Real Training in Virtual Worlds


Unique Aircraft, Unique Training PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY

Rethinking Air Force Technical Training TRAINING TRANSFORMATION Supported by MS&T Magazine

ISSN 1471-1052


US $14/£8

Soft Power, Non-Kinetic Ops Issue 2/2009

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WHEN THE Royal Netherlands Army

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Boeing’s groundbreaking integration of Live, Virtual and Constructive training domains (I-LVC) sets a new standard of training and readiness. With I-LVC, real aircraft can be integrated into exercises with simulators and computer-generated threats. It’s the latest addition to Boeing’s full spectrum of training capabilities, including live range training— unparalleled training options that reduce cost and most importantly, maximize personnel readiness.


EDITORIAL Editor-in-Chief: Chris Lehman [e] Managing Editor: Jeff Loube [e] Contributors Rick Adams - Technology Editor Walter F. Ullrich - Europe Editor Tom Slear - US Military Affairs Chuck Weirauch - Training Procurement Fiona Greenyer - News Editor [t] +44 (0)1252 532004 [e] ADVERTISING Business Manager: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 (0)1252 532009 [e] Business Manager, North America: Mary Bellini Brown [t] +1 703 421 3709 [e] Marketing Manager: Lizzie Daniell [t] +44 (0)1252 532008 [e] DESIGN & PRODUCTION David Malley [t] +44 (0)1252 532005 [e] INTERNET SUBSCRIPTIONS & DISTRIBUTION Subscriptions Hotline [t] +44 (0)1252 532000 [e] 6 issues per year at US$168 Distribution Co-ordinator: Sarah Baker [t] +44 (0)1252 532006 [e] PUBLISHING HOUSE AND EDITORIAL OFFICE Military Simulation & Training (ISSN 1471-1052) is published by: Halldale Media Ltd. Pembroke House, 8 St. Christopher’s Place, Farnborough, Hampshire, GU14 0NH, UK. [t] +44 (0)1252 532000 [f] +44 (0)1252 512714 [e] General Manager: Janet Llewellyn US OFFICE Halldale Media Inc. 115 Timberlachen Circle Ste 2009 Lake Mary, FL 32746 USA [t] +1 407 322 5605 [f] +1 407 322 5604 Publisher & CEO: Andrew Smith

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise especially translating into other languages - without prior written permission of the publisher. All rights also reserved for restitution in lectures, broadcasts, televisions, magnetic tape and methods of similar means. Each copy produced by a commercial enterprise serves a commercial purpose and is thus subject to remuneration. MS&T Magazine (ISSN 1471-1052, USPS # 022067), printed May 2009, is published 6 times per annum by Halldale Media Ltd, Pembroke House, 8 St. Christopher’s Place, Farnborough, Hampshire, GU14 ONH, UK at a U.S. subscription rate of $168 per year. Periodical postage rates are paid at Middlesex New Jersey New York U.S.A. Postmaster: Please send address changes to: Halldale Media Inc., 115 Timberlachen Circle, Ste 2009, Lake Mary, FL 32746, USA.

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Chris Lehman

The Asymmetric Weapon of Choice Decades ago when US military resources were centered on helping protect Western Europe from the Soviet threat, the issue of Operations Security was straightforward. Similar to previous centuries of conflict, maintaining operational security mostly just entailed briefing troops before training exercises and exhorting them not to discuss times, dates or specifics, under threat of military prosecution. “Loose Lips” really could - and can - sink ships. Today the enemy is adept at exploiting an all-encompassing digital world, making information an asymmetric weapon of choice. This reality certainly complicates today’s operational environment, but we must add that non-combatants, with their immediate access to the real time media, can also complicate the operational environment. Add to this the “digital native” generation of soldiers who expect to communicate freely to the world at the click of a mouse or handheld device. The situation raises new challenges for maintaining operational security, and demands the attention of the senior leadership to mitigate risk while not stifling the ability to fight effectively and win the war of ideas. Given the ability of virtually anyone to immediately access, collect and transmit information, controlling and verifying operational security is much more difficult than in the past. A camera phone and internet access can influence a worldwide audience and do so immediately. Social networking sites have caused some to blur the distinction between public and private domains, as participants often post information to media sites that result in personal and professional dilemmas. Well-publicized examples include blogs from active military personnel and unsecured private email traffic between serving military members, with the resultant security breaches. Access to immediate information in the hands of the many, together with a cultural attitude regarding its use, makes it virtually impossible for today’s commanders to exercise absolute knowledge and control of operational security. The task therefore is to effectively plan to manage and reduce the risks. Risk assessment is a critical part of joint planning. The possibility of mission compromise as a result of the ubiquitous new media must be considered at every stage of the planning process, with an increasing amount of attention paid to reducing such risks. Given that the chance of real time release of friendly actions and vulnerabilities is so high, commanders must be particularly savvy in their mitigation plan. But too heavy a hand may be entirely counterproductive. Within the overall risk mitigation plan, commanders should see that the new media can be leveraged to their advantage. While social networking sites, blogs and email are rightly seen as potential security issues if they are not considered within operational security planning, they can also be a powerful forum to tell the military’s story from the most credible sources of all - soldiers, sailors and airmen. First hand stories can become very important in the information age as a means of countering the agenda-driven and negative reporting in the mainstream media. Soldiers telling the good news stories can still be facilitated while maintaining the security of military operations, capabilities and vulnerabilities. Finally, I would like to make a brief comment on this important year for the ITEC event. We proudly recognise MS&T magazine’s 20 year association with Europe’s premier military training and simulation event in an article inside this issue. ITEC’s historical connection with its big-sister I/ITSEC event in the US underscores the importance of Europe’s continued defence co-operation with North America. Contrary to the views of some, these links are no less important today than they were 60 years ago. Chris Lehman MS&T Editor-in-Chief • MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 2/2009


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05 EDITORIAL COMMENT Information as Weapon. Editor-in-Chief Chris Lehman reflects on the challenges and trade-offs of information security in our digital age.


Real Training in Virtual Worlds. The power of virtual environments is coming to a schoolhouse near you. Rick Adams provides a peek into the future.

16 TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION Unique Aircraft, Unique Training. The V22 Osprey is marked by both its unique configuration and its heavy reliance on simulation for training. Chuck Weirauch explains.

22 PERFORMANCE TECHNOLOGY Rethinking Air Force Technical Training. Caught in a situation where new technology investment was not allowed, improvements in training were found in redesign. Lt Robert Lo tells the story of 406 (M) Operational Training Squadron.




26 INTERVIEW Enhancing SIMULATION. US Congress House Bill 855 aims to promote and enhance medical simulation and modeling. MS&T’s Chuck Weirauch spoke with one of the sponsors of that bill – Representative Randy Forbes (R-VA.)

28 TRAINING TRANSFORMATION Soft Power, Non-Kinetic Ops. Military employment of soft power encompasses a broad range of non-kinetic operations and techniques. Rick Adams checks it out.


31 TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION Not Just Playing Around. The US Army is getting serious about gaming. Col Mark McManigal and Maj Tom Biedermann describe the latest initiatives.

34 TRAINING TECHNOLOGY Optimizing the Training Experience. Research is underway at NAWCTSD investigating the use of neuro-physiological data to provide feedback to instructors and trainees. Chuck Weirauch explains.



European Defence Agency. A child of the EU, the EDA focuses on improving European defence capabilities through R&T. Walter F. Ullrich gives an overview of the Agency.

42 SHOW PREVIEW 20 Years of ITEC. ITEC 2009 will be the 20th year for this European showcase. Walter F Ullrich looks back.

44 NEWS Seen and Heard. A round up of developments in simulation and training. Edited by Fiona Greenyer. MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 2/2009



Training Technology

What’s Your avatar Look Like?



Forterra’s olive (on-line Interactive Virtual environment) platform. Image credit: Forterra.

computer-generated fantasy figures are captivating the next generation of service candidates. It’s time to get real, and blend some features of virtual worlds with simulation discipline to meet no-nonsense training requirements. Rick Adams reports on some emerging online virtual environments.


ou’ve probably heard of Second Life, the online ‘alternate worlds’ fantasy game that allows you to create an alter-ego computer-graphic avatar character of who you might like to be (young, handsome and buffed?) and enables you to ‘fly’ your avatar around various 3D environments where you interact with other players’ virtual representations – you know, that time-wasting domain of teenagers and never-grew-up geeks with little else to do in their real lives. If that’s your initial reaction, as it was mine, take a second look at Second life … or at least the underlying technology and potential training and communication capabilities of ‘metaverse’ environments (as in metadata-based universe). The technologies behind virtual environments (Ve) will be “seriously powerful,” predicts Roger Smith, chief Scientist and chief Technology officer for the US Army’s Program executive office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PeoSTRI). “like the radio and semiconductor before them, these technologies are not limited to entertainment, business, or national defense, but can be applied equally to all of them.” consider, first, that future generations of soldiers, sailors, and airmen are growing up with daily doses of video games, text messaging, and online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Virtual reality will be second nature to them. consider, next, that many of the elements and tools already exist in the military training community to create virtual environments with realistic worlds, accurately depicted models, and avatars that replicate real people.

The Army’s Smith envisions that, over time, Ve will stretch the boundaries of traditional ‘virtual’ simulators (small area, few objects, high detail) and ‘constructive’ simulations (large area, many objects, low detail) to the extent that “there is little difference between the two.”

What’s in a World? If you haven’t yet visited a virtual world, here’s a bit of what you would find. After registering, you would select a user name, a body shape for your avatar, and clothing. your avatar will be placed into a computer-generated 3D setting, but you can ‘teleport’ to a different world setting anytime. Some worlds resemble actual places, such as Mayfair in london; others encourage role-playing, like the 1860s Texas outpost where you can strap on a pair of pistols. In some worlds, you’ll find other people’s avatars milling around, even ‘flying’ above or through the scenery objects. you use arrow keys or buttons to maneuver your character, and the ‘chat’ function to talk virtually with nearby avatars. have your avatar jump, dance, whistle, or use gestures – a belly laugh, a throatclearing “excuse me,” or even a “get lost”. 3D audio, or spatial audio, enables you to determine the location of another speaker and identify them. There’s a commerce component, as one would expect of something requiring so much effort to create. In Second life (Sl to its faithful followers), launched six years ago by linden lab, the ‘in-world’ currency is known as linden dollars (l$). linden bucks can be purchased with, you guessed it, real US dollars. you can buy your own virtual island (and rent it

out for a profit), buildings, vehicles, animations, clothing, hair for your character, even exotic avatars if you prefer not to expend the time and learning curve to create them. (can’t get away from those make-buy decisions, even in an unreal world.) Similar to traditional simulation, objects in the database are used to build 3D shapes and textures applied to give them identity. The Second life viewer renders objects using opengl. Data is streamed from server farms to users over the Internet with some frequently used data cached locally. Unlike entertainment or serious games, some virtual worlds such as Sl do not use game mechanics and rules. There are no objectives, no winning nor losing. Social-oriented virtual environments “are driven by the compelling story, by how people interact,” notes chris Pogue, president of cAe Professional Services. What needs to be added to the “interaction layer” of avatars and voice-over-IP audio is what Pogue calls the “process choreography” to enable collaborative decision-making. This includes the type of rigorous, physics-based modeling of advanced simulation environments as well as basic business processes such as document sharing. cAe is using Forterra’s olive (on-line Interactive Virtual environment) platform to develop a “Fourth Federation” virtual world for the canadian Air Force. It will use avatar-based entities and collaborative spaces in small-scale experiments to evaluate potential Ve uses for training, acquisition, and eventually operational management. Pogue says cAe is also looking at MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 2/2009


Training Technology


embedding virtual environments “in our own way of operating” on the basis of travel savings alone for its globally distributed teams.

The USAF’s Virtual MyBase One of the more ambitious visions for military use of virtual worlds is the US Air Force’s ‘MyBase’ concept. USAF began hosting two regions in Second Life in December – MyBase and MyBaseZeta – “for public outreach, exploration, and some basic leadership training,” according to Col Glenn Hover, deputy, Future Learning Division, Air Education and Training Command (AETC). When you teleport to the SL MyBase site, you’ll find several modern buildings, including ‘Club High Flight,’ a classroom, a dorm, a museum, and displays of legendary aircraft like the B-24 Liberator and F-86 Sabre, as well as current F-22 Raptor and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter models. Visitors can interact with Air Force staff, click on links for enlistment, get a free tshirt for their avatar, or take a virtual flight in a World War II-era P-51 Mustang. The Zeta site actually represents a sister service, the virtual Naval Undersea Warfare Center, complete with a sonar lab and tank, a sandbox, an innovation center, and (my personal favorite) Fort Adams. MyBase is just one of several “future learning environments” outlined in an AETC white paper, “On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training,” the building blocks of ‘Air Force 2.0.’ Another is the domain, which Hover says, “allows the education and training communities more academic freedom to explore, collaborate, and conduct research with the civilian higher education community.” (Air Force operational systems, by nature, are not designed to collaborate outside military community security.) The white paper was released a year ago December, and since then AETC has been evangelizing the concepts. “We have worked across the Air Force, top down and bottom up, to share the future learning vision. We are securing the resources and have drafted a strategic plan and started the concept. We have begun to explore and demonstrate existing capabilities,” adds Hover. The Air University has launched an SL site known as Huffman Prairie, named for the historic area at Wright-Patterson AFB in Ohio where the Wright Broth10


The US National Guard’s virtual world training uses ECS’s US Nexus platform. Image credit: Engineering and Computer Simulations, Inc.

ers flew their experimental planes and where they trained the first US military flyers. (Nice lighthouse and cobblestone courtyard.) Behind Air Force firewalls are a couple of technical training courses converted to “blended virtual training courses.” Hover says, “This effort is to look at the feasibility of conducting our technical training within a virtual world environment.” AETC has retained Abacus to provide software and developmental training.

Training Gap-Filler “The military is just beginning to realize the power of virtual environments,” suggests Curtiss Murphy, project engineer for Alion Science and Technology. Murphy sees virtual environments filling a gap between instructor-driven training in the classroom and physical pre-deployment exercises such as the Marine Corps’ 29 Palms or the Army’s National Training Center at Fort Irwin. He calls it “pre-engagement” training, the “walk” stage in the crawl-walk-run model. “They’ve already been introduced to the topics and have basic knowledge. But they haven’t been able to apply that knowledge in a practical way other than taking a test. In a virtual world, they can practice techniques alone or with others. They can feel free to learn, to make mistakes. There’s no danger, and no inherent risk of failing.” Virtual environments,” he states, “have a powerful capability to impact

learning and memory retention, visually and spatially.” Like simulation, virtual environments can be used to “drive home salient points about catastrophic errors in situations that are too dangerous or destructive” to experience in real life. Alion developed a game for the US Navy to study reactions to flooding aboard ship, such as the USS Cole sustained in the October 2000 terrorist attack. Fires, damage control, casualties, confusion – “very relevant, critical activities, difficult to reproduce in a training environment,” Murphy notes. Brian Bauer of Etape Partners, believes the best available games allow users to “achieve status, receive rewards, and otherwise distinguish themselves from others” by requiring “some level of proficiency to acquire.” The same fundamental concept as early arcade games that invited high scorers to enter their initials for all challengers to admire. Mini-games can achieve organizational objectives, Bauer suggests, “while adhering to the ’80 percent fun’ principal.” He sees value in simulation-based assessments, collective intelligence and distributed innovation, virtual team building, and “cultural indoctrination” of beliefs across a physically separated group.

Homeland, Healthcare & More Purpose-driven virtual environments are popping up on computer screens across the military, in healthcare, and even in business. ECS’ “US Nexus” platform for the National Guard is directed toward first responders from many different government agencies. “It’s about how to utilize our resources” in disaster situations such as Hurricane Katrina, explains Waymon

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Training Technology

Armstrong, president of ECS, a small business specializing in virtual worlds. “Instead of everyone going to a Holiday Inn for a week, you can train beforehand in a virtual world, then do a weekendonly capstone exercise.” After the group assesses the situation, “you can say ‘let’s go experience what it’s like’” – a virtual field trip, yet with a simulated rubble pile and available to a large, distributed group. Instead of a “courtyard of random people,” as you often find in Second Life, virtual environment training applications can “capture top instructors” and combine their expertise into a “best-in-breed” virtual instructor, Armstrong suggests.



Maybe even avatars of historic figures such as Billy Mitchell or George Patton. The Defense Acquisition University will integrate Nexus into courses beginning in October. The Department of Homeland Security is using the platform as part of a blended curriculum with live classrooms. The US Army is developing a “medical community of practice.” And multiple agencies are integrating Nexus virtual world technologies into the Joint Knowledge Online Learning Management System. Virtual Heroes, the progenitor of the “America’s Army” game that spawned the serious games movement, is now creating a wide variety of projects, from games for




the Canadian Space Agency and NASA targeted at exciting young people about learning science and math to HIV awareness in Africa, written in Swahili and using popular regional musicians. Jerry Heneghan says the North Carolina firm “is getting a lot more phone calls than ever before,” including from multinational corporations looking to train ‘soft skills’ such as leadership and new employee onboarding. One niche Virtual Heroes has developed is medical training. They collaborated with the George Washington University Medical Center to produce “Zero Hour: America’s Medic” for the Department of Homeland Security on behalf of first responders. “Human Sim” is a virtual mannikin with embedded physiology “to fill the gap between lecture and mannikin,” funded by the Duke University School of Nursing and expected to be ready early next year. RTI International, also in North Carolina, has announced a simulated patient software called the Tactical Trauma Triage Trainer, funded by the US Army Asymmetric Warfare Office. Forterra Systems has a contract from PEOSTRI to integrate its Olive with the Army’s OneSAF semi-automated forces. The combined capability is expected to be used for cultural awareness and first responder training, as well as traditional mission rehearsal.

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SEE FOR YOURSELF AT ITEC 2009, STAND B100 OR ON-LINE AT WWW.PRESAGIS.COM © 2009 Presagis Canada Inc. All rights reserved. All other trademarks contained herein are the property of their respective owners.


