present Maps Maps, photos, Illustrations Diagrams, Maps, photos, tables, charts Nolly Maps
Plans, sections, measurements, Plans, sections sketches, observations Sections
Maps, research Observations, Surfaces, materials, textures, patterns, structures, colours, coatings, decorations. research, Technical drawing Boundaries that define the space. Vertical (skyline) and horizontal borders. Observation, Plans, Natural (sea, cliffs) and structures (Walls, Partitions, slopes) Sections The arrangement of windows and openings in a building. The proportions Observation, facades between the open and close in the façade. Observation, plans, A small thing/s in space: benches, bus-stops, street signs, trees, garbage cans sections, facades, etc. research, maps
Diagrams, Sections Maps, photos Photos, Technical drawing Photos, Plans, Sections Photos, facades Photos, sections, diagrams, facades, maps, plans
Way to analyse
Level of lightness
How light or dark it is?
Spatial distribution of brightness
Where is it darker/ brighter?
Where they fall and their character?
Where the occur and what is their character?
Where it occurs and how noticeable is it?
Colour of light
The colour experience of the light?
Do they look natural or distorted?
How animated the light appears?
Way to present photos, diagrams, light plans, light sections photos, diagrams, light plans, light sections photos, diagrams, light plans, light sections photos, diagrams, light plans, light sections photos, diagrams, light plans, light sections photos, diagrams, light plans, light sections photos, diagrams, light plans, light sections photos, diagrams, light plans, light sections
The understanding of interactions among humans and their surroundings
Way to analyse Observation, survey, research The understanding of cultural aspects for comprehension of local identity and Observation, survey, Locality social structure. research A thing that a person or group does or has done: festival, demonstrations, play, Observation, survey, Activity run, drive, cycle, sit research The ability to reach or enter the area & the movement to and from or around the Observation, survey, Accessibility & Circulation: area. Cars, bicycles, buses, pedestrians, etc. research
Way to present Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections Diagrams, Tables, Plans Diagrams, Tables, Plans
5 Elements by K.Lynch
Paths - channels in which people travel. Edges - perceived boundaries of the space. Districts- relatively large sections of the city distinguished by some identity or character. Nodes - focal points, intersections or places. Landmarks readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points.
Mental Maps: Observation, survey, research
Diagrams, Tables, Plans
A strong, regular repeated pattern of structure and movement
Observation, survey, research
Diagrams, Tables, Plans
Daily appearance of installed equipment
Equipment appearance also in daytime is an important issue to be considered.
Plans, sections, pictures
Way to analyse
Way to present Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections
HUMANS+LIGHT Components Visual approaches Safety and security
Interference by glare Adaptation light-dark
Description The understanding of the visual angles and to be regarded by any lighting, and the connection of these multiple images. How light relates to the condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury. Also how light relates to the state of being free from danger or threat this makes a world of difference. Anyhow, glare should never be accidental. From a dark area to a bright one it takes the eyes 1 min to adjust. From a light area to a dark one it takes the eyes 30 min to adjust.
Survey, Observation Observation, survey
Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections
Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections
Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections
Way to analyse
Highlight- Light that supports a specific element.
Play of brilliant
Effects of / by light. Sometimes can be related to aesthetic and decorative light or the appreciation of beauty.
General lighting for the surroundings or condition.
Groupings of the lighting variables (intensity, direction, distribution and colour), which are significant to the space and form-giving characteristics of light.
Economy + Maintenance Sustainability Windows
Way to present Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections Diagrams, Tables, Plans, sections
In terms of the purchasing and consumption of light fixtures and services and Research Tables maintenance. Conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources, for Research, observations Tables, pictures example: light pollution and energy consumption. An opening in the wall or roof of a building, to admit light and air in and allow people to see out. At night admitting light to the outdoor environment.
tables, facades, sections
Way to analyse
Way to present
The pervading tone or mood, feeling from/of a place
Tables, plans, sections, diagrams, Illustrations
The circumstances that form the setting for an event, space, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood
Tables, plans, sections, diagrams, Illustrations
The possibility to define the physical space, its volume, size, depth, proportions, survey, observations surfaces, materials, coatings.
Tables, plans, sections, diagrams, Illustrations
The possibility to see and carry out the tasks, the work demands.
Tables, plans, sections, diagrams, Illustrations
Orientation and direction that are conveyed or represented by a particular arrangement or sequence of things.
Tables, plans, sections, diagrams, Illustrations
Visual hierarchy, what do we perceive and in which priority: preserve, reveal, contrast, diversity, unity, re-shape images and form qualities.
Tables, plans, sections, diagrams, Illustrations
Image of the space
The Identity, considering the indirect action of perception on the generation of meanings and affections. Transforming the space into special area= PLACE
Tables, plans, sections, diagrams, Illustrations
A plan for carrying out a process or procedure of lighting, giving lists of intended events and times according to the users, sun, moon and the stars.
Tables, plans, sections, diagrams, Illustrations
5.2 COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION
In this part of the work I will detail each of the components of the methodology and how they can be used in the analysis phase and the proposal phase. Please note that each component is written in a different way because of the different role of each in the general method. Each element and component in the list selected was written, checked and rated carefully in order that the methodology would be clear and easy to understand not only for people who deal directly in the field of lighting, or architecture.
5.2.1 HUMANS This part relates to the general knowledge and understanding of human beings. Lighting designers must understand human’s visual systems, human’s body and people’s different culture in order to match the planning and design of street lighting to their needs.
Culture: The ideas, traditions, religion, arts, customs, social behaviour of a particular society. An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behaviour that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning. The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group. Emotions: Feelings deriving from one’s circumstances, event, mood, or relationships. For example: surprise, love, dislike. In humans, emotion fundamentally involves “physiological arousal, expressive behaviours, and conscious experiences. Emotions provide the affective component to motivation, positive or negative. A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the emotion, principally behaviours and emotional expressions. People often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. Physiology: The way the human body function, health, Circadian rhythm etc. The eye vision systems: Spatial vision- giving spatial information (big scale) Foveal vision- giving information on details (small scale)
Scotopic-under low light conditions Photopic-under well-lit conditions Mesopic- in low but not quite dark lighting situations. Visual field of view: The approximate field of view of a human eye is 95° out, 75° down, 60° in, 60° up. About 12–15° temporal and 1.5° below the horizontal is the optic nerve or blind spot which is roughly 7.5° high and 5.5° wide. Visual Perception: The way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted. The visual perception is that what people see and it’s not simple translation of retinal stimuli. Each person can perceive different things from the same scene according to his culture, knowledge and his own experience.
Analysis: This part can be used to understand the society you are planning for, what are their habits? What are their traditions? It can also be used to understand why, where and how human’s visual perception works? What are the mechanisms that stand behind our different visual systems? The information in this stage can be reached through surveys and observations on site, except for cultures that may need a more in depth research. Proposal: In this process these elements need to be taken into account. It is necessary to make a careful check for the conceptual design process to evaluate if it’s compatible to the local culture, human’s visual perception and the different visual systems. The information can be presented by a mental map, diagrams, and tables.
This part deals with the specific urban area for street lighting. One needs to learn all about the parts and components of a site, and understand the exact elements of the urban environment in order to adapt the accurate street lighting to the space.
Functions: Description of a place by the functions it contains within. For example: Commercial area, residential area, touristic zone, list of shops, type of shops, public buildings, parks etc. Spatial Form: Surfaces, materials, textures, patterns, structures, colours, coatings, decorations.
Location: Absolute or/and relative position of the site. Each place is part of a complex. Deep understanding of the complexity will affect the understanding of the individual. (Out from the current scale into larger scale gives you a wider perspective about the place you Examine). Past and future developments: Past events, particularly in the urban environment and light development. Study future projects on site. The history of the place gives us an understanding of the processes experienced by the place, how they evolved and how each of these processes affects the urban environment. Understanding the processes gives a wider perspective and deeper understanding of the place. Also should be taken into account are the areaâ€™s future projects and how they might affect the site.
Natural environment: The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period. Daylight: Location, hours of sunrise and sunset. Moonlight and the stars: hours, location, size and shape. Informative data: amount of precipitation, wind direction and snow amount and depth level. In addition, average humidity and temperatures all year long. Built / Open: The mass of the built environment clearly shows the urban public areas. The definition of urban space and the elements that define it. Dimensions: Measurements of the area, such as length, breadth, depth and height. Proportions: A part, share, considered in comparative relation to the whole area. For example: proportions of the street; the height of the building in relation to the width of the street. 24
Borders: Boundaries that define the space. Vertical (skyline) and horizontal borders. Natural boundaries (sea, cliffs) and structures (walls, partitions, slopes). Fenestrations: The arrangement of windows and openings in a building. The proportions between the open and opaque in the faĂ§ade. Elements: A small thing in space: benches, bus-stops, street signs, Trees, garbage cans etc.
