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H A M M O N D - H A RWO O D H O U S E

DECADENT DÉCOR: GLOBAL IMPORTS IN AN EARLY AMERICAN PORT CITY MARCH 25, 2020 - DECEMBER 31, 2021

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hammondharwoodhouse.org 19 Maryland Avenue | Annapolis, Maryland 21401


EXHIBITION CURATED by RACHEL LOVETT


Decadent Decor: Global Import in an Early American Port City The Hammond-Harwood House exhibition Decadent Décor: Global Imports in an Early American Port City, on view through December 2021, offers a fascinating look at the wide-ranging influences on the development of American culture. From intricately carved chess pieces to furniture pattern books to porcelain and silver, the items in the exhibition represent luxury imported goods from all points on the globe. These diverse design influences join together to show us the melding of international styles made from materials found in faraway lands. Just as America began to develop its own culture—architecture, painting, furniture, decorative pieces, theater, opera, cuisine— these items and practices show how the wide availability of beautiful, imported goods and European cultural norms helped to define the effort. Many of the pieces in the exhibition come from the Hammond-Harwood House collection. The Dublin-made globe, Chinese porcelain, English silver tea set, German carved mirror, and French George Washington clock have all found their home in the museum. Others have been generously loaned by private owners and other museums and historic sites such as the Chase Lloyd Home, and Belair Mansion in Bowie, Md. Annapolis served as an early port for the mid-Atlantic colonies before being eclipsed by Baltimore after the Revolutionary War. As the center of Maryland political and social activity, and the location of more than a dozen impressive mansions in need of furnishing and decoration, the city proved to be an extraordinary model for the future America, a place where many cultures came together through a thriving marketplace of global commerce. We at Hammond-Harwood House want to share the beauty and stories of this special period in Annapolis history and have created this catalogue of the Decadent Décor’s exhibition pieces. There are several ways to study and enjoy this exhibition: in person, at the museum on Maryland Avenue in Annapolis; through viewing this catalogue; or by watching curator Rachel Lovett describe the exhibition’s glories on our YouTube channel. Barbara Goyette Executive Director, Hammond-Harwood House Annapolis, Maryland 1


Decadent Décor: Global Imports in an Early American Port City American taste for imported luxury goods is not new. Similar to today’s homeowners, Americans of the 18th and early 19th centuries went to great lengths to furnish their homes with the most stylish materials available at the best price. As commerce evolved in America, owning property was no longer the only representation of status, so individuals sought out transportable goods to define their place in society in what is known as the consumer revolution. This conspicuous consumption affected all classes. In the 1760s Annapolis became a political stronghold and magnet for Maryland’s wealthy tobacco planters, who had a profound desire for sophisticated society, stylish architecture, and imported goods. Between the years 1769 and 1774 the number of vessels carrying imported goods to Annapolis tripled from 90 to 269. Advertising on a grand scale began and an economy based on international trade made it easy to buy items from around the world. Silver from England, tea and porcelain from China, mahogany and sugar from South America, spices from India, linen from Ireland, wine from Madeira, and ivory from Africa became outward representations of an individual’s status.

Celestial Globe, Ireland, Early 19th century, Misc. 21, Donated by J.D. Paul, Hammond-Harwood House Collection.

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Along with goods, Marylanders imported theatre and music. Skilled European craftsmen came to the city as well. This mixture of European arts and goods helped Annapolis earn the nickname “Athens of America.” Annapolis was the first city in the colonies to have a purposebuilt assembly room in 1768 and theatre in 1771. This cultural flourishing owed its glamour to European influences but would not have been possible without the contributions of labor and expertise by enslaved men and women and indentured immigrants.


Development of a Port City In 1694 Governor Francis Nicholson created a design for a new city inspired by European urban baroque plans that contained circles of power for church and state. Originally named “Anne Arundel’s Towne” for the wife of the Second Lord Baltimore, the name of the city was changed in 1708 to honor Queen Anne (1665-1714). The port of Annapolis was important from the city’s inception. However, the importation of luxury goods flourished at the end of the French and Indian War in 1763 when Maryland’s wealthy planters wanted to be near the political hub of Governors Horatio Sharpe and his successor Robert Eden. Men like William Paca, Matthias Hammond, and Edward Lloyd IV commissioned large townhouses in the city, creating a building boom of 14 such houses between 1764 and 1774. This new construction necessitated skilled European craftsmen, who depended on enslaved and indentured workers. Without enslaved labor, the backbone of Maryland’s economy, such wealth could not have existed for prosperous planters to build these fine homes and purchase luxury goods. In 1771 merchant Joshua Johnson wrote to a friend who had left three years earlier, “Annapolis cutts quite a different figure to what it did when you left it, it increases fast, both in inhabitants and society.” Visitors to Annapolis during this era also noted the city’s cosmopolitan flare. William Eddis, assistant to Maryland’s royal Governor Robert Eden, kept an active diary and likened the city to Bath, England, saying “assemblies and theatrical representations were the amusements of the evenings, at which the company exhibited a fashionable and brilliant appearance.” British-born Reverend Jonathan Boucher of St. Anne’s church said, “On my removal to Annapolis the scene was once more almost quite new to me. It was then the genteelest town in North America, and many of its inhabitants were highly respectable, as to station, fortune, and education. I hardly know a town in England so desirable to live in as Annapolis then was.”

Interior of Chase Home. Photograph by Geoffrey Hodgdon courtesy of the Chase Home Inc.

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The Rise and Fall of Annapolis Merchants John Randall, merchant and Collector of the Port of Annapolis, was offered a position of Collector of the Port of Baltimore. He declined this offer to stay in Annapolis which he optimistically hoped would see a revival. Though Randall became successful as mayor of Annapolis, his beloved city never saw another Golden Age in his lifetime. Cathy Randall, a descendent, puts it best saying, “He made the decision thinking of Annapolis’ splendid, golden past, not knowing that it was over.”

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John Randall, Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), Annapolis, Maryland, 1789, Oil on Canvas, Private Collection.

The earliest merchant to import luxury goods to Annapolis was the city’s first mayor, English-born Amos Garrett (16711727). However, it was not until after the French and Indian War in 1763 that the town’s wealth led to an expanded desire for luxury imports. By 1774 there were 16 merchant firms importing goods in Annapolis. By far the largest was the ambitious firm of Charles Wallace, Joshua Johnson, and John Davidson. They ousted the British middleman to conduct direct trade with Europe, sending Johnson to London and Nantes, France.

John Randall, merchant and Collector of the Port of Annapolis, was offered a position of Collector of the Port of Baltimore. He declined this offer to stay in Annapolis which he optimistically hoped would see a revival. Though Randall became successful as mayor of Annapolis his beloved city never saw another Golden Age in his lifetime. Cathy Randall, a descendent, puts it best saying, “He made the decision thinking of Annapolis’ splendid, golden past, not knowing that it was over.”