The challenges of applying virtual environments to serious training are not techCLIENT nical, according to most subject experts, PRESAGIS but rather how to best apply the capabiliTITLE CORPORATE AD ties at the most effective cost. PUBLICATION The Delta3D game engine, for examMS&T DATEple, OF PUB. was developed as an ‘open source’ MAY 09 tool by the US Naval Postgraduate School ISSUE in conjunction with Marine Corps, Army, FORMAT and vendors such as Alion. “The basic 3D HI-RES PDF X SIZE visual engine is a commodity technology,” 114 MM X 176 MM says Alion’s Murphy. But licensing fees for LINE SCREEN commercial game engines such as Unreal, COLOURS Dagor, and HeroEngine can add up to milCMYK lions across thousands of users. CONTACT PIERRE CHAPDELAINE Heneghan thinks there will be PIERRE@ AGENCECODE.QC.CA some market consolidation. “The marT 514-844-0752 F 514-844-0935 is maturing as solutions are gaining 4060, ket ST-LAURENT BLVD SUITE 209 acceptance. Clients are becoming more MONTRÉAL, QC CANADA H2W 1Y9 sophisticated.” He sees some successful vendors as “prime targets” for merger and acquisition. Murphy also cautions procurement


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Training Technology

The Delta3D game engine was developed as an ‘open source’ tool by the US Naval Postgraduate School in conjunction with Marine Corps, Army, and vendors such as Alion. Image credit: Alion.

leaders not to expect hard data for a while on the return on investment from multi-player online worlds. “We’re just starting to figure out” the training value of games involving a squad, or maybe as many as 30 players, “but virtual worlds are a whole ‘nother leap. With a thousand guys participating, who completed the task? Who failed?” Jeffrey McCrindle of Education Management Solutions advises against the perception of virtual worlds as the end-all of training. “Serious games still lack the fidelity to accomplish some learning tasks and do not provide the ‘muscle memory’ benefits of a live exercise.” Industry, he concludes, “should work to integrate serious games and simulation centers into a full suite of integrated, standards-based learning applications.”

AI and Beyond CAE’s Pogue thinks that in the future avatars may require less programming and keyboard manipulation, instead incorporating an artificial intelligence that triggers gestures and body language based on voice tone and language context. In effect, your avatar will “learn your personality.” “The application should be smart enough to know who you are and your skill level. It needs to be a dynamic virtual human, not a stupid plastic avatar,” opines Heneghan. “We certainly think the way people interact with software is changing … beyond the keyboard and mouse,” he added, citing the Nintendo Wii, Playstation six-axis controller, and iPhone touch-screen accelerometer as examples. Roger Smith muses that “there may be other alternatives to loading information into the human mind,” such as direct neural stimulation (the type of technology that enables a blind person’s mind to ‘see’) or even chemical stimulation of the brain “in a way that creates useful communication or understanding of data.” Whether or not we reach the electroshock or drug injection stage, the Army scientist forecasts a massive shift in the way we view and share data: “We remain on the top of an iceberg of unexplored potential in this field. Beneath the waterline lie hundreds of valuable applications that go beyond training and that can apply VE technologies to real military operations from logistics, to command and control, to situation understanding, to information fusion.” ms&t 14


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Training Technology

Unique aircraft, Unique aircraft, Unique Training

Unique Training 16



currently, the US Marine corps has five operational squadrons of MV-22. Image credit: US Marine corps/grant Walker.

The V22 osprey Training Integrated Product Team (IPT) has put together a successful, cost effective training program that leverages simulation. Chuck Weirauch explains how they’re doing it.


volving in a long (since 1982) and controversial development process, the V-22 osprey tiltrotor, has risen Phoenix-like from four crashes and other serious incidents to full production and successful combat deployment with the US Marine corps in Iraq. The Marine corps has five operational squadrons. An operational squadron of the Air Force variant was deployed stateside in early 2009, with a second squadron deployment scheduled for later this year.

The aircraft The V-22 was developed to meet the provisions of the US Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Multi-Mission Vertical lift Aircraft (JMVX) operational Requirements Document for an advanced vertical lift aircraft. The intent was to provide the Marine corps and Air Force Special operations Forces with an aircraft to support assault and long-range, high-speed missions that require vertical takeoff and landing capabilities. larger and much faster in flight than the conventional troop transport helicopters, the tilt wing aircraft carries more personnel, up to 24, with a crew of three. The Marine corps plans to replace ch-46e medium lift tandem rotor helicopters with the V-22. And the osprey is ideally suited for Air Force special operations. The V-22 osprey is manufactured by the Bell-Boeing Joint Project office in Amarillo, TX. Bell provides the wings and nacelles; Boeing provides the fuselage. Bell-Boeing is the industry member of the V-22 Training Integrated Product Team (IPT) and the prime contractor for the V-22 simulators. Boeing provides the maintenance trainers. The Bell Boeing

US Marine and Air Force pilots use the full-motion simulators to master the complexities of the osprey. Image credit: FlightSafety International.

Joint Project office currently has a $10.8 billion fixed-price-incentive-fee multiyear contract to buy 143 Marine MV-22 and 31 Air Force Special operations cV22 osprey aircraft. Bell Boeing had delivered its 100th aircraft by May 2008, and by 2012 production rates will be ramped up to 39 aircraft per year.

Osprey Training iPT The naval Air Systems command (nAVAIR) V-22 Joint Project office (PMA-275) at the Patuxent River naval Air Station in Maryland is the acquisition agency for the overall V-22 weapons system, which includes the training for both for the Marine corps and the Air Force variants

of the osprey. The Pax River Air Station is where initial V-22 development and testing took place. The V-22 Training IPT is an element of PMA-275. Both Marine corps and Air Force personnel share leadership roles. According to Air Force Major Brian edmunds, Deputy V-22 Training IPT lead, that organization is responsible for both Marine MV-22 and Air Force cV-22 training systems, including all full-motion full flight simulators (FFSs), fixed-based flight training devices (FTDs), maintenance training devices and computerbased courseware, including keeping the training system current. Bell-Boeing and PMA-275 are full members of the Training IPT. The training leads at the V-22 pilot training installations and osprey squadrons represent the warfighter community. The structure of the Training IPT, and the teamwork that that allows, are the keys to the osprey training program’s MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 2/2009


Training Technology

success. A big benefit is that training personnel have direct input concerning any proposed engineering changes to the aircraft and the effect those changes would have on the training program. Another is that warfighters, as members of the IPT, have direct input as to the direction of the program. “The Training IPT is a Level One IPT, right along with the MV-22 and CV-22 aircraft program,” Dave Sullivan, Bell-Boeing Assistant Program Manager for V-22 Training Systems, explained. “It brings together the three elements – contractor, warfighter and government acquisition – into a triad-type organization. Everybody participates together, concentrating on being warfighter focused, curriculum driven and staying current with the aircraft. It’s a very unique way of doing business, and it has paid off really well.”

Pilot Training

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All primary Marine and Air Force V-22 pilot training takes place at the Marine Corps New River Air Station in Jacksonville, NC. Both services require prior fixed-wing and rotary aircraft training and flight time before entering the approximately 100-hour initial Osprey flight training curriculum. Once they earn their MV-22 wings, Marine pilots go directly to their operational squadrons for advanced training. Air Force pilots then go to Kirtland Air Force Base, NM. Pilots are fully mission qualified once they complete the nearly year-long Osprey training at Kirtland. The service’s Air Education and Training Command (AETC) provide training at Kirtland. There are currently three V-22 FFSs and two FTDs at New River, the newest a containerized version that can be shipped to any location. Kirtland has two FFSs and one FTD. Another FTD is located at Hurlburt Field in Florida, the home of the Air Force Special Operations Command and the first CV-22 operational squadron, with two more destined for that facility. Bell Boeing is also contracted to deliver another FTD to Cannon AFB in New Mexico, home of the 27th Special Operations Wing and where a second CV-22 operational squadron is to be based.

Simulators The MV-22 and CV-22 FFSs and FTDs are the key elements in the Osprey flight training syllabus. According to Sullivan, FlightSafety International was the original subcontractor to Bell-Boeing for the flight training devices. The goal was to employ commercial off-the-shelf components wherever possible, he said, pointing out a prime example of this approach; the container employed for the FFS is the same as used for Boeing 777 FFSs. “The Training IPT leadership decided to base the V-22 flight syllabus on the best practices of successful flight training programs, such as those for the C-17, the F-16 and commercial airlines,” Sullivan said. “That meant we were targeting on faster, better, cheaper, and building a high level of fidelity into the simulator that allowed pilots to get a great deal of their training in the simulators without having to utilize training aircraft.” Both the FFSs and the FTDs are rated at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Level D equivalent of fidelity. There is no difference in fidelity between the FFSs and the FTDs except for the former’s motion platform, according to Sullivan. The software that drives the simulators is the same that is used in the operational aircraft, to the point where Training IPT personnel typically

Training Technology

upload software updates on the flight simulators for verification and testing before it is uploaded in the aircraft. Sullivan noted that in at least one instance, this approach revealed a problem in the software, with engineers correcting it before the update was loaded into the aircraft systems.

More Simulator Time As a result of the high level of simulator fidelity, approximately 65 percent of the current V-22 primary flight training syllabus can be conducted in the simulators, Edmunds said. When the computer-based courseware is added in, it amounts to close to 80 percent of Osprey training that is conducted outside of the aircraft, he pointed out. A considerable amount of advanced mission rehearsal training is also conducted in the simulators at Kirtland and at the squadron level for both services, he added. “More focus on simulation was directed by the Blue Ribbon Panel that reviewed the V-22 program and Marine Corps Headquarters after the accidents in 2000,” Edmunds said. “The direction was to put more training in the simulated environment instead of the aircraft, and this provided a big advantage for the program.” Typically ten percent of the size of a Marine Corps fleet of a particular aircraft is reserved for the Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), which normally would mean 40 aircraft for the MV22, Edmunds explained. With more emphasis on simulation, the Marine Corps was able to draw down that number of aircraft in the FRS to about 21, he said. This is a significant cost-savings in the number of aircraft, meaning that instead of being in the training fleet, these aircraft are instead operational out in the squadrons.

According to Sullivan, the lower number of training aircraft in the FRS adds up to approximately $1.2 billion in savings for the program. In addition, because so much of the training syllabus calls for training in the simulator, it takes six weeks less time to train a V-22 pilot than to train a CH-46 helicopter pilot. According to Sullivan, this equates to a savings per pilot of about $450,000. If 2,000 pilots are trained through the life of the V-22 program, this adds up to another $900 million in savings by his estimation. And in spite of the shorter training time, the simulator-based V-22 training program reportedly is producing better pilots.

Networking At the advanced squadron level of training, the V-22 simulators can be networked together for distributed training exercises within the squadrons and for joint exercises with other services. According to Joe Cruz, Training IPT lead at Kirtland, most of the advanced training focus is on electronic warfare, air refueling and mission deployment and rehearsal. The CV-22 simulators at Kirtland and Hurlburt have also been able to participate in joint distributed mission training exercises with other services through the Distributed Mission Operations Center (DMOC) at Kirtland, he said. According to Brad Smith, former MV-22 Simulator Team Lead at Pax River, and Jerry Brown, MV-22 Simulator IPT lead at New River, the MV-22 simulators were originally built with interoperability capabilities. The New River sims are networked locally and soon will have the capability to link up with other Marine simulators via the service’s Tactical Environment Network for combined force training.

Keeping Current The Training IPT includes a Training Continuum Integration Lead, responsible for the processes and tools that have been established to maintain the concurrency of the training system with the aircraft. It’s a major emphasis for the program, since that’s one of the biggest problems for aircraft training, particularly because the Osprey is still an evolving aircraft. “The configuration of the Osprey is not the major challenge, since the aircraft is easy to fly,” Edmunds said.” Our biggest challenge is maintaining concurrency with the aircraft across our entire training organization. That’s why we have such a large emphasis on that process, especially since the Osprey is changing and evolving at such a rapid pace.” ms&t

Getting Their Feet Wet Sailors and Marines aboard the multipurpose amphibious assault ship USS Bataan (LHD 5) will have their chance to make history later this spring as the first ship to deploy with the MV-22B Osprey. Bataan will embark Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron (VMM) 263 with a complement of 10 Ospreys, providing increased flexibility over the CH-46E Sea Knight and CH-46D Sea Stallion in their ability to transfer equipment and troops from ship to shore. In early 2005, Bataan started training and testing the MV-22. During the past four years, a full team came together to prepare the ship and her crew for this historical deployment.




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Performance TECHNOlOgy

out of the Box “Depend upon it, sir, when a man knows he is to be hanged in a fortnight, it concentrates his mind wonderfully - Samuel Johnson”. Lt Robert Lo explains the effect of a concentrated mind on CH124 Sea King technical training outcomes.


n 2005, technician training and levels of authorization held by senior maintainers were in a critical state at 12 Wing Shearwater, the home of Canadian naval aviation. Aircraft availability and flying hours had plummeted. Something had to be done, and rapidly, if 12 Wing was to survive and meet its operational mission - deploying HElAIRDETs aboard Canadian naval forces in worldwide missions. Caught between an aged and aging CH124 (Sea King) and a new maritime helicopter replacement (Cyclone) programme, technology based modifications to training were deemed neither financially nor timely achievable. 406 Maritime Operational Training Squadron (406 (M) OTS) had to go back to the drawing table for solutions. The solution, based on detailed discussion and focused planning, was a redesign of new technician type courses that concentrated available training resources, extended existing 22


type courses, and transferred all OnThe-Job Experience (OJE) requirements from home units to 406 (M) OTS. By taking on training workload from other units and incorporating 100% Performance of Maintenance (POM) into the new technician type courses, 406 (M) OTS has effectively reduced total CH124 Sea King journeyman technician training by approximately six months. This new course delivery has significantly increased technician force generation by helping to clear a backlog of unqualified technicians. Additionally, the efforts and changes have improved aircraft availability and maximized resource utilization. What technology could not solve, teamwork and resource management did. The conflict that existed between technician training and maintenance operations on the flight line is no more.

The Problem Prior to 2005, Sea King Aviation (AVN)

AVN type course students conducting corrosion control . Image credit: Author/Canadian Department of National Defence.

and Avionics (AVS) type courses at 406 (M) OTS were predominantly theory based, focused on applicable Qualification Standards (QS). Following graduation, newly trained personnel were required to complete a Journeyman logbook during an On Job Experience (OJE) phase at their home units in order to become qualified to conduct POM. OJE required extensive supervision and training and was dependant on frequently scarce resources. Additionally, POM training conflicted with aircraft availability as practical hands-on training was required to be conducted during aircraft production sessions. Furthermore, OJE lacked standardization. The

Fleet was unable to produce individuals who could demonstrate the same level of competency in each POM activity. To make the situation even worse, a combination of other deficiencies such as courses not being maximized, difficulty in determining training completion time, a journeyman backlog of 150 technicians, and shortages of resources, aircraft, and qualified instructors at all units resulted in the lowest yearly flying rate in the history of CH124 flying. Combined, these struggles underpinned the requirement for the Fleet to change the way it operated and trained its technicians, or CH124 operations would not survive.

100% POM training as part of the new AVN/AVS type courses by February 2006 and supporting an annual throughput of seven to eight type courses. This would have to be achieved without impacting CH124 production targets for AVN and AVS type training during the 2004-2006 timeframe.


The Plan and Goals The Maritime Helicopter Transition Team (MHTT) determined that the best way to solve AVN and AVS training shortfalls and journeyman backlog was to centralize resources and have 406 (M) OTS stand up new 100% POM type courses. The significance of this plan was that it would ensure long-term sustainable production of qualified journeymen while minimizing the existing conflict between aircraft production

Facility at 406 (M) OTS with several CH124 Sea King aircraft for student training. Image credit: Canadian Department of National Defence.

and technician training. Teamwork and resource management, not technology, were the answer to the plan and the key to success. Specific goals within the plan included the implementation of

Implementation strategy was to be accomplished in four phases: analysis and design; development; conduct of trial courses; and the revision and implementation of the new type courses. There were three delivery options for the 100% POM type courses: conduct OJE as a stand-alone module following type training, which was similar to the past; integrate OJE partially with type courses (marginal practical training is taught alongside theory, the balance of training to be packaged as separate modules at the end of course); and integrate fully with type courses, allowing each system’s theory and practical portions to be taught in sequence. In the end, the decision was taken to fully integrate 100% POM training with both type courses. The sequence was set up to be lectures,



Performance Technology

theory tests, and instructor led demonstrations (ILDs) with student practical exercises, followed by a major assessment/confirmation phase.

Challenges Before the new type courses were established, three significant challenges had to be overcome. First, there were issues with scheduling and course overlapping. This would prove to be a significant test, given the training length had been increased by a month to a total length of 81 to 87 days, and total annual throughput was set at seven to eight type courses. Secondly, additional training aids, personnel, and resources had to be identified and obtained in order to concentrate training resources at 406 (M) OTS. Training aids such as aircraft and test benches can help significantly in ensuring students conduct meaningful practical training. Additional personnel, on the other hand, prevent instructors from becoming overworked and avoid a burn-out effect. Other resources required included adequate facilities, equipment, tools, lockers, classrooms, maintenance consumables, and funding for the incremental cost of extending the courses. Finally, as 100% POM type courses were ordered to be set up in a very aggressive timeframe with no prior experience from any other wing, the solution had to be well thought out. This was accomplished through open communication, idea sharing, and coordination of efforts working together as a team. In the end, working groups



were set up to ensure the overlapping of courses and competition of resources were minimized, careful scheduling and coordination of courses was achieved, additional resources were obtained, and chain of command were convinced on the requirement to provide approval for additional funding.

The Results 406 (M) OTS currently conducts a total of four AVN and three AVS 100% POM type courses a year. Trial courses were conducted in August 2005 for AVN technicians and September 2005 for AVS technicians. Initial serials were up and running by February 2006. Today, 406 (M) OTS graduates only 100% POM journeymen. The additional training required by the operational units is minimal. Sea King type courses now have not only the theory portion, but incorporate practical hands-on training as well. By means of scenario based exercises, students are challenged to recall and apply their knowledge and skills. The concentration of training resources has resulted in increased training aid and instructor availability. 406 (M) OTS instructors profit from the ability to make advantageous use of training aids to both reinforce student learning through the practical phase and assess student competency against OJE training standards. Student to instructor ratio has been established at 3:1 during the practical phase to maximize training efforts and ensure the highest quality of standardized instruction and graduating student competency.