Analysis: this stage explores every detail of the space, from materials to historical background. What are the elements that create the space? How the climate effects the area? The information in this stage can be reached through observations on site, research, maps, technical drawings, plans, sections and facades.
Proposal: In the proposal process these elements are essential. They should be a major factor to take into consideration. In this part the lighting designer decides what are the exact street elements that should be emphasised, ignored, united, what to use, what to be left in the dark? What are the effects on the materials? What are the dimensions, and how we perceive them? How it relates to the weather and the historical background of the space? The information can be presented by photographs, illustrations, charts, tables, maps, plans, diagrams, sections, facades, technical drawings.
Enables us to see, it stimulates, informs and excites us. There can be no visual forms without light. It conditions both the way we see our world and the way we feel. Light has many sources. The sun, moon, fire and electricity all light up our world. Different kinds of light cause us to see and respond in diverse ways. Light reveals shape, surface and colour. It presents our individual perception of the world and provides us with a common language. It defines the image, colour and texture of our environment. It determines visual boundaries and our understanding of scale. Light is also the portion of electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye. Visible light has a wavelength in a range from about 380 or 400 nanometres to about 760 or 780 nm, with a frequency range of about 405 THz to 790 THz10. The experience of light can be described by the 8 terms, characterising noticeable and describable, entities of the visual experience as a whole11:
completely mat. Reflections depend on the direction of vision. Hence they will appear differently seen from different positions in a space. The reflections are dynamic and produce something alive but on the other hand can also raise disorders. Glare: Where it occurs and how noticeable is it? Glare refers to all situations where the brightness contrasts in any part of the visual field too big to be comfortably perceived within the prevailing adaptation level. Glare can be caused by anything from small luminant sources to widely extended luminant part of the visual field. Colours of light: The colour experience of the light? This refers to the tint which can be experienced by the light. Common light sources show considerable differences in their influence on the colour of light. Treated by filter or coloured reflectors the light can be intensely or slightly coloured all through the spectrum. Colours: Do they look natural or distorted?
Level of lightness: How light or dark it is? An estimation of dark-light scale that is graded in relation to the overall conditions. Spatial distribution of brightness: Where is it darker/ brighter? From where it originates and how it is distributed? Shadows: Where they fall and their character? Size, Brightness, sharp/diffused. Shadows appear as belonging to an object, own shadow and on an illuminated surface as a projected shadow cast from an object between the light source and the surface. Four types of shadows can be characterized: The big space shadow: Is seen on facades, and the ground, defining the distribution of light from the sun or street lighting. The big object shadow: that is cast by big objects like furniture, cupboards, benches, tables, etcâ€Ś The small object shadow: cast from a book, hand. The detail shadow: cast by the texture of a surface. Reflections: Where they occur and what is their character? Reflections may occur on all surfaces which are not
Generally a number of different colours appear simultaneously. The colour rendering properties of illumination are changed, but also the reciprocal balance between all coloured surfaces in the spatial context. Dynamic:12 How animated the light appears? Stimulates variation, change or progress. Options of dimmers and sensors.
Analysis: In this stage, the analysis is about the existing site; answer carefully the questions of the 8 elements. Proposal: In this stage, the 8 elements/questions are regarding to the concept and how to implement them in the existing site.
Streets are the heart of society; they are areas where you stay, where you meet others, where you observe, where you undertake something with or without others, where you relax, where you become familiar with and part of the living environment. Streets also enable you to look at what people are saying about themselves - the way in which they present themselves or the way in which they design and modify their own spaces, their house or their garden. Staying in a public space enables us to remain up to date with the world and the environment in which we live or stay. The layout of the public space tells us what society looks like, who forms the different parts of it, how people deal with each other and what they consider important. It is a window on society and a mirror of it.. Streets are the first and foremost forms of space for people. Streets should facilitate people’s activities – not restrict them. The design and layout of streets should therefore do justice to the various functions and meanings these spaces have for people. In Streets, the freedom of movement and the social interaction between people are a decisive criteria; residential space must be designed as people space and must invite social behaviour. A human being who is travelling through the public realm is a guest and behaves accordingly. Streets are the spaces where society manifests itself; they are the spaces for those who want to be there, for those for whom staying there has a priority. Staying in the public space does not have one single function or a direct benefit, but it most certainly has meaning and purpose. The space obtains its meaning through peoples actions and what they do together. The residential value of the streets increases in line with the amount of experiences offered by the space. One space can accommodate a range of functions that we consider socially important. A natural combination of such functions increases the social quality of the street and provides a view of the manner in which people shape their society.
Ergonomics: The understanding of interactions among humans and their surroundings. Space has become a system of rules, prohibitions and orders, and humans are required to adapt to the system rather than the other way around. The space should be created according to human’s biology, physiology, human’s proportion and visual site.
Locality: The understanding of cultural aspects for comprehension of local identity and social structure.
Activity: Anything that a person or group does or has done: festival, demonstrations, play, run, drive, cycle, sit. A common characteristic of life in city space is the versatility and complexity of the activities, with much overlapping and frequent shifts between purposeful walking, stopping, resting, staying and conversing. There are three main scales for human activity in space13: Necessary activities- activities that people generally have to undertake: going home, going to school, waiting for the bus. These activities take place under all conditions. Optional activities- activities that people might like: walking down the promenade, sitting enjoy the view and good weather. These activities usually take place under suitable conditions. Social activities- include all types of communication between people in city space and require the presence of other people: people exchange greetings, small talks, people ‘hang out” and use the street as a meeting place, demonstrations. Accessibility & Circulation: The ability to reach or enter the area & the movement to and from or around the area. Cars, bicycles, buses, pedestrians, etc. Human behaviour in streets is characterised by the fact that movement is not guided by a pre-determined uniform program, but by what people feel like from one moment to the next. The movements can be unfocused, unpredictable, and relatively slow or fast. In social spaces people’s behaviour is largely determined by the physical environment and by the behaviour of others, and eye contact plays an important role. 5 Elements by Kevin Lynch14: How users perceive and organize spatial information as they navigate through cities? Paths - channels in which people travel. Edges - perceived boundaries of the space. Districts- relatively large sections of the city distinguished by some identity or character. Nodes - focal points, intersections or places. Landmarks - readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points. Using this technique can produce a map - a schema that describes the area based on users’ visual perception on the street. A technique to translate people’s thoughts and how they perceive the space into a mental map. This map helps to extract a lot of information about space.
Rhythm: A strong, regular repeated pattern of structure and movement. Repeated elements in space produce a certain pace, which affects the visual perception and affects a human’s behavior in space. Daily appearance of installed equipment: equipment appearance also in daytime is an important issue to be considered. Visual appearance of lighting fixtures affects the appearance of the street not only at night but also during the day. Importance of fixture proportions in relation to the distant environment, the surrounding and humans. Also of high importance is the aesthetics of the lighting fixtures, which undoubtedly can contribute / detract from the quality of the project.
Analysis: in this stage we understand the connections between people and the urban environment. How space affects our feeling, how we perceive it and our behaviour. This we discover by analysing human behaviour from surveys and observations. Proposal: This phase is more related to the concept stage, it describes one step forward of the concept. Develop it to a level of how people would behave in space after the implementation of the concept. It gives a more detailed statement of intent towards the practical area. It can be displayed by diagrams, plans, tables, sections and pictures.
The connection between humans and light is an ancient connection mainly expressed in visual perception, and affects our emotions. The human’s vision process is complex. It starts with an optical system which collects light from the surroundings; regulates its intensity through a diaphragm; focuses it through an adjustable assembly of lenses to form an image; converts this image into a set of electrical signals; and transmits these signals to the brain, through complex neural pathways that connect the eye, via the optic nerve, to the visual cortex and other areas of the brain. The visible light has a wavelength in a range from about 380 or 400 nm to about 760 or 780 nm.
Visual approaches: The understanding of the visual angles, speed, distances, and situations and is to be regarded by any lighting and the connection of these multiple images.15 Safety and security: how light relates to the condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury. Also how light relates to the state of being free from danger or threat. Interference by glare: There are different levels of glaring effects, from tolerable to “blinding”, and this makes a world of difference. Glare should never be accidental. Adaptation light-dark: From a dark area to a bright one it takes the eyes 1 min to adjust. From a light area to a dark one it takes the eyes 30 min to adjust.16 We have the ability to see both bright and dim lights, even in an almost dark space. Vision thereby has an extensive range of functions. If the conditions for vision are very different in a bright or dark space, vision gradually adapts the existing situation. When the radiant intensity is too low to serve vision by the cones, we can neither perceive colour, not details. Analysis: This stage should investigate our visual perception and approaches, and what are the technical and emotional components of light that affects humans. For that one can use observations and surveys. Proposal: this stage includes the consideration of safety and security and glares interference. It should also match the concept into the visual perception and approaches. Tools that can be used for describing this stage: diagrams, tables, plans, sections, perspective, visualizations.
