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www.halldale.com The International Defence Training Journal

Technology Centre

Team Orlando Grows Performance Technology

More Technology Requires More Analysis Training Transformation

Changing Paradigms

ISSN 1471-1052 | US $14/ÂŁ8

Issue 6/2009


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Editorial Comment

Editorial Editor-in-Chief: Chris Lehman [e] chris@halldale.com Managing Editor: Jeff Loube [e] jeff@halldale.com Contributors Walter F. Ullrich - Europe Editor Chuck Weirauch - Training Procurement Lori Ponoroff - News Editor [e] lori@halldale.com Advertising Business Manager: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 (0)1252 532009 [e] jeremy@halldale.com Business Manager, North America: Mary Bellini Brown [t] +1 703 421 3709 [e] mary@halldale.com Marketing Manager: Lizzie Daniell [t] +44 (0)1252 532008 [e] lizzie@halldale.com Sales & Marketing Co-ordinator: Karen Kettle [t] +44 (0)1252 532002 [e] karen@halldale.com Design & Production David Malley [t] +44 (0)1252 532005 [e] david@halldale.com Internet www.halldale.com/mst Subscriptions & Distribution Subscriptions Hotline [t] +44 (0)1252 532000 [e] mst@halldale.com 6 issues per year at US$168 Distribution Co-ordinator: Sarah Baker [t] +44 (0)1252 532006 [e] sarah@halldale.com Publishing House and Editorial Office Military Simulation & Training (ISSN 1471-1052) is published by: Halldale Media Ltd. Pembroke House, 8 St. Christopher’s Place, Farnborough, Hampshire, GU14 0NH, UK. [t] +44 (0)1252 532000 [f] +44 (0)1252 512714 [e] mst@halldale.com General Manager: Janet Llewellyn US office Halldale Media Inc. 115 Timberlachen Circle Ste 2009 Lake Mary, FL 32746 USA [t] +1 407 322 5605 [f] +1 407 322 5604 Publisher & CEO: Andrew Smith

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise especially translating into other languages - without prior written permission of the publisher. All rights also reserved for restitution in lectures, broadcasts, televisions, magnetic tape and methods of similar means. Each copy produced by a commercial enterprise serves a commercial purpose and is thus subject to remuneration. MS&T Magazine (ISSN 1471-1052, USPS # 022067), printed November 2009, is published 6 times per annum by Halldale Media Ltd, Pembroke House, 8 St. Christopher’s Place, Farnborough, Hampshire, GU14 ONH, UK at a U.S. subscription rate of $168 per year. Periodical postage rates are paid at Middlesex New Jersey New York U.S.A. Postmaster: Please send address changes to: Halldale Media Inc., 115 Timberlachen Circle, Ste 2009, Lake Mary, FL 32746, USA.

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Jeff Loube

Complexity and Getting It Right the First Time As I took my coffee and my newspapers this morning, I felt overwhelmed by the issues – Pakistan, Afghanistan, pirates, the Levant, climate, the economy, and the strategies, utopian expectations and plans and the processes. The issues for the most part are not simple; they are not complicated; but they are complex. In navigating the news, keeping at least one foot well grounded helps when trying to get a grip on the issues. Understanding complexity helps and it’s a topic worth revisiting from time to time. ‘Getting it right the first time’, while a worthy goal, is difficult, and rarely achieved. GIRTFT posted on a project manager’s wall carries the implicit message that with sufficient analysis, detailed planning, the right tools, the right skill sets and their impeccable leadership, it can be ‘got right the first time’. David Brooks, writing in the New York Times about current White House interventions in the economy notes that treasury officials are making pay package decisions, and that the Federal reserve has decided to police banks and veto pay deals that lead to excessive risks. He opines that the experts must have ‘gigantic brains’ to be able to forecast the latter. He goes on to write: “Reality, of course, has a way of upending finely crafted plans”, listing some perverse unintended consequences on American industry and banking of earlier ‘simple’ interventions. Didn’t get it right the first time! Max Boot, also recently in the NYT, making the case that there is no substitute for troops on the ground in Afghanistan noted the “chronic troop shortfall made it impossible to carry out the kind of population-centric counterinsurgency strategy that has paid off in countries from Malaya to Iraq. NATO forces could enter any district but not hold it. As soon as they left, the Taliban would return to wreak vengeance on anyone who had cooperated with them. One NATO general compared it to “mowing the lawn.” That ineffectual approach allowed the Taliban to regroup after 2001”. Still didn’t get it right the first time. While we might agree that American banking and Afghanistan are not simple, we could argue that they are complicated, and that’s why GIRTFT doesn’t apply. Simple systems involve few parts, little differentiation, and relatively few interconnections. Simple cause-effect relations among parts can be readily identified. Changes in one area will always cause a change in another area – there are few simple systems in real life. A complicated system is, well, more complicated, but it still has a simple soul. Complicated systems have lots of parts that are interrelated in complicated ways, but they are still "determined." As in a simple system, a change in one area will always create a change in another area, because the two things are linked in predictable ways. Brooks and Boot are not writing about simple or even complicated systems. Their issues are not predictable. They are complex issues involving complex systems, and therein lay the difficulty in getting it right. Complex systems include many parts, much differentiation among them, and many interconnections. Recognising that a system is complex is important. Treating a complex system as simple can, and will, do harm. A focus on what appears to be key parts and relationships can obscure the emergent quality of the systems behaviour. Emergence refers to the way new systems or variants emerge through a bottom up dynamic process among the parts of the system, making them adaptive. And thus, a complex adaptive system has rules and behaviours of the moment and neither the behaviour of the parts or the whole can be accurately predicted. It is not impossible to GIRTFT. But it depends as much on the nature of the situation, as it does on the process and the resources applied to that process. With simple systems and even complicated systems we can come close to getting it right the first time. With more complex issues, it is more difficult. Emergent and adaptive systems require emergent and adaptive strategies and plans. I find some proposals addressing the issues of the day that purport to ‘getting it right this time’ that appear in my morning paper are simple, with potential to do harm, and hence, frightening.

Jeff Loube, CPT Managing Editor MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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Technology cenTre

Team Orlando Grows Performance Technology

More Technology Requires More Analysis Training TransformaTion

Changing Paradigms Issue 6/2009

ISSN 1471-1052   | uS $14/£8

contents ms&T 6/2009

Cover Credit SAIC / US Air Force / US Navy

front cover

www.halldale.com The InTernaTIonal Defence TraInIng Journal

05 Editorial Comment

Technology Centre

news From Team orlando

Most of team Orlando’s major players are based in Central Florda research Park, including PeO StrI, nAWCtSD and PMtrASYS. Image credit: ?.

the DAU joins team Orlando, joining a growing M&S community. Chuck Weirauch welcomes the new member and highlights some other recent team event developments.

T

08 technology Centre

eam Orlando is, what most in the business would consider, a world center for simulation and training. the central component of team Orlando is composed of the primary military Service organizations responsible for research, development, acquisition, and life cycle support for America’s military training, simulation, and test and evaluation/instrumentation products and services, including commands from the Army, navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, as well as representation by the US Coast Guard and Joint Forces Command. Supporting and completing team Orlando’s composition are modeling and simulations, human performance, and training leaders in academia and industry, as well as Federal, State and local government organizations. team Orlando is welcoming a new member and we are highlighting some other team evants.

The DAU lab On December 1, the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) became the newest official member of team Orlando when it opened the doors to its technology transfer Lab, located within the Joint Advanced Distributed Learning (JADL) Co-Laboratory in Central Florida research Park. In August during the 2009 ADL Implementation Fest held in Orlando, Dan Gardner, Director of readiness and training, Policy & Programs for Office of the Secretary of Defense, announced that the DAU would establish its teaching and Learning Lab within the JADL’s Gaming Laboratory. In addition to this partnership with the JADL Co-Lab, DAU will partner with team member the University of Central Florida’s Institute for

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

Un peacekeepers disarm militia groups in Côte d’ivoire. image credit: United nations.

responding to Change Within both naTo and the Un, geopolitical change has affected military training and education. Walter f Ullrich examines those changes.

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here are essentially two geopolitical changes that have affected NATO since it was founded in 1949: The collapse of the soviet Union, which resulted in the decomposition of the Warsaw Pact, leaving naTo as the only relevant military alliance in the old Continent; and the shift in the United states’ geopolitical focus from Europe to the middle East and Central asia in the wake of 9/11, drawing the alliance in the same direction. Concurrently, Un peacekeeping operations have undergone significant changes in terms of scale, nature and number. Both changes have shaped training and education.

naTO’s new role The end of the Cold War, contrary to some naïve expectations, did not make naTo surplus to requirements. Quite the contrary, the alliance is more important today than ever before. Ethnic and civil conflicts in the heart of Continental Europe, not some far away place, international terrorism, the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, eroding states, piracy, drug trafficking, migration - all these threats, which nations are facing at home 16

and abroad, have led to naTo being seen as a dominant regulative factor, despite many obvious deficiencies. The establishment of the allied Command Transformation (aCT), which in 2003 replaced the former allied Command atlantic (aCLanT), marked a change in paradigm. The aCT has no operational responsibility and is intended to drive forward the transformation of the alliance’s military capabilities – the war in the Balkans only too clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of naTo’s peacekeeping and crisis management operations. in the process of fostering naTo and underpinning its new responsibilities with capabilities, the aCT followed the lead of the United states Joint forces Command (UsJfCom), a functional command that has several key roles in transforming the Us military’s capabilities. The aCT sees itself as naTo’s lead agency for transformation, a continuous driver in improving the alliance’s capabilities in respect to military relevance and effectiveness. Both commands are based in norfolk, Virginia and were until september 2009 simultaneously directed by a Us american flag officer in a dual

Us and naTo role. naTo definitely benefited, mainly from the synergy with the concepts of the current transformation within the american armed forces. on the other hand, the Us held a pivotal position in regard to the alliance’s transformation process. in september 2009, french General stéphane abrial took over as supreme allied Commander Transformation from Us marine Corps General James n. mattis, who continued his JfCom post. abrial is the first European in naTo’s 60-year history to be appointed permanently as head of a naTo strategic command. it remains to be seen whether this political nomination – following france’s decision to return to naTo’s integrated military structure – will affect naTo’s transformation process. However, as the naTo secretary General noted “General abrial’s assumption of command here today shows very visibly france retaking its full place in naTo’s integrated military structure.”