The benefits of the course changes were felt immediately. In 2007, the redesigned type courses contributed to an increase of 20% in the yearly flying rate and a reduction of 42% in mean downtime per aircraft. More dramatically, there was a 13% increase in technician training from 2006 to 2008, and the technicians produced were much better qualified to do the job immediately upon arrival at their operational squadrons. 406 (M) OTS 100% POM technician training is becoming the training model in the Canadian Air Force. Others units, such as the CF18 maintenance unit in Cold Lake, Alberta, are adopting and introducing this training method in order to maximize their efficiency and reduce technician shortage. Technology is not always the answer to everything. In some situations, committed professionalism, creative thinking, teamwork, resource management, and going back to the drawing table achieve the greatest results. In this case, amazing results were realized with minimal associated financial costs and minor changes to personnel establishment numbers. Faced with a daunting future and the prospects of a potentially significant decrease in operational capability, 12 Wing and 406 (M) OTS rose to the challenge and delivered a low-cost, low technology solution that works! ms&t About the Author Lt Robert Lo is the 406 (M) OTS Technical Training Flight Commander. He may be contacted at

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LjYafafj]Yd%da^]kalmYlagfk$ Yf\j]lmjflgj]Ydda^]& The goal is to become battle-hardened before the battle ever starts. At Northrop Grumman, our electronic warfare (EW) simulation products are as vivid as the real thing. Specializing in RF and IR threat simulators, we enable pilots and shipboard operators to locate, identify, and counter enemy missiles, employing the tactics they’ll need to survive in actual combat. We also help the military test and evaluate new EW systems, as well as train EW systems operators. With over 30 years of leadership in this field, Northrop Grumman is able to offer full EW solutions at affordable prices. So, when the battle starts and the threats are real, there won’t be any surprises.


Representative Randy Forbes – a member of the Congressional Modeling and Simulation Caucus. Image credit: United States Congress.

walk into the health care provider that we have never seen before and have all of our medical records available for them to look at so that they can establish our illness directly. The third thing is setting our priorities. We are locked way too much into simply diagnosing and treating illnesses as opposed to looking at prevention of those illnesses. If you look at what we have to do in the health care industry, it’s going to begin to decide what our priorities are and how we address these priorities.

Medical Simulation and Modeling House Bill 855 aims to promote and enhance medical simulation and modeling. MS&T’s Chuck Weirauch spoke with one of the sponsors of that bill – Representative Randy Forbes (R-VA.)


ilitary and civilian medical simulation and modeling, in all its variations, is a rapidly growing field that is attracting attention. In February, Representative Randy Forbes (R-VA) and Representative Patrick Kennedy (D-RI) introduced House Bill 855, the Enhancing SIMULATION (Safety In Medicine Utilizing Leading Advanced Simulation Technologies to Improve Outcomes Now) Act of 2009. HB 855 aims to increase the use of simulation and modeling technology in all aspects of medicine, creating nationwide centers for training, education and research. Goals include improving the quality of care, reducing medical errors, and increasing health care savings MS&T’s Chuck Weirauch recently spoke with Representative Forbes about the Bill. Forbes is a member of the Congressional Modeling and Simulation Caucus, and a sponsor of the annual Capitol Hill Modeling and Simulation Exhibition. 26


MS&T: What do you feel are some of the major US health care issues that we need to address? If I had to take the top three, I would list them as first of all, cost. We have to get the cost of health care down so that we can make sure that it is affordable for a wide section of Americans as we move forward in the future. Second is the record-keeping that we do in health care. It just makes absolutely no sense to have to recreate the wheel every time that you go to a different health care provider, and they always ask the same thing, “give me your health care history.” I think that this is a major problem for us, because it creates a lot of errors and mistreatment and misdiagnosis of illnesses. On record keeping, modeling and simulation is the real key to offer us the capability of knowing, making sure that we have accuracy in our medical records. But it is also to make sure that we have created a mechanism so that we can

MS&T: Why do you feel that medical simulation can become part of the solution to our health care issues? Simulation is a major key. If you look at something as simple as cost, we know that there is no way that you can get training so that you can do effective dispersal of medications, or that you can look at where we need to have health care centers, without using modeling and simulation, all of which can help us to get the most bang for our buck. One perfect example of that which we are trying to have modeled now would be a health care industry that took the cost of what we are paying for litigation, and instead of litigation we put that same money into prevention. I believe that would dramatically change the course of health care in America. Modeling and simulation could at least show the country what this would look like, and then we could step back and decide if we want to go down that road or not. MS&T: Why did you and Representative Kennedy decide to introduce HB 855,and why do we need it? We every year have helped to facilitate a large policy summit, where we bring some of the best minds from across the country together and say “what are the things we can agree on to help lift this industry and move it forward into the next level?” This modeling and simulation bill was really the product of the best minds coming together and saying

that this is what we need. And then our Modeling and Simulation Caucus tries to implement the discoveries they make and the ideas that they come up with. This was the major one that they had. Representative Kennedy has long been interested in health care. His area has been very much instrumental in looking at modeling and simulation as a natural fit for the two of us to come together and introduce this bill.

MS&T: What is the intent of the legislation and how would it be implemented? First of all, it would create Centers of Excellence across the country to help with the leadership in advancing medical modeling and simulation. It would also encourage academic and professional organizations to do medical modeling and simulation. We would promote the use of medical modeling and simulation within the Department of Health and Human Services, which is obviously a leader around the country, and have a major role in that. And we would establish a coordinating council for Federal government to make sure that we see this utilized. Here’s just one example of what this

kind of approach means. When we had some hospitals that were funded by the Department of Defense Medical Simulation Trial Program, they saw clinical errors decrease from 30 percent to almost four percent. If you applied that across the country, we could reduce medical errors by as much as $17 billion, which is an enormous savings.

MS&T: What overall impact do you feel that medical simulation can have on traditional medical education? I don’t know how we would be able to provide the excellence in medical education that we need in the future, given the cost parameters that we will be working within, without medical modeling and simulation. I simply think that we will see the excellence in training that we currently have reduced significantly without modeling and simulation. So if you think medical training through, modeling and simulation is the most cost-effective way to do it. MS&T: What has been the Congressional reaction to H.B. 855 so far? We have had a positive reaction so far. We need individuals contacting their legisla-

tors to make sure that this bill becomes a top priority for them. With so many other huge crises looming around the country, it’s very easy for something like this to get swept under the rug, and we have to make sure that doesn’t happen.

MS&T: What can the modeling and simulation industry do to stimulate more interest to help move this legislation forward? They need to pick up the phone and go meet with legislators. And they need to visit those legislators and say “how about signing on to this bill and helping to make it a reality.” MS&T: What future do you see for medical simulation? I think that the great thing about medical simulation is that it has come a long way, but it’s still like you are beginning to write on the chalkboard, as we did back years ago in traditional classrooms. So the future is unlimited. It’s just a matter of how long we want to stand up at the chalkboard and write. I think that the future is very bright, if we are willing to make that future become reality. ms&t




The purpose of JNEM is to improve leader training on dealing with local populations for units deploying to combat theaters. Image credit: U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Cohen A. Young

electromagnetic, or behavioral – such as a computer network attack or a psychological operation. The concept of impairing a nation’s will to fight has been around at least since 6th century BC Chinese strategist Sun Tzu, and today takes on forms such as cyber warfare, psyops and old-fashioned propaganda, non-lethal chemicals and electroshock tasers, plus civil affairs and cultural sensitivity. The types of training available or proposed for non-traditional ‘warfare’ encompass a wide range of technologies and human interactions. Following are a few current examples.

Cyber Warriors

Soft Skills for Hard Situations Irregular or non-kinetic techniques have moved to the forefront of defense priorities as the nature of modern warfare continues to morph. Rick Adams looks at some of the non-lethal battle arenas and related training.


lmost since taking office, US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates has been talking about the need for so-called ‘soft power’ capabilities to fight the new style of ‘hybrid’ wars against conventional foes and insurgents. In his recently announced budget plans, Gates for the first time incorporated institutionalized support for ‘irregular warfare.’ Military employment of soft power, according to US Air Force Lt Gen Norman Seip, commander of operations in Latin America, encompasses a broad range of ‘non-kinetic’ operations – including training partnerships with foreign military forces, military exchange programs, the protection of other countries’ sovereignty, and humanitarian relief operations. Gen Seip does not believe, as some 28


advocates do, that soft power can change hearts and minds in the short term. “American policy and media coverage of these effects is far too pervasive to be forgotten. A soft power campaign itself will not stop an insurgency or change a nation’s sentiment towards America.” But he does contend that a “sustained soft power campaign may do more to avert the next conflict than an arsenal of missiles or massing of troops.” The military must make irregular warfare a core competency, Marine Corps Gen James Mattis, US Joint Forces Command chief, told the Senate Armed Services Committee. “Our forces must be flexible and adaptable enough to operate across the spectrum of conflict.” Non-kinetic actions, according to current USAF doctrine, are logical,

On any given day, it seems, the Internet, cable TV, and newspaper headlines are warning of sophisticated attacks on computer networks. “Pentagon Spends $100 Million to Fix Cyber Attacks.” “Spies Compromised US Electric Grid.” The information infrastructure has become the front line of the global battlefield. China, Russia, their agents, ‘eqaeda’ hackers, and even high school pranksters are seeking to disrupt both military and commercial networks. In his budget announcement, Gates cited Russia’s use of special forces and cyber warfare before invading Georgia last year. “They used all these aspects before their ground troops began moving into Georgia.” Two years ago the US Air Force created a new Cyber Command, and recently announced a 100-day undergraduate cyber warfare training program that will be housed at one of Goodfellow, Sheppard, or Keesler air force bases. Part of the program involves building a virtual network within a sensitive compartmented information facility (SCIF). There will also be a “Cyber 100” professional continuing education 10-day course. The ultimate goal of Cyber Command is as many as 40,000 cyber warriors. The Chinese are also reportedly targeting satellite-based communications and guidance systems as a key to

Western warfighting capabilities. “Many of our networks go through space, so it is clear that [space and cyberspace] are intertwined,” notes Navy Vice Adm Carl Mauney, US Strategic Command deputy commander. Space studies in the Air War College core curriculum have increased from six to 22 hours for all students, as well as an additional 30 hours in electives for space majors.

Satisfaction Reactions The US Army has been enhancing the Joint Non-Kinetic Effects Model (JNEM), which simulates regular and irregular military, paramilitary, police, and criminal elements, as well as the relationships of these groups to civilians, governmental organizations, and nongovernmental. The purpose is to improve leader training on dealing with local populations for units deploying to combat theaters. The original JNEM, three years ago, only broadly defined Iraqi ethnic groups – Sunnis, Shiites and Kurds. But now the National Simulation Center (NSC) has refined the model to the “neighborhood level” and can reflect population needs and satisfaction levels (which determine willingness to cooperate with coalition forces or insurgents), plus trigger computer-generated crowd reactions to events such as kidnappings and suicide bombings. And since economic distress contributes to civilian angst, the NSC is building some economic effects modeling into the next iteration. The Warfighter Simulation (WarSim) non-combatant screening model now uses JNEM data. So does a live/virtual/ construction federation at Joint Forces Command for mission rehearsal exercises for commands before they deploy in theater.

based and web-based training, and recently launched a ‘computer forensics’ division to exploit information from digital devices such as laptops, desktops, or handheld devices. The company can also build exercises in urban areas, including storefronts, specialized vehicles, and role players. Among their contract mechanisms is the U.S. Army Warfighter FOCUS (Field Operations Customer Support) through the Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEOSTRI).

Sting and Zing US Marines from the III Marine Expe-

ditionary Force recently completed a non-lethal weapons training course in Okinawa, Japan, for situations where they find themselves dealing with unarmed rioters or hostile protestors. The course included instruction in use of general riot control procedures, hand-to-hand techniques, batons, the X-26 Taser, and Oleoresin Capsicum (otherwise known as ‘pepper spray’). “The main point of this training is to give the command another step in the force escalation,” said Staff Sgt. Scott Hill, an Anti-Terrorism Force Protection instructor. “We teach them how to make an aggressive individual compliant without deadly force.”

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Digital Forensics Some retired US Special Operations forces members have started an intelligence-training oriented small business called Silverback7 in Woodbridge, Virginia. Chief executive Steve Lahr says the military is acquiring new technology more quickly now than it has in the past. “It’s very difficult for our intelligence agencies and our soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines on the ground to keep up with the latest technology.” Silverback7 provides computer29 8/4/09 09:38:00


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Left Special ‘playing cards’ help to increase in-theater awareness of cultural differences and sensitivities. Image credit: US DoD.

“We spray the students and have them do fight-through drills so they realize the subject can still fight after being sprayed,” explains Hill. “They know that if they fight with someone who’s been sprayed it can get on them and they have to continue fighting.”

Caution: Culture Ahead A major hearts-and-minds lesson learned in the Iraq theater, albeit the hard way, is the need for sensitivity to other cultures. When US forces were castigated for building a helipad and parking lot on an ancient Babylonian archaeological site, the public affairs fallout was as devastating as the damage to the Ishtar Gate. One notable response has been the In-Theater Heritage Training for Deploying Personnel, which educates troops about the importance of heritage assets and methods of protecting them. Created by an Army team led by Dr. Laurie Rush, cultural resource manager at Fort Drum, New York, the initiative recently won the Chairman’s Award from the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation.



“We felt that training opportunities should be user friendly and should reach all levels of personnel,” says Dr. Rush. The solution includes playing cards that highlight archeological sites, scripted cultural preservation training modules, and mock cultural sites

for training scenarios – including faux cemeteries and a replica stone cone mosaic tower from the ancient City of Uruk as an ‘avoidance target’ on Adirondack Aerial Gunnery Range 48. “We plan to include a virtual reality tour of at least one site in our informational CD,” Dr. Rush adds. “We also hope to use a first-person account by a Marine Corps officer whose unit occupied an archeological site with minimum damage.” Other services cultural sensitivity training includes a replica mosque at Fort Dix, New Jersey, an historic well site at Quantico MCB, Virginia, and civil affairs lectures at the JFK Special Warfare School (Fort Bragg, North Carolina) and the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. ms&t



Issue no. 20 Spring / Summer 2009

Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper kicks-off OTSP program in Canada ALSO IN THIS ISSUE Executive Corner 2 R&D investment critical to CAE’s technology leadership

Technology Developments 4 CAE’s GESI system continues to expand capabilities A trusted Wedgetail capability modeling environment

Program Spotlight 6 RAF C-130J training systems near 10 years of service

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Capabilities Focus 7 Building an integrated learning environment

News & Notes 8

4/15/09 1:18:54 PM

Major R&D investment central to CAE’s continued innovation and technology leadership

by Martin Gagné, Group President, Military Products and Training & Services

CAE recently announced that we plan to invest more than C$714 million over the next five years as part of a research and development (R&D) program we call Project Falcon. The goal is to expand CAE’s current modeling and simulation technologies, develop new simulation-based technologies, and increase the application of simulation into areas beyond training, including analysis and operations. Our Project Falcon initiative follows a major R&D program we initiated in 2005 called Project Phoenix. CAE has always prided itself on being a world leader in simulation technology. Innovation

We recognize, however, that R&D and technology development is more than just a team of bright, skilled scientists and engineers working in a lab and tinkering with the latest and greatest technologies. There needs to be a purpose for technology development, and that purpose must take into account the needs and requirements of those who will use that technology. We continue to work closely with our military and government customers to ensure they have a prominent voice in our technology developments. We are engaging our customers and prospective customers in discussions that

and networking technologies to promote more joint training and mission rehearsal capabilities for allied defence forces. The military has been at the forefront of some of the world’s greatest technology advancements, which has resulted from a continued focus and investment on R&D. CAE shares this belief in continuous innovation and through Project Falcon, we will grow and expand the use of simulation. The investments we make over the coming years are an investment in a better future for CAE and most importantly, for the men and women in uniform who ultimately benefit from technology developments.

Meet Martin Gagné Martin Gagné was recently named CAE’s Group President, Military Products and Training & Services. He has the global responsibility for CAE’s two military business segments, which in fiscal year 2009 accounted for more than C$600 million in annual revenues. Previously, Gagné was Executive Vice President for CAE with responsibility for civil simulation products and military sales, core technologies, operations, and quality assurance. Gagné is a graduate of the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario with both a bachelor’s and master’s degree in engineering. He spent more than 23 years in the Canadian Armed Forces serving in a variety of roles.

has been and will continue to be essential in the company maintaining this leadership position. Even in these challenging economic times, we recognize how important continued investment is to our future, as well as the future of our customers. Other defence and aerospace companies may invest more in pure R&D dollars, but it is highly unlikely you could find another company who invested as much specifically in the simulation niche.


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have and will shape our R&D investments over the coming years. Through Project Falcon, we will focus on applying R&D investments into six main technology thrusts. Among these will be the development of an augmented visionics system to address the challenge of landing helicopters in brownout conditions, modeling and simulation of new aircraft types,

Executive Corner

4/15/09 1:19:05 PM

Government of Canada contracts CAE as Operational Training Systems Provider February 13, 2009 will go down as a unique and special day in CAE’s more than 60-year history. After all, it is not often that the leader of one of the world’s largest countries visits to make a major announcement. But that is what happened at CAE’s headquarters in Montreal as Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper was on-hand to announce that the Government of Canada had signed a C$329.5 million contract with CAE to establish a world-class aircrew training capability for Canada’s new fleet of C-130J Hercules tactical airlift aircraft. “CAE is a Canadian success story and its leadership in simulation and training is widely recognized around the world,” said Prime Minister Harper. “This project is the first step to establishing a world-class training organization, which will contribute significantly to the safety and operational effectiveness of our troops.”

Known as the Operational Training Systems Provider (OTSP), this program offers an efficient and cost-effective method of delivering critical operational training for the new C-130J fleet. The training will consist of basic flying qualifications for pilots and loadmasters, who will also receive mission qualifications to learn how to use the various aircraft systems in an operational environment. CAE will lead the design and development of the C-130J training media, which will include two full-mission simulators, one flight training device (FTD), three CAE Simfinity™ integrated procedures trainers (IPTs), one fuselage trainer (FuT), and laptop-based CAE Simfinity virtual simulators. In addition, the overall training media includes courseware, a tactical control center, training management information system (TMIS) and related information technology equipment. CAE enlisted the support of a range of Canadian-based specialist companies as part of its pan-Canadian team for the OTSP program. Specifically for the C-130J aircrew training capability, CAE will subcontract work to xwave for development of the TMIS, to Bombardier for courseware development, to Atlantis for design and manufacturing of the FTD and to Cascade for the design and manufacturing of the FuT. Following delivery of the C-130J training media in early 2012, CAE will then lead the in-service support for the C-130J aircrew training program over the next 20 years. CAE will have staff on-site at Canadian Forces Base Trenton to provide training support services such as courseware updates, scheduling, database modeling and generation of common databases (CDBs), hardware and software engineering support, and maintenance.