By 1783 there were 13 stores with imports around town including Jonathan Pinkney’s Church (now Main) Street shop, John Randall’s store at Market Space, and cabinetmaker John Shaw’s shop on State Circle. Merchant Charles Wallace developed the area around the dock with


four large connected stores and created two streets named for London’s commercial areas--Fleet and Cornhill. The current Market House, built in 1857, is the eighth building to serve that purpose. The market area has seen constant change and renewal since the start of the city. The British-imposed taxes in the Townsend Act of 1767 and Tea Act of 1773 spurred Annapolitans to boycott imported goods in the years leading up to the Revolutionary War. Annapolis went into decline after the end of the war in 1783 due to optimistic overdevelopment and high taxes, paving the way for the rise of the larger port of Baltimore, which gained a competitive edge. Annapolis homes were still furnished with global imports well into the 19th century; however, those goods were less likely to have been brought into the port of Annapolis from oversees. While many Annapolis merchants moved to Baltimore, some diversified their occupation in the late 18th century and helped establish one of the first successful agricultural banks in the nation in 1805.

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British Imports Maryland was originally a proprietary colony granted by Charles I of England in 1632 to the Calvert family. The king’s aim was to maintain power in his far-reaching territories. Six successive generations of Calverts or Lords Baltimore oversaw the management of the colony until the American Revolution. As a result, British art, music, and literature heavily influenced the early Chesapeake tidewater region and many newcomers hailed from England. The area developed an English inspired culture that involved plays, horse races, and social clubs. Despite the Revolution, many Annapolis citizens continued to look to England after the war for style in material goods and customs. When tobacco was the principal cash crop in the 18th century, urban centers did not develop as they did in the northern colonies. Instead, each Maryland plantation was a community unto itself and most luxury goods were imported rather than locally sourced. Annapolis was the largest city and many imports passed through in route to townhouses or plantations. As a result of the tobacco trade large quantities of British furniture were imported.

William Buckland, Winifred Gordon, American, (1907-1996) c.1947 after Charles Willson Peale, American (1741-1827) c. 1774, reworked 1789, Oil on Canvas, P12 Donated by Winifred Gordon, Hammond-Harwood House Association.

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Likewise British architecture heavily influenced the landscape of Annapolis, with the development of 14 townhouses from 1764 to 1774. Trips to England influenced the Annapolis elite, as seen with Edward Lloyd IV who hired English architect William Buckland in 1771. Buckland built Palladian inspired houses, a style popular in English country houses, named for 16th-century Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508-1580).


Silver Status Early 19th-century English writer Sydney Smith exclaimed, “Thank god for tea! What would the world do without tea? I am glad I was not born before tea.” Tableware was an essential part of late 18th century homes. Silver was the metal of choice, and these precious objects were a treasured source of pride meant for display. Custom silver reveals the individuality of the original owner’s character and values. Signer of the Declaration of Independence Samuel Chase was a fiery Annapolis patriot yet deliberately chose Townley, his Aunt Margaret’s noble English maiden name, for the coat of arms on his silver urn in 1770. Across the colonies, citizens imported custom silver with the coat of arms of their choosing, often disregarding the rigid rules of British heraldry. Despite the proximity of skilled silversmiths like William Faris and John Chalmers, Annapolis elite like the Carroll and Chase families mainly employed local silversmiths for repairs or smaller silver items like spoons, and they turned to Europe for grander items. London was teeming with premier silversmiths in the late 18th century. Raw silver was not readily available in North America in this period and therefore America craftsmen melted silver supplied by the customer or purchased scraps.

Original Silver Butter Dish owned by Harwood Family, George W. Webb, Birmingham, England, 1855, S50, Donated by Mrs. John N. Burk, Hammond-Harwood House Collection.

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Prized Porcelain The popularity of tea and coffee created a need for sturdy porcelain. British poet John Gay wrote about the admiration of Chinese porcelain in 1725, “How her eyes languish with desire… China’s the passion of her soul; A cup, a plate, a dish, a bowl, Can kindle wishes in her breast, Inflame with joy, or break her rest.” Teas, spices, and silks were the core exports from China yet only hard paste porcelain survives to tell the tale. The English colonies received shipments via Britain until after the Revolutionary War in 1784 when direct trade between China and the United States was possible. By 1800 nearly 60 million pieces were exported from China. For clients across Europe and America, the vast majority of Chinese pieces were blue and white porcelain known as Canton or Nanking wares. European soft paste porcelain was inferior in quality compared to Chinese hard paste pieces. Porcelain Gugglet and Bowl, Chinese, c. 1785, C24, Donated by Mrs. Clapp and Mrs. Randall, HammondHarwood House Collection.

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In Annapolis several clients commissioned pieces from China, including Samuel Chase who ordered a set of more than 300 customized tableware pieces


upon his second marriage in 1784. English potter Josiah Wedgewood’s wares grew in reputation among Americans and even George Washington ordered a set. Locally, politician-planter Edward Lloyd IV ordered four complete sets of customized Wedgewood to entertain in his lavish Annapolis townhouse.

Ballroom at the Hammond-Harwood House Museum set for tea.

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Pattern Books Pattern books were essential for any craftsman in the American colonies. These books, mainly from England, ranged in topics from architecture to cabinetmaking. British-born architect of the Hammond-Harwood House, William Buckland (1734-1774), had one of the largest architectural libraries in the American colonies with 14 books, including Isaac Ware’s Complete Body of Architecture and James Gibbs’ A Book of Architecture. English cabinetmakers Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779), George Hepplewhite (1727-1786), and Thomas Sheraton (1751-1806) were known as the “big three.” Each developed pattern books that were widely circulated in England and the colonies. These influential books shaped furniture styles from the mid-18th century well into the early 19th century. In an effort to emulate English gentry, wealthy Annapolis citizens imported British furniture because it was not only in their minds fashionable but economically viable to support trade. They purchased British furniture at Annapolis stores or secured it through a London agent as seen with the Carroll family. Preparatory drawing for Thomas Chippendale’s Gentleman and Cabinet Maker’s Director, Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779), London, England, Published in reverse as plate XVI in the 1754 and 1755 editions, and renumbered as plate XV in the 1762 edition, Courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Special thank you to Paul and Karen Koch who have loaned Thomas Chippendale’s The Gentleman & Cabinet-Maker’s Director, George Hepplewhite’s The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Guide and Thomas Sheraton’s Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterers’ Drawing Book.

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Not all furniture was made abroad; six cabinetmakers are listed in Annapolis in 1775. Cabinetmakers advertised their European training and knowledge of the latest styles. After the Revolution, most cabinetmakers went to Baltimore and only two remained—Scottish born Archibald Chisholm and the most well-known Annapolis cabinetmaker, John Shaw. Shaw worked in the Chippendale and Sheraton styles. He had a diverse career and became caretaker of the Statehouse, purveyor of imported goods, and even keeper of the first town fire engine, made in Britain.