The aCT’s Education and Training Endeavours The aCT’s mission is to provide appropriate support to naTo missions and

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

operations. it leads naTo military transformation, and it improves relations, interaction and cooperation with partners, nations and international organisations. JET (Joint Education and Training) is the subdivision of the aCT responsible for developing and administering education and training policy. following decisions made at the naTo summit in 1999, the aCT has become the lead authority in developing Joint advanced Distributed Learning for naTo and its partners. Working with 22 Cooperative Development Teams from naTo and Partnership for Peace (PfP) nations, there are already more than 80 courses available within the naTo/PfP Learning management system in the naTo classified and unclassified networks. responding to requests from allied Command operations (aCo) or training and education facilities, the aCT is working with subject-matter experts to design storyboards and develop quality training modules using the latest available technology and training methods. The swedish-led Viking exercises confirmed the importance of advanced distance learning (aDL) as an efficient means of training temporary and permanent staff. in 2007, the aCT provided direct support to those deploying to afghanistan on isaf X through a variety of aDL courses, including counter improvised explosive devices, crowd riot control and theatre awareness modules. This support to isaf also included naTo awareness training for Us forces assigned to isaf. 2009 saw support to isaf expanded and additional aCT aDL assistance to the naTo response force training, as well as to new partnerships with naTo, such as the naTo Training Cooperation initiative (nTCi). standards such as sCorm and CorDra ensure that any training module can be reused and customised to satisfy the customer’s training needs. Guidance for the production of aDL courses within naTo has been offered in the aCT JaDL Directive and Development Guidelines. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the best quality aDL is delivered anytime, anywhere to the target audience.

16 training transformation

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Training TransformaTion

feature Articles

A Complex World. Managing Editor Jeff Loube tries to deal with complexity.

One example of the Defense Acquisition University game-based learning modules to be developed in Orlando. Image credit: DAU.

Simulation and training (ISt) for the joint use of its classroom facilities. “the co-location of DAU’s teaching and learning lab with the Joint Advanced Distributed Learning facilities provides opportunities for partnering with the team Orlando industry, government and academia,” Gardner said. “the testbed will be instrumental in implementing advanced distributed learning technologies into education and training. this is definitely a win-win for users of distributed learning and our education programs which are designed to teach critical skills to DoD acquisition, technology and logistics personnel.” the DAU-team Orlando partnership will benefit not only the agency but the three military training acquisition organizations, PeO StrI, nAWCtSD and PMtrASYS as well. the DAU is responsible for training the acquisition technology and logistics workforce for the DoD. “Certainly Orlando is the epicenter of modeling and simulation capital of the world,” said DAU Games Czar Alicia

Since one of the JADL’s more recent focus areas is the research and development of online game-based learning that can be reused and distributed to the services through the ADL network, the DAU lab within JADL Gaming Laboratory is a perfect fit, according to JADL Director Kristy Murray. the DAU’s many students will help provide the means for the JADL and DAU to evaluate the effectiveness of such online courseware, she said. the JADL is focusing on immersive technologies such as games used for learning, virtual worlds, Web 2.0 technology and mobile

tional level with a focus on preparing, managing and executing collective battle staff joint training for the Combined Joint Task force (CJTf), naTo response force (nrf) and component command headquarters. it also assists aCo in evaluating joint force. The centre also performs collective staff training for partner and new member nations. The role of the Joint Training Development Division (JTDD) is to develop, deliver and continuously improve training for the naTo response force (nrf) and for real-world ongoing missions. The JTDD is the spearhead of the JWC’s training delivery to operational-level headquarters. it is a key contributor to concept and doctrine

09

development and the lessons learned process. The personnel in this division are in permanent contact with all kinds of JWC training audiences at joint level. The role of the JWC’s simulation, modelling & C4 Division (smC4) is to provide appropriate modelling and simulation expertise to deliver a state-of-the-art, computer-assisted exercise (CaX) capability for training, and to provide a realistic C4 environment for the training audience and EXCon during major naTo training events and experiments. The Joint force Training Centre (JfTC) in Bydgoszcz, Poland supports training for naTo and partner forces to improve joint and combined tactical

Team Orlando Grows. Team Orlando has enrolled a new member. Chuck Weirauch profiles this new member and highlights some others.

16 Training Transformation Changing Paradigms. As the world turns, so do political and military alliances. Walter F Ullrich examines the impact on training and education in NATO and the UN.

22 Training Technology A Complicated Missile Defense System. A multilayered strategic missile defense system brings unique training challenges to the US Missile Defense Agency. Chuck Weirauch reports.

27 Performance Technology Getting It Right. How do we find performance solutions that match the soldier and the situation? Allison Rossett responds to that question.

Towards a safer world.

www.selex-si-uk.com

33 Training Transformation

TRANSFORMING TRAINING.

SELEX Systems Integration is a Prime Contracting and Systems Integration business that now incorporates the long-established training capability of VEGA, VEGA Deutschland and VEGA France. We have evolved a dedicated Training Solutions team that has nearly two decades’ experience of enabling organisations to transform their training and enhance their capability.

The aCT’s External Bodies in addition to the facilities in norfolk, the aCT oversees various training and education sites. The Joint Warfare Centre (JWC) in stavanger, norway conducts joint and combined training at operaMS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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Italian Air Force Partipation. A first. Italian Air Force participates in joint exercise integrating training with the US Army and Air Force. Casey Bain writes from the JFIIT.

30/10/09 15:21:34

36 National Focus

The Aegis-class destroyer USS hopper successfully intercepts a sub-scale short range ballistic missile, July 2009. Image credit: US navy.

Training Technology

new JADl Developments

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

12444_SELEX AD_114x176.indd 1

Sophisticated missile defense systems need to be flexible – and so does the training. chuck Weirauch writes of the challenges.

I

t seems that hardly a week goes by without some state conducting tests of short-range (SRBM), medium-range (MRBM), and intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBMs), while others advance work on their intercontinental ballistic missile (IcBM)) capabilities. According to the US Missile Defense Agency (MDA), not only is the number of such missile tests increasing, but also the number of countries that hold ballistic missiles has grown to more than two dozen, including those with hostile regimes with ties to terrorist organizations. It’s a strong indication that missile capability, or even the suggestion of such capability, is considered a “big stick”- a stick big enough to support rogue nation aspirations for global status and political influence. With multi-tiered and increasingly sophisticated threats to counter, it’s clear that just one type of anti-ballistic missile system could not deal with them all. That’s why the MDA, in cooperation with the US services, US Joint Forces command (USJFcoM), the US Strategic command (USSTRATcoM), various combatant commands (cocoMs) and industry 22

is developing a layered approach to missile defense capable of intercepting all of the various classes of missiles at their boost, midcourse and terminal flight stages. The country’s multilayered system is focused not only on the defense of the US but also of its deployed forces and allies. Modeling and simulation is playing a key role in the research, development, testing, analyses, and training of these systems. The deployable Patriot Advanced capability-3 system, the Terminal high Altitude Area Defense (ThAAD) and the mobile Aegis Standard Missile (SM-2) Block IV missile are designed to counter the SRBM threat. Both the ThAAD and Aegis can also intercept MRBMs. The ThAAD missile is designed to intercept targets both inside and outside the earth’s atmosphere. To counter the IRBM and IcBM threat, the United States has deployed ground-based Midcourse Defense (gMD) interceptors in silos at Fort greely, Alaska and Vandenberg Air Force Base in california. As the global missile threat continues to expand, the MDA the services and US allies are continuing to further develop

their BMD systems. The MDA is working to expand the number of gMD missiles and launch locations, while the ThAAD program is developing the means for a transportable launch system. In october, a second ThAAD launch battery became active at Fort Bliss, TX. With the MDA, the navy is also working to expand the number of its and Allied Forces Aegis ships and missiles capable of intercepting SRBMs and IRBMs. A Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Aegis destroyer conducted the latest successful intercept of a medium-range ballistic missile in late october. US navy Aegis ships have performed several such successful intercepts as well. Also under development is the Airborne laser (ABl), a megawatt-class chemical oxygen iodine high-energy laser mounted aboard a modified Boeing 747-400F prototype aircraft. In August, the ABl was fired for the first time while in flight. The mobile ABl BMDS is designed to fly to trouble spots anywhere in the world and intercept several classes of ballistic missiles with directed energy, including IcBMs, in the early boost phase of their flight.