Canada’s Prime Minister Stephen Harper made the announcement that CAE had been awarded the OTSP contract to provide a comprehensive C-130J aircrew training capability to the Canadian Forces. Through the Canada First Defence Strategy, the Government of Canada is committed to measures that ensure that the Canadian Forces will be a first-class, modern, multi-role force capable of defending Canada and Canadian interests at home and abroad. As part of the strategy to strengthen Canada’s defence forces, the Government of Canada is under contract to acquire a new fleet of 17 C-130J aircraft, and in the future expects to acquire CH-47 Chinook medium-to-heavy lift helicopters. As these new aircraft enter service for Canada, highlytrained and mission-ready personnel will be required to operate and maintain them. This more than 20-year partnership with CAE, initially for the C-130J aircrew training capability, is a clear example of delivering on Canada’s commitment to its military while bringing mutual benefit to the Canadian Forces and Canadian industry.

“This approach to training consolidates resources, alleviates duplication of effort, and provides an advanced training suite of products resulting in a more efficient use of funding and a more effective capability development program for our Air Force,” said Major Lawrence O’Keeffe of the OTSP project office. “We are confident that this training will enhance Canada’s current reputation of having some of the most outstanding Hercules aircrews in the world.” “We are proud to be Canada’s Operational Training Systems Provider and lead the overall design and development of the C-130J aircrew training capability,” said Martin Gagné, CAE’s Group President, Military Products and Training & Services. “We intend to use the OTSP program in Canada as a model for the training systems integrator capabilities we can bring to defence forces around the world.”

Parts of this article adapted from a feature article published by Canada’s Department of National Defence (

Feature Story

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4/15/09 1:19:17 PM

CAE’s GESI™ system continues to expand capabilities with new features and applications CAE’s GESI system is a proven constructive simulation system that is currently being used by seven European nations for comprehensive command and staff training. In its long and successful history, CAE GESI has undergone numerous advancements and evolved into a constructive simulation system that addresses the entire mission spectrum of most modern armies, from high-intensity conflicts to operations other than war (OOTW).

a 500-meter diameter and operations in an urban environment with a 10-meter diameter. All maps seamlessly integrate with each other so that movements and interactions between the three different maps are executed as if only one database exists.

As the real world is constantly changing, however, simulation software such as CAE’s GESI system must adapt to these changes. The German Army, the largest GESI user, has been working closely with CAE to suggest advancements and new features required in the GESI software to produce an even more sophisticated training and decision-support system. Based on the recently-delivered version of the CAE GESI system for simulation models with adaptive resolution of troops and terrain (CAE GESI™ smartt), the future requirements of the German Armed Forces as well as other GESI users will be achieved through two major upgrades to be made available in 2009 and 2011 respectively.

• Up to 12 different parties;

CAE GESI smartt offers its users greater flexibility and a much wider range of operations and missions to be trained. The system now addresses training requirements for urban up to division-level operations. GESI smartt now offers three different resolutions instead of just one fixed resolution, new and improved models, and an increase in the number of parties and entities. The most obvious change when compared to previous versions is the multi-simulation/multi-maps feature. Instead of the one resolution that was available in the previous version – a hexagonal grid and 50-meter diameter of the perimeter – GESI smartt now offers two additional resolutions to reflect the need for operational tasks, including

Some of the other key features of the GESI smartt system include: • Up to 32,000 entities; • E  nhanced models to support joint operations; • Highly-detailed logistics model; • Airspace control orders model; • N  ew naval entities (aircraft carrier, helicopter carrier, submarines, landing craft); • N  ew air entities (attack helicopters, transport aircraft, automatic close air support); • A  ctive radar systems (reconnaissance and jamming) for aircraft/helicopters. In the near future, the German Armed Forces and other GESI users want to train their commanders and staffs with the help of computer-aided simulation exercises (CAX) up to the divisional level in all kinds of missions. The staffs of NATO response forces as well as European battle groups and quick reaction and stabilization forces can also be trained with the enhanced GESI smartt system. With the latest product improvements, for the first time GESI will cover the whole spectrum of joint and combined land-based operations in both a national and a multinational environment. In addition to enhancing the administrative workflow and equipping all of the GESI editors with a modern, Windows-based user interface, there is a range of other product enhancements planned, including: • Interoperability capabilities that will support integration with command and control systems as well as other live/ virtual/constructive simulation


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systems on the basis of the high-level architecture (HLA); • E  nhanced urban operations such as arresting and questioning people, demolition of buildings, protection through debris and more; • Introduction of a military police model to reflect traffic control tasks; • E  nhanced special operations capabilities such as parachute jumping, fast roping, and laser target designators; • E  nhanced intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance including unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAV), ground sensor equipment and more. As part of CAE’s product strategy, the GESI simulation system for teaching tactics at academies (CAE GESI™ SiTA) is a classroom trainer application that will always be based on the same core GESI software used for GESI smartt. This ensures maximum synergy between these two applications of GESI software. The GESI SiTA classroom trainer is used by the Norwegian Military Academy in Oslo and by the German Officer School in Dresden to teach junior staff the required tactics and doctrine. An entirely new field of application for the GESI system is in the public safety and security sector. The GESI system has already proven its worth for the training of emergency response centers in several major disaster management exercises in Austria and Germany over the last two years. Within theses exercises, the simulation has also been used to validate existing emergency response plans. Meanwhile, there are also first-model enhancements of the simulation with respect to this area available. For example, CAE GESI was enhanced by specific models for wildfire propagation and wildfire fighting. CAE is also researching software enhancements aimed at networking with other simulation models and within civil command, control and information systems.

Technology Executive Developments Corner

4/15/09 1:19:27 PM

A trusted Wedgetail Capability Modeling Environment When contracting for the procurement of the Wedgetail Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) aircraft, the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) also contracted CAE Professional Services Australia for the development of a simulation environment to support operational analysis and training. The Wedgetail Capability Modeling Environment (WCME) is a constructive simulation environment that models communication channels for air and surface surveillance tracks over a data link and command and control (C2) environment, thus providing a virtual representation of the operational effects that a capability delivers in the battle space. One of the initial uses of the WCME, though unexpected, was to support the development of Wedgetail tactical procedures prior to the delivery of the aircraft. With the increased use of constructive simulation to support operations, new applications for the WCME are being found, demonstrating that the WCME is an excellent example of how capability modeling environments can support a range of training, experimentation, in-service support, and operational research activities.

Preparing in simulation before the capability is off the production line The ADO has a strong history of using operations research methodologies and tools to support major capital acquisitions, both during tender evaluation and acquisition. The goals of the WCME are that it will support experimentation, operational research, operational concept and tactics development, and system upgrades over the life of the Wedgetail platform. Development of the WCME began in 2002 under a five-year contract. In 2003, the ADO began using the environment to conduct capability experiments, which sought to address the risks of introducing the Wedgetail into service through a series of Armchair Warrior exercises. These exercises also allowed for the early development of tactical procedures by the operators and commanders.

Spring/Summer Technology Developments 2009

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The Armchair Warrior exercises involved a full crew of Wedgetail operators exercising with the agencies they will be interacting with once the Wedgetail becomes operational. The team included elements from the Air Combat Group, Naval Aviation, Navy and Coast Watch. Through the WCME, Wedgetail operators had the functions of the mission system, including identification friend or foe (IFF), radar modes, electronic support measures (ESM), and airto-air refueling available to them. This enabled operators and organizations to familiarize themselves with advanced capabilities prior to the capability becoming operational. While the WCME is an effective environment for human-in-the-loop exercises, it can also be used as a virtual environment where operator behaviors are modeled and automated, using the system control and C2 behaviors captured from the human-in-the-loop exercises. By replacing individual operators with behavioral models, decision makers can use the system to run capability experiments to assess issues such as the effectiveness of the future system within the overall air defence capability, what additional AEW&C sensors are necessary to improve the capability, and what the necessary personnel requirements are to effectively support the Wedgetail capability.

WCME supporting LVC exercises Since beginning the development of the WCME, the use of constructive simulation to support live-virtual-constructive (LVC) exercises has grown exponentially, supporting an ever-expansive battle space that engages thousands of participants. Capability modeling environments, such as the WCME, can be used within the constructive simulation to provide a trusted representation of a capability within the battle space. The benefits of using a capability modeling environment in LVC exercises include: • N  o limitations on its availability and accessibility, reducing risk for integration into exercise environments;

• Involving full, partial, or no operators, thus allowing other force element groups, services, or coalition partners to exercise with the capability, but not increase the operational squadrons’ workload; • T  he functional representation encapsulated by a capability modeling environment allows operator tactical training.

Future applications of capability modeling environments Beyond LVC exercises, the WCME and other capability modeling environments support analysis and experimentation to evaluate how best to address the evolution of threat and friendly forces activities in the battlespace. Operations research teams can use the capability modeling environment to provide quantitative measures of the effectiveness of the capability and the overall force. A future application of the WCME is to support the evaluation of proposed enhancements to a capability. The benefit of using a capability modeling environment is that improvements in performance of the capability can be captured in data with minimal development effort. Improvements in the performance of the capability can then be evaluated through exploration and analysis within the battle space to validate the increase in effectiveness measures either against baseline performance or other options for capability improvement. This allows a cost/benefit assessment to be made in support of a proposed enhancement. The development of the WCME was completed in late 2008 and provides an enduring capability for the ADO to undertake operational research, experimentation, and training over the life of the Wedgetail program. The development of the WCME as part of the acquisition has demonstrated how capability modeling environments can support the full lifecycle of a capability, including assessment of operational capability, familiarizing operators and organizations, tactical procedures development, and assessment of capability enhancements.


4/15/09 1:19:37 PM

RAF C-130J training systems near 10 years of service “Much has been asked of the RAF’s C-130J fleet over the past few The C-130J Super Hercules RAF Lyneham has been years with crews and aircraft constantly deployed on operations in is the latest variant of the home to the UK’s military both Iraq and Afghanistan,” said Wing Commander Andy Bacon, the most successful and widely air transport operations Officer Commanding 24 Squadron at RAF Lyneham. “We would not used airlifter in the world. This since the middle of World have been able to meet our operational output and training needs Lockheed Martin-built aircraft War II. Since 1967, without maximizing the use of our C-130J dynamic mission simulators. has been used for a wide range RAF Lyneham has also Military and industry partnerships are key as we seek to manage our of military and civil missions, been home to the RAF’s resources, and the relationship between CAE and the Royal Air Force’s and late last year the worldwide C-130 fleet, beginning C-130J Force is a prime example of a successful joint endeavor.” fleet of C-130J Super Hercules with the C-130K and now collectively surpassed over a comprising both C-130K half-million flight hours. One As you might expect, the RAF C-130J aircraft and C-130J aircraft. As military that contributed significantly to this have undergone a number of upgrades and the RAF nears the retirement of the older total was also the launch customer for the enhancements over the past decade, and model C-130K aircraft early in the next decade, “J” – the Royal Air Force (RAF). the RAF C-130J training systems need to the UK plans to close RAF Lyneham and maintain concurrency. There have been relocate the entire airlift/tanker fleet to RAF Back in the mid-1990s, as Lockheed Martin a series of major “block updates” to the Brize Norton, the largest airbase of the RAF. was developing the C-130J and the UK C-130J training systems to reflect equivalent The C-130J fleet will join the C-17 and future Ministry of Defence was agreeing to be the first changes to the aircraft. All of these updates platforms such as the A400M and A330 military operator with an order for 25 aircraft, have been designed by CAE engineers and tankers. CAE is currently working closely Lockheed Martin also sought a training systems integrated with the training systems before the with the UK Ministry of Defence as well as partner. This search led them to Tampa, Florida aircraft modifications were released for use Lockheed Martin to develop a comprehensive and CAE USA, a company at the time known by C-130J aircrews. These block updates plan for moving the C-130J training systems to as Reflectone. Lockheed Martin’s contract have progressively added functionality to RAF Brize Norton at some point in the future with the UK Ministry of Defence dictated that the C130J training systems to help RAF with minimal disruption to the RAF’s critical before the C-130J aircraft could be accepted, aircrews achieve a high state of mission training requirements for C-130J aircrews a full suite of C-130J training equipment for readiness. For example, no longer do RAF and maintainers. both aircrews and maintenance personnel C-130J aircrews pound the local area around needed to achieve an initial “ready for strategic Lyneham with instrument patterns because training” acceptance. This was achieved in almost 90 percent of the C-130J training is late 1999 and marked the beginning of what conducted in the synthetic training equipment. is now almost 10 years of C-130J training at In addition, because the fidelity of the C-130J RAF Lyneham in Wiltshire, England. training devices is so high, the RAF is able The suite of CAE-built C-130J training to conduct basic tactical training as well as equipment used at RAF Lyneham includes two network the two C-130J DMSs for advanced C-130J dynamic mission simulators (DMSs), a training, such as mission rehearsal using night flight training device, a rear-crew fuselage vision goggles. trainer, an engine propeller trainer, and an auxiliary power unit trainer. Throughout the in-service life of the C-130J training system, availability has averaged 99 percent This CAE-built C-130J dynamic mission simulator is used to prepare RAF C-130J aircrews for a range of missions. thanks to the high-quality CAE-built devices along with on-site maintenance and support provided by CAE UK personnel.


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Program Executive Spotlight Corner

4/15/09 1:19:48 PM

Building an integrated learning environment

CAE Professional Services extends its offering to support training capability development Reduce, reuse, recycle – a familiar phrase reminding everyone to make more efficient use of the resources around them. These three words resonate for training as well. How often do organizations spend their training dollars to develop courseware to train for the same process? Without a coordinated training capability, training budgets can be easily wasted. CAE Professional Services has teamed with industry partners xwave Defence, Security & Aerospace, Saba, Outstart Evolution and Britannica Knowledge Systems Fox to develop an integrated learning environment to support the development of a coordinated training capability that leverages resource management, content management, learning management, courseware development and blended learning tools across the organization.

Integrating best-of-breed tools CAE Professional Services has assembled a world-class team of service and technology partners to complement CAE’s depth of expertise and experience in military training and simulation solutions. xwave DSA, which CAE is in the process of acquiring, is the systems integrator creating the integrated learning environment. Saba is providing the common user interface and learning management system (LMS) capability.

Capabilities Focus

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Outstart Evolution is delivering the learning content management system (LCMS) as well as providing content creation and publishing capabilities. Britannica Knowledge Systems Fox (BKS Fox) is providing critical resource management and scheduling functionality.

Canada’s AFIILE CAE Professional Services Canada has been contracted by the Canadian Air Force to provide an integrated learning environment under the Air Force Integrated Information and Learning Environment (AFIILE) program. The integrated information and learning environment developed by CAE will become the Air Force’s common operating platform for training. It will enable the development of current and future force generation requirements to address rapidly evolving technology and provide the ability to share training resources and content across the entire Air Force community. CAE’s integrated learning environment will evolve current training approaches and improve the capability to meet training demands and prepare for the anticipated loss of expertise due to future personnel retirements. The solution is a best-of-breed, performanceoriented information and learning environment aimed at reducing the training time required to achieve proficiency and increasing overall training capacity.

has been exploring how next-generation training technologies such as virtual worlds and gaming technology can be integrated within the environment.

Reduce, reuse, recycle Blended learning coupled with information and learning object management will enable organizations to break down silos and manage their training programs across training establishments in a strategic, systematic manner. The resulting benefits will include: • R  educing time to proficiency through the adoption of a blended learning approach; • R  educing costs by sharing training resources and content (shareable content objects are reusable) and taking advantage of distributed training experiences; • Increasing the time to capacity through the development of business processes to support effective training information management. For more information on CAE’s integrated information and learning environment capabilities, contact CAE Professional Services (

CAE’s carefully-selected team has focused expertise in military training solutions and offers a suite of configurable, scalable, and modular technology solutions. The team


4/15/09 1:19:52 PM

News & Notes CAE delivers INFRONT 3D system to Netherlands Marine Commandos Following completion of a midlife upgrade recently, CAE UK formally handed back the CAE INFRONT 3D forward observer training system to the Netherlands Marine Commandos. CAE’s forward observer t r a i n e r s p ro v i d e procedural training for dismounted artillery observer teams in a simulated environment. The system delivers artillery call for fire and fire correction training, coordinated communications training, and tactical training. The original CAE INFRONT 3D forward observer trainer at Doorn was supplied to the Netherlands Marine Commando Training Facility by CAE in 1994 to allow “in-field” training. Recent updates by CAE to the forward observer trainer at the Netherlands Army facility in Oldebroek provided the Marine Commando instructors with a proven upgrade path for their facility. This upgrade achieves commonality between the Army and Marine facilities, thus allowing joint development of exercises and a potential for future joint upgrades.

CAE to invest C$714 million in research and development CAE recently announced that it will invest up to C$714 million in Project Falcon, a research and development program that will span five years. The goal of Project Falcon is to expand CAE’s current modeling and simulation technologies and increase the use of simulation beyond traditional training applications to other areas of aerospace and defence, such as analysis and operations. The Government of Canada is investing in Project Falcon through Canada’s Strategic Aerospace and Defence Initiative. Included in the Project Falcon research and development program is CAE’s continued development of an augmented visionics system (AVS) to help helicopter pilots take off and land safely in blinding conditions, such as brownouts. CAE will also invest in developing modeling and simulation solutions for unmanned vehicles, and develop networking technologies to support joint, distributed training and mission rehearsal exercises. “Innovation is essential for CAE in order to sustain its leadership position in modeling, simulation, and training,” said Robert E. Brown, President and Chief Executive Officer, CAE. “We will therefore continue to invest in research and development, even in these challenging times. This new Project Falcon will allow us to continue diversifying by leveraging our core technologies into adjacent segments.”