Artisans and Entertainment In the fall of 1770 the active theatre scene in Annapolis brought British actress Nancy Hallam to the city to star in Shakespeare’s Cymbeline. She was painted by Annapolis artist Charles Willson Peale, who was trained in London. A poem in the Maryland Gazette called for Peale to paint Hallam, which he did. Rev. Jonathan Boucher from England praised the painting, saying it demonstrated “venetian colors and Greek design.”

Artisans The internet of the 18th century was the newspaper, which contained an endless source of information that covered everything from artisans advertising their wares to runaway slave ads, estate sales, and local theatre subscriptions. In Annapolis the witty and cultured Green family operated the Maryland Gazette starting in 1745. The wealth of Annapolis attracted artisans from Europe, and many settled on Cornhill and Fleet streets, developed in 1771 by Annapolis merchant entrepreneur Charles Wallace. This international consumerism affected all classes of society in the city; even the lower classes and the enslaved could experience some imported luxuries as opposed to their rural counterparts. European craftsmen included clockmakers Swiss-born Abraham Claude on West Street and William Knapp from Ireland, who had made fine pieces for the gentry of England and Ireland. Cabinetmakers John Shaw and Archibald Chisholm both hailed from Scotland. Shaw came from Glasgow, a city that did a steady tobacco trade with Annapolis. Milliner Catharine Rathell and tailor Joseph Brown both came from London and advertised the latest imported fashions. Skilled artisans like London plasterer John Rawlings and architect William Buckland of Oxford designed and built the fabulous townhouses of the era.

Nancy Hallam as Fidel in Cymbeline, Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), Annapolis, Maryland, 1771, Oil on canvas, Courtesy of Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

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The story of saddle maker Charles Willson Peale illustrates the city’s interest in art. Peale showed artistic promise leading a wealthy group of Annapolis citizens to gather funds for him to study in London under Benjamin West in 1767. Upon Peale’s return in 1769, his commissions grew along with his reputation before he moved to Philadelphia in 1775. Peale is regarded as one of the foremost painters of early America.

Entertainment Annapolis was a cultural hub for theatre in the 18th century. The city was the first in the American colonies to perform an opera with orchestral accompaniment—The Beggar’s Opera in 1752. The first purposebuilt theatre in the colonies was built in 1771 on Duke of Gloucester Street. Satire was very popular in Annapolis and could be seen in the choice of plays, newspaper stories, and humor within social clubs. Similar to English social clubs of the 18th century, Annapolis developed a series of gentleman’s organizations which met at taverns for intellectual, musical, moral, and comical stimulation. Clubs included the Ugly Club, the Tuesday Club, and the Homony Club just to name a few. The South River Club, 15 miles south of Annapolis, founded prior to 1732, is still in existence. Annapolis fairs were generally held in the spring and in the fall to coincide with the races. The fairs were frequently followed by balls for the gentry class and occasionally honored events like Lord Baltimore’s birthday. Children and adults took dancing and music lessons to perfect their skills, so they could attend events at the first public assembly room in North America built in 1768, now part of city hall. Newspaper runaway slave ads often identified the skills of an individual, such as the playing of an instrument. A 1745 runway ad describes “John Stokes, aged about 28 years…. plays very well on the fiddle and formerly belonged to Dr. Charles Carroll of Annapolis.”

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Culinary Culture The cuisine of early Annapolis was shaped by flavors based upon local products like seafood, exotic imports, and English traditions. African American cooks, enslaved and free, knew how to produce English dishes. Cayenne pepper in the normally blander English diet became a mainstay in seafood. African imports such as tamarinds, black eye peas, and okra were incorporated. Imported recipes can be found in Annapolis during the 18th and 19th centuries including British “gammon” or ham by signer of the Declaration of Independence Samuel Chase, French macaroons by Mrs. “Henry” Ogle, and Indian chicken curry from Mrs. McBlair. A favorite recipe of Frances Loockerman, who lived in this house, was a British dessert called raspberry fool. The raspberries were grown in Annapolis; however, imported fruit was available, as seen in an August 25, 1800 port log that lists limes and coconuts aboard the Baltimore-based brig Enterprise. Alcohol comprised about 20 percent of wealthy early Marylanders’ food budget, while the poor allotted significantly more. Drinks included locally made cider, mead, and beer, fruit wine, distilled spirts and punch along with imported French wines and Madeira. Benjamin Fordham from England opened the first commercial brewery in Annapolis around 1703. This was the inspiration for the current Fordham and Dominion Brewing Company.

Dining Room of the Hammond-Harwood House.

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The Art of the Game: Sporting Culture in Early Annapolis To the Races In fall 1770 John Cadwalader of Philadelphia came to Annapolis on business only to hear that “Everybody will be at the Annapolis Races.” The popularity of organized horse racing began three decades earlier when Governor Samuel Ogle imported horses and called for “English style racing.” Following his lead were others like Samuel Galloway of Tulip Hill who owned the celebrated horse Selim. The Maryland Jockey Club, the United States’ oldest sporting association, founded in Annapolis in 1743, is given the credit for introducing thoroughbred racing in the American colonies. The club attracted patrons like Thomas Jefferson and George Washington. Many of the horses and their trainers came from England, like horse master John Craggs (1736-1805) from County Durham, who trained horses for Maryland elite like John Ridout and Edward Lloyd III. Craggs lived in the William Brown House in Londontown. Through 1795, Craggs advertised imported “thorough bred” horses for sale and even traveled to England in 1792 to oversee the import of horses. Many of the horse owners also held slaves and African Americans played an important role in the development of horse racing as groomsmen and jockeys. It was the only sport that was racially integrated during this era. A Game of Chance When King Charles II succeeded to the English throne after the defeat of the Puritans, he popularized gambling. Gaming culture spread to the Chesapeake region with the introduction of billiards, backgammon, nine pins and cards, among others. All genders and ranks of society played card games like whist and loo. In rural areas of the Chesapeake all classes enjoyed gambling at local taverns. English-born architect Benjamin Latrobe was appalled after visiting the small Virginia town of Hanover, where he witnessed the mixing of classes for billiards, saying “Even politeness has disappeared.” Annapolis taverns were centers of gaming; however, each tavern generally served a different class. Middle and lower classes patronized rowdy sporting taverns like the one owned by James West--where violence was commonplace. In 1780 a card game at West’s tavern led Thomas Pryse to call William Vereker a “damned rascal” which resulted in fisticuffs. “Elegant” taverns like George Mann’s attracted elite clientele, and even hosted George Washington. Gaming also took place within the comfort of homes following dinner parties; many Annapolis inventories list a gaming table. Gambling largely fell out of favor in the late 1820s in response to the religious second great awakening, along with the rise of fiscal, moral, and social responsibility in the Victorian era. 14