The relationship between space and light is significant and it is important to understand it properly. Light has an effect that can change the definition of space. The designer should understand the connection between them in depth, what type of lighting produces which situation. The relationship between two space and how light affects each other. How other factors such as economy maintenance and sustainability affect the relationship.
Focal glow: Highlight- Light that supports a specific element. By using a suitable brightness distribution it is possible to order summon the wealth of information contained in an environment. Areas containing essential information can be emphasised by accented lighting, whereas secondary or distracting information can be toned down by applying a lower lighting level. Also This can also be used for emphasising certain objects, such as when presenting goods for sale or when highlighting the most valuable sculpture in a collection. Play of brilliant: Effects of / by light. Sometimes can be related to aesthetic and decorative light or the appreciation of beauty. The light not only draws our attention to information, but can also represent information in and of itself. This applies above all to the specular effects that point light sources can produce on reflective or refractive materials. Furthermore, the light source itself can also be considered to be brilliant. What was traditionally produced by chandeliers and candlelight can now be achieved in a modern lighting design by the targeted use of light sculptures or by creating brilliant effects on illuminated materials. Ambient luminescence: General lighting for the surroundings or condition.
This is the character of light that provides general illumination of the surroundings. It ensures that the surrounding space, its objects and people are visible. Its universal and uniform orientation means that it largely goes along the same lines as quantitative lighting design, except that ambient luminescence is not the final objective but just the foundation for a more comprehensive lighting design. The aim is not to produce â€œone size fits allâ€? lighting at the supposed optimum illuminance level, but to have differentiated lighting that builds on the base layer of the ambient light.
Light zones17: Groupings of the lighting variables (intensity, direction, distribution and colour), which are significant to the space and form-giving characteristics of light. The light-zone(s) concept is a proposal for an architectural idea or notion, which can be taken as a point of departure for a new method of perceiving, considering, and analysing light in architecture: a method that sees the light of a space as (forms of) bubbles, spheres or zones of light. The aim of the light-zone(s) concept and tool is therefore to establish a mediating platform between the fields of architectural theory and lighting technology. It is proposed that this can be done by analysing the lighting entity in a space and dividing them into light-zones, as well as suggesting means or approaches to consider quantifiable measures or descriptors and grouping them to be congruent with these light zones. Economy + Maintenance: In terms of the purchasing and consumption of light fixtures and services, maintenance and life time. This component is definitely very important in designing the street lighting. The cost of the purchase, installation and maintenance should be taken into account. It also has great importance for the consumption of the product and its lifetime. We know that there are light fixtures and light sources that can be cheaper but cost much more in daily consumption. Therefore the planning and the selection of light fixtures and light sources should be done for the long term, and take all factors into account. Sustainability: Conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources, for example: light pollution and energy consumption. Light is energy. The significance of this is that light is a strategic environmental resource. Good and sustainable design is simply thoughtful, collaborative, and environmentally responsible design. The objective is a delightful and durable structure that will be productively utilized for decades, if not centuries. Streets need good lighting, which means energy and resource efficiency as well as visual appeal. Another aspect that can promote sustainability in a lighting project is to actually use light in a precise way. The intention is the use of light as precise as possible to the needs of the environment and those of human beings and to not waste any energy lighting up places or areas that have no need.
Windows: An opening in the wall or roof of a building, to admit light and air in and allow people to see out. At night admitting light to the outdoor environment. Windows have high importance in designing street lighting. Windows or openings are actually the relationship between outside and inside and so light can pass from the inside out and vice versa. It is important to take into account that street lighting transmits the outgoing light from the facades of the buildings to the street and that the light of street lighting can enter nearby buildings and can be a distraction.
Analysis: In this stage it is important to analyse the existing lighting in relation to space; what type of lighting exists and where: focal glow, play of brilliant and ambient luminescence. Do light zones exist, how and where? What are the existing energy consumption and maintenance costs? Is there any light that comes from surrounding buildings, shops, or residential? How space reveals itself to the eyes of the users? Proposal: The purpose of this stage in the design process, is to define the light zones in a larger spectrum and also describe and design the light characters; focal glow, play of brilliant and ambient luminescence according to the main concept. The designer should take into account the existing buildings and their openings, maintenance, installation and sustainability. In this section the designer should also consider how the space reveals itself to the eyes of the users, in which way, what is the process? What techniques?
This part is actually the essential part of the work; it is the centre of all aspects of all stages. At the analysis part it becomes the goal - the consolidation of all the information so far, and is a solid foundation for the concept production. In the concept-proposal development phase the following elements are actually the building blocks of the concept and the starting point for formulating the concept attitudes and approaches. Atmosphere: The pervading tone or mood, feeling from/of a place18. Light has a considerable importance for the emotional experience of space. Spaces with good lighting create good atmosphere and affect our mood. The atmosphere itself can be a goal in itself; it is also the starting point for holistic space that encompasses the vital qualities that make a city safe, sustainable and healthy. Contextualization: The circumstances that form the setting for an event, space, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood. The main idea of this thesis comes from the approach that street lighting design should come from the context of the city and recreate the image of the city at night. The role of a specific area in a complex urban context in which it is inserted has great importance for the development of interventions within the city. Like most aspects of urban configuration, context associated with spatiality, physical activity, social relations and cultural affairs. The character of the project must relate to the properties of space, which include most of the elements we had so far. The interaction with other parts of the city, and the whole, should be expressed, and the positive effects should be emphasis and spread. Actions of change can succeed only if the link to urban history and analysis is performed to create the environment and the tendencies of its confrontation with the desirable environment19. Spaciousness: The possibility to define the physical space, its volume, size, depth, proportions, surfaces, materials, coatings20. Visibility: The possibility to see and carry out the tasks, the work demands21.
Information: Orientation and direction that are conveyed or represented by a particular arrangement or sequence of things.
Environment’s visual order: visual hierarchy, what do we perceive and in which priority: preserve, reveal, contrast, diversity, unity, re-shape images and form qualities. Space must provide clarity on the expected and anticipated behaviour – social behaviour or traffic. The aim should be that space itself must carry a message that can be read. Light is a visual phenomenon. It is an extremely important tool to the nights visual order of the city and must be applied as so. Its application can be faced as the creation of visual suggestions, performed through consistent lighting proposals to the former elements of the Image of the city. Light is one of the main means for creating visual suggestions. It can be applied to reveal existing images or to create them; it can be the visual statement that joins different elements, establishing visual order, continuity between multiple images is related to, valorisation of the elements of city’s Image, contribute to urban form qualities, re-shape images, contribute to unity in the urban space, promote diversity22. Image of the space: The identity, considering the indirect action of perception on the generation of meanings and affections. Transforming the space into a special area= PLACE. That image must be built over consistent bases, both theoretically and locally built, backed in the existing structures: historical, spatial and social. Revealing the overall image of the city means to act directly upon its structure and identity, considering the indirect action of perception on the generation of meanings and affections. In this sense, enabling symbolic and poetic images is as important as revealing landmarks, edges, nodes and so on23. “Place comes into existence when humans give meaning to a part of the larger, undifferentiated space” (Yi-Fu Tuan). Schedule: A plan for carrying out a process or procedure of lighting, giving lists of intended events and times according to the users, sun, moon and the stars. One of the most prominent characteristics of night lighting is change. Street lights don’t need to function throughout the whole night. They can adapt themselves to hours of activity and quantity of people in the street and also be adjusted to the intensity of light coming from the moon. Therefore we can deliver a more natural nocturnal experience, economical and adapted to the needs of human beings.
6. CASE STUDY Rudsjöterrassen street, Handen, Sweden
The site is located in Handen, one of Stockholm’s suburbs. The street was chosen because of its central location in the city and its everyday use, but it does not function as a centre or a place to be. The street links the city to the railway station which thousands of people use every day. The street is not active after dark. It seems that it is necessary to maintain an active street after dark but for some reason this is not happening. The street went through a deep analysis that included many observations during the day and night. Also included was a questionnaire (appendix 1) that was distributed to 20 people, studying the way people experience and perceive the street. After the analysis, a concept was suggested to the site, and developed into a proposal.
6.1 From ANALYSIS to a CONCEPT
HUMANS Culture: Swedish culture has been described as characterised by egalitarianism, paternalism, and collectivism combined with openness to certain aspects of international culture. Lutheranism, trade unionism, and self-reliance are aspects that have been associated with Swedish mentality24. Emotions: results from the questioner (appendix 1,2): Like: roof, trees path, wide sidewalks, quiet, calm, not much car traffic, the view. Dislike: parking, poles, car traffic, quiet, the road, buildings, too dark, pavement materials. General feelings: x-territory, not interesting, BORING, functional, gloomy, long, uneven, grey, a lot of asphalt, transition area, quiet, cold, un-lively, fast, poor, ugly, simple, normal, parking zone.