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

22 training technology

After the Warsaw Pact. NATO membership has created pilot training challenges for The Bulgarian Air Force. Alexander Mladenov explains. Meeting the Threat

40 Human Performance Training the Brain. Researchers are intrigued with how the brain works and how we can make it work better. Chuck Weirauch reviews some current initiatives.

44 Conference Report 2009 ADL Fest. ADL continues to evolve and grow. Chuck Weirauch reports.

46 Show Report

Training TransformaTion

DSEi 2009. MS&T’s Walter F Ullrich reports on DSEi 2009.

integrated Training with Help From italian air Force Joint and coalition training at the nTC and the Us air force’s Green flag West marked a first. JfiiT’s Casey Bain tells the story.

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he U.S. Army and Air Force are working hard to improve joint and coalition training at the national Training Center (nTC), fort irwin, Ca, and the air force’s Green flag West (GfW) in nellis air force Base, nev., according to senior leaders at the combat training center (CTC). a recent august exercise marked the first time that italian warfighters have participated in maneuvers at the CTC. The country deployed 10 amX/a-1 close air support (Cas) aircraft, 34 pilots, six joint terminal attack controllers, and a variety of support personnel to nellis. Helping to integrate this training were members of U.s. Joint forces Command’s (UsJfCom) Joint fires integration and interoperability Team (JfiiT). “nTC and the air force’s Green flag are great examples of how we can link traditional service-level exercises into one well-synchronized joint training event that benefits all participants and services,” said army maj. richard meredith, JfiiT lead at nTC.

This exercise included the use of mQ-1 Predator and mQ-9 reaper unmanned aerial systems (Uas). “We’ve expanded Green flag to include both the mQ-1 Predators and mQ-9 reapers, which are, depending on who you ask, the most important isr platforms for conducting full spectrum operations in a counterinsurgency environment,” said army Brig. Gen. robert “abe” abrams, commanding general, nTC and ft. irwin. “so when you ask how important is it to integrate joint assets here? it’s not a level of importance – it’s essential.” JfiiT assisted the integration of a variety of joint intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (isr) assets between the army’s 2nd Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 3rd infantry Division, and aerial assets from both nations. “our mission is to help integrate isr assets with an army BCT so that the unit can learn how to leverage the capabilities of these assets that they otherwise won’t see until they arrive in country,”

above an italian pilot prepares to taxi and takeoff during Green flag West. image credit: Casey Bain.

added meredith. “This exercise teaches our forces how to work together to defeat an irregular threat.” italian air force Col. aarnn Pil. Giorgio foltran, commander of the italian detachment at GfW, explained the importance of his country’s participation. “This exercise has been a great opportunity for our aircrews to discuss different tactics and techniques with american pilots,” said foltran. “We’re learning lots of lessons to take with us when we return home including how to provide Cas for a U.s. army brigade during convoy escort missions, in an urban environment, and while using Uas.” “We want a realistic assessment of our pilots, JTaCs, and our entire team,” said italian air force Lt. Col. andrea amadori, 132nd amX squadron comMS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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33 training transformation

CaE insert

Sanchez. “the ability to work in an area and to share research, and especially in our case a gaming and training development initiative, provides us with a unique capability that we were not going to get anywhere else.” A primary focus of the DAU lab will be the virtualization of the acquisition process, or creating virtual environments through which DAU students can immerse themselves in the complex elements of DoD acquisition, Sanchez said. Gaming technologies will be employed to create such learning environments. Sanchez envisions a “huge litany” of lowcost mini-games – or those focused on a single learning objective -- for a large part of the DAU’s new acquisition education courseware. the online games, which will be distributed through the DoD ADL network and available through the service’s knowledge portals such as the Army Knowledge Online (AKO), will considerably expand the availability of DAU courses, she summed up. the games will be hosted out of the DAU lab’s game Web site.

08 Technology Centre

48 NEWS Seen and Heard. A round up of developments in simulation and training. Edited by Lori Ponoroff.

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

10:24:37

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Technology Centre

News From Team Orlando

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MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009


Left Most of Team Orlando’s major players are based in Central Florda Research Park, including PEO STRI, NAWCTSD and PMTRASYS.

Team Orlando welcomes a new member; MS&T’s Chuck Weirauch discusses the latest news from this unique M&S community.

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eam Orlando is, what most in the business would consider, a world center for simulation and training. The central component of Team Orlando is composed of the primary military Service organizations responsible for research, development, acquisition, and life cycle support for America’s military training, simulation, and test and evaluation/instrumentation products and services, including commands from the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, as well as representation by the US Coast Guard and Joint Forces Command. Supporting and completing Team Orlando’s composition are modeling and simulations, human performance, and training leaders in academia and industry, as well as Federal, State and local government organizations. Team Orlando is welcoming a new member and we are highlighting some other Team evants.

The DAU Lab On December 1, the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) became the newest official member of Team Orlando when it opened the doors to its Technology Transfer Lab, located within the Joint Advanced Distributed Learning (JADL) Co-Laboratory in Central Florida Research Park. In August during the 2009 ADL Implementation Fest held in Orlando, Dan Gardner, Director of Readiness and Training, Policy & Programs for Office of the Secretary of Defense, announced that the DAU would establish its Teaching and Learning Lab within the JADL’s Gaming Laboratory. In addition to this partnership with the JADL Co-Lab, DAU will partner with Team member the University of Central Florida’s Institute for

One example of the Defense Acquisition University game-based learning modules to be developed in Orlando. Image credit: DAU.

Simulation and Training (IST) for the joint use of its classroom facilities. “The co-location of DAU’s teaching and learning lab with the Joint Advanced Distributed Learning facilities provides opportunities for partnering with the Team Orlando industry, government and academia,” Gardner said. “The testbed will be instrumental in implementing advanced distributed learning technologies into education and training. This is definitely a win-win for users of distributed learning and our education programs which are designed to teach critical skills to DoD acquisition, technology and logistics personnel.” The DAU-Team Orlando partnership will benefit not only the agency but the three military training acquisition organizations, PEO STRI, NAWCTSD and PMTRASYS as well. The DAU is responsible for training the acquisition technology and logistics workforce for the DoD. “Certainly Orlando is the epicenter of modeling and simulation capital of the world,” said DAU Games Czar Alicia

Sanchez. “The ability to work in an area and to share research, and especially in our case a gaming and training development initiative, provides us with a unique capability that we were not going to get anywhere else.” A primary focus of the DAU lab will be the virtualization of the acquisition process, or creating virtual environments through which DAU students can immerse themselves in the complex elements of DoD acquisition, Sanchez said. Gaming technologies will be employed to create such learning environments. Sanchez envisions a “huge litany” of lowcost mini-games – or those focused on a single learning objective -- for a large part of the DAU’s new acquisition education courseware. The online games, which will be distributed through the DoD ADL network and available through the service’s knowledge portals such as the Army Knowledge Online (AKO), will considerably expand the availability of DAU courses, she summed up. The games will be hosted out of the DAU lab’s game Web site.

New JADL Developments Since one of the JADL’s more recent focus areas is the research and development of online game-based learning that can be reused and distributed to the services through the ADL network, the DAU lab within JADL Gaming Laboratory is a perfect fit, according to JADL Director Kristy Murray. The DAU’s many students will help provide the means for the JADL and DAU to evaluate the effectiveness of such online courseware, she said. The JADL is focusing on immersive technologies such as games used for learning, virtual worlds, Web 2.0 technology and mobile MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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Technology Centre

learning, and other simulation-based technologies. The JADL, which has served as an element of the DoD ADL Initiative Network for ADL courseware for the services and the Joint forces since its inception, has just recently been designated as the research and development center for the entire ADL Initiative. This work was previously conducted at the ADL Co-Lab Hub in Alexandria, VA. According to Murray, Gardner wanted the Initiative’s R&D activity to be in Orlando because of the synergy between Team Orlando government and industry members. Gardner is the head of the DoD’s Training Transformation (T2) initiative, and one of the three major elements of T2 is the Joint Knowledge Development and Distribution Capability (JKDDC). Its Web portal is Joint Knowledge Online (JKO). According to Murray, the JKDDC is the JADL’s frontline customer. The Orlando ADL facility has been working to test JKDDC software before it is deployed. One of the most recent JKDDC programs is the Virtual Cultural Awareness Trainer (VCAT), which the JADL helped develop. Team Orlando member PMTRASYS was also been a key player in VCAT development. Murray pointed out that now the initial VCAT courseware has been released through the JKO, the next step is to put VCAT into a virtual world, a step with which Team Orlando members will also be involved. “The main thing that we are looking at is to reinvigorate what used to be our

prototype program so that we can delve into future specialized technology areas,” Murray said. “We are also now much involved with very large DoD acquisition programs that are in process in the Pentagon to look at their training components to make sure that the ADL policies and procedures are included and are being accomplished during the acquisition of these large systems.”