A map of the most inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with part of Pennsylvania, New Jersey and North Carolina, Virginia c. 1774 Artist: Peter Jefferson (1708-1757) and Joshua Frye (1700-1754) Medium: Paper engraving P8 Museum Purchase in 1951 First published in 1754, this is the earliest accurate map of Virginia and Maryland. The map was done by expert surveyors Joshua Frye and Peter Jefferson, father of Thomas Jefferson. The cartouche in the lower left hand, drawn by English artist Francis Hayman (1708-1776), depicts a seated merchant negotiating with a tobacco planter while an enslaved man serves a beverage. This scene portrays the Chesapeake’s economy driven by enslaved labor for the export of tobacco. Slave ships like the Lord Ligonier arrived in Annapolis as described in Alex Haley’s novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family. His ancestor Kunta Kinte, from Gambia, was sold into slavery in Virginia in 1767. While there wasn’t a dedicated area for slave auctions in Annapolis, advertisements reveal sales took place in a variety of settings, including taverns and even coffeehouses.

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Plan of the Harbour and City of Annapolis, copy of c. 1781 original Artist: By Major Michel Capitaine du Chesnoy, (1746-1804), French Museum Purchase 2020 French geographical engineer Michel Capitaine du Chesnoy (1746–1804) made this map during the American Revolution. Capitaine du Chesnoy came to America with the Marquis de Lafayette. The map carefully details the European inspired urban baroque layout of Annapolis created in 1694 by Maryland provincial Governor Francis Nicholson (1655-1727). The plan features two circles of power for church and state. Additions to the original 1694 town plan include the commercial streets leading to the port laid out in 1771 by ambitious Annapolis merchant Charles Wallace, represented by a shaded triangle on the map. Wallace divided the land into two streets—Cornhill and Fleet—named for London commercial districts. Wallace envisioned the area would attract taverns, merchants, and other commerce. Several buildings from the 18th century still exist on Cornhill and Fleet streets.

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A Front View of the State House in Annapolis, Annapolis, Maryland c. 1789 Artist: Charles Willson Peale, (1741-1827), American Medium: Engraving P17 Museum Purchase in 1951 In addition to his work as a portraitist, naturalist, and museum founder, Maryland-born artist Charles Willson Peale produced several important engravings in the late 18th century. Peale grew up in Annapolis and started painting as an amateur in the early 1760s. He showed such promise a group of wealthy Annapolis men sent him to England in 1767 to study under American expat artist Benjamin West (17381820). There, Peale absorbed the artistic styles of Europe. Peale’s engraving depicts the Annapolis workshops of Scottish expat cabinetmakers John Shaw and Archibald Chisholm on the left, the octagonal outhouse built by Shaw known as “The Temple,” and the Little Treasury building built in 1729.

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Church Circle, Annapolis, Maryland, c. 1794 Artist: Charles Cotton Milbourne (active 1790-1840), British-American Medium: Watercolor P58 Donated by Zenith Brown in 1971 Charles Cotton Milbourne was part of the wave of English expat artists who immigrated to the United States in the 1790s seeking new opportunities. A contemporary referred to him as an “experienced scene painter from London.” Initially Milbourne settled in Philadelphia in 1792 with his young daughter. In addition to painting, Milbourne acted in plays including Birth of the Harlequin which opened on July 17, 1794. That same year Milbourne visited Annapolis, likely at the direction of fellow Philadelphia artist Charles Willson Peale, who had grown up in Annapolis. Milbourne was one of the founders of the Philadelphia art academy called the Columbianum, led by Charles Willson Peale from 1794 to its disbandment in 1795. From those roots the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts was formed—that organization still exists. Milbourne moved to New York City where he painted scenery from 1797 to 1811.

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“Peggy Stewart” Bowl, China, 18th century Maker: Unknown Medium: Chinese export porcelain C94 Donated by Julia Anne Walton Tyler in 2001 Imported goods were not always welcome in Annapolis. Annapolis had its own version of the Boston tea party on October 19, 1774. Growing tension with English taxation through the Tea Act of 1773 led to a boycott of imported tea. Richard Jackson, captain of the Peggy Stewart, a vessel owned by Annapolis merchant Anthony Stewart, was tricked by fellow Annapolis merchant Thomas Charles Williams, based in London, to unknowingly carry a tea shipment along with the main cargo of 53 indentured servants. Anthony Stewart had no knowledge of the vessel carrying the tea until he was informed that his cargo had a tax associated with it, and Captain Jackson revealed the trick. Stewart went to Williams’ brothers, the merchants Joseph and James Williams. The pair informed Stewart they wanted no part in their brother’s scheme. Stewart paid the tax so the indentured servants could leave the ship. An Annapolis based committee held a series of meetings and decided that Anthony Stewart should burn the vessel with tea aboard. Matthias Hammond, original owner of this house, pushed for the strongest punishment available. The only item saved off the vessel was this bowl, which was given to its intended owner, Lloyd Dulany, who lived in an opulent mansion on Church Street, now Main Street. Dulany was a loyalist who fled back to England a few months after receiving the bowl. His home and property were confiscated by the state and sold to George Mann, hotelier, who married Mary Buckland, eldest daughter of English-born architect William Buckland, designer of the HammondHarwood House. The Manns kept the bowl in the tavern and it was brought out on festive occasions, including George Washington’s resignation. Williams later published an apology and blamed the ordeal on the instigation of rival Annapolis merchant firm Wallace, Davidson, and Johnson, demonstrating the competitive cutthroat nature of the business. 19


Side Chairs, English, c. 1792 Medium: Mahogany F4 Museum Purchase in 1951 Perhaps no other person in Annapolis is more responsible for the import of luxury goods and emulation of English gentry in the late 18th century than Edward Lloyd IV (1744-1796), planter and politician, who owned these chairs. Lloyd’s vast inherited lands included most of modern day Talbot County on the Eastern Shore. He furnished his Wye House plantation and Annapolis townhouse with lavish imports; for example in the year 1792 Lloyd ordered a set of Shakespeare prints by the Boydell brothers, a pianoforte, and a set of mahogany chairs including these two, among other items, from his London agents. Lloyd’s purchases went far beyond furnishing his home, as he ordered silks, scientific instruments, the “finest champaign”, carriages, dogs, birds, and racehorses, just to name a few items.

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Pie Crust Tilt-Top Table, England, c. 1765 Medium: Mahogany FW144 Gift of Mrs. Francis White in 1973 Mahogany furniture like this English pie crust table was a luxury during the golden age of Annapolis, yet it came at the high cost of enslaved lives. This precious wood was the reason for exhaustion, conflict, and the depletion of natural resources in the Caribbean and South America. Merchants in this period argued that sugar and coffee required arduous labor but offered no long term benefits; however, mahogany was worth the price and labor and lasted for years to come. Wealthy Marylanders often incorporated this imported wood into their homes. In 1807 Belgium-born Rosalie Stier Calvert (1778-1821) wrote a letter to her father which states that in her home, Riversdale plantation, “four doors of the drawing room and dining room are made of mahogany and are all very beautiful.”