Physiology: The investigation, observations and the questionnaire didn’t find any important factors or unusual things related to the site. The eyes visual mechanism: At dark times in the street, the spatial vision is more active than the foveal vision. At night most of the people just pass by and don’t have any details to focus on, also the light is more supporting the spatial vision than the foveal vision. Visual field of view: Most people don’t pay attention to their surroundings in the dark, there are no special attractions, and they are usually focused on moving forward. That is why the visual field of view most of the time is directed forward. Visual Perception: the site was interpreted to a transition place, understood as dull, regarded as a place whrer you don’t want to be.
Location: The site is a central place in Handen that connects the subrub to stockholm by the subrubâ€™s train.
FIG 23. Stockholm area.
FIG 24. The city of Handen.
FIG 26. Aerial photo of the site
FIG 25. Nolly map of the site
FIG 27. Nolly map of the site
FIG 18. Nolly map of the area
Borders: This plan shows the case study borders and the street that has been evaluated.
FIG 28 . Site bounderies
History and future developments: Handen (The Hand) is a subdivision of community centres in Haninge , Stockholm County . Handen is the main town of the municipality’s administration. The unusual name of the town “the hand” comes from the mid-1800s and is adapted from a croft by the same name. A cottage with a blacksmith was located in a major crossroads where the highway to the south was divided in two directions. One went to Dalarö and the other to Nynashamn. There was a road sign in the shape of a hand pointing Dalarö and it is believed that this gave the cottage its name. In 1901 a railroad was inaugurated between Fairfield, just south of Stockholm, and Nynashamn, and a village called Handen was built near the railroad. Handen rapidly developed into a community centre with buildings on the ridge called Söderby Ore. It also had a number of shops, cafes and the People’s House . In the 1930’s was established the Municipal Office at Runestone Road. In 1971 the office moved with all its activities to the new house in the middle of Haninge center. In the summer of 2007 it moved and turned into the present City Hall on Rudsjöterrassen Street. Handen was the first to expand to a separate urban area. This was in 1960 and reached 12,000 inhabitants, which doubled in five years and in the year 1970 passed 30,000 inhabitants. From 1975 Handen was considered with the agglomeration of Stockholm Handen station on the Stockholm light rail along Nynäsbanan is located between the stations Skogås and Jordbro . The original station, located a few hundred yards further north, was opened in 1901. Its first name was Osterhaninge, but changed in 1913 to Handen. The station was a small engine shed. SL‘s (Stockholm public transportation company) took over the service responsibility and made big changes. A brand new station with an associated bus terminal was built a short way south, freight dismantled and moved to Jordbro . The current platform was put into use on the 1st of April 1973. The station consists of a central platform and a ticket hall located at a walking overpass adjacent to a bus terminal. The bus terminal is an important and makes a complete transportation service in Haninge. The station has approximately 6,600 boarding on a typical weekday during the winter months. Boarding at the terminal area has been estimated at 13,100.
Natural environment25: Due to the city’s high northerly latitude, daylight varies widely from more than 18 hours a day around midsummer, to only around 6 hours in late December. Despite its northern location, Stockholm has relatively mild weather compared to other locations at similar latitude, or even farther south. Summers are warm and pleasant with average daytime high temperatures of 20–22 °C and lows of around 13 °C, but temperatures can reach 30 °C on some days. Winters are cold and sometimes snowy with average temperatures ranging from -5 to 1 °C, and sometimes drop below −15 °C. Spring and autumn are generally cool to mild. The highest temperature ever recorded in Stockholm was 36 °C; the lowest was −32 °C. Annual precipitation is 539 mm with around 170 wet days and light to moderate rainfall throughout the year. Snow usually falls from December through March with some winters bringing plenty of snow, while others are milder with more rain than snow.
FIG 30. Site daylight hours
FIG 31. Daylight hours changes to date 5.5.2011
FIG 29. Climate Chart
FIG 32. Daylight sun chart
Dimensions+Proportions: The street is defined most often by buildings in one side and an open area on the other side. But nevertheless there is no consistent Section; the street can be characterized in four main sections: D
Functions: The street is characterized mainly by a wide range of commercial businesses and educational institutions. There is no residence in this specific part. It is also as a primary transportation center for the city and the surrounding.
Real estate Coffee Solarium Hair salon Coffee Clothing shop Pressbyran
Academic Buildings Offices & Commercial Parking structures Open parking places Municipality Bus Terminal Forest
FIG 34. SEC B: proportions ~1:1. ~5h/~5w
FIG 33. SEC A: proportions ~1:0.75. ~20h/~15w
FIG 35. SEC C: proportions ~1:1. ~20h/~20w
FIG 36. SEC D: Part A proportions ~1:2. ~4h/~8w FIG 25. SEC B: Part B proportions ~1:4. ~3h/~12w
FIG 37 . Functions on site
FIG 38. Office building Facade
FIG 39. Hotel building Facade
FIG 40. Concrete structure
FIG 41. The ramp
FIG 42. The metal lamellas
FIG 43. The trees avenue
5 6 7
FIG 44. The hotelâ€™s path
FIG 45. The view point
FIG 46. The shed structure
FIG 47. The Benches
Spatial Form: FIG 48. Steel beams and tin
FIG 49. Material surfaces
Metal lamellas Concrete tiles FIG 50. Metal clasdding and pre-cast coloured concrete
Level of lightness: In general the street is reasonably lit. According to the questioner (appendix 2), people comments were that the street is not bright enough and that the big junction is quite dark. The car parking areas are brighter compared to the sidewalks. Spatial distribution of brightness: In General the street is uniformly lit, except for the benches area, the view point and part of the big junction. Shadows: There are no dramatic shadows found on site. Reflections: Most of the materials on site, facades, walls, tiles and columns are made of rough mat concrete, which means that there arenâ€™t many reflections. Except for the window frames and the northern building faĂ§ade that are made of half mat aluminium. Glare: There is one big noticeable contrast between light and dark on site, and it is located at the hotel entrance (fig 53). Colour of light: On site there is a variety of light sources that have different colour temperatures creates Yellowish, greenish, and white light. Colours: The colours of the site look yellowish pale and sick. Because of the bad CRI, the colours at night are perceived badly. Dynamic: There is no existence of dynamic light on site, perhaps car lights can be considered as dynamic light
FIG 51. Existing light plan
1 2 3
7 8 4
FIG 52. Single lamp post FIG 53. Hotel entrance FIG 54. The municipality FIG 55. Hotelâ€™s path building, two head lamp post ,shed structue fixture
FIG 56. View point FIG 57. Benches Lamp post Lamp post
FIG 58. Shop signs
Ergonomics: The Impression I gained from the observations and the analysis of the street lighting on site is that they are primarily designed for vehicles. The light poles are very high and proportioned to fit main roads and not pedestrians. The lamp posts have two heads with two different CRI. The low pressure sodium with the bad CRI light up the sidewalk and the metal halide with better CRI is lighting up the parking lots. As for the other lighting fixtures, their location is unclear; it appears that they function mainly to specify parking entrances instead marking the way to the train station, or lighting up sitting areas. Locality: According to the questioner people describe this place: Not interesting, BORING, functional, gloomy, long, uneven, gray, a lot of asphalt, transition area, quite, cold, un lively, fast, poor, ugly, simple, normal, parking zone. which leads to the conclusion that the street perceived as an x-territory of the city, people don’t see this area as part of the city, for them it is a transition point to go from one place to another.
5 Elements by K.Lynch: According to the mental maps that people reflected on the questionnaire I developed this mental map that indicates how people perceive this place. The map show that the connections between the 5 elements is very weak, and not structured.
District Node Landmark Edge Path
Activity: According to the questioner (appendix 2) and observations the main activities are: Walk to…, on the way to…, pass by…, coming from, ride a bicycle, running,.
FIG 59. Site menyal map by K.Lynch
Accessibility & Circulation: Intensity of people for a day 07:00 08:30
Parking area Parking lot Underground parking Car circulation Bicycles circulation Bicycles park zone Bus circulation
15:00 17:00 21:00 00:00
FIG 60. Movement of vehicles on site
FIG 61. Movement of vehicles on site
Rhythm: repeated structures and trees in site that have the potential to produce a certain pace:
Daily appearance of installed equipment: The lamp post and light fixture have no relation to the day time appearance; they are not aesthetic and out of human scale.