JTIEC The Joint Training Integration and Evaluation Center (JTIEC)’s logo features a bridge, a long five span suspension bridge that symbolizes JTIEC’s mission: to coordinate human performance/ training solutions between the Joint and Other Government Agency (OGA) communities on behalf of Team Orlando core organizations The JTIEC was originally established to support JFCOM and the Joint Forces to determine which of the diverse Team Orlando military training organizations could best support particular joint training requirements. Since then The JTIEC mission has been expanded to support other Joint commands as well as other government agencies. When an outside agency contacts or is contacted by the JTIEC concerning its training requirements, a Board of Advisors representing Team Orlando members provides information to the JTIEC as to what training technology or capability would best meet the requirements of the potential new customer. The JTIEC staff then passes that information along to the

requesting agency and works to link that agency up with the appropriate Team Orlando member. According to JTIEC director Kent Gritton, his office was instrumental in guiding the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), a DHS department, in its quest to develop innovative training solutions through the extensive modeling and simulation capabilities developed and provided by Team Orlando military training organizations. The FLETC works to support the training needs of 80 federal agencies. Since its initial contact in 2004, FLETC has established a Liaison Office at NAWCTSD to keep abreast of new Team Orlando training technologies and coordinate ongoing training programs with its Orlando partners. More recently, the JTIEC has fielded requests for information on Team Orlando capabilities from several other federal agencies. One is the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM)’s Global Innovative Strategy Group, which Gritton said is looking at trying to determine how to best use serious games and e-learning capabilities to support their training requirements. Another recent request for assistance is from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), which is investigating virtual worlds for training. Yet another is the National Defense University (NDU)’s Center for Advanced Strategic Learning search for more immersive learning environments, Gritton reported.

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“Our real focus here is to try to connect government entities to the government agencies here to provide and support those particular requirements government to government,” Gritton said. “The Department of Justice is another agency that has recently contacted us for assistance. Overall, the primary areas that agencies are contacting us about are virtual worlds, live, virtual and constructive (LVC) architectures, immersive training and irregular warfare training, such as that for culture and language.”

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One of the oldest yet not widely heralded members of Team Orlando is the Army Research Institute (ARI) for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. The agency began its partnership with the first Army and Navy training organizations in the Orlando area in the early 1980s. The ARI Orlando Research unit is housed in RDECOM’s Simulation Training and Technology Center (STTC) building in Central Florida Research Park. The ARI headquarters are located in Arlington, VA. According to unit Chief Steve Goldman, the co-location with the STTC is quite symbiotic, since his office provides the psychological aspect in the research and development of new training technologies while the STTC staff provides the engineering element. Recently the ARI office worked with the STTC, the Institute of Creative Technologies and the Army Research Laboratory in the development of ELECT BILAT, a ”social simulation” for training Army officers to conduct bi-lateral negotiations with native local leaders. “Training technology is both of these things,” Goldman pointed out. “Technology provides the information to the warfighter in a realistic environment, but you also have to have the training content and the methods, as well as the right feedback at the right time while making sure that that is effective.” The Orlando ARI is focused on research in two primary areas. One is dismounted soldier simulation, while the other is afteraction review and after-action review systems. Recently the ARI staff worked with the IST to develop the Dismounted Infantry Virtual After Action Review System, which is currently in the process of being converted into a distributed capability, Goldman said. Goldman is presently working with NAWCTSD on another dismounted simulation project, the Future Immersive Training Environment, with a focus on small unit teams. Currently the DoD is placing a major emphasis on dismounted Warfighter simulation and training, particularly in light of the need for improved small unit training because of high casualty rates suffered by small units in the irregular warfare in Iraq and Afghanistan.

JDIF changes Among its many functions JFCOM’s Joint Development Integration Facility (JDIF) has served as a hub for that command’s Joint Training and Experimentation Network (JTEN) as well as for other Team Orlando networks. However, by the beginning of 2010 the facility will undoubtedly have a new name, since its management will be transitioned to PEO STRI’s Program Manager for Constructive Simulation (PM ConSim). So while the JFCOM footprint in Orlando will be reduced, the command will continue to have a physical presence as well as a virtual one with Team Orlando via the JTEN. According to JDIF Director Jaime Alfaro, all of the elements of the JDIF will live on through a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with its new management. “What we have been doing up until now is managing the JTEN,” Alfaro said.” In the future we will become a user, and

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using the connectivity so that the folks developing projects of joint interest can link to our technical teams in Suffolk. Meanwhile, we will still be here looking at the technologies developed by Team Orlando and coordinating their applications. The important thing is that JFCOM still believes that Team Orlando is, if not the most important hub, a very important one for modeling and simulation development.” The JDIF’s primary function has been to provide a secure link between Orlando and the rest of country through the JTEN network, allowing Orlando-based simulations to be linked with simulations in other locations and tested by users

at those locations, including JFCOM’s Joint Warfighting Center in Suffolk, VA. Recently the Army has been testing its Entity Resolution Federation and Joint After Action Review (JAR) systems through the JTEN, Alfaro said. The JDIF also supports the Defense Research and Engineering Network. The JDIF will continue to provide the same resources under its new management. Another JDIF function has been the development of the Joint After Action Review Research Library, work that JFCOM will continue, Alfaro said. Another big project for the JFCOM Orlando office has been supporting small unit excellence through the Irregular

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Warfare Training Symposium held at UCF in September, added.

Irregular Warfare Training Symposium In a cooperative venture with the US Joint Forces Command’s Joint Warfighting Center (JWFC), Team Orlando co-hosted an Irregular Warfare Training Symposium Sept 16-17 in Orlando. Nearly 200 participants attended the event, which focused on the future of immersive cognitive training for small military units. The conference was designed to reach a consensus among the participants on a baseline for small unit training and advance that concept toward future training for such entities. It was pointed out at the event that such training is considered vital for three reasons. One is that 89 percent of the US military casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan are being inflicted on small units. Another is that that although considerable emphasis has been given to other training needs, little has been dedicated to small unit training. The third reason is that small units will play a major role in future Joint service operations. Participants were asked to concentrate on four areas applicable to small unit training to identify training gaps and how training technologies might be applied to address those gaps. Those areas included team decision-making, joint enabling capabilities, mission rehearsal, and measuring and assessing human performance in small unit training environments. The participants’ consensus in these four areas was to be reported and serve as a basis of a way forward for joint small unit training. Considerable emphasis was placed in how to employ cognitive science to aid in the means to train rapid decision-making capabilities in complex environments. Keynote speaker Major General Jason Kamiya, Commander of JFCOM’s Joint Warfighting Center, told the audience that the training community has a fundamental and moral obligation to provide small units with advanced immersive training environments that will improve human performance to the excellence level. He called on the community to support such efforts, such as the Future Immersive Training Environment Joint Capability Demonstration, regardless of funding constraints. Visit www.teamorlando.org for more information about Team Orlando. ms&t


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Training Transformation

UN peacekeepers disarm militia groups in Côte d’Ivoire. Image credit: United Nations.

Responding to Change Within both NATO and the UN, geopolitical change has affected military training and education. Walter F Ullrich examines those changes.

T

here are essentially two geopolitical changes that have affected NATO since it was founded in 1949: The collapse of the Soviet Union, which resulted in the decomposition of the Warsaw Pact, leaving NATO as the only relevant military alliance in the Old Continent; and the shift in the United States’ geopolitical focus from Europe to the Middle East and Central Asia in the wake of 9/11, drawing the Alliance in the same direction. Concurrently, UN peacekeeping operations have undergone significant changes in terms of scale, nature and number. Both changes have shaped training and education.

NATO’s New Role The end of the Cold War, contrary to some naïve expectations, did not make NATO surplus to requirements. Quite the contrary, the Alliance is more important today than ever before. Ethnic and civil conflicts in the heart of Continental Europe, not some far away place, international terrorism, the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, eroding states, piracy, drug trafficking, migration - all these threats, which nations are facing at home 16

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and abroad, have led to NATO being seen as a dominant regulative factor, despite many obvious deficiencies. The establishment of the Allied Command Transformation (ACT), which in 2003 replaced the former Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT), marked a change in paradigm. The ACT has no operational responsibility and is intended to drive forward the transformation of the Alliance’s military capabilities – the war in the Balkans only too clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of NATO’s peacekeeping and crisis management operations. In the process of fostering NATO and underpinning its new responsibilities with capabilities, the ACT followed the lead of the United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM), a functional command that has several key roles in transforming the US military’s capabilities. The ACT sees itself as NATO’s lead agency for transformation, a continuous driver in improving the Alliance’s capabilities in respect to military relevance and effectiveness. Both commands are based in Norfolk, Virginia and were until September 2009 simultaneously directed by a US American flag officer in a dual

US and NATO role. NATO definitely benefited, mainly from the synergy with the concepts of the current transformation within the American armed forces. On the other hand, the US held a pivotal position in regard to the Alliance’s transformation process. In September 2009, French General Stéphane Abrial took over as Supreme Allied Commander Transformation from US Marine Corps General James N. Mattis, who continued his JFCOM post. Abrial is the first European in NATO’s 60-year history to be appointed permanently as head of a NATO strategic command. It remains to be seen whether this political nomination – following France’s decision to return to NATO’s Integrated Military Structure – will affect NATO’s transformation process. However, as the NATO Secretary General noted “General Abrial’s assumption of command here today shows very visibly France retaking its full place in NATO’s integrated military structure.”