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Celestial Globe, Dublin, Ireland, c. early 19th century Maker: Thomas Mason & Son. Medium: Mahogany Misc. 21 Gift of J.D. Paul in 1963 The Mason family of Dublin, Ireland, has the longest running business to produce scientific instruments in the world, now in the eighth generation. The company was started in 1787 by Seacome Mason. Mason’s list of sale items included “telescopes, glasses, microscopes, concave and opera glasses, celestial and terrestrial globes of all sizes, and electrical machines with apparatus ... goggles for protecting the eyes from dust or wind, ditto for children with the squint.” This celestial globe was produced during the time of his son Thomas. Globes such as this one were treasured items for families and used to learn about geography and culture. Here at the Hammond-Harwood House we know the family was interested in geography as they owned an atlas now on display in our historic kitchen.

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George III Mirror in the Chippendale Style, English, c. 1770 Medium: Mahogany with Gilt Eagle F73 Gift of Mrs. Carroll Van Ness 1954 The delicate English Chippendale mirror likely came by special order to the port of Annapolis. It once adorned the walls of Ogle Hall in Annapolis and was originally owned by Benjamin Ogle (1749-1809), the ninth Governor of Maryland, and his wife Henrietta Margaret Hill (1751-1815). The Governor came from a distinguished English family from Northumberland. The couple divided their time between their city house in Annapolis, known as Ogle Hall, and their country estate Belair in modern day Bowie, Maryland, both of which are still standing. Ogle Hall was witness to many grand occasions including a 1773 dinner for George Washington.

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6th Lord Baltimore, Frederick Calvert (1731-1771), 18th century Medium: Engraving On Loan from Robert Shannahan Frederick Calvert, known as the last Lord Baltimore, inherited the proprietary governorship of the colony of Maryland at age 20. A notorious playboy, he had little interest in Maryland, never visited, and viewed it only as a source of income. Frederick was suspected of murdering his estranged wife Lady Diana Edgerton in 1758 in a carriage accident and he was accused of raping hatmaker Sarah Woodcock in 1768. He was acquitted of the rape. He had a taste for the exotic and rebuilt his London home to look like a Turkish harem in 1766. In 1771 he died of fever in Italy with no legitimate children. He left the proprietary colony of Maryland to his eldest illegitimate son, Henry Harford (1758-1834), who could not inherit his father’s title. Henry inherited the colony on the brink of war, and his land was confiscated. After the war Henry visited Maryland to reclaim his stake and was lavishly entertained by wealthy Annapolis families, including the Ogles. He was unsuccessful at securing compensation in Maryland; however, the British parliament granted him £100,000 for his loss.

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Pinkney Coat of Arms, Annapolis, Maryland, 19th century Medium: Pencil, Ink, Paint on Paper P 72 Anonymous Donation European settlers first brought coats of arms to this country and used them on commemorative objects. Medieval knights were the first individuals to have a coat of arms and by the 15th century many distinguished European families had arms. The Pinkney family of Annapolis included politicians, bishops, and surgeons. Ninian Pinkney and his family resided in this house from 1806-1811. Today American families still use their coats of arms in a similar manner on commemorative material. While coats of arms have a historic origin, they are still widely popular today. In Europe strict rules still govern who can use a coat of arms.

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Architect Tools, English, 18th Century Medium: Shagreen (Shark Skin) and Brass Misc. 40 Museum Purchase in 1983 These tools are believed to have been owned by English-born William Buckland (1734-1774) who designed Hammond-Harwood House. Buckland may have brought the tools with him from London when he emigrated from England in 1755 or may have purchased them while in Virginia or Maryland. In 1774 William Buckland embarked on the design of the Hammond-Harwood House, which he modeled after a design in 16th-century Italian architect Andrea Palladio’s Four Books of Architecture, widely popular as a model for English country houses. Buckland demonstrated his genius adapting a Palladian country villa to 18th-century colonial Maryland—he made Hammond-Harwood House smaller and set in an urban setting. Using these English tools Buckland helped change the face of American architecture in the colonies.

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Rim Lock, English, c. 1774 Medium: Brass Original to the Hammond-Harwood House In 1835 Frances Loockerman, who lived at the HammondHarwood House with her family, called the house her “castle” and her bedroom the North East Turret. Although the mansion is not quite a castle by European standards, the mansion’s intricate 18th-century lock system shuts up this great house just like a fortress. The front door has six safety features including a rim lock or box lock, which is an exterior panel for the lock. They were cast in foundries by whitesmiths, or metal workers. Before 1850, many locks were imported directly from England. After 1850 these box locks were replaced with the mortise locks, tubular locks, and cylindrical locks. There is also a night latch, two bolts, and a bar to put over the door. Our expert locksmith, Kevin Clancy, believes the locks in the interior mansion block are English and original, and the ones in the hyphens are later 19th-century additions. Do you notice anything unusual about the lock on the front door? It is upside down, which was not unusual in this period. As most locks were imported from England consumers had to adjust their expectations. If the lock the builder had ordered did not match, he would simply mount it upside down. This may have been the case with the lock on the front door. 27


Chinese Export Famille Rose style porcelain plate, c. 1795 Medium: Porcelain CW75 Gift of Mrs. Francis White in 1973 The Hammond-Harwood House has a collection of porcelain containing over 350 pieces, and 86 percent of that collection is Chinese export porcelain including this plate. Porcelain is a hard paste that was discovered by the Chinese more than 1000 years ago. The clay is fired at a very high temperature which creates a glassy form. The plate is in a Famille Rose style which is French for “rose family”. Famille Rose refers to a group of Chinese porcelain that had rose colors. They were known to the Chinese as yangcai or “foreign colors” because they were introduced by the Europeans in the late 17th century.

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Chinese export porcelain Plate, c. 1790 Medium: Porcelain CW68 Gift of Mrs. Francis White in 1973 In the late 18th century the traditional design of Chinese porcelain shifted to cater to Western clients. This dish illustrates this trend. Direct American trade with the Chinese began in 1784 after the Revolutionary War. Western clients gave detailed instructions to Chinese artisans, with varying and sometimes comedic results. One contemporary Chinese author noted that “foreign pieces were very strange.” Trade peaked in the early 19th century and went into a decline after 1830 as hard paste formula was discovered and began to be produced in Europe and America. After the decline of Annapolis as a port in the late 18th century, merchants from larger port cities like Philadelphia and Baltimore supplied Annapolis clients with Chinese export at reasonable rates.