How “Green” is Simulation? The answer is “very green”, at least according to some analysis done by CAE’s Professional Services organization. The question arose during a meeting in Australia where CAE’s Professional Services team was discussing the benefits of simulation as a “green credit”. Intuitively, most will agree that simulation is green, but CAE Professional Services wanted some hard data so they conducted an analysis to understand the real impact of using simulation for flight training. The results were quite astonishing in terms of the reduction of CO2 emissions. Training in a full-mission simulator reduced CO2 emissions by a factor of 17 to 33, depending on the fuel usage and aircraft type in a live training exercise. In other words, for the same carbon yield you can “fly” a simulator for 17 to 33 hours for every hour flown in a live aircraft. Some key benefits for customers in the increased use of simulation include the economic value in obtaining green credits and supporting climate change by reducing CO2 emissions for training. For more information on this analysis, contact CAE Professional Services at

CAE and Neptec successfully demonstrate AVS technology CAE and Neptec Design Group recently demonstrated Neptec’s Obscurant Penetrating Autosynchronous LIDAR (OPAL) sensor that is integrated into CAE’s Augmented Visionics System (AVS). CAE’s AVS solution is being developed to enable helicopter pilots to operate safely in the most extreme conditions, including landing in brownouts. During testing at the Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona, Neptec’s OPAL was used to successfully penetrate dust clouds generated by the UH-1 test helicopter. Most importantly, OPAL could “see through” brownout conditions opaque to the human eye to easily differentiate between rocks, bushes, sloping terrain, hydro posts, ground vehicles, and wires at distances greater than 200 meters. The high-resolution detail returned by OPAL provides situational awareness critical to helicopter pilots when attempting to land in near-zero visibility conditions. CAE’s AVS solution combines Neptec’s OPAL with the CAE-developed common database (CDB). The fundamental concept for CAE’s AVS solution is to take OPAL’s 3D sensor data and update the CDB for realtime processing of a synthetic image showing the area surrounding the helicopter. A change detection algorithm ensures that the CDB remains up-to-date in real-time. The synthetic image is presented to the pilot on a head-down display or helmet-mounted display, and the pilot retains full control of the aircraft at all times by flying intuitively in relation to synthetic cues produced by the CDB when visual cues are obscured.

Chris Stellwag, Editor Chris Tidball, Frank Bertling, Kurt Bieri, Lisa Prentiss, Contributors Martin Petit, Graphic Design Reader feedback and contributions welcome

CAE, St-Laurent, Quebec, Canada H4T 1G6 • • Military Simulation and Training News is a publication of CAE. © 2009 CAE All rights reserved. NM0920_0632-P01


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Executive Corner

4/15/09 1:19:57 PM


GAME ON! In the face of changing demographics and the overwhelming need for innovative training in full spectrum operations, the US Army is venturing into gaming technology in a big way. Col Mark McManigal, TCM Gaming and Major Tom Biedermann, Australian Army, describe the initiative


t is a common military thought that in warfare, the side that learns faster and whose leadership at all levels is more agile than its enemy, generally wins. The US Army wants to learn fast, be agile and win, and hence is developing solutions to help leaders and soldiers learn and adapt in current and future conflict. There are many training challenges and gaming applications for military purposes, and addressing these challenges is becoming more important as part of the learning solution. Gaming technology, traditionally viewed for entertainment only, can make a significant contribution to the creation of a more agile force. The Army recently embarked on an ambitious gaming program for use in training and educating leaders, soldiers, and their organizations. The Army is presently faced with a significant demographic shift: an ever increasing number of Generation Y or

‘Millennial’ soldiers. Traditional classroom methods do not always achieve optimal learning effects with this generation, which gravitates more toward experiential, collaborative learning in a digital space. The Army is simultaneously confronting resource and other training challenges. Units, often short on time and other resources for the much sought after live training, have had to become extremely creative in their efforts to achieve Army standards prior to deployment. Additionally the Army is shifting its training focus from counter insurgency operations to full spectrum operations. Confronted with the above challenges, the Army turned to gaming technology for efficient, effective, and versatile training applications. It stood up a Gaming Program of Record in April 2008 and moved rapidly to select its first official game in December of that year: “Virtual BattleSpace2” (VBS2), contracting with

Commanders make decisions and see the execution of the plan by their subordinates. Image credit: Author.

Laser Shot, Inc. and partners Bohemia Interactive and Calytrix Technologies. Gaming is not completely new to the Army. In fact, the Army owes some of its knowledge of games to its Australian allies, who were among the first to develop VBS 1 and use it for training applications as a first person shooter (FPS) genre game. The Army initially created its own online game, “America’s Army” for recruiting purposes. Also, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), a U.S. Department of Defense organization, developed a FPS game called DARWARS AMBUSH!, which has been used in most Army organizations to train small unit tactics, MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 2/2009



troop leading procedures (TLP), and leader development. All of these efforts were precursors to the establishment of Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Capability Manager (TCM) Gaming. GEN William S. Wallace, the former TRADOC Commander and a big advocate of the use of game technology, signed the TCM Gaming charter on 2 April 2008 with the intent that the program use readily available commercial and government off the shelf products (COTS and GOTS), thereby enabling the Army to get games into the hands of Soldiers quickly. TCM Gaming moved rapidly to oversee the creation of the Program of Record and the selection by Program Executive Office for Simulations, Training, and Instrumentation (PEO-STRI) of the FPS game, VBS2. While PEO-STRI is responsible for acquiring and fielding the game, to include the conduct of New Equipment Training (NET), the TCM is the Army’ s centralized planner, manager, and integrator for all capability developments and user activities. This includes the prioritization of requirements for games coming from the operating and generatW07 advert:Layout 1 3/17/09 1:55 PM Page 1 ing forces. TCM Gaming established a

VBS2 is realistic – an Iraqi Army soldier talks to civilians during a mission. Image credit: Bohemia Interactive.

system for gathering the requirements throughout the Army, developing them further and getting them into the hands of the material developer, PEO-STRI, as quickly as possible. VBS2 has significant advantages over many other games in terms of its ability

to establish a semi-immersive training environment. The geographical terrain can be constructed specifically to replicate most places in the world. The menu of entities, to include weapon systems, insurgents, host nation police, other military forces, and civilians, is comprehensive, allowing an increasingly realistic depiction of the contemporary operating environment faced by U.S. Army units. Game graphics are greatly enhanced, and there is a three-dimensional mission editor that allows the trainers to make rapid changes while the game is being played. To aid the incorporation of gaming into learning, VBS2 has an excellent After Action Review (AAR) system, which permits the trainers to facilitate discussions on what the training audience needs to improve or sustain. VBS2 is enabled to interoperate with Army command and control (C2) and virtual and constructive systems. VBS2 includes a Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) High Level Architecture (HLA) that enables interoperability with other virtual and constructive models and simulations as well as battle command and control systems such as Blue Force Tracker, FBCB-2 and

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the Command Post of the Future (CPOF). These features enable the training of organized teams and stimulate the mental processes necessary in developing agile and adaptable leaders. Apart from developing agile leaders, VBS2 has a sophisticated terrain editor that includes the potential for the selection of actual terrain, as well as the modeling of real buildings and other structures upon that terrain. This ability allows the creation of terrain in an actual area of responsibility (AOR) such as Iraq or Afghanistan. Consequently, units can use VBS2 to conduct real world mission planning, rehearsals and leader’s virtual reconnaissance on the terrain in their area of responsibility. Many in the Army anticipate that VBS2 can replace, in certain situations, the terrain boards, sand tables and other ad hoc tools to assist leaders and soldiers in battlefield visualization. All in all, VBS2 is an outstanding, versatile tool. As a proto-type, a commercial version of VBS2 has already been in use at many locations in the U.S. Army. Fort Lewis organizations in particular have used VBS2 many times not only at the main installation but also at its

training center in Yakima, Washington. At Yakima, personnel from the Fort Lewis Battle Command Training Center (BCTC) work with the units to identify training objectives, build Yakima terrain and buildings into the game’s data base, design scenarios and connect the game to a Army constructive simulation called Joint Conflict and Terrain Simulation (JCATS). Fort Lewis company commanders, platoon leaders, and squad leaders can conduct operations in the semiimmersive environment of the game and report to the higher level battalion commander and his staff operating in their actual vehicles and tactical operations centers (TOCs). Leaders and soldiers have been able to practice their Standard Operating Procedures, train Core and Directed Mission Essential Tasks, and train Warrior Tasks and Battle Drills. Fort Lewis users of VBS2, from brigade level through squad, have become ardent believers in this training tool and constantly seek more time to use it. The Army began to field VBS2 to operational units and its schools and institutions in February 2009. The total

package consists not only of VBS2 but also incorporates two additional games: Tactical Iraqi and ELECT BiLAT. These latter features permit units to conduct language and cultural awareness and negotiation education programs. The overall package will be a strong tool as the Army trains for full spectrum operations. By September 2009, the multi-million dollar total package will be fielded to the Army’s Battle Command Training Centers (BCTCs), including ones in Hawaii, Alaska, Korea, and Germany. The U.S. Army has been adapting operational and institutional training to develop agile leaders and teams to meet the demands of full spectrum operations. To meet the substantial challenges posed by demographic and resource shifts, the Army is using gaming technology as an important tool. The VBS2 game currently being fielded is a versatile tool with robust features to meet the demands of full spectrum operations. Initial reports suggest that the VBS2 game and other gaming technology adapted for military purposes are an efficient and effective way to train and educate agile leaders and develop small teams for operations. ms&t

Display solutions raises the bar with release of orion series of projectors The Orion Projector Series by Display Solutions offers the simulation industry solid-state projectors capable of displaying fast moving objects and uniform black levels typically associated with CRT projectors. The Orion Projector Series features include: custom optical apertures, internal LAN-controlled optical filters, an adjustable lens iris, DC lamp technology and Partial Field Video Blanking.

Performance tests with the Orion Red Projector generated images with little to no visual smearing or “image doubling” at helicopter rotation speeds of more than 60 degrees per second. The Orion Green Projector, when combined with Black Level Enhancement by 3d Perceptions, simulates ANVIS3 NVG compatible images with no visible “overlap stripes” on all edge blended areas.

Display Solutions provides the simulation and training industry with affordable COTSbased solutions for applications previously dominated by highercost products. We offer a variety of solid state video projectors, warping/ blending image processing, screens and system integration capabilities. Contact Display Solutions about your visual system needs – because the view matters.



Training Technology

Hard Wired for Learning nAWcTSD is exploring physiological monitoring to provide data that will optimize training effectiveness. Chuck Weirauch explains.


re trainees really learning to the best of their ability? Instructors (and researchers) want to know! Research being conducted at the naval Air Warfare center Training Systems Division (nAWcTSD) in orlando is aimed at answering just that question. In two nAWcTSD projects, researchers are examining if, and how, a student’s physiological and performance data can be used to improve training effectiveness.

QTEa one of the more intriguing exhibits at I/ITSec 2008 was found in the nAWcTSD display area, where a pilot in a jet FTD wore a skull cap of white electroencephalogram (eeg) sensors. These sensors were monitoring the pilot’s brainwave activity as he performed various flight maneuvers in a mission rehearsal scenario, and sending neurological data to recorders at the instructor’s station. not so visible to conference attendees were other sensors, which also sent electrocardiogram (ecg), heart rate, 34


galvanic skin response, eye-tracking and thermal camera data, along with measurements of oxygen levels in the pilot’s hemoglobin, to the recorders. It was conference attendees’ first look at a Phase I prototype called the Quality of Training effectiveness Assessment (QTeA) system, funded through the office of naval Research’s Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program and managed by nAWcTSD. The QTeA system is one of the division’s latest research efforts to improve and enhance training through the measurement and analysis of human performance. The STTR was awarded to Advanced Infoneering, Inc, a small business in Iowa city, Iowa in partnership with the operator Performance laboratory (oPl) at the University of Iowa. The oPl has conducted extensive human performance research on pilot state characterization for the Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck (IIFD) program at nASA langley, avionics manufacturers and other governmental agencies. Two of the three QTeA primary tech-

Above I/ITSec 2008 attendees view QTeA physiological data monitoring displays. Image credit: nAWcTSD.

nology components are the Alion-BMh Advanced Tactical Aircraft Simulator (ATAS) and common Distributed Mission Training Station (cDMTS). The third is the cognitive Avionics Tool Set (cATS), which was developed by the oPl. The first phase of the QTeA project has been completed, with contract negotiations for the second phase being finalized at the time of this writing The QTeA system measures a pilot’s technical and physiological performance during high-task demand situations experienced in a flight simulator mission scenario or on an actual aircraft mission. In addition to the physiological measurements recorded in the flight simulator, at later phases of the QTeA project the same measuring equipment will be employed to record pilot performance in

an actual fighter jet training aircraft that is available at OPL. The goal of this physiological-based assessment of trainee performance is to enable improvements in training and to enhance training effectiveness, based on the real-time performance feedback provided by analysis of the recorded physiological data. “The purpose of QTEA is to understand tasks and skills attached to training device fidelity,” Melissa Walwanis-Nelson explained. She is a senior research psychologist in the Training & Usability in Simulation-based Tools Laboratory, a division of the NAWCTSD Training & Human Performance Research and Development Branch. “We want to understand whether or not an individual responds similarly to a specific task or stimulus that they are experiencing in a simulator as they are in an airplane. We have a jet instrumented up as well that we can make comparisons with across a range of tasks that one would perform. That way, we can make better decisions as to what we train in the simulator versus what gets trained in the jet.” Ultimately, the QTEA work will help researchers better understand how a person’s brain works in response to learning, Walwanis-Nelson said, Then training could be adapted real-time to what a person really needs to learn at any given point in time. The pace of training sessions could also be more geared to the individual’s needs as well, she added. Much analysis and validation work of the data recorded by the QTEA system will need to be accomplished before this

point in the project can be achieved, though, she cautioned. The first practical application of QTEA research will be when simulators at Pensacola Naval Air Station in Florida are outfitted with QTEA sensors and recorders towards the end of 2009 and early 2010. This facility is the primary center for Navy flight crew training. Here, the QTEA equipment will first be employed with the Navy Aviation Survival Training Program and its Reduced Oxygen Breathing Device (ROBD), which trains aviators to recognize the signs of hypoxia. The physiological data provided by QTEA equipment will help crews understand when they are becoming hypoxic, Walwanis-Nelson said. The data recorded will be used in after-action reviews for the aircrew trainees, she explained. Another early use of the QTEA equipment will also be used for training to recognize spatial disorientation while pilots are conducting simulator-based training. According to Tom Schnell, QTEA principal investigator for the OPL and research pilot, the basic idea of QTEA is to give the trainer a real-time picture of the performance of a trainee based on human physiological and cognitive data recorded via the system’s sensors. This additional information provides the instructor with another tool to objectively assess student performance. Typically, instructors don’t have the technology available to measure students’ performance physiologically, instead using observable measurements such as on speed or on time, he said.

“Now we can go beyond that by having additional metrics that are derived from the level of engagement at the cognitive level,” Schnell pointed out. “QTEA can indicate how close to perfect a pilot’s eye movement scan of the aircraft’s instruments are – looking at the right thing at the right time – for example.” Schnell described the OPL-developed CATS as the engine inside the QTEA system that connects with all of the physiological sensors, pulling in all of their data and generating a pilot workload estimate in real-time. “So as the pilot is getting more and more cognitively loaded, CATS provides a real number estimate of how hard the person is engaged in the sense of the cognitive workload, and this number is then available over HLA for use by the instructor or the instructor operating station software,” Schnell said. “What we want to do in Phase II is to use that workload number to adjust the training scenario in real time in such a way that the pilot is optimally stimulated throughout the mission exercise, with the hypothesis that learning is not as effective when you are being bored. When your workload estimate points out that you are 100 percent loaded, learning is probably not taking place as well. Somewhere in the upper higher range will be the optimum level for learning that occurs in maximum performance. And that is the point at which we want to drive the scenario to keep the pilot at that level.” The QTEA researchers also want to use the physiological data to establish benchmarks, or “gold standards,” to



Training Technology


which new students can be trained, with data recorded from expert pilots, Schnell said. Then students’ performance would be measured against these standards. Once fielded as an operational system, the QTEA system would allow trainers to determine if students needed further training, he added.

Neural States in Training and Education Another research program underway at NAWCTSD that focuses on the capture and analysis of neurological measurements as a means to improve training is “Incorporating Neural States into Training and Education,” a project also funded by the Office of Naval Research. According to NAWCTSD principal investigator Gwen Campbell, this study analyses student EEG data recorded during a simulation-based training exercise. This study is being conducted to determine if recording and analyzing such measurements can improve training effectiveness or the efficiency of the training, and to what extent, Campbell said. Campbell and Phan Luu of Electrical Geodesics, Inc., want to find out if the EEG data can distinguish between

those behaviors that a trainee performs deliberately and believes to be correct from all other behaviors. This would allow instructors to distinguish between well-learned responses, lucky guesses, true misconceptions and accidental responses, or slips, made because the students are under stress. They hope that by doing so, the instructor can then give the appropriate corrective feedback to the student. So far, some preliminary study results show promise. After subjecting trainees to a training exercise to recognize military vehicles, the researchers found that a single feedback message to the trainees was approximately twice as helpful in improving their performance if that message was based on a combination of performance data and EEG data, rather than one that was only based on performance data. So in this particular instance, incorporating EEG information led to more efficient training, Campbell said. She points out that because of the difficulty in determining the differences in the EEG data recorded between deliberate but wrong choices made by trainees and those that were accidental slips and misses and the time it takes to


make these analyses, considerable work needs to be done before this performance measurement technique could be implemented in real-time into a complex training system. While the EEG measurement techniques are still under development, the current techniques seem to provide accurate information for single trial use. The EEG measurement techniques, although initially successful, might not prove to be worthwhile for all types of training, Campbell cautioned. In particular, it would not add value to training for slowly evolving missions where trainees did not need to make quick decisions. However, she does see a number of applications where the technique would pay off for the instructor. “This work is a first step in pushing an emerging technology towards the state of maturity in which it could be a viable tool in a military trainer’s toolbox,” Campbell said. “One thing that we think sets it apart from other efforts is our attempt to measure the actual size of the impact on the trainee’s learning and progress, and it is very exciting to be able to report that our results to date show the promise of this technology.” ms&t

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Head of the EDA, Javier Solana (left) with Alexander Weis, EDA’s Chief Executive. Image credit: The Council of the European Union.