The ACT’s Education and Training Endeavours The ACT’s mission is to provide appropriate support to NATO missions and


operations. It leads NATO military transformation, and it improves relations, interaction and cooperation with partners, nations and international organisations. JET (Joint Education and Training) is the subdivision of the ACT responsible for developing and administering education and training policy. Following decisions made at the NATO Summit in 1999, the ACT has become the lead authority in developing Joint Advanced Distributed Learning for NATO and its partners. Working with 22 Cooperative Development Teams from NATO and Partnership for Peace (PfP) nations, there are already more than 80 courses available within the NATO/PfP Learning Management System in the NATO classified and unclassified networks. Responding to requests from Allied Command Operations (ACO) or training and education facilities, the ACT is working with subject-matter experts to design storyboards and develop quality training modules using the latest available technology and training methods. The Swedish-led Viking exercises confirmed the importance of advanced distance learning (ADL) as an efficient means of training temporary and permanent staff. In 2007, the ACT provided direct support to those deploying to Afghanistan on ISAF X through a variety of ADL courses, including counter improvised explosive devices, crowd riot control and theatre awareness modules. This support to ISAF also included NATO awareness training for US forces assigned to ISAF. 2009 saw support to ISAF expanded and additional ACT ADL assistance to the NATO Response Force training, as well as to new partnerships with NATO, such as the NATO Training Cooperation Initiative (NTCI). Standards such as SCORM and CORDRA ensure that any training module can be reused and customised to satisfy the customer’s training needs. Guidance for the production of ADL courses within NATO has been offered in the ACT JADL Directive and Development Guidelines. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the best quality ADL is delivered anytime, anywhere to the target audience.

tional level with a focus on preparing, managing and executing collective battle staff joint training for the Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF), NATO Response Force (NRF) and component command headquarters. It also assists ACO in evaluating joint force. The centre also performs collective staff training for partner and new member nations. The role of the Joint Training Development Division (JTDD) is to develop, deliver and continuously improve training for the NATO Response Force (NRF) and for real-world ongoing missions. The JTDD is the spearhead of the JWC’s training delivery to operational-level headquarters. It is a key contributor to concept and doctrine

development and the lessons learned process. The personnel in this division are in permanent contact with all kinds of JWC training audiences at joint level. The role of the JWC’s Simulation, Modelling & C4 Division (SMC4) is to provide appropriate modelling and simulation expertise to deliver a state-of-the-art, computer-assisted exercise (CAX) capability for training, and to provide a realistic C4 environment for the training audience and EXCON during major NATO training events and experiments. The Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) in Bydgoszcz, Poland supports training for NATO and partner forces to improve joint and combined tactical

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The ACT’s External Bodies In addition to the facilities in Norfolk, the ACT oversees various training and education sites. The Joint Warfare Centre (JWC) in Stavanger, Norway conducts joint and combined training at operaMS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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Training Transformation

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interoperability. The JFTC conducts joint training for tactical level command posts and staffs in support of tactical level commanders. The JFTC assists ACT in the promotion of NATO doctrine development by cooperating with Centres of Excellence (COE). The JFTC focuses its efforts on ISAF pre-deployment training and supports ISAF commanders at tactical level in ensuring that ISAF Regional Command Headquarters achieve a high level of interoperability, flexibility and extensive training as a combined and joint force in order to be fully ready at the beginning of the duty cycle. The JFTC also provides robust training support for ISAF Operational Mentoring and Liaison Teams. As its second priority, the JFTC supports NATO Response Force Joint Component training. The NATO Maritime Interdiction Operational Training Centre (NMIOTC) was activated in September 2007. Its mission is to conduct training necessary for NATO forces to better execute surface, sub-surface and aerial surveillance and special operational activities in support of maritime interdiction operations. The centre offers classroom training to the participants, as well as simulator train-

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Training at NMIOTC in module boarding team fast rope insertion. Image credit: Greek Navy.

ing and practical exercises. The courses teach students small boat handling, small arms training and proper container inspection. During exercises like Phoenix Express, in-port and at-sea multilateral training focuses primarily on boarding techniques and shipboard training for maritime interdiction operations. The ACT also oversees educational institutions. The NATO School, located in Oberammergau, Germany, is NATO’s

key training facility at operational level. Since 1953, the NATO School has been training and educating members of the Alliance, as well as partner nations. Today’s courses cover, amongst others, subjects like basic NATO orientation, multinational forces, weapons of mass destruction, peacekeeping missions, crisis management and public information. The courses are continually revised and updated to reflect current developments in ACT and in NATO as a whole. The mission of the NATO Defence College (NDC) in Rome, Italy is to foster strategic level thinking on politico-military matters, and to prepare select officers and officials for important NATO and NATOrelated multinational appointments. The NATO Communications and Information Systems School (NCISS) in Latina, Italy provides cost-effective, highly developed formal training to military and civilians from NATO and non-NATO nations.

New Challenges for UN Peacekeeping The role of the UN as a geopolitical regulative factor is often underestimated or consciously belittled. It should not be forgotten that in 1950, shortly after being


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Training Transformation

founded, the UN together with the United States intervened on the side of the South in Korea. Since the UN started its peacekeeping operations, the organisation has been deployed 63 times. During the Cold War, UN peacekeeping goals were primarily limited to maintaining ceasefires and stabilising situations on the ground, necessitating military observers and lightly armed troops with monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. Today, in addition to military functions, UN peacekeeping undertakes a wide variety of other complex tasks. Today’s peacekeepers are administrators and economists, police officers and legal experts, de-miners and electoral observers, human rights monitors and specialists in civil affairs, gender and governance, humanitarian workers and experts in communications and public information. The Integrated Training Service (ITS) was formed in November 2005, merging the Training and Evaluation Service (TES), the Civilian Training Section (CTS), and a small police training capacity in the Police Division. The ITS is currently developing a new strategy for peacekeeping training, in order to have a more systematic approach to integrated train-

ing, both in field missions and at headquarters. The ITS mission statement is to support UN departments in the training of civilian, military and police personnel. More specifically, the ITS develops training standards, policies and guidance for specialist trainers within the organisation and Member States, and deliver training for priority needs that cut across the areas of peacekeeping. Finally, the ITS oversees peacekeeping training activities to ensure that standards and priorities are being met. Back in 1994 the UN already encouraged Member States to develop training facilities such as peacekeeping training centres and staff colleges. In the same year, Canada established the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre (PPC), which thus became the first regional peacekeeping training centre worldwide. The PPC, with main offices in Ottawa and Cornwallis, offers courses, peace operation simulations, workshops, conferences and other learning events to civilians, the military and police around the world. In doing so, the PPC uses a particular ‘activity-based learning’ training approach, a dynamic teaching method built on respect for the existing experience, skills and knowledge

of participants. The PPC also initiated International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centres (IAPTC), an open and voluntary worldwide association of centres, institutions and programmes dealing with peace operations research, education and training. One of the many member institutions is the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) in Accra, Ghana. The Centre opened in January 2004 and has since become West Africa’s Operational Level Focus for Conflict Prevention and Peace Studies. In its short history, the KAIPTC has become a regional centre of excellence where education, training and research on peace support operations are delivered to the highest academic and professional standards. To date, the Centre has run over 174 training courses and educated more than 5,304 individuals. As it not only trains soldiers for peace corps, but also offers courses in conflict prevention, mediation and resolution, KAIPTC conveys ‘Education for Peace’. For the many attendees from African countries still shattered by human rights violations, and economic and political violence, this might be their first personal step towards building peace in the region. ms&t

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Training Technology

The Aegis-class destroyer USS Hopper successfully intercepts a sub-scale short range ballistic missile, July 2009. Image credit: US Navy.

Meeting the Threat Sophisticated missile defense systems need to be flexible – and so does the training. Chuck Weirauch writes of the challenges.

I

t seems that hardly a week goes by without some state conducting tests of short-range (SRBM), medium-range (MRBM), and intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBMs), while others advance work on their intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)) capabilities. According to the US Missile Defense Agency (MDA), not only is the number of such missile tests increasing, but also the number of countries that hold ballistic missiles has grown to more than two dozen, including those with hostile regimes with ties to terrorist organizations. It’s a strong indication that missile capability, or even the suggestion of such capability, is considered a “big stick”- a stick big enough to support rogue nation aspirations for global status and political influence. With multi-tiered and increasingly sophisticated threats to counter, it’s clear that just one type of anti-ballistic missile system could not deal with them all. That’s why the MDA, in cooperation with the US services, US Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM), the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), various Combatant Commands (COCOMs) and industry 22

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is developing a layered approach to missile defense capable of intercepting all of the various classes of missiles at their boost, midcourse and terminal flight stages. The country’s multilayered system is focused not only on the defense of the US but also of its deployed forces and allies. Modeling and simulation is playing a key role in the research, development, testing, analyses, and training of these systems. The deployable Patriot Advanced Capability-3 system, the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) and the mobile Aegis Standard Missile (SM-2) Block IV missile are designed to counter the SRBM threat. Both the THAAD and Aegis can also intercept MRBMs. The THAAD missile is designed to intercept targets both inside and outside the Earth’s atmosphere. To counter the IRBM and ICBM threat, the United States has deployed Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) interceptors in silos at Fort Greely, Alaska and Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. As the global missile threat continues to expand, the MDA the services and US allies are continuing to further develop

their BMD systems. The MDA is working to expand the number of GMD missiles and launch locations, while the THAAD program is developing the means for a transportable launch system. In October, a second THAAD launch battery became active at Fort Bliss, TX. With the MDA, the Navy is also working to expand the number of its and Allied Forces Aegis ships and missiles capable of intercepting SRBMs and IRBMs. A Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Aegis destroyer conducted the latest successful intercept of a medium-range ballistic missile in late October. US Navy Aegis ships have performed several such successful intercepts as well. Also under development is the Airborne Laser (ABL), a megawatt-class chemical oxygen iodine high-energy laser mounted aboard a modified Boeing 747-400F prototype aircraft. In August, the ABL was fired for the first time while in flight. The mobile ABL BMDS is designed to fly to trouble spots anywhere in the world and intercept several classes of ballistic missiles with directed energy, including ICBMs, in the early boost phase of their flight.