FIG 62. Repetitive concrete elements
FIG 65. Street lamp posts
FIG 66. Street lamp posts
FIG 63. Repetitive street
FIG 67. View point lamp posts
FIG 68. shed structue fixtures
FIG 64. Repetitive columns
FIG 69. Benches lamp posts
FIG 70. Hotelâ€™s path fixtures
FIG 53. Repetitive roof beams
Visual approaches: The understanding of the multiple images; visual angles, speed, distances and situation as regarded by lighting, the result is disorder and confusion. There are too many different light sources with different qualities (CRI,CCT, light distribution), with different height that gives an abstractive image that creates perplexity.
Focal glow: According to the observation on site and the analysis I did not find any attention or existing lighting design that can be described as focal glow.
Safety and security: According to the questioner-YES, ok, no, never walked there at night, the junction is scary, exit from parking places, pavement is unsecure. Interference by glare: The entrance to the hotel is extremely bright (fig 71). It is lighten by dozens of light fixtures that are located on the awning. The contrast between the bright entrance to the rest of the street is very big, which creates glare.
Play of brilliant: Shop signs (fig 53) Ambient luminescence: Most of the existing street lights fall under this category. Light zones: On site there are two areas that can be defined as light zones; the car parking zones, and hotel’s path. Both of them led up in a systematic way, with consistent light fixtures and light distribution. Economy + Maintenance+Sustainability: Unfortunately, despite my attempts I could not get information on these various subjects from the Haninge municipality. Windows: The buildings in the street are offices and a hotel and on the ground floor there are shops. The light that comes from them depends on the use of the building. Hotel and Shop’s windows usually open until seven o’clock. The other windows on the upper floors are usually active until five o’clock in the evening. After the working hours these windows are dark (fig 72-74).
FIG 72, FIG 73. Hotel’s windows at 21:00 and at 18:00.
FIG 71. Hotel’s entrance
Adaptation light-dark: According to the observation on site, the street is uniformly illuminated therefore there is NO adaptation process while walking in the street.
FIG 74. Office building windows at 20:00
Atmosphere: BORING, functional, gloomy, long, uneven, grey, a lot of asphalt, transition area, SFI quiet, cold, un-lively, fast, poor, KTH ugly, simple, normal, parking zone. Contextualization: there are no good relations between space light and humans: • The light in the street supports the cars circulation; White and bright light on parking side while yellowish with low CRI on the pedestrians side. (fig 77) • The light and space support the attitude “on the way to…”, they don’t encourage people to stay and enjoy the street. • The lamp posts are not in human scale. • Spaces that their urban intention is to be “places” are not lit up well to serve this purpose at night. • The light is not supporting, respecting or even take in consideration the structures. (fig 83)
Gym SFI KTH
Spaciousness: Most of the time you get clear information about the space, except this areas: Academic Buildings 1. The junctions’ upper way (fig 79) Offices & Commercial 2. The roof structure (fig 83) Parking structures parking places 3. The parking structuresOpen next to the junction. Municipality Busgive Terminal Visibility: Most of the areas a rational view of the Forest street, except these areas: People circulation A. The view point is relatively dark. People accessibility B. The benches next to the shops are invisible at Parking area night. (fig 81) Parking lot C. The junctions’ upper part is relatively dark. (fig 79) Underground parking D. Next to the trees avenue there are lamps posts Car circulation that use low pressure sodium lamps with bad CRI that Bicycles circulation gives bad visibility to their surroundings. Bicycles park zone(fig 77) Bus circulation
Information: The light in this area is not giving clear orientation or direction to the street. It seems that the parking space gets more attention in matters of lighting design instead of pedestrians. Environment visual order: There is no hierarchy in the street, there many kinds of lamp posts without any clear order, and they also have different heights, different colour temperatures and different light distribution without any clear reason. It looks like a confusing mixture of light compositions. (fig 77) Image of the space: boring, just passing because I have to…
Schedule: There is only one schedule during the night in this environment. These are the high retail signs in the highest point of the building that shut off at midnight.
Intensity of people for a day
Academic Buildings 07:00 08:30 Offices & Commercial 10:00 Parking structures Open parking places Municipality 15:00 Bus Terminal 17:00 Forest People circulation 21:00 People accessibility 00:00 Parking area Parking lot Underground parking Car circulation Academic Buildings Bicycles Offices & circulation Commercial Bicyclesstructures park zone Parking Bus circulation Open parking places Municipality Bus Terminal Forest People circulation People accessibility Parking area Parking lot Underground parking Car circulation Bicycles circulation Bicycles park zone Bus circulation FIG 75. Analysis summary- overlapping layers
Intensity of people for a day 07:00 08:30 10:00
15:00 17:00 21:00 00:00
Intensity of people for a day 07:00 08:30 10:00
15:00 17:00 21:00 00:00
Real estate agency Coffee
Solarium Hair salon Coffee
FIG 76, FIG 77. The trees avenue, day & night
FIG 80, FIG 81. The benches, day&night
Clothing shop Pressbyran
FIG 78, FIG 79. The uper path next to big junction, day&night
FIG 82, FIG 83. The shed structure, day&night
6.3. From CONCEPT to PROPOSAL
Main motif: From “pass transforming into a PLACE.
• FIG 84. Concept Scheme
Change the image of the space by changing the atmosphere from BORING to LIVELY. The idea is to create lively and interesting places that also relate to one another in the street, that people will be attracted to it and will want to stay and spend their time in the street also after dark. Rearranging the visual order in space by improving the visibility at night by creating with light a clear and simple environment. Giving priority and hierarchy to spaciousness elements that will give better information on the surrounding and create better orientation in space. The basic approach is to create harmony and a good connection between humans, space and light. By respecting and enhancing existing structures and street elements, and creating an environment that supports humans scale and makes the proposal more contextual. Creating connections between both sides of the street, perceives both sidewalks and the road as one unit.
FIG 85. Conection between two side of the street
The street lights should be changeable by different schedules at night in order to give the sense of time also during the night.
SPACE+HUMAN Social: The main aim of the concept is to make street life attractive. The primary user on the street should be the pedestrians. As we saw in the second chapter, according to existing regulations for street lighting, the main motif is car traffic. In this case I would like to turn the tables and make the main theme- humans. The planning of street lighting will be according to human needs, mainly for pedestrians. Putting them in the centre so as to treat all their aspects as a basis for planning the project. In order to produce a pleasant and attractive environment that will be pleasant to use over time.
5 elements by K.Lynch: Creating an environment that is constructed on human perceived images of the space. The main image will be the street, a continuous and strong anchor of the space. It will hold within 3 main nodes with landmarks on different scales that support the places. The edges will support the path, and after this improvement of the street lighting and the image of the space, I hope that in time the parking spaces district will change into urban districts that are based on human scale activities and needs.
District Node Landmark Edge Path FIG 86. Man as a center
Locality: In order to create locality to a place, Iâ€™ll create identity- defining characters to the whole area into lively, interesting, and enjoyable. Also defining the nodes characters as a place to go, a place to be, to stay, calm, a place to meet other people. The path should be defined by the characters of slow, attractive, wanting to cross, a place you want to include in your way even if it is not the shortest way, a place to see and to be seen. Activity: Aim to change the reason why people come to the street, make it from a transition street to a place that people want to come to: sit down, watch the view, read, meet other people, a place to pass the time. Increasing the optional activities in the street according to the characters that are defined to the different zones.
FIG 87. Changing the activities on the street
FIG 88. New defintions and connections between street elemets
Circulation & Accessibility: Enhancing the weak access point, and change the circulation in a way that will enhance the connection between both sides of the street. Create a situation of a flow in street; make the movement in the street slower. Rhythm: Give rhythm to the street with light, highlighting the existing structure’s elements: the shed structure, the trees avenue, façade’s columns, hotel’s roof rack, and the concrete elements of the enclosed parking structure. Empowerment of the repetition of these structures in order to give rhythm and order to the street.
Daily appearance of installed equipment: According to the projects concept the role of light is to enhance the special street elements, therefor the goal is to keep the light fixtures as neutral as possible, not to draw attention from those elements. The daily appearance will be according to the light qualities. In places where it is possible the light sources will be invisible, but in other cases, it should be aimed to have an identical design in order to give the street unity and less visual disturbance also during the day. About the existing lighting, the goal is to replace them all except those who located in the open car parks, in order to give them ambient light.
Intensity of people for a day 07:00 08:30 10:00
FIG 89. A proposal for new circulation&accessibility in the street
Ambient luminescence: General lighting for orientation in space, information about the street and see and be seen in space: light on the street, light on the façade, light on the roof shed, light on the ramps and stairs. Play of brilliant: An important part of the concept is to use existing street elements and use them to make the street lively and interesting. In order to do that “play of brilliant” was chosen as an approach to illuminate those elements: light underneath the benches, light on the parking lamellas, light on the parking concrete elements, light on the bicycle parking, light on the sidewalk rocks.