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Canton Hot Water Kettle, China, c. 1750 Medium: Enamel E3 Gift of Mr. Herbert Boone in 1953 In the 18th-century design and production of traditional Chinese porcelain shifted to cater to Western clients. Western clients relayed detailed instructions on their tastes. The design of this mid-18th century hot water kettle copies similar contemporary English silver pieces made in the George III style.

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Wedgwood Plate, England, c. 1904 Maker: Wedgewood & Co. Medium: Porcelain C100 Gift of Dorothy Byerly in 2016 Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) revolutionized the pottery world and Wedgwood became the first luxury brand. From humble origins in Burslem, England, he completed an apprenticeship with Thomas Whieldon, a potter who invented “tortoiseshell” glaze. Wedgwood saw the evolution of tea culture and the demand for ceramic ware rise. He developed a durable cream ware and won a competition judged by Queen Charlotte; his wares were henceforth known as “Queens’s ware.” His London showroom catered to the elite; however, after an item grew stale he slashed the prices, so the ordinary English citizen could purchase a set. From a port in Liverpool he did a steady export business to the colonies. Even George Washington ordered a set. This set was owned by Lieutenant Guy Davis (1883-1956), who rented out Hammond-Harwood House in 1910-11.

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Hexagonal Chinese export porcelain charger, c. 1755 Medium: Porcelain C69 Gift of Mrs. Francis White in 1973 Annapolis was one of many cities along the eastern seaboard to import Chinese export porcelain. This Water Buffalo Octagonal soup plate is thought to be one of the earliest pieces imported to the state of Maine. Owner Nathaniel Barrell purchased the set while in England in the 1760s. The piece has water buffalos, which in Chinese culture symbolize strength, service, and a connection to the Earth mother. More of this set can be found in the former home of Barrell’s father in law, the Sayward-Wheeler House, now a museum run by Historic New England, in York Harbor, Maine.

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Nanking Chinese export porcelain Soup Bowl, c. 1800 Medium: Porcelain C90.1 Gift of Mrs. Colin James Steuart Thomas in 1982 Nanking is a type of blue-and-white porcelain made in the Canton, China area in the late 18th century. Nanking has a spear-and-post border and may have gold decoration. Nanking is similar to Canton porcelain, however; Canton ware has a different border of a lattice band and a scalloped band.

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Chinese export plate, c. 1820 Medium: Celadon porcelain C16 Gift of Lenora Jackson McKim Baltimore merchant Isaac McKim (1775-1838) was the original owner of this plate. After the War of 1812 McKim was hailed as a hero because of his financial support with the defense of Baltimore. This piece was likely shipped to America on his clipper ship Ann McKim, which made trips to China and South America. Made in China for the Western market, the butterfly design reflects both cultures. For centuries, the butterfly symbolized summer and joy in China, while in the West the butterfly was a symbol for the Christ who rose from the dead. This plate shows the skills of the Chinese artisans—especially with the smallest of creatures as every hair-like fiber, every eyeball, and each antennae is rendered with supreme exactitude. There is something very playful and whimsical in a pattern that permits bugs and insects to emerge from a plate intended for dining.

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Horses and Hounds Punch Bowl, Chinese, c. 1770 Medium: Porcelain C20 Museum purchase in 1952 Starting in the 18th century the Chesapeake region became a center for sports involving horses. English hunt engravings found their way onto painted Chinese ceramics. Some known examples of Chinese export porcelain with hunt scenes were made for the Chesapeake market. The Maryland Jockey Club, the United States’ oldest sporting association, founded in Annapolis in 1743, is given the credit for introducing thoroughbred racing in the American colonies. The club attracted patrons like Thomas Jefferson and George Washington. Many of the horses and their trainers came from England, like horse master John Craggs (1736-1805) from County Durham, England, who trained horses for Maryland elites like John Ridout and Edward Lloyd III. Craggs lived in the William Brown House in Londontown. Through 1795, Craggs advertised imported “thorough bred” horses for sale and even traveled to England in 1792 to oversee the import of horses. Many of the horse owners also held slaves who played an important role in the development of horse racing as groomsmen and jockeys. It was the only sport that was racially integrated during this era, and the competitions created opportunities for enslaved men to cross state lines. In the years after the Civil War some of the wealthiest jockeys were African American.

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Hot Water Urn, London, England, c. 1770/71 Maker: Andrew Fogelberg, (1732-1815), Swedish-British Medium: Silver S15 Donated by Company for the Restoration of Colonial Annapolis in 1941 The London-made silver urn c. 1770/71 is caught between the rococo and neoclassical styles. The urn is evocative of its original owner’s own complex identity. Samuel Chase (1741-1811) was a fiery American patriot and signer of the Declaration of Independence. In 1770 Chase was building an elegant Annapolis home and wanted to furnish it extravagantly. The urn included a Townley coat of arms from his aunt by marriage, Margaret, daughter of Lord Jeremiah Townley. His connection to nobility was a point of pride for Chase, despite his feelings against British rule. He was not alone; colonists like Samuel Chase customized imported items with the coat of arms of their choice, even though they had no claim to use the symbol. Americans aspiring for status disregarded the rigid rules of British heraldry. The house in Annapolis proved too costly for Chase and was finished by the next owner, Edward Lloyd IV. It now stands completed across the street.

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Chocolate Pot, London, England, c. 1796 Medium: Silver Maker: John Mewburn, (1762-1830), English On Loan from the City of Bowie-Belair Mansion Governor Benjamin Ogle (1749-1809) led an opulent life in Annapolis and bought imported goods to furnish his elegant townhouse, including this English chocolate pot. Ogle developed a strong taste for English goods and habits after studying there from ages 10 to 21. Upon return to Annapolis society in 1770 he created an existence for himself similar to that of the English gentry, engaging in thoroughbred horse racing, lavish entertaining, and furnishing his country estate Belair and Annapolis townhouse Ogle Hall. Chocolate in the late 18th century was traditionally served as a warm liquid beverage similar to hot chocolate today.