European Defence Agency Established) on 12 July 2004, the European Defence Agency (EDA) is designed “to support the Council and the Member States in their effort to improve European defence capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)...”. Walter F. Ullrich explains.


hen the EDA was founded it was not entering unknown territory. Several organisations already existed that promoted the development of a more or KMW_ad_MS&T_May.qxd 09.04.2009 13:08 Uhr less unified European armaments market



- perhaps too many, because initiatives sometimes overlapped. The OCCAR and the LoI/Framework Agreement managed collaborative European Armament Programmes, Seite 1 and so did the Western European Armaments Organization (WEAO)

and the Western European Armaments Group (WEAG). In the strict sense the EDA is a continuation of the work of the WEAO and WEAG, transferring their functions from the to some extent dormant Western European Union (WEU) to the wider post-Cold War European Union framework. The EDA, as an agency of the European Union, is under the direction and authority of the European Council. The Head of the Agency is Javier Solana, the former NATO Secretary General, now High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy - a kind of EU Foreign Minister. The defence ministers of the Agency’s 26 Member States (all EU members except Denmark) and one member of the European Commission control the Agency. In addition, the national armaments directors, national research directors, national capability planners and policy directors meet regularly for detailed control and guidance. Despite its high-ranking personnel, the budget appears rather moderate. Average annual funding of the EDA is in the range of $40 million. The EDA has achieved much more during its five years of existence than both opponents and protagonists would have thought. The first major achievement was the approval of a voluntary Code of Conduct on

defence procurement in 2005. This decision marked a turning point: it changed the established practice of exempting defence procurement from cross-border competition. The subscribing Member States now publish their contract opportunities on the Agency’s website, the Electronic Bulletin Board. The Agency manages a portfolio of over 40 Research & Technology collaborations. The defence ministers have acknowledged that they need to “spend more” and “spend more together” on R&T. As a practical first step, in November 2006 a groundbreaking Joint R&T Investment Programme was approved, the aim of which is to develop new technologies that help to provide better protection for the European armed forces. Twenty governments pledged a budget of more than €55 million. In October 2006 ministers endorsed the Long-Term Vision (LTV), which defines capability and capacity needs for the period 2020-2030. Thus, the LTV assists in steering defence R&T and armament collaborations to provide the right capabilities in the longer term.

Developing capabilities The Agency has put in place a strategic framework to set its destination and to navigate towards it. “But strategies and policies themselves do not produce capabilities. These can only result from concrete projects,” says Alexander Weis, EDA’s Chief Executive. Guided by the Capability Development Plan, 12 initial priorities have been selected for improving European military capabilities. Some

of these projects were already underway; the Ministerial Steering Board has activated others more recently – in particular on 10 November 2008. Not all projects or programmes are related to equipment. The Agency’s work on helicopter training is an excellent example of how capabilities can also be improved by other means and in a relatively short timeframe. Over the coming years helicopter crews will be trained at a European level through the Helicopter Tactics Programme to be prepared to fly in more challenging operational environments, such as mountainous terrain or deserts. Another possibility is to pool assets, as in the intended European Air Transport Fleet (EATF). The EATF aims at reducing European air transport shortfalls by pooling aircraft such as the A400M and C130. Different forms of pooling will be considered: additional procurement; making existing or ordered aircraft available; using flight hours; training, logistics and maintenance. EATF operational status is planned for 2014-2017. The Agency’s R&T Directorate is catalysing European R&T collaborations. To ensure that R&T efforts are aligned with agreed capability needs, the Agency has developed a series of Capability Technologies (CapTech) networks. A CapTech is both a Technology Area focused on a particular military domain and the technologies associated with it and a Network of Experts. In practice, the main task of a CapTech group is to propose R&T activities, to generate collaborative projects accordingly and oversee their manage-

ment. If a project proposal interests two or more participating Member States, a separate group is usually formed to prepare the project and this preparation leads to a Programme Arrangement by Member States participating in the project. The CapTech Network was re-organised in April 2008. The new scope of the CapTechs reflects three major capability domains, namely Information Acquisition and Processing (IAP), Guidance, Energy & Materials (GEM) and Environment, Systems and Modelling (ESM).

Simulation capabilities One CapTech within the ESM domain focuses on Modelling and Simulation, including the use of simulators, synthetic environments and virtual technologies for all defence applications, as well as training. Research efforts are invested in these subcategories: • Skills Training Systems investigates skills training and the use of synthetic environments in skills training systems for all service environments. • Tactical/Crew Training Systems seeks to understand synthetic theatre of war (STOW) and the application of synthetic environments, including Virtual Reality (VR) techniques in simulators to reflect the critical cues provided by the real platform. • Command & Staff Training Systems carries out research in order to understand command-level training systems, STOW and the use of speech for interactive training. It also encompasses work to understand the application of synthetic

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environments within command-level training systems and computer-assisted staff training systems. • Virtual Reality evaluates and analyses virtual crew stations as a tool for procurement and training. It includes work to understand integration of 3-D imaging and display technology in the fields of remote telepresence, and cognitive aspects of operator performance. It also covers work to assess the physiological impact imposed by man, the task and the environment as well as work to understand techniques for measuring performance in VR environments, and work to understand the nature of physiological and psychological interactions between humans and VR, and the value of VR in design and training systems. • Synthetic Environments - Synthetic Force Generation conducts research to understand synthetic environments for training, operational analysis (OA), procurement, requirements capture process, platform and weapons systems, sensor systems and relevant countermeasure systems. It also includes work to understand the use of stimulators and simulators, system performance, design, testing, validation, acceptance and use, and environments. It further includes work to understand the nature of physiological and psychological interactions between humans and synthetic environments (SEs), and their value for design, selection and training activities. • Synthetic Environments - Natural Environment Generation investigates the use of SEs for natural environment generation. That includes work to facilitate the rapid generation of geotypical terrain and feature/cultural data. It comprises work to understand Variable Representation in support of simulation systems, and research on the application of models to generate internal wave wake for the prediction of surface wave modulations. • Synthetic Environments - Management Systems examines database management of terrain, environment, dynamic models and other relevant databases. It also deals with developments arising from the SEDRIS programme. This subcategory also works on configuration management and maintenance of models and software for SEs, and also explores HLA, languages and artificial intelligence for SEs.

tactical Vehicle unit training

A new way of collaborating In 2005, then Agency chief Nick Witney noted that Europe should not be concerned so much about budgetary comparisons. It is Europe’s weak spending on research in defence technology that should cause worry! A lot has been done since then. In May 2008, European governments agreed to establish a second Joint Investment Programme (JIP) for research into emerging technologies that might have a disruptive effect on the battlefield. Eleven European countries will contribute to the new R&T initiative developed by the EDA and support it with a joint budget of €15.5 million. That might be peanuts in some eyes. Yet Javier Solana, the Head of the Agency, was satisfied about the R&T programme: “I am delighted to see that this new way of collaborating in a more integrated and efficient way has proved its worth and is being repeated. Investing more in Defence R&T and spending more together will be achieved only through this kind of pragmatic approach.” ms&t

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The speakers at ITEC 1999, The Hague, The Netherlands. Image credit: Freek Zieck.

20 Years of ITEC “An understanding of the opportunities and problems associated with land weapon training and simulation systems will benefit all concerned in this exciting market. Perhaps a European version of I/ITSC will help spread this understanding.” – MS&T, October 1987


he above is taken from an editorial in MS&T, written by Richard Curtis, the then General Manager of Andrich International Limited. Curtis had been Marketing Manager and then Divisional Manager with Weston Simfire/Solartron, then a leading UK training and simulation company. At I/ITSC 1987 (it became I/ITSEC in 1992) he discussed the idea of a training equipment conference and exhibition in Europe with Nelson Jackson of the American Defense Preparedness Association and Jo Tanner of JMK Associates. Just over a year later, on 31 March 1989, International Training Equipment Conference Limited (ITEC Ltd) was finally formed, with Richard Curtis and Jo Tanner as the majority shareholders and Peter Le Marchand and Hazel Ellis the minority shareholders. After supporting the very first ITEC, MS&T cemented its support of the event when Manfred Sadlowski, the owner of Mönch Publishing, then publishers of MS&T, became a minority shareholder, as did the American Defense Preparedness Association (ADPA) a forerunner of NDIA to which NTSA, the National Training and Simulation Association, is an affiliate. 42

The first ITEC was held at the NEC in Birmingham in April 1990 and remained independent, until March 2003, when Reed Exhibitions acquired 90% (NTSA remaining as a shareholder). They decided to brand ITEC for defence training and simulation and ETSA was contracted to manage the conference and the Senior Officers’ Day. In 2008 Clarion Events Limited acquired ITEC and this year’s ITEC is organised in conjunction with NTSA, still a shareholder in ITEC Ltd. The ITEC Conference and Senior Officers’ Day is managed by ETSA, the European Training & Simulation Association; ETSA’s Executive Director is Richard Curtis – and so the circle is complete. Although originally based upon the I/ ITSEC concept, from the very beginning the ITEC organisers chose a much more holistic approach. The vision for ITEC was to be a training, education and simulation event for both civil and military users. At ITEC 2000 five conferences covered civil aviation training, medical simulation and education, rail transport training conference, space simulation and road vehicle driver training. These provided diversity however the dominance of the defence

sector won out and ITEC has strengthened its focus on the needs of European defence trainers. Today, “ITEC provides a unique international venue for showcasing training and simulation products and services that support our defence forces, as well as having commercial applications. Growing well beyond traditional simulation, training, terrain database generation and modelling, ITEC now addresses opportunities relative to medical advances, education/academic applications, gaming technologies, interoperability, survivability, the science of learning and much more,” says ITEC’s 2009 Chair, Debbie L. Berry of Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training & Support. While most European S&T manufacturers recognise ITEC as their showcase, it is the non-Europeans who are more likely to shower compliments on ITEC. “ITEC is not about visitor numbers. It’s about contact quality,” noted one booth captain from a US exhibitor. “At I/ITSEC, for every hundred people, there are five valuable visitors. At ITEC there are five for every twenty,” said another. In fact, this comment from a US businessman summarises what many exhibitors from abroad think: “At ITEC we find the audience we are looking for, namely qualified visitors.” However, ITEC organisers and European defence training authorities would be ill advised to believe that the event will continue to thrive as a matter of course. ITEC’s success will never be ‘a matter of course”. In the long term, ITEC can only move forward if European defence training community sticks up for it and the organisers respond to the communities needs. “We will continue to listen to our customers and grow and develop the show as the market demands,” said Gordon Payne, Managing Director, Clarion Defence and Security Ltd, to MS&T – a promising formula, provided industry and defence training leaders actually enter the dialogue. Once thing is sure; Simulation and Training is more than ever a core part of Defence operations and as such, if ITEC did not exist as the forum for European training providers and users it would have to be invented! ms&t



at N O 120 D AY th A R o it Vis C Bo ITE

By anticipating changing needs and new challenges, Raydon quickly and efficiently evolves to meet customer needs by providing practical, affordable training solutions to improve performance and achieve success. We specialize in developing new simulation and training technology for gunnery training, maneuver training, critical task training, and rehabilitation/ assessment for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

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Seen&Heard Edited by Fiona Greenyer. For daily breaking S&T news - go to

G-CUEING SEAT After over two years and $1 million in research and development, Industrial Smoke & Mirrors (ISM) has delivered its first new 6-axis motion G-Cueing seat to the US Navy for use in its T-45 RAMP and UMFO training systems. This high fidelity seat is designed as a COTS system and has been developed as a low cost solution for positive training. It eliminates the negative training and the debilitating effects of sim sickness that result from visual cues which lack associated motion cues. ISM has leveraged their AH64 Apache program design of the early ‘90’s in this development effort. The seat back pan provides independent motions in the surge and lateral directions, the seat bottom pan provides roll and heave motion and the seat bucket provides additional heave. The motions are provided by high response, low inertia servo motors and low noise planetary gearboxes. The lap belts and shoulder harnesses are servo driven to loosen or tighten in concert with positive and negative g’s. The seat assembly height adjustment is equivalent to that of the actual aircraft, with the seat pan producing somatic and kinesthetic cues to the pilot. “This product is capable of achieving sustained frequencies of up to 20 hertz and is fully programmable and controllable via an Ethernet interface,” said ISM president Andrew Garvis. “We’ve incorporated a 6-axis solid state gyro for safety and monitoring movement.” 44


Industrial Smoke & Mirrors’ new 6-axis motion G-Cueing seat. Image credit: ISM.

of Global Training Solutions. “Since the major focus of C4AS is on service provision to military, educational, and governmental institutions in the Middle East, this will provide both parties access to a large customer base.” Raytheon has a strategic focus on offering integrated training services to government and commercial customers in the Middle East. There is a demand in the region for creative and tailored training approaches to meet organizational goals.


MIddLE EAST TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES Raytheon Company has teamed with C4 Advanced Solutions to pursue government and commercial training opportunities in the United Arab Emirates and the Middle East. “We are working with C4 Advanced Solutions (C4AS) because of its expertise as a systems integrator, information and communication technology solution provider, and knowledge solutions expert,” said Stephen Teel, Raytheon Technical Services Company LLC vice president

CAE is to invest up to C$714 million in Project Falcon, a research and development (R&D) program that will span five years. The goal of Project Falcon is to expand CAE’s current modelling and simulation technologies, develop new ones and increase its capabilities beyond training into other areas of the aerospace and defence market, such as analysis and operations. Project Falcon will focus on applying investments into six main technology thrusts. Among these will be the development of an augmented visionics system – a technology enabling a pilot to take off and land safely even when visibility outside the cockpit is restricted. CAE will expand its research and development initiatives in its traditional train-

ing markets, including simulation and modelling for new types of aircraft, unmanned vehicles and replacement models for current aircraft. CAE will also develop networking technologies to allow defense forces of many nations to participate simultaneously in real time training and mission rehearsal exercises. Through the course of the program, approximately 1,000 jobs will be created or maintained. CAE will carry out Project Falcon utilizing its R&D laboratories and test and integration facilities in Montreal. CAE’s highly skilled workforce will continue to partner with universities and key research organizations in Canada, as well as innovative small and medium-sized suppliers across the country.

CHINOOK TRAINING CONTRACT SELEX Systems Integration Ltd., a Finmeccanica company, has won a contract to upgrade its classroom-based training for the UK’s Chinook Mk3 helicopters. The contract has been awarded by CAE and will help deliver pilot conversion training at the UK’s Medium Support Helicopter Aircrew Training Facility (MSHATF) at RAF Benson. The upgrade will reflect the UK’s operational requirement to supplement its frontline support helicopter capability by increasing its Chinook fleet by 20 per cent. The upgrade began in November 2008 and is due to be fully integrated to support pilot training at the MSHATF by September 2009.

C-17 TRAINING SYSTEM SUSTAINMENT PROGRAM L-3 Link Simulation & Training (L-3 Link) has announced the formation of a team with AAI Corporation, to pursue the US Air Force’s C-17 Training System Sustainment Program. This multiyear program will be the Air Force’s largest airlift transport training system. “Our team offers the unique ability to provide a low-risk transition of two separate C-17 aircrew and maintenance training contracts into a single integrated contract,” said Bob Birmingham, president of Link Simulation and Training. “The relevant and recent experience L-3 Link and AAI bring to this program will greatly contribute to reducing overall contract costs and government management oversight, in addition to ensuring that synergies are maximized between all areas of C-17 training operations.” L-3 Link will turn to its decades of experience in program management and military training operations to proactively identify improvement opportunities and innovative training solutions across the integrated program.

with its products, VAPS and VAPS XT, and the latest versions of Wind River’s VxWorks 5, VxWorks 6, and VxWorks 653 operating systems platforms. To simplify the development of graphics applications to the embedded system, Presagis HMI tools leverage a unique technology called the Porting Layer. This initialises timers, callbacks and the display; it also includes graphic rendering commands. Once created for a specific target platform, the Porting Layer enables developers to create multiple display scenarios to increase testing capabilities. Among many benefits, the Porting Layer allows VAPS- and VAPS XT-built HMIs to be ported to virtually any embedded target and to be optimized for VxWorks. This significantly reduces development and testing times while improving performance.

HELICOPTER VISUAL SYSTEM Display Solutions, Inc. has been selected by Aegis Technologies Group Inc. to design and build a visual system for the RSAF 412 full motion simulator helicopter trainer. The visual system requirements are for day, dusk and night vision (NVG) compatible images as well as motion induced shock and vibration. Display Solutions provides design, scheduling, installation and training support to Aegis. The visual system for the RSAF 412 incorporates the Orion SXGA+ 3-chip DLP projectors, a reinforced moulded screen and post-video processors. Display Solutions used commercial off the shelf display technology whose features have been modified to RSAF requirements. These value-added features are black level enhancement for compatibility with NVG and mechanical modifications for motion platform shock and vibration.

OPTIMIZING AVIONICS SOLUTIONS Presagis has announced a solution stack based on Wind River’s family of VxWorks DO-178B platforms which should allow the avionics industry to take a leap forward. This development platform helps developers mitigate risk and streamline the development of modern avionics systems. The cockpit avionics stack combines the avionics’ industry-leading graphics development software from Presagis with Wind River’s robust DO-178B certification real-time operating system, providing a clear, low-risk path for technology investment when developing cutting-edge embedded displays. The combined platform is expected to reduce development costs, reduce project complexity and improve productivity for avionics designers. Presagis works closely with Wind River to ensure integration



ChAngIng ThE wAy yoU vIEw SIMULATIon

The most advanced simulation and training projection system in the world. The Christie Matrix StIM™ is the first to provide simultaneous and independent control over both the visible and IR spectrum using LED illumination. The first to enable real-time balancing and optimization of color, brightness and black levels on a frame-by-frame basis. The first designed for simulation and training with solid state LED illumination with no consumables, for a virtually maintenance-free system.

© 2009 Christie Digital Systems USA, Inc. All rights reserved.

Realialistic simulation has just climbed to a whole new level.

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 2/2009 CHRI2431_StimAd_MS&T 1-4 Page_Jan-09_FA.indd 1


1/26/09 4:18:27 PM

world news & analysis

FST-J 09-2 Commander, US Second Fleet, and the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower Carrier Strike Group has successfully completed the first certification process under a new training model that employs synthetic training as the graduation event for all deploying Navy strike groups. “We’ve done a 56-hour continuous event before, but this is the first time we’ve exercised the Fleet Response Training Plan model where the FST is the culminating event to certify a battle group,” said Cmdr. Ruben “Diego” Garcia, FST director at Tactical Training Group Atlantic in Virginia Beach, VA. “It’s a better way of training this level of staff.” The Ike strike group earned its certification as ready to conduct major combat operations in February upon completion of a Joint Fleet Synthetic Training Exercise, or FST-J, that involved two other carrier strike groups. While the Eisenhower strike group participated from piers in Norfolk, VA, the event also provided training to the USS Enterprise and FS Charles de Gaulle strike group command staffs. Enterprise’s staff, though the carrier was in the shipyards, participated from training modules at TTGL. The French staff participated from a simulation centre in Toulon, France. Coalition participants were France, Germany and the UK. The event concluded an ongoing scenario that started with a synthetic exercise in December and ran through the Ike strike group’s at-sea Composite Training Unit Exercise, or COMPTUEX. Certification previously would have been performed during a live, culminating Joint Task Force Exercise, or JTFEX. Instead, training that needed to be performed at sea was shifted into a

Commander Robert D. Katz (left) commanding officer of USS Stout during a tour of his ship with Turkish Naval Forces officers. Image credit: US Navy.

combined COMPTUEX and JTFEX. The rest was completed synthetically, helping the Navy maximize its valuable live training opportunities. “Coming out of COMPTUEX, strike groups are certified for Major Combat Operations (MCO) Surge,” said Rear Adm. Garry White, Commander, and Strike Force Training Atlantic, in Norfolk, VA. “That certification is the Navy’s validation of the strike group’s ability to fight in an MCO scenario. The follow-on FST-J assesses the strike group staff’s ability to direct and lead those operations, resulting in the MCO Ready certification.”