Light zones: The purpose of using light zones in this project will be to set the special places on the street. Those areas marked in the diagram of Kevin Lynch under the definition node. These areas are the anchors along the street, the intention here is to create a different approach in the illumination of the place than the rest of the street in order to define these zones. The first zone: the idea is to create a dynamic atmosphere, something that conveys the nature of the place, movement of vehicles. On the other hand a place to stay on the ramp and look to the landscape, while providing a sense of confidence and emphasis of elements that exist in space. The second zone: connecting the roof shed - an area of transition, to the observation area - an area to stay. A connection between two parallel areas, bridging the contrast between them with pace and light. The third zone: emphasizing the character of a place to stay, use of and strengthening the existing elements in the space.
Sustainability: This is a complex issue and especially important these days when we try to reduce the use of energy in order to protect our environment. This project from the base takes place around the idea of sustainability. The fact that the project is based on the desire to make the street more active and more usable makes the project sustainable. The approach was to create a dark sky to see the stars, and to do precise installations in order to save energy. Also the idea is that all street lighting will be based on LED lighting so as to save consumption costs. Since I didn’t make any experiment with light on site, and because I haven’t chosen the exact light fixtures, I couldn’t calculate the price, the right light consumption and their maintenance.
Windows: Take advantage of the shop windows to illuminate the street at night. Creating procedures that require the business owners to illuminate only the shop window at night in order to distribute light to the street and create a stronger attraction and connection between the buildings and the street also after dark. Focal glow: in order to generate Identity to the place; highlighting places or elements and actions that can give information about space and contribute to the street experience: Shop windows- more attractive, light next to the benches for reading, shop signs at the edge of a building to give information about the volume of the space, light on shed’s columns.
Economy & maintenance: This projects idea to place the light fixtures in an accessible place to effectively maintain them. Also use of the market existing lighting fixtures in order to reduce the project costs.
FIG 90. New light zones
Adaptation light-dark: The idea is to avoid a situation in which the eye adapts to different illumination situations, so to keep up the 1:20 ratio between the different illumination zones, to prevent the change in vision modes.
Emotions: Creating motivation to come to the street, feelings of joy, calm, safety, security and harmony.
Safety and security: According to the analysis of the site, most people perceive the street as a safe place. The goal is to keep and enhance this feeling. Iâ€™m sure that by changing the street lighting on the street the amount of people will grow in the long term, a fact that increases the sense of security in a place. Also by improving the visual comfort and the orientation in the street will contribute to the sense of security and safety. Interference by glare: Glare is created as a result of the high contrast between two lit areas. The goal is to keep contrast between them that will not exceed the 1:20 ratio between the different areas in order to avoid the glare. The use of light fixtures will also be in such a way that it will not be possible to look directly into the source of light and glare. Visual approaches: Using this element is very important to my concept development. To connect the two sides of the street one should pay carefull attention to visual angles. The idea is to create by the visual light elements on both sides of the street according to the visual approaches in order that a person who goes on one side will make the visual connection between the two sides of the road. This motive will create a visual connection between both sides.
FIG 91. Visual approaches diagram, connecting with visual asspect the connection between both sides of the street
Physiology: In this case one has to be aware of the issue and take it into account, but has no specific effect on project. The eyes visual mechanism: Match of the night lit elements location on the main street in coordination between the spatial vision and the foveal vision. Visual perception: Visual perception of the place will be a concept of living an interesting and vibrant place that attracts the attention of the passers-by. Culture: One of the things that affect the Swedish culture is the extreme weather in the winter. Snow and short daylight hours greatly affect mood and behavior of the Swedes in the public space. Few people spend time in a winter urban environment for leisure. This project tries, despite the difficulty, to create places that will be attractive in winter, causing people to go out and spend time in these places even when itâ€™s dark and cold outside.
Location: This Street is very centrally located in the town of Handen, I see this project as something that may have an on going affect and continue to grow into the rest of town. Past and future developments: Historically this place was a source of growth and development for Handen. The connection to Stockholm with the railway is a strong connection, it nurture the street and with the project it can be an urban anchor, restoring its main purpose. There currently are lighting projects in the park on the other side of the railway. It may be possible in the future to coordinate a situation in which from the main junction ramp it would be visible, and it will enhance this place as a view point.
Natural environment: the extreme snow in Sweden over winter has been taken in consideration, and so there are no light fixtures located on the ground, except for one place next to the hotel where there is a roof located above, and the possibility for snow there is extremely low. Also considered is the white colour of the snow, which greatly reflects light. Difference in daylight hours during the seasons of the year is very extreme in Sweden. During the winter the sun sets between 14:00 and 16:00. During the summer somewhere between 21:00 and 23:00. This requires street lighting to be adapted to the needs of people in the street every day. For example, decorative lighting to be active in the afternoon in the great junction shutters, but not active at summer when the sun sets at 23:00, when the amount of people on the street does not require it to function at this time. This concept is inspired by nature to enhance the seasonal change. Also the change will be according to the moon - with sensors that will absorb the light intensity. The street light intensity will be coordinated with the moons level of light intensity.
Functions: Hopefully, after the project implementation, the functions in the street will change and become more active, public and more open after dark. I believe that more functions will affect a casual audience such as bars and cafes open on the street and enrich the experience for it. I also believe that businesses will use the street and transfer some of their activities to it by moving tables and chairs outside Spatial form: As part of a concept to connect the two sides of the street visually I illuminated, with colour, the rocks on the sidewalk next to the hotel. They are part of the character of the street and I think it is important to emphasis them. Fenestrations: The shop windows will remain lit even after they close. Also the shop signs on the edge of the building. Elements: The benches and the bicycle parking space have been emphasis with coloured light to make them more visible and attractive for human use.
Built / Open: This issue is taken into account as an element that influences the distribution of light in space. Also taken into account is the influence of the built/open environment on the frame of human perspective. Dimensions, Proportions & Borders: This project was important to maintain the visual aspect of the real dimensions of the surrounding buildings. On the one hand it is important to keep the ground level light for pedestrians, while on the other hand maintain the signs at the edge of the buildings to give an indication of the structures that define the space.
Level of lightness: As part of creating visual order in the level of light divided into four main groups (from the strongest to the weakest): 1. Highlight the street and give it a uniform, clear, and constant by the bollards. (fig 94) 2. Highlight the existing buildings and enhance the existing rates by the wall fixtures. (fig 94) 3. Light that gives atmosphere and information to the street; the light that comes from the shops to the street, illuminating the roof shed. (fig 92-93) 4. Highlight special elements on the shop signs. (fig 92-93)
4. colour changing mode- in the parking lamellas next to the big junction. (fig 95) 5. colour changing mode- in the parking lamellas next to the big junction. (fig 95)
Spatial distribution of brightness: (fig 92-96)
Dynamic: The only place on the site that will be characterized by dynamic lighting is the big intersection. The aim is to create interest and give life to the scene, which until now was perceived as boring and scary. It is also used as a screen for people who go through the ramp and is meant to catch their attention.
Shadows: One of the reasons the light isnâ€™t coming from a high point in order to prevent large and long shadows in all directions. The fixtures located on the wall or bollards or hidden, in order to reduce the shadows significantly, it also contributes to the humans scale atmosphere and the sense of security and safety in space. Reflections: Many strong reflections in space will not appear because the nature of the materials is relatively dark and matte. Reflections will be created on the first facade and the roof structure because they are made of metals. Glare: The goal is to reduce the amount of glare so that any unintentional light from the fixtures and the light sources gets to the users on the street. Relative position of the fixtures and light source in space are always set in such a way that the humanâ€™s perspective will not meet the source of light.
Colour of light: The concept characterized by four main conditions: 1. warm lighting 2700 KL, light that gives a sense of warmth into space, it is most light fixtures on the site (appears on the plans and sections in yellow). 2. cold lighting 4500 KL, lighting illuminates vertical concrete surfaces to give a sense of depth in space, identifying places that serve as a passageway such as ramps and stairs. Also shop signs and shop windows (appears on the plans and sections in white). 3. blue lighting, hidden lighting that illuminate the special elements on the site - benches, stone pavement, parking spaces for bicycles (appears on the plans and sections in blue).
Colours: The general colours on the street will be warm with high CRI, like the benches surfaces that are characterized by warm lighting that supports the materials like the trees and wood. In places of transition and movement, the concrete ramps and stairs, illuminated by white bright light that supports the strong texture and the grey colour of the material.
FIG 92. SEC A
FIG 93. SEC B
FIG 94. SEC C
FIG 95. SEC D
FIG 96. Lighting plan proposal
FIG 97. To create an intimate atmosphere and an opportunity to read after dark in the benches area Bollards were chosen. Blue light under the benches to emphasis them in space. Bright light coming out of the shop windows to emphasis them and lights up the street.