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Hot Water Kettle, London, England, c. 1754/5 Makers : William Shaw II (free from apprenticeship 1748) & William Priest (free from apprenticeship 1749, died between 1802–1811) Medium: Silver with Wicker Handle S2 Gift of Mrs. Clifford Hendrix & Mrs. W.P.D Clarke Jr. in 1954 This kettle was made in rococo style in the shop of William Shaw and William Priest of London in 1754/5. London was teeming with premier silversmiths in the mid-18th century. By 1754 the pair had an established shop in London that made pieces for affluent fashionable clients both English and American, including a 1751/2 coffeepot for the Faneuil family, the wealthiest in Boston in at the time, who later gave the popular tourist market Faneuil Hall to the city. While the kettle has the mark of a two silversmiths, it is important to understand that many hands went into the creation of any piece that came out of a London shop. The workers who extracted the silver, the workers who wrought it and engraved it, and the merchants who sold it, all had their role to play in the interconnected global trade that sent silver around the British Isles and across the ocean to the colonies. The 1750s was the height for rococo fashion and so this kettle would have been a desired item of conspicuous consumption when it was made. The device is very elaborate with repoussé, which means the design was chased and molded from the reverse side. The rococo style reached England with the influx of Huguenot immigrants in the 17th century. The word rococo comes from the French word rocaille meaning shell or rock. The motifs in this style tend to be from nature especially marine and floral designs—this kettle is no exception. On the kettle you can see acanthus leaves, flower garlands, an engraved coat of arms on the left side, and dolphin heads on the feet. The symbolism of the dolphin reaches back to the Mediterranean. To the ancient Greeks, the dolphin symbolized rebirth and renewal as these friendly creatures were also a sign of leadership and companionship. 38


Silver Salt Cellar, London, England, c. 1782/1783 Maker: William Plummer, (1739-1791), English Medium: Silver S.58 Gift of Mr. Addison H. Reese in memory of his mother, Mrs. Walter Hopkins (née Mabel Ford) in 1976 English silversmith William Plummer specialized in pierced objects such as baskets, strainers, and salt cellars. This salt cellar was once owned by the mayor of Annapolis, Judge Jeremiah Townley Chase (1748-1828), at his estate on King George Street. In the mid-1760s Annapolis silversmith William Whetcroft imported William Plummer’s London-made silver and defiantly stuck his own mark onto pieces, perhaps in response to the pressure not to import British goods. Despite anti-British sentiment during the war, Americans sought out British goods again after the war, as seen here with this c. 1783 salt cellar, made in the last year of the war.

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Sword, English, c. Mid-18th century Medium: Silver On Loan from Chase Home Inc. When a king has far reaching realms he can grant proprietary colonies to favored noblemen to help maintain control and order in those areas. King Charles I gave the charter for the Maryland colony to the Calvert family. Six successive generations of Calverts or Lords Baltimore oversaw the management of the colony. Frederick Calvert (1731-1771), sixth Lord Baltimore, gave this sword to family friend and proprietary governor of Maryland Horatio Sharpe (1718-1790). On the outskirts of Annapolis Sharpe built a grand estate named Whitehall where he lived in retirement from 1769 until the Revolution forced his return to England in 1773. Sharpe left his property entrusted to his secretary, John Ridout, who stayed in Annapolis and ultimately owned Whitehall and its holdings, including this sword.

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Rapier, French or Northern German c. 1770 Medium: Brass and Silver Misc.37 Gift of Mr. C. Carroll Brice in 1982 This gentleman’s evening sword most likely never saw any action and was used for display. Owned by the Brice family of Annapolis, this curious piece has unknown origins and could be French or possibly Northern German. The Brice family had a ravenous appetite for luxury imported goods. Merchant-planter John Brice owned a store on Prince George Street. After his death in 1766 his son James inherited a fortune and began building the opulent brick mansion on the corner of Prince George and East streets. This sword, made during the time of the construction and furnishing of the mansion, may have come by special order to outfit James Brice in the grandeur he aspired to.

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Mirror, Bilbao, Spain c. 1790 Medium: Marble Mosaic Veneer, Wood, Oil Paint F12 Museum Purchase in 1949 This interesting looking glass is called a Bilbao mirror. Typically, these mirrors were made of pink marble adhered to wood and had slender columns with delicate gesso adornment, often with an urn or painting in the center. Because these mirrors are fragile, few survive today. Many of these mirrors were produced from 1780-1810 for export. The name of the mirror comes from the pink marble which has its origins in Bilbao, Spain, a seaport city in northern Spain near the Bay of Biscay, known for its seafood. Bilbao mirrors were shipped to port towns along the eastern seaboard of the United States, most notably in New England. It is not clear where this mirror was actually produced. Perhaps it was made in Germany—we know that Spanish marble was imported into Germany, and further evidence is the painting of a young girl at the top of the mirror, which shows Germanic influence. Many mirrors were made in Hamburg, Germany, in the 1790s, so it is possible this one could have been produced there. In 1792, Baltimore merchants advertised “a large elegant assortment of looking glasses from Hamburg.”

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Tureen, Spanish, c. Mid-19th century Medium: Silver S49 Gift of Mrs. John N. Burk in 1971 This Spanish-made silver tureen dates to the era just before the American Civil War. It is original to the house, owned by the Harwoods. In the decades after the Revolution, American desire for imported luxury goods did not wane. The Harwoods’ home included a large amount of English imported furniture and Greek scholar William Harwood’s extensive library. However, Annapolis ceased to be a large port, and instead Baltimore and Philadelphia became centers for imports. This piece has a French export mark and likely saw many ports before arriving in the Hammond-Harwood House.

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Clock, Paris France, c. 1800 Maker: Jean-Baptiste Dubuc (1743-1819), French Medium: Ormolu, a high-carat gold–mercury amalgam adhered to an object of bronze F33 Gift of Ethel Miller in 1941 In the years following George Washington’s death in 1799, France began making commemorative pieces for the American luxury market. Made in Paris by Jean-Baptiste Dubuc (1743-1819), this piece is similar to the clocks Marquis de Lafayette brought in 1824 as gifts during his American tour. This clock was imported in 1805 by Annapolis cabinetmaker and entrepreneur John Shaw at his shop on State Circle. Patriotic elements on the clock include the American eagle and the phrase E Pluribus Unum. This Latin phrase means from many, one.

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Benjamin West (1738-1820), English, engraving of c. 1792 original Artist: By William Pether, English, (1731-1795) after William Lawrenson, English, (1722-1786) Medium: Mezzotint on paper P48 Gift of Winifred Gordon in 1961 American-born Benjamin West developed an interest in art at a young age and was encouraged by his parents. In 1760 at age 22 he became the first American to study painting in Rome; he then settled in London in 1763. West rose in popularity, becoming a court painter of King George III. He was one of the founders and later president of the Royal Academy. He was loyal to the Americans in spite of the King’s patronage. West ran a school where he kept an open door policy for American painters, including Annapolis native Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) and John Trumball (1756-1843) who all returned to America and had prolific careers. West’s London studio can be credited with the development of early American art.

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Ann Proctor with Doll and Parrott Artist: Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) Baltimore, Maryland, c. 1789 Medium: Oil on Canvas P36 Donated by Arunah Brady in 1953 Parrots, of course, were not native to the North American colonies. Sailors traveling around the Caribbean frequently picked up these birds during their visits to the islands and South America. They were brought to America and given to family and friends as gifts or sold to wealthy customers like the Proctors. These birds therefore are a symbol of wealth. This bird caught the eye of The Charleston Museum’s Curator of Historical Archaeology, Martha Zierdan, when she wrote her 2016 book Charleston, an Archaeology of Life in a Coastal Community. From her research we learned this particular parrot is a Rose ringed parakeet which came from sub-Saharan Africa. Six-year-old Ann Proctor (1783-1815) was painted by Annapolis raised artist Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), who noted in his journal that he finished the painting in one sitting. The doll (c. 1785) is likely English and was passed down through the family until it was donated along with the painting.