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10" Live

The DMETS, described as the MDA’s virtual missile defense trainer, is currently the agency’s primary BMDS trainer. The DMETS currently does not replicate the entire BMDS system and all of the elements of the layered US BMDS. However, it is the current most comprehensive BMDS trainer, and the MDA is continually expanding the elements of the DMETS. The DMETS is a networked architecture consisting of dedicated and federated equipment and systems, which combines core BMDS elements, modeling and simulation and threat injection tools to generate warfighter-requested BMD training scenarios in a live, virtual, and constructive environment for warfighter proficiency and certification. It is also employed for mission rehearsal, pipeline training, exercises, and the sustainment of tactics, techniques, and procedures. According to MDA sources, when combined, the DMETS systems give warfighters the capability to conduct interactive training, with decisions and actions affecting the outcome of the training scenario. DMETS simulates those systems not populated by live warfighters in a particular training scenario, providing the warfighter with the simulated experience of the complete BMDS system. The

into the training environment. STRATCOM also uses DMETS for senior leader BMD mission training. The DMETS provides what Mosley calls a “conglomeration” of data to the COCOMS from several BMDS computer network servers, including one that represents missile threats, a C2BMC server, a GMD system server and a simulation server. All of this data is then merged together to provide scenario-based proficiency training for STRATCOM, US Northern Command (NORTHCOM) missile defense crews, US Pacific Command (PACOM) BMDS operators and COCOM senior staff members and other locations around the globe. The DMETS Control Center uses a variety of connections to reach the warfighter organizations, both internal and external to the Missile Defense Integration and Operations Center in Colorado, such as the Joint Training and Experimentation Network (JTEN), the MDA-CNET, SIPrNET, and the SDIN. “At times, we have used DMETS to provide BMDS exercises for senior staff members at the four-star- level,” Mosley pointed out. “Even the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretary of Defense at times are on hand to observe some of these exercises.” New elements are continually being added to the DMETS as they become part of the BDMS. And while real-time data from live sources makes up the bulk of the projected picture, some elements must be simulated. The most recent simulated addition to the DMETS is the Seabased X-band Radar platform. “We do simulate most of the early warning radars for the DMETS,” Mosley said.” It’s also very difficult to hook up to a live Aegis ship at sea, so Aegis radar is also simulated. However, we have just connected up with Aegis Pierside in the Pacific. Through that facility we can connect with an Aegis ship in port so that we can use live operations to play live rather than just simulating them.” Since the DMETS was initially established in 2005, the system has gone through quite a few enhancements Due to the increasing requirements for BMDS crew training, the system is also in operation more than 80 hours a week, double the amount of time than in 2007. While the current training scenarios that operators experience through the DMETS can’t be described in detail

10-7/8" Trim

DMETS

system’s flexibility allows BMDS training on a theater, regional, or global scale. This training can be targeted to a single crew, designed for multiple crews or elements to train collectively, and can be distributed to the highest levels of government, including the Secretary of Defense. Evolving theater and regional ballistic missile defense requirements are driving the expansion of unit, organization, and component commander BMDS training. In order to meet the needs of this training audience, DMETS will integrate other theater and regional element training systems into the federation, including the Patriot PAC-3 and Aegis BMD, sources pointed out. DMETS must expand to include greater inclusion of theater and regional BMD systems, with the capability to both simulate those systems, as well as provide a training environment for warfighters from those systems, the sources summed up. According to Lt. Col. Debora Mosley of the MDA’s Ballistic Missile System Training and Education Division at the joint BMDS Training and Education Center at Colorado Springs, “Missile defense doesn’t happen in a vacuum. The ultimate goal would be to not only train missile warning and missile defenders together on the same system, but also air defenders that would all share central networks and resources to really compare defense in a full operational picture. However, we are not there yet.” Presumably that is the goal of All Things Missile. Since the MDA is working with lead agency STRATCOM along with JFCOM, one assumption is that DMETS will be incorporated into the ATM effort, which was announced in April. When MS&T contacted STRATCOM in October to get an update on the ATM and to gain an answer to this question, the agency only reported that the ATM process is going well and that it should have the requirements stage finished shortly, with the solutions phase to follow soon afterward. The DMETS system as it stands today is primarily employed for GMD operator training and contains some but not all missile early warning elements. However, the DMETS has provided training scenarios to the THAAD element trainer in Fort Bliss to provide THAAD warfighters with a BMD system-wide training. The current DMETS is also capable of integrating Patriot facilities

11-1/4" Bleed

Training Technology

The key to making such a highly complex missile defense system work is linking all its players and their respective ballistic missile defense systems (BMDS) and ground, sea and space-based sensor components together via a global network. While that integration work is underway and in part operational, there is a parallel training challenge, which is to integrate and coordinate training across the full spectrum of partners and their stand-alone training systems. To address this training challenge, STRATCOM, JFCOM and the MDA have begun a partnership dubbed All Things Missile (ATM). This partnership is an effort, scheduled for completion in 2011, to develop a joint program to consolidate and integrate all air and missile defense training solutions, including those simulations and systems of all BMDS players. In the meantime, the MDA will continue to improve and expand its primary BDMS training system, the Distributed MultiEchelon Training System (DMETS)


Boeing’s groundbreaking integration of Live, Virtual and Constructive training domains (I-LVC) sets a new standard of training and readiness. With I-LVC, real aircraft can be integrated into exercises with simulators and computer-generated threats. It’s the latest addition to Boeing’s full spectrum of training capabilities, including live range training— unparalleled training options that reduce cost and most importantly, maximize personnel readiness.


Training Technology

since they are classified, they are specifically geared toward NORTHCOM GMD missile defense crews in Alaska and at Vandenberg Air Force Base concerning ICBM-class defense. However, DMETS does have mission rehearsal capabilities, and scenarios can be generated fairly quickly based on observed missile threat activity. “The training challenge is trying to keep up with the growing and changing threat and incorporating the latest threats so that warfighters can see and receive the most realistic training,” Mosley summed up.

Command and Control Training It would be impossible to coordinate the integrated BDMS without some overarching command and control system. That is the task of the MDA’s Command, Control, Battle Management and Communications (C2BMC) system. The C2BMC system provides COCOMS and senior BMDS command staff with a realtime global early warning and situational awareness perspective of potential and actual ballistic missile threats. The C2BMC integrated picture of the BMDS environment is based on data provided by an extensive network of air, ground-based and shipboard radar systems, as well as satellite-based sensor systems and other early- warning platforms. The C2MBC also incorporates planning and crisis-action tools to allow the BMDS leadership to plot a course of action to deal in advance with any potential or impending treats. The Missile Defense National Team, led by Lockheed Martin, developed the C2BMC system under contract with the MDA, and is continually upgrading and enhancing the operating hardware and software to incorporate new elements of the BMDS system and to counter emerging threat scenarios. The team, which includes Boeing, Northrup Grumman, General Dynamics and Raytheon, also develops and updates the C2BMC training system, software and curricula. The training system incorporates the actual C2BMC operating software. Simulationbased training is critical to the readiness of the C2BMC system operators. Initial C2BMC qualification training is managed and coordinated by the MDA’s C2BMC Director of Warfighter Interface Operations and Sustainment 26

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

The MDA’s C2BMC system links major components of the US ballistic missile defense system. Image credit: MDA.

and conducted by mobile teams of MDA and National Team instructors. These teams provide on-demand training at the request of the COCOMS typically when those commands receive new BMDS operator crews, according to Pat Wallace, deputy for the C2BMC Director’s office. Since the training team works directly with the operational software developers, there is little lag time in providing the training system with the latest operational upgrades, she said. Initial training is primarily conducted on laptop computers. “The C2BMC is the glue that allows all of the other BMDS elements to talk to each other, and we provide the unique initial skills and crew training for the functions that the C2BMC provides,” Wallace explained. “The major function of the system is situational awareness, and we train operators to interpret the data that comes across their screens. The other major function we do is sensor management training for sensor managers. The second part of the C2 is a stand-alone planner similar to a video game that allows BMDS managers to plan ahead for battle, and we train that as well.” Due to heightened demand, mobile C2BMC training teams have been deployed nearly every week, and some-

time to two locations at once, Wallace said. Although typically the initial training course is a week long, that time can vary from two days to as much as three weeks, depending on the amount of time required for crews to become qualified, she pointed out. The training also requires a high ratio of instructors to students, sometimes one-on-one, because of the complexity of the system, Wallace added. “The challenge is that the threat changes often and our software changes often,” said Warfighter Interface Operations and Sustainment Director Colonel Gregg Monk. “However, the trainers do sit side by side with the developers, and we do have a high number of trainers relative to the numbers of people being trained. Sometimes while students are being trained they are also doing other jobs in forward locations.” The MDA’s Ballistic Missile System Training and Education Division offer DMETS based schoolhouse courses at MDA headquarters in Colorado Springs, CO. According to Mosley, one of the courses the division provides is a week long BDMS Planning and Employment course designed for the stand-alone C2BMC planner. Graduates of this course gain an understanding of theater, regional and strategic BMD systems and how to employ them for the defense of the US or its allies. Once BMDS operators complete initial C2BMC training, they can then participate in DMETS training provided to the COCOMS via a number of military networks. ms&t