FIG 98. In order to create a human scale atmosphere and keeping dark sky, bollards was the main fixtures on the street. Bicycle ducks were colored with light to emphasis them and enhance the connection between both sides of the street.
FIG 99. Lighten up the shed structures repetitive elements in order to create a pleasant and theatrical atmosphere.
FIG 100. Dynamic and coloured light on the metal lamellas in order to give interest to the area. Also refer as a screen for the people that walk on the ramp in the other side of the road.
FIG 101. The coloured light emphasis the benches. The bollards light the area with low and warm light in order to create pleasant atmosphere to sit down and look to the landscape and the sky.
FIG 102. Emphasis the concrete structure with white light in order to create rhythm and sense of depth to the street.
Case study summary The case study was the most effective tool for developing the design method. It tested in real time the necessity of each element, the ranking and how to use it in each step. Rudsjรถterrassen street in Handen is an interesting street in a small town It is located in a central place, with a large amount of people passing through it every day. It is very active during the day and generally used as a mean to get around, people do not find it of interest to spend their time there. In the dark hours the street is even gloomier; it becomes completely empty, despite all its potential. The concept of the project was to produce a live and interesting place, where people want to go to spend their free time. The street is too linear and the idea was to break it up and by this try to connect the two sides and turn it into one entity. The design method offers street lighting with deep analysis, concept development and the proposal that comes through all the different components. The result offers a more interesting, more alive reality, which creates a more pleasant space with better lighting that is adapted to humans and space. The solution does not offer original and innovative ideas we did not know before, but it does offer a solution that is more complete and more optimized to the needs of people, creates a more enjoyable place to spend the time.
FIG 103.Emphasis of the facade of the hotel by light that gives rhythm to the path. Emphasis the pavement stones with coloured light to make a connection between the two sides of the street.
I commenced this thesis in order to find a different approach to street lighting in the city during the night out of the dissatisfaction with what is happening today. The main point that interested me was whether it is possible to enrich the street experience with street lighting? What do I mean by “enriching the experience of the street”? What are those experiences that we’re looking for? What does it means to “enrich them”? To answer these questions I came across the words of John Urry- sociologist of tourism and mobility: “space has become a consumer item, consumed by the tourist’s gaze: a point of view whose primary intention is to see experiences. Accordingly space is configured in such a way as to facilities its visual consumption. Space appears less as something that is experienced; rather, it is something people visit in passing and consume without considering, all around them, the daily lives of those who use it. Our modern “life on the move” produces the spaces of the contemporary city that Marc Auge calls “nonplaces”. What characterized these spaces is that passersby pass through them, so that participation in space becomes a simple act of viewing. “ Trying to understand the meaning of “experience” can be found in the words of Pallasmaa J., from “The Body in the Centre”(1996): “I confront the city with my body; my legs measure the length of the arcade and the width of the square; my gaze unconsciously projects my body onto the façade of the cathedral, where it roams over the mouldings and contours, sensing the size of recesses and projections; my body weight meets the mass of the cathedral door, and my hand grasps the door pull as I enter the dark void behind. I experience myself in the city, and the city exists through my embodied experience. The city and my body supplement and define each other. I dwell in the city and the city dwells in me.” Hence we can conclude that the street experience is related to what we get, perceive, contribute and transmit to the street with our presence and with the various activities that we do on it with all our senses hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste. When we talk about enriching the experience of the street we mean enriching activities, enriching the perception of space by using our senses to the utmost.
The same physical space of the city forms the backdrop for two parallel urban realities which are similar, but different: the daytime city and the nocturnal city. The city that is revealed to us at night is a more abstract place in which unexpected streets,
parks, buildings, or details emerge, while familiar ones suddenly vanish. When we discuss street lighting and enriching the experience of the street in the city, we’re talking about the urban experience in the dark; how one is supposed to understand and perceive the urban space. Our vision and light have an important role in urban darkness experiences. After I realized what I was after I tried to understand the role of street lighting on the subject, I decided to investigate the historical background of street lighting, and hoped to discover the motives for street lighting design as it is today. The historical overview gave me very clear explanations as to why we are in such a bleak situation; the main basis for planning and street lighting today according to the CIE regulation (115-2007) is vehicles, their quantity and the character of the road without much consideration for people and the Built Environment. Another thing I found out was that the principles humanity has developed over the years regarding street lighting have slowly disappeared and today they have returned as temporary trends, which is a bit ironic, like dynamic light that follows your move in space. From this developed the approach that street lighting shouldn’t be derived from one factor but a combination of 3 factors: HUMANS, SPACE and L. This approach accommodates all these aspects together and sees them as a whole. When I started to explore all the aspects I discovered that behind every one of them is hidden an entire world. I began to elaborate on each one in detail and found an abundance of information with various connections between them. Hence was born the idea to produce a method A kind of appendix that connects with the procedures. A design tool that gives guidance on how to produce accurate, suitable, and richer street lighting. A design method that connects the various elements into a neat fabric and is also a guide in the process. The idea of separating elements was my first goal in order to create a situation that every element could be studied in-depth independently. Despite the difficulty to separate the elements I devoted a lot of time and work in order to produce a consistent system and establish ties through deep deliberation. The design method identifies each of the elements to increase awareness and control each of them to understand the various relationships between them. To better understand what I need in my design method I have taken a case study that will help me define the content of elements, location, priority, and importance.
I think that in the reality we live in today there is a lot of information in many different fields. There is a deep focus of each area within itself and the overlap between the different areas is not high. This design method is an attempt to overlap the systemic form of the various issues- light, space, humans and make the most of all accumulated knowledge in any field. How to use the design method was also an important issue in the process. It was important to me that the method be a useful tool for architects and designers and people that light is not their usual practice. For the method to be more useful it has been given a practical aspect, it became a tool for analysis, concept development and a proposal. The sequence has also taken into account, giving preference always to humans in space unlike the regulations that concentrate on vehicles. At this point appeared the case study, which was an essential part of the work at every stage. The starting point of constructing the method was the three main elements which was followed by the case study that was developed in parallel and became a good reference to develop each one of them. Working with the case study stages; analysis, concept and proposal development, produced many changes in the design method. That was a crucial process to determine the right components, order and priority. The KTH design process that’s follows these 6 steps: vision, analysis, concept, tests, proposal and presentation. This design method follows these steps; it comes right after the vision and follows the process all the way to the presentation. An important task during the thesis was to produce a design method that, unlike the existing regulations, will be more user-friendly. Writing in a understandable language even to people that have no idea about these areas in order to have more people exposed to the method, and will use it in their daily lives. It is clear to me that the design method is not a certain formula for successful street lighting. But what is important here is that the starting point has changed and is not dependent on the amount of vehicles which already have their own lighting. Drivers experience the street in another way, quick and purposeful. The starting point is based on people and space and how light can connect them. The design method is the backbone. It offers a constructed way to use it but still contains a lot of freedom in it. People can use this method however they like, they can start from different points and use it in different routes, but they will still have a well-structured backbone to go back to, and use its connections and complexity. Even if the designers will not follow the method and the action that it offers
closely, it is enough to use it as a check list that will raise and expose issues that we didn’t necessarily think of, which I believe significantly improves the final solution. I’m sure that by using this method the habit of copy and paste will be less usable and the solution will be more contextual. Another question that was on my mind while working on the case study was whether we can enhance our street experience only by light? I am very confident about it. I think that once the project is based on the three elements that I propose, explores in depth the site and generates a proposal that is compatible with the site, the project will produce an influence that will have a broader impact. Light has a huge impact on our conduct and our behaviour in space, and between the main three elements (according to street lighting), light is the easiest one to change and control. It will be like a snowball that its first step will be light. That is why lighting designers should be careful with their power. Our impact is greater than we are aware of, so it is important to be aware of the snowball role in a positive way rather than negative. An important thing to remember is that the case study was used as a tool for constructing the design method and is not necessarily a perfect example of using it. The next step with this design method that I’m suggesting is basically to try it, study it and experience it, by this use fix, upgrade, enhance and tune it. I deliver a product which is currently well structured in order to learn from the experience of others how to improve and promote it further. A future phase that can enter into the equation is combining living creatures such as animals and vegetation in our urban environment. How do light and space that we create affect their way of life and how we can incorporate them in our system. We are not alone in this world. More optional distant future steps in the design method can be a combination of sound and acoustics and smell in our urban environment, how to enrich the experience in the street by the refinement of these senses.