Spring 2009 Flight Simulation Conference Flight Simulation: Towards the Edge of the Envelope Wednesday 3 – Thursday 4 June 2009 No.4 Hamilton Place, London W1J 7BQ, UK As the aviation industry grows, the demands on safety throughout the operational envelope of aircraft also increase. Flight simulation today is primarily concerned with reproducing normal flight regimes. However, aircrew preparedness also requires being ready to deal with uncommon situations. This Conference will bring together the users and developers of flight simulators and will aim to identify the training needs, technical solutions, and regulatory challenges as simulation pushes the boundaries of virtual training, research and testing. Sponsored by:

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RGB Spectrum has announced the new MediaWall® 4500 display processor, offering real time performance with up to 30 windows and 12 displays. In keeping with RGB Spectrum’s standards of performance and value, the MW4500 delivers real-time performance regardless of the number of inputs and outputs, at any resolution. Unique among display wall processors, the MediaWall 4500 is based on custom, high performance architecture rather than a PC, with faster updates, more display flexibility, robustness and security. Real time display of inputs is guaranteed under all conditions, without any dropped frames. The MediaWall 4500 processor can display up to thirty graphics and video signals on up to twelve screens in a 3 x 4 array. Images can be displayed anywhere, any size, within or across screens, in correct aspect ratio or stretched to fit, in whole or zoomed to emphasize details. It offers a scalable system which can be expanded to as many as 30 inputs and 12 outputs. Input alternatives include RGB/DVI and analog video modules. HD-SDI modules will be available in the near future. The MediaWall 4500 processor works with any display devices, with adjustments to compensate for the bezel between panels or cubes, as well as overlapped outputs to support edge blending on a continuous screen. Output resolution can be adjusted to the exact resolution of any display up to 1920 x 1200 pixels, the highest resolution of any data/video wall. 24/2/09 11:30:44

3D VISUAL SOLUTION VT MÄK, (MÄK), a company of VT Systems Inc, has announced the availability of VR-Vantage, the company’s new 3D visual solution. VR-Vantage, which is built on OpenSceneGraph (OSG), consists of the next generation MÄK Stealth, MÄK’s 3D information station; Vantage IG, a desktop image generator for viewing out-the-window scenes; and the VRVantage toolkit to extend the included visual applications or even build new applications. VR-Vantage is terrain-agile. It does not have a single “native” format for terrain data. Instead, MÄK has ensured that VR-Vantage supports customers’ pre-existing data. VR-Vantage can load traditional hand-modelled databases, source data, and it can connect to webbased servers for streaming elevation and imagery data. VR-Vantage comes with a rich set of built-in content. The product includes Boston Dynamics’ DI-Guy to animate human characters, a selection of DiSTI’s GL Studio vehicle interfaces, IDV’s SpeedTree for dynamic vegetation, and Sundog’s SilverLining for weather effects and volumetric clouds. MÄK continues to negotiate with other partners to include more built-in functionality in future releases. VR-Vantage also includes top quality 3D vehicle models that support damage representations and articulated parts.

MOD POLICE TRAINING CAPABILITY Saab Training Systems in Huskvarna, Sweden has signed a contract with the Ministry of Defence police in the UK to supply a training capability. The value of the order amounts to approximately 16 million Swedish Crowns. The capability was developed over a two year period using one of Saabs new instrumented leasing concepts ATES, which is actually a new form of the well-known DTES but designated for the “non-green” market. The ATES training solution provides the customer with an affordable and effective alternative to ownership, enhancing the quality of training without the risk of losing control. “We are proud that the UK MoD police has chosen us as its partner in the development of a new instrumented training capability. Our flexible concept

of leasing a complete instrumented training service fits in perfectly with this customers training profile and helped them make the decision to acquire their own capability,” said Claes-Peter Cederlöf, vice president marketing. The contract comprises three Gamer Manpacks, 100 personal systems and 12 vehicle systems. The initial contract also includes operational and logistical support for five years.

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$46 MILLION NAVAL CONTRACT The Indian Head Division of Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) has awarded Raydon Corporation with a $46 million IDIQ contract. The order, administered over three years, will provide the division’s Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD/NSWC), with a backup in development, test and evaluation as well as manufacture, sustainment, technical documentation and training support services for ground system related trainers to assist in various training needs of the warfighter.

Mission Assignment

VIRTUAL RADAR The Boeing Company has received a $28.3 million contract for two virtual mission training system (VMTS) retrofit kits that will integrate low-cost, realistic radar training into the US Navy’s T-45 Training System for undergraduate military flight officers (UMFO). This phase of the VMTS program, which follows a requirements-definition phase, is scheduled for completion in September 2011. It calls for Boeing to finalize design, procure hardware, modify two aircraft and flight-test the system. The work involves T-45C aircraft and ground-station systems assigned to Training Air Wing 6, Naval Air Station (NAS) Pensacola, FL. An additional 18 aircraft will be retrofitted with the system during the program’s third phase, if funded. VMTS provides an unclassified, mechanically scanned tactical radar that simulates air-to-air and air-to-ground modes as well as weapons and electronic warfare. These functions can be networked between the participating aircraft and instructor ground stations. The system will provide in-flight training against virtual enemy aircraft, including cooperative training with both real and virtual aircraft.

Operational Readiness




ITEC 2009

EXERCISE MADE BETTER! ExonautTM is tried and tested, and in use by a large number of armed forces, government authorities and corporations throughout the world with excellent results. MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 2/2009


18-20 May 2010 ExCeL London, UK

Europe’s premier event dedicated to defence training, education and simulation The ITEC conference and exhibition provides a dedicated forum for international defence professionals to meet and do business. •

Recognised experts and senior military personnel discuss insightful strategies, new products and technology for defence training industry.

Hot topics, industry and legislative issues

Training solutions for the future economic climate

Interactive panel discussions with Q&A sessions

Case studies analysis and best practices

Networking with key military and industry defence professionals

Free to attend ITEC Innovations Showcase area - live exhibitor demonstrations of new technology

Remember to keep these dates free. For full event information please visit

Supported by

Organised by

National Training & Simulation Association, USA

NEW INNOVATIONS Bohemia Interactive has announced the imminent release of four new products, all of which will be demonstrated at ITEC. There are two new VBS2 modules, VBS2Fires and VBS2Fusion, and Bohemia Interactive is also now offering two new state-of-theart game-based simulation solutions – the Call-For-Fire Trainer and Marksman MK1. VBS2Fires couples high fidelity indirect fire simulation with VBS2, delivering a realistic and flexible simulation that perfectly augments VBS2 as a tactical training tool. VBS2 Call-For-Fire Trainer (CFFT) employs VBS2Fires and innovative hardware design, and provides cutting-edge training for Forward Observers through an immersive projection system and surrogate devices. Designed for marksmanship training, the Marksman Mk1 allows the use of unmodified live weapons for simulated training, through light-weight, ‘plug and play’ virtual reality technology. VBS2Fusion provides unparalleled access to VBS2 internals and is perfectly suited to integrating AI with the VBS2 platform. VBS2Fusion is being developed in several phases and the first version will be on display at ITEC.

HELICOPTER TACTICS PROGRAMME AgustaWestland has been awarded a contract by the European Defence Agency (EDA) to conduct a six month Helicopter Tactics Programme (HTP) Implementation Study. As part of the UK-France helicopter initiative, the EDA has taken the lead in co-ordinating training among its participating Member States. The HTP Implementation Study is a key part of the initial work. It includes a training analysis across all participating Member States, establishing a common operational task list for support helicopter crews deploying on operations. In addition, the study will seek to catalogue and quantify total training capability and capacity within participating Member States, as well as identifying best-practice methodology for adapting to lessons learnt from operational theatres. Drawing on experience from the previous feasibility study, this work will also outline an initial training syllabus. The study will conclude with an analysis of the potential training needs within Member States’ support helicopter crews, and provide costed options for addressing any shortfalls in training capability.

Device (C-IED) Operations Integration Center (JTCOIC). The focus of Alion’s work is to train warfighters in counter IED techniques. Essentially, the program is training soldiers to identify, react and respond to IEDs. Alion, as a subcontractor to BAE Systems, runs the Systems Integration Modelling and Simulations (SMS) Directorate within JTCOIC, which provide animated simulations of actual IED events in four days or less by using a variety of terrain and analytical tools, physics-based constructive simulations and gaming software.

NEXT-GENERATION VISUAL SYSTEM DISPLAY Visualization pioneer Barco is to be a strategic provider to L3 Communications’ Link Simulation and Training (L-3 Link) division in a joint collaboration to develop a next-generation SimuSphereŽ display system, called the SimuSphere HD. This advanced, QXGA-fidelity visual system is specially designed to greatly enhance fighter pilot training realism and maximize operational readiness. L-3 Link’s SimuSphere HD display solution immerses pilots in a virtual training environment equivalent to real-world flying missions. Multiple Barco SIM 7 projectors beam QXGA-level imagery (2048x1536) onto corresponding display screens that surround the simulator cockpits, providing pilots with a 360degree field-of-view. HDTV-like display screens are positioned for the pilot’s eye point. The Barco projection system enables the SimuSphere HD to provide an immersive field-of-view that can display out-of-the-window imagery at 20/40 visual acuity. The SimuSphere HD is field upgradeable to 20/20, and supports training activities such as flight formation, bogey detection/identification, and mission rehearsal.

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VIRTUAL TASK TRAINERS NGRAIN is to provide the United States Marine Corps (USMC) with sixty virtual task trainers (or virtual training software) to support maintenance training for individual and crew weapons, ground weapons systems, and vehicle subsystems, and will be used to support both instructor-led and self-paced student learning. The virtual task trainers, based on NGRAIN commercial-offthe-shelf (COTS) software, will conform to the Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), allowing the USMC to use them in conjunction with Learning Management Systems. USMC instructors will use Producer, NGRAIN’s COTS software simulation authoring tool, to update equipment parts information, procedural animations, and tasks provided with the VTTs.

COUNTER IED TRANIING Alion Science and Technology is providing simulation tools to the US Army and serving as an integrator between the Generating and Operational Forces under a one-year, $1.1 million contract through the Army’s Joint Training Counter Improvised Explosive

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REAL-LIFE BATTLEFIELd SCENARIOS Fidelity Technologies Corp. has announced a $5.3 million contract with the US Air Force to create a simulation and training system that can be used for a full range of training exercises. The product, called the Joint Terminal Control Training and Rehearsal System (JTC TRS) will provide real-life battlefield scenarios for war fighters in four areas: Terminal Attack Control, Close Air Support, Air Traffic Control and Call for Fire coordination, training, and mission rehearsal. The highly-technological system will include a large 240x60 degree projection system, to serve as an interactive screen, and an extensive network of computers. As part of the contract, Fidelity will provide the Air Force with the specifics on how to build the simulator.

$16 MILLION CUBIC CONTRACT Cubic Simulation Systems, Inc. has been awarded a contract valued at more than $16 million for its Engagement Skills Trainer 2000 (EST 2000), a virtual training experience that allows soldiers to engage their foes on large, colorful projection screens using realistic simulated weapons ranging from pistols to grenade launchers. Validated by the US Army Infantry School, EST 2000 teaches marksmanship skills, squad-level collective defense and judgmental “shoot-don’t shoot” tactics. The system trains soldiers in the use of small arms, as well as the 50-caliber M2 machine gun and the 40mm Mark-19 grenade launcher.

ExpeditiondI UPGRAdE Quantum3D, Inc. has announced a substantial upgrade to ExpeditionDI, its immersive, man-wearable training system. The latest system, identified as ExpeditionDI Block 3, includes a new graphics processor that delivers a 300 percent performance improvement, as well as enhanced weapon instrumentation designed to improve realism for training infantryman. The new computer, internally dubbed ‘T2e’, is an enhanced version of the company’s ruggedized Thermite 1300 tactical visual computer. Designed specifically for the ExpeditionDI system, T2e enables the latest generation games and application 50


software to be hosted on ExpeditionDI. Quantum3D has also added improved instrumentation to the weapons that it offers with its ExpeditionDI hardware platform. The instrumentation package for each weapon has been upgraded to support sensing all interaction with the weapon, including motion, aiming, modes of operation, and conduct of correct procedures for reloads and immediate action drills. John Carswell, ExpeditionDI program director at Quantum3D, commented on the importance of these system upgrades for the Army’s training initiatives: “Immersive infantry training will be one of the most important initiatives moving forward for our armed forces. The Army and Marine Corps are concerned with providing timely and accessible training to their infantryman, and ExpeditionDI is the industry’s only untethered, immersive training system that is capable of meeting these requirements by running a broad range of gaming and simulation software applications.”

TRAINING SYSTEMS UPGRAdE Meggitt Training Systems Inc. (MTSI) has been awarded a contract worth approximately $5 million from the US Army National Guard (ARNG) for enhancements to existing virtual small-arms trainers. Designed and manufactured by Meggitt, the simulators have been used successfully for over 12 years and continue to meet ARNG mandatory training requirements.

Cubic’s EST 2000. Image credit: Cubic.

Known as Combat Skills Marksmanship Trainers (CSMTs), the systems feature small-arms training courseware geared to the Guard’s homeland security missions. Small unit leaders use the CSMT to rehearse mission planning.

C$60 MILLION HELICOPTER TRAINING A joint venture of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and CAE has finalized all necessary contracts to begin construction and development of a new C$60 million helicopter training centre in Bangalore, India. The Helicopter Academy to Train by Simulation of Flying (HATSOFF) will have a CAE-built full mission simulator featuring CAE’s revolutionary roll-on/roll-off cockpit design, which enables cockpits representing various helicopter types to be used in the simulator. HATSOFF expects to be training at a new purpose-built facility in the second half of 2010. When fully operational, the facility will be able to train up to 400 helicopter pilots each year and expects to generate annual revenues of up to approximately C$20 million. Initially, HATSOFF will offer comprehensive training to civil and military customers operating four helicopter types: the Indian Army/Air Force variant of the HAL-built Dhruv, the civil variant of the Dhruv, the Bell 412 and the Eurocopter Dauphin.

Prepare for the unconventional Live is not enough

Cubic Defense Applications, a global leader in combat training, prepares warfighters for the current operating environment with fully integrated live, virtual, constructive and joint training solutions. Our innovative technologies enable multinational forces to train jointly using simulated and tactical systems. In the complex puzzle of modern warfare, Cubic has all the pieces to build forces that are well equipped for the rigors of combat.



Visit us at ITEC, Stand E110

world news & analysis

FRENCH MOD SIMULATION SYMPOSIUM The seventh Multi-service Workshop on Modelling and Simulation was held from 26 to 30 January at Thales University (TU), in Jouy-en-Josas near Paris. Like last year’s event, this one was open to industry and about 55 per cent of the almost 300 participants were from the civilian side. The workshop was organized by the conference committee of the Armed Forces Industry Working Group on simulation (ADIS) of the DGA, the French defence procurement agency and hosted by Thales Training and Simulation in TU. Général de Brigade Gérard Lapprend, head of the space and multi-service programmes service opened the workshop. In his keynote speech he insisted on the importance of procuring simple and low-cost products, preferring the use of serious games to developing specific simulation. He also referred to the importance of being consistent with NATO M&S policy. The technical director of Thales’ DS3 Division, Brune Nouzille, reflected on the expanding simulation world: from manned simulators to constructive simulation, which the French dub “technical-operational simulation”. He went on to stress the importance of interoperability, and cooperation between industry and government within battlelabs. Ingénieur Généal de l’Armement Alain Dohet (DGA) in charge of “Systems of Systems” technical centre argued that failure in simulation programmes for future systems might well impact directly on the development of the armed forces’ future systems. He pointed out the importance of cooperation and coordination with organizations that are developing modelling and simulation standards, like the NMSG and SISO.

Annual International Training Conference Celebrating the Handley Page Centenary: 100 Years of Education in Aeronautics – Time for a Change? Tuesday 23 – Wednesday 24 June 2009 No.4 Hamilton Place, London W1J 7BQ, UK The Annual International Training Conference in 2009 will form a major part of the Royal Aeronautical Society’s celebrations to mark the Handley Page centenary. It seeks to examine the challenges in ensuring that engineers working in the aviation industry are best prepared and equipped for careers extending over the next 50 years and beyond. The strategic challenges in education and training will be examined from the differing perspectives of manufacturers, operators, regulators, technologists, academia and young professionals who have recently entered the aviation industry. Sponsored by:

Cranfield College of Aeronautics Alumni Association (CCAAA)

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Général de Brigade Gérard Lapprend, head of the space and multi-service programmes. Image credit: DGA.

The actual workshop called to mind basic concepts of simulation. And, building on that, the topics presented encompassed the almost complete set of current simulation activities in France, providing updates on operational needs and simulation technology. More specifically, the experts discussed the operational validation of simulation tools, the use of simulation to support the education and training of forces, and the use of simulation during the acquisition process. A half-day was dedicated to the problems associated with databases for synthetic environments. The intense debates following the talks and the lively discussions during the practical demonstrations allowed divergences and common needs to be identified but also revealed possible joint actions. At the end of the workshop it only remained for Jean-Louis Igarza, chairman of the conference committee, to congratulate the speakers for their excellent presentations, to praise the audience for their constructive contributions to the discussions, and most of all to thank the host company and sponsor Thales.