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Training Technology

More Technology Requires More Analysis Allison Rossett maps a data driven approach to guide decision-making. Portions of this article are adapted from her new book, First Things Fast: A Handbook for Performance Analysis, 2nd edition, San Francisco: Pfeiffer/Wiley Inc. (2009)

R

etired VADM Pat Tracey made the point at a Navy Learning Strategies Consortium in 2007: “Sending our people to residence programs is not compatible with our urgent needs in the field and our human capital strategy...” In the good old days, leadership asked for training, envisioned a class, and relied on instructors to make it work. Today, with growing need for speed to competent, fluent performance, these leaders favor technology rich systems that deliver high value assets as needed, wherever and whenever. High value assets are the challenge. What’s in? What’s out? What can be referenced? What must be practiced to memory? Where do we use tutorials? Performance support? Scenario-based learning? What of investments in immersive systems and simulations? And how do we guide the choices at the heart of on demand resources? We answer these questions through performance analysis. 28

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

Performance analysis is critical because it is the process that enables us to figure out what to do in a data-driven fashion. It is time for learning and technology specialists to turn from their habitually favored interventions, like training, or scenario-based learning, or haptic systems, to solutions that match the soldier and situation, even if it is not what was originally requested. Performance analysis is the study done to define that solution in ways that go beyond the automatic to create fresh, evidence rich approaches. That’s what IBM did when they recreated training for 38,000 global sales people. Not surprisingly, IBM had a long and honored history of sales training. To rethink past efforts, they used analysis to find a way to transform their young, mobile workforce to become more like their most savvy sales veterans. On April 7, 2008, in a keynote presentation at ISPI in New York City, IBM’s Brenda Sugrue and Nancy Lewis described how they did it. What Sugrue and Lewis attempted was to uncover the foundational capabilities of their stars.

The purpose was simple: they intended to clone their top performing sales people. They did this by asking the top people about their thoughts, smarts, tools, and resources. Through intense interviewing, the IBM team attempted to find out what sales stars knew, did and relied upon to accelerate sales. Those details about thoughts, efforts and tools, plus questions about organizational drivers, defined the solution system. That’s IBM. Why not more analysis in this technology rich world? In this article, adapted from two chapters in the book, First Things Fast: A Handbook for Performance Analysis, 2nd edition (2009), we look at three trends and their effects on how we plan.

Converging Learning and Work No trend is more obvious pressing than the convergence of learning, information, and work. Quoting IBM’s Nancy Lewis, who is now leading learning for ITT: “There will always be a need for formal training, but it will likely be much more in direct support of the capabilities that cannot be learned in the workplace.” On July 18, 2007, Elliott Masie and M. David Merrill discussed it at the Learning Strategies Conference sponsored by the U.S. Navy’s Human Performance Center. Masie touted the value of what he dubbed “fingertip knowledge,” where critical content is delivered in the context of work, not in the classroom. Merrill agreed with Masie, but pointed to the differences between knowledge and information, “It is not fingertip knowledge,” he noted, “It is fingertip information.” The job of learning professionals, according to Merrill, is to create experiences that turn information into knowledge. Dave Merrill was right. Information and knowledge are not the same. Information, according to many sources, is there to reduce uncertainty. We reach for it in many forms, such as documentation, posters, and performance support tools, in order to get things done, such as changing the message on an answering machine, getting money out of the ATM, and reflecting on what to do increase the visual street appeal of a residence we are eager to sell. On the other hand, The Oxford English Dictionary defines knowledge as (1) facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; (2) the theoretical or


idly me 3D

Training Technology

practical understanding of a subject: (3) what is known in a particular field or in total, facts and information; or (4) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Both information and knowledge belong in the mix. A customer service representative couldn’t serve customers without knowledge about his products and access to updated information on the corporate web site. A real estate sales person couldn’t qualify customers without knowing how to build trust with customers and easy access to mobile data, materials, and rationale, all provided on her personal digital assistant. And Uncle Harry, who has tried to stop smoking ten times in the past two decades, finally succeeds with help from the online site, QuitNet. He said, “Couldn’t have done it without that web site, and all their lessons, community, nagging, and online meetings.” What the employee or citizen needs is not necessarily inside the brain. In part at least, what we rely on might reside in the environment as a checklist, an online help system, a reminder, a database, an example or even the supportive words of an online advisor or community. Support, learning and work now occur simultaneously and seamlessly. They converge where they are needed, close to the task. As you can see, information is delivered into the context that matters, while knowledge, by definition, has successfully found its way inside the individual, into memory, in a feat typically achieved through practice, feedback, and repetition over time. That transition of information into knowledge happens through education and training. Should all information become CLIENT knowledge? Should our goal be to move PRESAGIS information from the outside to the inside TITLE PRODUCTS_AD_GF_MS&T of the employee? Not all of it, not at all. PUBLICATION MS&T We dare not ignore the importance of DATE OFlearning, PUB. and of serious study and comNOVEMBER 09 mitment, where appropriate. Nicholas ISSUE Carr, in a July/August, 2008 article in FORMAT Atlantic.com raises just that question: HI-RES PDF is Google making us stupid? One critiSIZE 203 MM X 277 MM + BLEED cal task confronted by the analyst in this LINE SCREEN 175 tech rich world is to determine what the COLOURS chef, sales person or service rep must CMYK know by heart and what he or she can CONTACT PIERRE CHAPDELAINE refer to as needed. PIERRE@ AGENCECODE.QC.CA T 514 844-0752 Now, we, and our interventions, must F 514 844-0935 4060, ST-LAURENT BLVD with all that exists in the world compete SUITE 209 MONTRÉAL, QC of work—or even at home, since so many CANADA H2W 1Y9 people work from that location. Will the

Table 1. Close Kin: Analysis and Evaluation Purpose

Key questions

Analysis

Evaluation

Planning approaches. (But

Judging approaches (But don’t

don’t we judge in order to

we use our plans in order to set

plan?)

criteria for judging?)

What should we do?

How well did we do it?

What drives or blocks success or what might? Why bother?

To get the right program in

To judge existing efforts, to

place for this organization at

determine what has happened,

this time

to use date to continuously improve the effort

From whom?

Multiple sources, such as

Multiple sources, such as spon-

From what?

sponsors, best practices, cus-

sors, best practices, custom-

tomers, supervisors, experts,

ers, supervisors, experts, work

work product, results….

products, results….

Review work products

Review work products and the

and the literature; conduct

literature; conduct interviews,

interviews, scrutinize blogs

scrutinize blogs and other social

and other social resources,

resources, surveys, test, observe,

surveys, test, observe, focus

focus groups….

How?

groups…. When?

Looking backward in order to go

Looking forward

forward Net. Net

Defines and articulates prom-

Determines if promises have

ises about how things will

been fulfilled, based on purposes

change, get better

identified during analysis, and seeks opportunities for subsequent programming

engineer reach for the guidelines? Will the manager listen to the podcast? Will the new employee turn to an e-coach or an e-learning module? Will the driver take the safety self-assessment and then follow up, when a question arises? Will the sales associate add her idea to the Intranet-based blog because it might be helpful to colleagues? The answer to all will be yes when the assets and experiences resonate for employees, when individuals can see compelling reasons for effort, curiosity and generosity. Analysis provides these revelations.

Converging Analysis and Evaluation Consider the success of current efforts. Reflect on the question of development priorities. Peruse a set of questions raised by reps or engineers. Examine customer complaints. Is the professional conducting analysis or evaluation? In a world that has gone much beyond the classroom

to a blend of learning and information assets and experiences available when needed, such distinctions do not parse. The contention here is that analysis and evaluation are more similar than different, that in many ways they are and should be identified. Let’s use an example to advance the point. • You are rolling out a program to elevate attention to and decisions surrounding ethics in your global organization. The initiative was grounded in reactions to the existing ethics class, interviews with instructors, recorded ethics complaints, outcomes associated with complaints, a review of the literature, interviews with people across the organization, and an anonymous online survey that asked hard questions about drivers. The resulting program involved a self-assessment, three virtual classroom sessions, a series of podcasts, a phone reporting line, two structured lunch chats for supervisors and their employees, an in-house coach, FAQs MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009 29


Training Technology

online, and a performance support tool to assist in decision-making. As the program is deployed, data is gathered on satisfaction, use, and recommendations for improvement. The podcasts were judged as too lengthy; within ten days, they were sliced and diced into smaller, targeted bites. A virtual classroom session was added because several questions were raised and the phone line recorded a half dozen inquiries and related reports about the topic. Four new questions and answers were added to the FAQ. The on-boarding process now includes an introduction to the ethics blend, because this kind of workplace based and multi modal program turned out to be different for employees. Look at the groundwork on that ethics program. While that effort looks like performance analysis, the professional also examined feedback and results associated with existing classes. Analysis or evaluation? Once the program went “live,” data was collected in order to continuously improve it. Changes were made and new assets were added. Analysis or evaluation? Table 1 compares analysis and evaluation. Sources, techniques and approaches are the same, with analysis focused on what ought to be happening in means and ends – and with more emphasis during evaluation on what has already transpired. But really. As we move learning and support into work, with technology as a key force for delivery AND data collection, what is the difference? How does that distinction deliver value? Table 2 puts these ideas to work on a challenge to help convenience store sales people improve customer service. The data gathering AND the data gathered look similar. What differs is how the findings are deployed. The analyst used what is learned to create and tailor the program. The evaluator uses it to make judgments and continuously improve the effort. In both cases, these professionals use data to enlighten the sponsor and enhance decisions. It is not a matter of first and last or front and rear. More important is commitment to being continuous, pervasive, transparent, and communicative.