The conclusions I derived from the thesis about the design method and the case study are as follows: • The design method presents an approach that perceives all the street urban system, light and the users as a whole. It contains within it elements that usually aren’t taken into consideration. The design method floods and raises issues that we would not necessarily think of before and now can consider in depth and understand their context in relation to street lighting. • The use of a questionnaire when planning a public space is of the utmost importance. Planners, designers and architects often think they know (including me) the right solution for the place. There is a high importance to the questionnaire, and it is also important to know how to ask the right questions, and interpret the answers, understand the real needs, reveal issues we’re not necessarily aware of. This is an excellent tool to strengthen existing positions and develop new ones. • The importance of in-depth understanding of the site is very valuable and is what makes the solution complete and correct. The more the site analysis is in-depth, with complex relationships between various issues, the problems in the site arise in different ways, the foundation for the problems is clearer and the solution approach becomes more appropriate. For every problem that appears its basic components are known in a way that the solution is more in-depth and complex and the solution becomes more complete. • The more complete the analysis is and the more depth it has, it becomes easier to construct the concept, and the development to a proposal is faster. • With the design method street lighting solutions fit better to a context. Solutions that derive from the needs and problems of the place itself, not moderated from “above”. • Public lighting systems can help define urban character and image. These lighting systems may illuminate streets, roadways, sidewalks, pathways, bikeways, parks, monuments, buildings, structures, statues, fountains, and landscapes. A good hierarchy of public lighting enhances the relative importance and character of cityscapes and enhances the information –giving value to them. • When street lighting is based on its fundamental components, the understanding and consideration of human beings, an understanding of urban space and control technology, techniques and qualities of light.
And when a thorough analysis of the site is built on basic components with the right connections, street lighting certainly enriches the experience of the street. Street lighting can help make public spaces more complete, more accessible and more vital at local and regional levels. It will change the situation today that is duplicated and made basically for vehicles, into a situation in which it is planned for people, considerate and knows its visual aspects, appreciate and know the urban space and knows to adapt to the right light and see it as a whole. The street lighting becomes the bond that combines space and humans at night. Unlike the processes that happen today in which the starting point for street lighting design is based on regulations, the starting point should change and the regulations should be the final step. The design method that this thesis offers can be a good position to start from. This design method can be used not only for street lighting. With slight changes it can be used for every project with light- outdoor, indoor, daylight etc.
ARMENGAUD, Marc ARMENGAUD, Matthias CINCHETTA, Alessandra, Land & scape series nightscapes nocturnal landscapes, Broché 2009
ZARDINI, Mirko, Sense of the city - an alternate approach to urbanism, 2005 SCHIVELBUSCH, Wolfgang, Nightfall fear in the street TILLETT, Linnaea, From safe to lively cities
COORODE, Michelle, SPECHTENHAUSER, Klaus, Illuminating, Birkhauser Boston, 2008 CANZLER, Deike, Information by intuitionMaster Thesis in architectural lighting design. KTH, Stockholm 2006 EJHED, Jan, Architectural lighting development of the quality concept, Department of architectural lighting design- KTH- Sweden, 11,2003 GEHL, Jan, Cities for People, Washington: Island press, 2010 JOELS, Diana, Lighting design for urban spaces: connecting light qualities and urban planning concepts, KTH lighting laboratory architectural lighting design master thesis, Stockholm, 2006 KUNDZINA, Ilze, Light by motion- Visualizing the spatial and temporal aspects of human perception in lighting design, KTH lighting laboratory architectural lighting design master thesis, Stockholm 2008. LILIJEFORS, Anders, Lighting –Visually and Physically, KTH Stockholm 1999 MADSEN Merete, Light-zone(s): as Concept and Tool, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Copenhagen. MAJOR, Mark SPEIRS, Jonathan, TISCHAUSER, Anthony -Made of light- The art of light and architecture, PALLASMAA, Juhani,The Body in the Centre
STOCKMAR, Axel , Adaptive Road Lighting according to CIE Publication 115:2007,Recommendations for the Lighting of Roads for Motor and Pedestrian Traffic, 2007.
Internet resources: Histoire de l’éclairage public en France-1.5.2011 http://phozagora.free.fr/?surfpage=Historique Shared space- room for everyone- 15.4.2011 http://www.shared-space.org/ ERCO Guides www.erco.com -27.4.2011 Wikipedia -Street light-15.4.11 Wikipedia -Gas lighting-15.4.11 Wikipedia -Moon light towers-15.4.11 Wikipedia -Swedish culture- 5.5.11
Notes 1. Wolfgang Schivelbusch, Nightfall fear in the street, from Sense of the city - an alternate approach to urbanism, page 65. 2. Wolfgang Schivelbusch, Nightfall fear in the street, from Sense of the city - an alternate approach to urbanism, page 66. 3. Wolfgang Schivelbusch, Nightfall fear in the street, from Sense of the city - an alternate approach to urbanism, page 68. 4-9. Histoire de l’éclairage public en France. http://phozagora.free.fr/?surfpage=Historique 1.5.2011 10. CIE, International Lighting Vocabulary, 1987 11. Anders Liljefors, Lighting –Visually and physically, page 13 12. Deike canzler, Master Thesis in architectural lighting design KTH. 13. Jan Gehl, Cities for the people, Page 20. 14. Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City, 1960. 15. Diana Joels, Lighting design for urban spaces: connecting light qualities and urban planning concepts, page 76. 16. Per Nylan lecture, ALD, KTH. 17. Merete Madsen, Light-zone(s): as Concept and Tool, page 1-3 18. Jan Ejhed, Architectural Lighting Development of the Quality Concept, E33. 19. Diana Joels, Lighting design for urban spaces: connecting light qualities and urban planning concepts, page 77. 20. Jan Ejhed, Architectural Lighting Development of the Quality Concept, E33. 21. Jan Ejhed, Architectural Lighting Development of the Quality Concept, E33. 22. Diana Joels, Lighting design for urban spaces: connecting light qualities and urban planning concepts, page 68. 23. Diana Joels, Lighting design for urban spaces: connecting light qualities and urban planning concepts, page 69-70. 24. Expedia- Swedish Culture. 25.4.2011 25. Weather Information for Stockholm. World Weather Information Service. Retrieved 2008-01-06. 26. http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/stockholm. html, 1.5.2011
Images list: 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_lighting. 8-10. Wikipedia/Moonlight_towers.htm 4,5-7,11-18.http://phozagora.free. fr/?surfpage=Historique. 19-21. STOCKMAR,Axel , Adaptive Road Lighting according to CIE Publication 115:2007,Recommendations for the Lighting of Roads for Motor and Pedestrian Traffic, 2007. 23, 24, 26. Google earth/maps. 29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockholm 3 0 - 3 2 . h t t p : / / w w w. g a i s m a . c o m / e n / l o c a t i o n / stockholm.html 86. Microsoft office. 87. GEHL, Jan, Cities for People, Washington: Island press, 2010, page 21. All other images, made by the author.
Appendix 1 Questioner 1. What kind of activity you usually do in this street and when? (Day and night) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What do you like and dislike in this street? (Day and night) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How would you describe this street? (Day and night) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Would you like something to be changed in this street? Why? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you feel safe walking in this street? Do you find any dangerous spots? (Day and night) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Have you ever thought about the street lighting here? What do you think about it? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Draw a simple and personal map of this area, considering for example the main routes, boundaries, activities, intersections and references you remember spontaneously.
Why do you choose each of these routes?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
Appendix 2 Questioner results: 1. ACTIVITY: walk to…, on the way to…, pass by…, coming from, ride a bicycle, running. 2. LIKE: roof, trees path, wide sidewalks, quite, calm, not much car traffic, the view point. 3. DISLIKE: parking, poles, car traffic, quite, the road, buildings, too dark, pavement materials. 4. DESCRIPTION: x-territory, not interesting, BORING, functional, gloomy, long, uneven, gray, a lot of asphalt, transition area, quite, cold, un lively, fast, poor, ugly, simple, normal, parking zone. 5. CHANGE: more light, more green areas, more for pedestrians, more alive, more active, more activities, stop the car traffic, more alive functions, more shops, improve the orientation, more friendly. 6. SAFETY&SECURITY: YES, ok, no, never walked there at night, the junction scary, exit from parking places, pavement is unsafe. 7. GENERAL: Never paid attention, very high lamp posts, normal, not enough light, greenish/ yellowish, nothing special, municipality, more uniformity. 8. MAP: Stret-16 KTH/SFE-12 Parking-12 Junction-12 Roof structure-10 Hotel-10 Train secondary- 8 Trees path-6 Forest-6 Bus terminal-6 Pressbyran-5 SEB Bank-5 _____________ Municipality-4 Train main- 4 Round structure-3 Haninge centrum-3 Tunnel-2
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A suggestion for a lighting design method to enhance the urban nocturnal experience. Master Thesis in Architectural Lighting design by Hanan...
Published on Aug 16, 2011
A suggestion for a lighting design method to enhance the urban nocturnal experience. Master Thesis in Architectural Lighting design by Hanan...