GAMETECH GROWS The Defense GamesTech User’s and Connections Conference – March 9-12 in Orlando – has grown from 80 participants last year to more than 300 live and dozens more virtual this year. This parallels the growth in the application of serious gaming and virtual worlds technology for military training applications. Representatives of the Department of Defense, the Army and the Marine Corps and the Canadian War College described examples of applications of gaming technology to serious games for training. Of particular note, Martin Bushika, manager for Training Technology and Gaming for the Marine Corps Program Manager for Training Systems (PMTRASYS) described a “two-fisted” application of gaming technology to meet the needs of today’s marines; kinetic employing gaming for small unit tactical decision-making training, and non-kinetic using gaming technology for language and cultural training. Mike Enloe, representing TCM (TRADOC (Training and 20/3/09 13:52:24

Doctrine Command) Capability Manager) Gaming, provided an overview of the Gaming Training Strategy. Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI)’s Lt. Col. Gary Stevens described how that agency would field its next-generation Game After Ambush! throughout the Army. Virtual worlds such as Second Life seem to be the next technological leap forward for training applications. Major General Erwin Lessel III described how Air Education and Training Command (AETC) is employing its Second World My Base Virtual Learning Environment. He said that My Base is a virtual Air Force base designed to support recruiting, learning and education, where through their avatars, airmen can attend classes, access knowledge bases and collaborate on projects, among other activities. He emphasized the services must find ways to adopt and integrate new technologies such as virtual worlds into their training environments to keep from disenfranchising younger enlistees who have experience with these technologies at home and expect to employ them for learning instead of the traditional classroom approach.

Overall, more than 50 military, academic and industry presenters gave presentations and provided demonstrations of the latest in gaming and virtual worlds during the three-day event. According to GameTech 2009 organizers, given this success, they have every expectation of turning this into an annual event in Orlando.

COMPUTER-BASED NAVAL TRAINERS The Royal New Zealand Navy has placed an order with UK software company DT Media following a six month tender and evaluation process. The Royal New Zealand Navy will install DT Media’s Fleetman Fleetwork Simulation Trainer, which is a family of computer-based naval trainers designed to exploit the full power of modern PCs, at its Maritime Warfare Training Center, in Auckland. Fleetman enables the running of simulation exercises using a mix of ships, submarines, helicopters and aircraft. Students, or groups of students, may be assigned to different platforms within the exercise over a workstation network.

OPERATIONAL FLIGHT TRAINER The Boeing Company has delivered an operational flight trainer (OFT) to Australia for the Project Wedgetail airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) program. The OFT, which the customer accepted in February, is the first segment of the Wedgetail program to be delivered to Australia. The Wedgetail aircraft is a derivative of the commercial 737-700 and the OFT is based on the proven technology of the Next-Generation 737 simulator platforms. The motion-based flight simulator was designed, built and installed by Thales and managed under a subcontract by Boeing Defence Australia. The OFT is customized to account for the unique characteristics of the Wedgetail AEW&C system, including controls for the communication, aerial-refuelling and Electronic Warfare Self Protection systems. Prior to delivery, the OFT was awarded zero flight time status, the highest level of accreditation under Australian standards. The simulator has been installed at the Wedgetail AEW&C Support Center at RAAF base Williamtown.

ITEC 2009

Visit us at stand #F150 This year at ITEC, KONGSBERG will demonstrate the PROTECTOR Training System, the Combat Trainer for the CV90 vehicle - both systems supported by KONGSBERG’s BaSE core technology. We would like to encourage our present and potential new customer to contact us prior to the trade fair, to allow us to set aside time for a demonstration, MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 2/2009


world news & analysis

AUSA WINTER SYMPOSIUM AND EXHIBITION The rapidly changing battlefield, asymmetric warfare and an ever-growing list of virtual challenges for the Army – this was the focus of the Association of the United States Army (AUSA) 2009 Winter Symposium and Exhibition from February 25-27. Driven by AUSA’s Institute of Land Warfare, the Winter Symposium is a prelude to AUSA’s annual meeting in Washington, D.C., in October and serves as a key professional development forum on issues ranging from technology and training to updates on actions and efforts worldwide. 5,000 attendees, exhibitors and presenters, participated. An overriding issue for the Army is rapid deployment of technology from the drawing board onto the battlefield. For example, SAIC, the primary contractor for the Army’s Common Driver Trainer (CDT) program – which has produced Stryker and M-1 cabin development at Ft. Knox, Ky., by upgrading them to CDT standards – is focused on their third CDT variant that supports the MRAP Cougar cab. But with software, said David Rees, senior vice president and director of business development, SAIC can support multiple MRAP variants. “It was a very high-speed development, just like the [MRAP] program itself,” he said. “We actually had the cab physical mock-up at AUSA Winter last year, demonstrated it working at AUSA national in October … an we’re now delivering production variants to the Army.” With a common software environment, the cabs operate as a “plug-in, plug-out”. In about 30 minutes, the simulator can switch from an MRAP to a Stryker. SAIC also has a single helicopter variant based on the same technology. “We’ve got very strong up-front systems engineering, so we know what the requirements are, we know what the nuances are of the vehicle,” Rees said. “We call it composable systems … It allows us to be much more responsive to technology changes or – frankly more important for us – operational changes.” A walk to the outdoor exhibit area provided an additional look at new technologies and methods to prepare troops for deployment. One particular exhibit provided live simulation demonstrations that included actors and extensive settings to get troops closer to the action. For about seven years, Strategic Operations has provided training tools that bring the military as close to the physical and psychological action as possible, but in a controlled and safe environment. Currently providing training for Marines at Twentynine Palms, Calif., this “HyperRealistic” approach utilizes movie-making techniques and trained professional actors. “Amputee role players [for example] know how to act and emote, and we put limbs on them and blow them off, and we put all kinds of special effects in there, things that you would see on television,” said Kit Lavell, Strategic Operations executive vice president. “Army medics, for example, and Navy corpsmen very rarely get a chance to see traumatic combat injuries in a training environment.” Unlike situations where medics are unable to train with their units, he noted that their live simulations combine combat surroundings and realistic injuries to bring all elements of the team together. With an emphasis on the types of injuries that occur in counter-insurgency, Lavell said, medics see realistic injuries that are more serious before they reach the real thing in combat. “You can have an actor be able to go through the acting portion of that, which is very important, because sometimes it gives you good information, sometimes it gives you bad, just like in the real world,” he said. While no troop has been hurt during these simulations, Stu Segall, Strategic Operations president said, “We’ve had guys who think they’re going to die.” Among the other hundreds of exhibits, these training techniques illustrate efforts to bring troops as close to combat as possible, before deployment. The AUSA Annual Meeting and Exposition is scheduled for October 5-7 in Washington, D.C. Amid the abundance of technological wares that will make the trip to Washington will be a long-awaited look at the 2010 budget, perspectives from anew administration and perhaps a clear roadmap for the future of the Army’s ever-changing landscape.



NEW GENERATION LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS The recently launched ROLE project aims at delivering and testing prototypes of highly responsive technology-enhanced learning environments, offering breakthrough levels of effectiveness, flexibility, user-control and mass-individualism. The ROLE consortium consists of 16 internationally renowned research groups/companies and is funded by the European Commission. ROLE researches adaptivity and personalisation in terms of content and navigation and the entire learning environment and its functionalities. This approach permits individualisation of the components, tools and functionalities of a learning environment, and their adjustment or replacement by existing web-based software tools. Learning environment elements can be combined to mash up components and functionalities, which can be adapted by lone learners or groups to meet their own needs and to enhance the effectiveness of their learning. This can help them to establish a livelier and personally more meaningful learning experience. The validity of ROLE’s research will be assessed in several real-life testbeds, among them adult education at Shanghai Jiaotong University (SJTU), one of China’s top universities. “This testbed is extremely challenging,” said Dr. Carsten Ullrich from SJTU. “Our 19,000 students have a job and a family. They take courses in their sparse free time. If our research enables them to learn more effectively, then our approach will have proven its validity.” To achieve that goal ROLE will integrate tools that stimulate active learning, including from mobile phones.

WSO INSTRUCTORS BVR Systems (1998) Ltd. has been awarded a contract with a leading air force to train Instructors of Weapon Systems Operators (IWSO). The contract is valued at approximately US$1.45 million. The training courses will qualify the instructors in performing air-to-air and air-to-surface roles, as well as warfighter fundamentals such as airmanship and emergency procedures handling. The course will be conducted through both classroom lectures and practice sessions in BVR’s full mission simulator.

VTS SIMULATION Transas Marine, UK has provided the British Fylde College’s Fleetwood Nautical Campus with a vessel traffic service (VTS) simulation suite to extend the current Transas Navi-Trainer Professional Simulation Centre. The installation comprises two NaviMonitor workstations which allow monitoring the developing traffic situation in any simulated exercise run on the main navigational bridges on site. A projected visualisation channel gives the view from the control tower and completes the ‘full mission’ effect. Fleetwood is now one of only two British nautical schools to offer MCA accredited VTS operator training according to the IALA V103 standard.

FIRST HELICOPTER SIM IN LATIN AMERICA Eurocopter and its Brazilian subsidiary Helibras have announced the introduction of the first flight simulator for helicopters in Latin America. The flight simulator, which will be operational in two years in the state of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, will be designed to recreate the cockpit environment and missions of an EC725 helicopter. It will be used to train the pilots who will fly the 50 military EC725 helicopters that will be built for the first time on Helibras’ assembly lines in Itajubá, in the state of Minas Gerais. Eurocopter president Lutz Bertling stated: “Eurocopter’s strategy is to develop its support and services activity and to promote a proactive pilot training policy. Over the last few months, we have introduced numerous simulators for the EC225 in France, the EC135 in Germany and the United States, and the NH90 in Germany. The forthcoming introduction of the EC725 simulator in Brazil and in Malaysia will broaden our offer and meet the expectations of our customers in this growing area of strategic importance.”

Live Fire “Train as you Fight”

FAC/JTAC TRAINING IFAD, a leading provider of forward air controller training solutions (FAC/JTAC) have signed a partnership agreement with Arenalogic, a provider of high fidelity combat flight simulation solutions. The partnership enables the two companies to jointly provide cost-effective, deployable simulation-based training solutions for FAC and pilot training. IFAC and Arenalogic expect the new FAC/Pilot training solution to have great potential in a promising market for realistic CAS combat training. The training solution will help military services to cope with a growing demand for mission ready ground commanders. It will improve the pilot and FAC’s proficiency, cooperation skills and performance.

AIR POWER TRAINING PROGRAMME LINE Communications has delivered the final part of the UK RAF’s Air Power Study Pack. The e-learning programme forms part of a larger Air Power initiative which aims to enhance junior officer’s knowledge and understanding of Air Power within the Royal Air Force. The overall training initiative comprises Air Power Study Packs 1 and 2 which cover the history and development of Air Power as well as Air Power fundamentals. The RAF commissioned LINE to produce Air Power Study Pack 3 which gives personnel the opportunity to study the application of Air Power in more detail and bring personnel up to the level of the Basic Air Warfare Course. All three parts of the pack are soon to be launched on the Defence Learning Portal (DLP).

Live Fire Targetry Products: • Electronic/Digital Ranges • Marksman Ranges • MOUT Ranges • Tank Gunnery Ranges • Radio Controlled Ranges • Deployable Ranges • Indoor Ranges For further information please call Theissen Training on +49 211 975040 or email




world news & analysis

AVIONICS DISPLAY SOLUTIONS A division of Lockheed Martin, specializing in systems integration of military aircraft, has selected Quantum3D Inc.’s IData Human Machine Interface (HMI) toolset to support the simulation and embedded display of graphical information shown on cockpit displays. The IData HMI toolset will provide systems engineers at Lockheed Martin Systems Integration in Owego, NY, and at its facility in Havant, UK, with a breakthrough approach to developing graphical information shown on cockpit displays. Instead of employing outdated code generation methods, the IData toolset outputs data defining the HMI’s graphics and behaviour. This approach can significantly reduce the time and expense in each phase of the embedded display lifecycle, from prototyping and simulation through development and deployment of the embedded target application. Lockheed Martin Systems integration in Owego will use the HMI toolset to more rapidly develop tactical and situational awareness information that is graphically displayed to military pilots and crew aboard a range of rotary wing and fixed wing aircraft.

3D SIMULATION ENGINE Caspian Learning is making its 3D simulation authoring tool, Thinking Worlds™ available to defence personnel, trainers and contractors as an annual developer seat licence. This allows one

user to create and deploy as many simulations as they need over one year for use by any number of personnel, regardless of location. Thinking Worlds allows defence personnel to rapidly create their own highly immersive 3D training simulations using inbuilt image libraries, game mechanics, problem solving tasks and interactivity templates. Games have already been tested within both a DII and DLP environment in the UK and within a secure US Army system. The UK Defence College of Policing and Guarding has developed a 3D simulation in which military police are able to examine crime scenes, question military suspects and search property and people for effective seizure of evidence. In addition The Maritime Warfare School has created an advanced role playing simulation to teach new recruits processes linked to “Rounds Inspections” onboard a Type 22 frigate.

STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP Antycip Simulation Limited, a subsidiary of ST Electronics (Training & Simulation Systems) Pte Ltd, has signed an exclusive distribution agreement with Cogent3D. Cogent3D is a privately held business specialising in modelling and simulation, created to distribute some of the world’s most technically advanced 3D products. Antycip Simulation will be the European exclusive distributor of Cogent3D’s products including its Diamond Visionics’ GenesisRT dynamic construction 3D viewers and Symmetry 3D terrain reuse tools. “We are pleased to bring to our customers a new generation of COTS simulation and visualisation technologies,” said Michel Pronier, CEO of Antycip Simulation. “Our customers today demand targeted visual simulation solutions that include dynamic and deformable terrain, high fidelity weather, sensors and night simulation effects, integration with the latest DIS/HLA and CIGI interfaces, and in some cases a certifiable solution.”

COMBAT TRAINING SYSTEM CONTRACT Cubic Defence New Zealand, an Auckland-based subsidiary of Cubic Corporation, has received a follow-on contract valued at approximately $70 million from an Asia-Pacific customer for a new wireless version of Cubic’s widely used laser tactical engagement system. Cubic will deliver multiple lots of the wireless system starting later this year. Cubic’s Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) tracks and records the performance of soldiers and vehicles as they participate in force-on-force training exercises. In 2006, Cubic introduced a new variation of this system that uses a wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) to relay information between soldiers and vehicles.

NEW CTO FOR QUANTUM3D Quantum3D, Inc. has promoted Alan Commike to the position of chief technology officer. He brings nearly two decades of technology leadership to the position. Mr. Commike joined the company in 2006, initially as principal high performance compute (HPC) architect and subsequently as software platform manager. He has played a critical role in the company’s technology and product development, being responsible for Linux and Windows platform software, firmware, drivers, and application software. 56







f Over 130 Technical Sessions and Tutorials f 450,000 sq ft exhibit hall showcasing all the latest training technologies f Network with over 16,000 attendees and 500 exhibitors f Meet with Key Government and Industry Leaders and DecisionMakers, including DoD, DHS & OSD Exhibit/Sponsorship Questions: Debbie Dyson 703-247-9480 Conference Questions: Barbara McDaniel 703-247-2569

3 0 N O V E M B E R – 3 D E C E M B E R , 2 0 0 9 f W W W. I I T S E C . O R G f O R L A N D O , F L O R I D A IITSEC 09 full pg ad.indd 1

2/2/09 12:39:40 PM

world news & analysis

DEFENSE JOINT VENTURE EADS Defence & Security (DS) and C4 Advanced Solutions (C4AS), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Emirates Advanced investments group, are going to establish a Joint Venture company in Abu Dhabi. The main intention is to develop and market high tech solutions in the field of Defence and Security application. The partnership will clearly reflect

EADS DS and EAI strategy to address effeciently the key importance of transfer of technology to the UAE as a success factor for the development and mastering of strategic and nationally sensitive defence and security systems. ms&t CORRECTION MS&T 1/2009, p.26. The FCS Training IPT Lead is Chuck Broadfoot and not Chuck Brookwood as published.

Index of Ads 4C Strategies



AAI Corporation


L-3 Link Simulation & Training 40

Agusta Westland


MAK Technologies





Nextel Engineering


CAE Newsletter Centre Spread

Northrop Grumman






Concord XXI


RAES Flight Simulation Conf. 46



RAES Training Conference 52

Display Solutions



DSA 2010



Equipe Simulation


RGB Spectrum



Rheinmetall Defence Electronics 11



RUAG Electronics

FlightSafety International


SAAB Training Systems

I/ITSEC 2009




43 IFC 23

41 3


Industrial Smoke and Mirrors 15

SMi Group


ITEC 2010



Kingston Conf. on Intl. Security 56

Theissen Training Systems


Krauss-Maffei Wegmann



38 & 39

10-11 November 2009 EATS 2009 - European Airline Training Symposium Clarion Congress Hotel Prague, Czech Republic 27-29 April 2010 WATS 2010 - World Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow Rosen Shingle Creek Resort Orlando, Florida, USA

26-27 May 2009 Levels of Fidelity VII Helsinki, Finland 3-4 June 2009 Mission Planning London, UK 09missionplanning6.asp 15-21 June 2009 Paris Air Show Le Bourget, France 16-17 July 2009 Joint Simulation & Training London, UK


SELEX Systems Integration


8-9 September 2009 APATS 2009 @ Asian Aerospace Asia World Expo Hong Kong







Advertising contacts Business Manager: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 (0)1252 532009 [e] Business Manager, North America: Mary Bellini Brown [t] +1 703 421 3709 [e]

Delivering Next Generation Training and Simulation Designing and producing innovative tactical training products to prepare the warfighter is just one of our many missions. We’re Science Applications International Corporation − 45,000 smart, dedicated people, delivering cutting-edge solutions to respond to your training challenges. Smart people solving hard problems. Stop by the SAIC stand E-153 at ITEC 2009 to see these solutions in action. To learn more, visit us at

Energy | Environment | National Security | Health | Critical Infrastructure © 2009 Science Applications International Corporation. All rights reserved. SAIC and the SAIC logo are registered trademarks of Science Applications International Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries.


As complexity increases, the need to exploit simulation to support decision making becomes even more critical. Simulation must be embedded in an organization’s strategy and based on an enterprise architecture that gives the simulation environment direct traceability to the organization’s strategic goals. Simulation-based solutions must give decision makers the flexibility to plan and prepare for the unknown and unforeseen.

CAE delivers simulation-based decision support solutions to complex environments and critical systems

one step ahead

AM100a – 0436-P22


At CAE, we recognize these requirements and are designing, developing and delivering simulation environments that have the rigor, reusability, and affordability necessary to support complete program lifecycles, from early concept and experimentation through to operational deployment and support. Combined with the expertise of CAE’s Professional Services team located around the world, CAE is delivering integrated simulation-based solutions that provide the foundation for supporting better decision-making, enhanced situational awareness, and better training.

MS&T Magazine - Issue 2/2009  

Military Simulation & Training Magazine - The International Defence Training Journal.