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Drawing Set, Burslem, English, 18th century Medium: Enamel E1 Gift of Irwin Untermyer in 1949 Elegant and functional, this drawing set was created with the sophisticated 18th-century lady in mind so she could hone her illustration skills. Delicate items like this were imported for the Annapolis market and attracted girls like 16-year-old Mary Steele, who attended Miss Keets’ Academy for young ladies in Annapolis in 1805. Secondary schools began to form in the 1800s and were called “academies.” In addition to drawing, girls were also instructed in worldly topics like French language and geography.

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Travels through the South of France and the Interior of Provinces of Provence and Languedoc in the Years 1807 and 1808, published in 1814 Author: Ninian Pinkney (c. 1776-1825), American B118 Museum Purchase in 2006 Annapolitan Ninian Pinkney’s travelogue highlights the desire for European travel. Ninian was the son of Jonathan Pinkney (17321804), an English-born merchant in Annapolis, whose property was confiscated during the American Revolution because he was a loyalist. Ironically, Ninian and his two brothers, though children at the time, were in favor of American independence, and all three worked in government roles as adults. Ninian moved into Hammond-Harwood House in 1806 with his bride Amelia and three stepchildren, and lived here until 1811. Leaving his family in 1808 to go abroad, he stated “he most anxiously wished to visit France, a country in which arts and sciences...stand in the foremost rank of civilizations. An opportunity occurred – the situation of my private affairs as well as my public duties admitted my absence.” However, recent research reveals Ninian may have never gone to France, and this book was a way to fool the British that Americans took pleasure vacations to nearby France in the tense years leading up to the War of 1812. Upon using the book in France, Englishman James Smithson, future founder of the Smithsonian, stated the book was outdated and drawn from other sources. 48


The Complete Works of Shakespeare in Eight Volumes, 1767 Author: William Shakespeare (British c. 1564–1616) Commentary by Lewis Theobald (British c. 1688-1744) B125 Gift of Mollie Ridout in 2017 Judge Jeremiah Townley Chase (1748-1828), once mayor of Annapolis, owned this volume of Shakespeare’s works. The book would have been read by Chase, his wife Hester, and their five children at his estate on King George Street. Throughout his life Chase consistently looked to Europe for style, as seen in his imported English silver ordered in 1765 and carpets from Brussels in 1809. His maternal great-grandfather was Lord Jeremiah Townley (c. 1648-1714) of London. Chase consistently used the noble Townley coat of arms on imported goods. Shakespeare was popular in the Annapolis theatre; for example, the local theatre had productions of Othello in April of 1760 and Hamlet in June of 1803.

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Georgiana Spencer Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (1757-1806), with daughter Georgiana later Countess of Carlisle (1783-1858) English, engraving c.1787 Artist: By George Keeting, (1762-1842), Irish, after Sir Joshua Reynolds, (1723-1792), English Medium: Mezzotint on paper P40B Gift of Sophie Cadwalader in 1949 One of Britain’s most notorious card players and socialites in the late 18th century was the beautiful wife of the fifth Duke of Devonshire. Georgiana had a lavish upbringing by loving parents. They sought a good match for her and she married at just 17. Unfortunately her marriage was unhappy and plagued by her husband’s adultery. She sought distractions like drinking and card playing where she bore great financial losses. Annapolis developed a similar sporting culture around card games. This engraving of the popular duchess was owned by the Cadwalader family of Philadelphia, which had ties to the Lloyd family of Annapolis. This imported print could have been typical décor for Annapolis homes in the late 18th century.

Playing Cards, English-American c. 1833 Anonymous Viennese Artist, Publisher Caleb Barlett, (Active Early 19th Century), American Misc. 8 Museum Purchase in 1954 Fortunes were gained and lost during card games. Such games were very prevalent in the Chesapeake and common amongst all ages, genders, and races. Popular games included whist, loo, and brag, a precursor to poker. 50


Cinnabar Lacquer Box, Chinese, Chien Lung Period c. 1735-1796 Medium: Lacquer Misc.33 Gift of Mrs. Francis White in 1973 These boxes with decorative surfaces served a purpose similar to modern day wrapping paper. The strong lacquer, made from the sumac tree native to Asia, was painted several times in a red cinnabar which dried between coats. Europeans developed a taste for lacquer in the 17th century and tried to recreate the effect through a process called “Jappaning,” using different materials and achieved a dissimilar aesthetic. Boxes like this were sold into the colonies and repurposed from gift giving to other uses like holding playing cards.

Chess Playing Pieces, Chinese, Early 19th Century Medium: Ivory from India Misc.7 Gift of Mrs. William Hilles in 1963 The game of chess originated in eastern India as far back as the third century and grew steadily in popularity in Asia, the Middle East, and eventually Europe, where it was brought by Persian traders. This elaborate set was made in the early 19th century in China from Indian ivory. The expertly carved pieces depict the Mongols fighting the Chinese, one of three main themes created for export. Benjamin Franklin was a fan of chess and helped popularize it in America. Sets such as this one would have been prized objects in an early 19th-century Annapolis game room.

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A Special Thank You to American Antiquarian Society Chase Home Inc. City of Bowie-Belair Mansion Edward C. Papenfuse Francis Proctor-Exhibition Photography Frederick Walker of the Society of Period Furniture Makers-Chesapeake Chapter Geoffrey Hodgdon-Exhibition Photography

Maryland Center for History and Culture Maryland Racing Art Maryland State Archives Paul Dee-Exhibition Photography Paul and Karen Koch Robert Shannahan Riversdale House Museum-MNCPPC

Gregory Weidman

Shawn Herne-Exhibition Photography

Historic Annapolis

The John Work Garrett Library, Johns Hopkins University

Jane Wilson McWilliams Jean Russo Jennifer Behrens-Exhibition & Catalogue Designer Kenneth Cohen 52

Maria’s Picture Place

Webster Wright-Exhibition Photography Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library


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19 Maryland Avenue, Annapolis, MD hammondharwoodhouse.org 54

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Profile for HammondHarwoodHouseMuseum

Decadent Decor: Global Imports in an Early American Port City  

Exhibition Catalogue for Decadent Decor: Global Imports in an Early American Port City. Exhibition held at the Hammond-Harwood House Museum...

Decadent Decor: Global Imports in an Early American Port City  

Exhibition Catalogue for Decadent Decor: Global Imports in an Early American Port City. Exhibition held at the Hammond-Harwood House Museum...

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