All Things 2.0 Dan Baum, in a wonderful article called “Battle Lessons” in The New Yorker 30 MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

Table 2. Analysis & Evaluation: Customer Service in Convenience Stores

Purpose

Analysis

Evaluation

I’ve been asked to figure out

They asked me to look at the effec-

how we should boost customer

tiveness of the program, to judge

service in the stores across

where it is working and where not

North America Key questions

Why tackle this now? What

How well did we execute the

would it look like if we did this

program, given the goals and

wonderfully well? What is our

objectives derived from the analy-

customer service message?

sis? Does the program happen as

Where are the opportunities to

planned?

exercise great customer service? Where do we go wrong now?

What are reps’ opinions about the

When it’s great, why? When it

customer service program? Are

isn’t, why not?

reps doing what is expected of them? Supervisors’ opinions? What do they do? Fail to do? How does it affect our numbers? Customer satisfaction and purchases?

Why bother?

Yes, why? Where are we meeting

Look at every aspect of the

goals? Failing? Why? How can

program. How do we improve the

this program further strategic

existing program? Are the classes

goals for the stores, such as

satisfying? Does the supervisory

purchases per visit and the likeli-

coaching happen? Does it make a

hood of repeat visits?

difference? What about the checklists? The self assessments?

From whom?

Multiple sources, such as spon-

Multiple sources, such as sponsors,

sors, best practices, customers,

best practices, customers, supervi-

supervisors, published literature,

sors, experts…. Focus here on the

experts….

incumbents. Are they using the resources? Liking them? Are they asking for more? Returning to them repeatedly?

How?

Review work products and the

Review work products and the

literature; conduct interviews,

literature; conduct interviews, sur-

surveys, and focus groups; use

veys, and focus groups; use secret

secret shoppers….

shoppers…. Use technology to track opinions, visits, and forwards

When?

Seven weeks before the program

As elements of the program are in

is launched, the analysis com-

place, data is gathered. A pilot is

menced.

done in New England in six stores and customer satisfaction, supervisory checklists, sales, and secret shoppers results are compared to matched stores in non-pilot regions.

magazine [http://www.newyorker.com/ archive/2005/01/17/050117fa_fact], demonstrated the value of Web 2.0 strategies in the field, where it matters. While a few do not like the 2.0 designation (see George Siemens [www.elearnspace.org], there is agreement that something significant is up, and that the concepts are important

and growing more so. Howard Jarche, in April 2008 Learning Circuits, defined 2.0 this way: “Web 2.0 is the growing set of tools and processes that allows anyone to easily create digital content and collaborate with others without any special programming skills.” Look at 2.0 in relation to the 1.0

N


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ing its way into databases so that, say, any salesperson visiting Costco is familiar with the terms of their most current contracts and formal and informal conversations? How do we find what it is that savvy sales people or responsive customer service reps or effective security personnel know? How do we make certain that the information reflects not just the obvious but also the more subtle and cultural aspects that are essential to success? How do we make it available to more people, so they can add their views? How do we ensure that the information is refreshed? And how do we make certain that it is easily located at the moment of need? The analyst who uses 2.0 looks beyond the classroom to diverse ways for collecting, maintaining, honoring, and stirring up expertise. 2.0 is more than smarts AND more than community. It is both. It is a great source for information, both explicit and tacit, that resides in the organization and its people. While 1.0 generates much that is seen as authoritative, 2.0 yields content that is natural, democratic and timely. Analysts create and use both.

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Training Technology

other with up-to-the-minute advice about enemy movements in alleys, and kids’ candy preferences. If you want to know what’s going on, and analysts must be in the know, all things 2.0 have value for us. Every analyst must seek answers to questions like these: How do we tease the subtle know-how and perspectives from, for example, a contracts administrator about strategies for maintaining productive and peaceful relationships with both the sales force and the legal staff? How do we help her describe the many things she considers and does, of which she isn’t even aware? In addition, how do we ensure that a steady flow of explicit customer information is find-

world from which the first edition of this book came. In the 1.0 world, knowledge, information, attitudes, views, and experiences are captured by professionals through surveys, interviews and focus groups. The world that is 2.0 changes things as employees, customers, and the rest of us seize the means to talk amongst ourselves through blogs, wikis and other community forms. Motorola customers get together online to talk about how they are using their new Q phone. JetBlue instructors share ideas about how to increase the power of their messages. Owners of Standard Poodles find each other to appreciate their breed. And army Captains stationed in Iraq provide each

(assumes bare CRT)

$100

$50

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0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Years

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32 MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

7

8

9

10

11

A month ago, a customer called and asked for help in developing podcasts for her organization. She thought they would be educational for a sales force that was out in the field and not getting much training, not this year. She also saw motivational value for managers who would hear the words of corporate leaders. Is this a good idea? Should she instead develop tutorials? Or a performance support tool? I don’t know. What I know is that she was much more intrigued with podcasts than the details of the needs of her sales and manager force and what would be likely to drive and support their success. The seductive nature of the new media is a good reason to add performance analysis right up front, before you do anything. Performance analysis keeps the focus on the purposes and the context. The goal is to find the “right” bundle of interventions, not to take a spin with podcasts or Second Life or social networks. ms&t

About the Author Allison Rossett is Professor Emerita of Educational Technology at San Diego State University and author of First Things Fast: A Handbook for Performance Analysis and Job Aids and Performance Support: Moving from Knowledge in the Classroom to Knowledge Everywhere. Her new book is the 2nd edition of First Things Fast. You can reach Allison at arossett@mail.sdsu.edu


MILITARY SIMULATION & TRAINING

NEWS

Issue no. 21 Fall 2009 / Winter 2010

Indian Army rolls out domestically produced T-90 Bhishma tanks ALSO IN THIS ISSUE Executive Corner 2 How well do you know CAE?

Feature Story 3 Indian Army rolls out domestically produced T-90 Bhishma tanks

Technology Developments 4 • New CAE engineering capability to reduce risk for prototype aircraft development • Integrating soft factors to enhance military joint training environments

Program Spotlight 6 Canadian Forces Halifax Class Modernization Program

Capabilities Focus 7

one step ahead

Ready for battle: CAE’s land simulation capabilities help prepare Army soldiers for today’s challenges

News & Notes 8


How well do you know CAE? Over the past 60+ years, CAE has developed a well-earned reputation as a leading provider of flight simulators and flight training for both the civil and military markets. Did you know that when you fly on a commercial flight anywhere in the world, chances are that the pilots have probably trained in a CAEbuilt flight simulator? That’s because no other company has delivered more full-flight simulators than CAE. Martin Gagné, Group President, Military Products and Training & Services

For the military market, we have a range of experience providing training systems for helicopters, transports, tankers, maritime patrol aircraft, lead-in fighter trainers, and combat aircraft. For example, we have designed training systems for the greatest variety of helicopters, and we have long been the leading provider of C-130 training systems and services. We’re proud to be well known for the realism, quality and reliability of our flight simulators, which aircrews regard as the closest thing to the true experience of flight. They can take you anywhere you want to go, and immerse you in a realistic virtual combat environment, without ever leaving the ground. Aircrews can practice and rehearse – in a completely safe environment – all the situations that are too dangerous or impossible to try in a real aircraft. The foundation for creating this immersive and realistic “virtual world” is our leading-edge simulation technology portfolio.

As everyone serving the defence market knows, there has been an explosion in the use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and this is expected to not only continue, but expand even further. This requires skilled UAS operators as well as well-trained mission commanders who need to understand how to make the most effective use of information coming from a variety of sources. CAE has teamed with Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) to develop a UAS Mission Training Centre for an Asian military customer. The comprehensive mission training system supports the complete range of training needs associated with different UASs, payloads and sensors.

But did you know that CAE has extensive experience and capability applying these simulation technologies to a range of solutions for land and naval forces, unmanned aerial systems and more? It is certainly not as well known that CAE delivers world-class simulation-based solutions for ground and naval forces. For example, we offer training solutions such as crew gunnery trainers for armoured vehicles, artillery and joint tactical forward air control trainers, recognition trainers, and command and control trainers. The British Army is now using almost 40 upgraded Warrior gunnery turret trainers from CAE to help hone the skills of gunners in the Warrior armoured fighting vehicle. As you’ll read in this edition of our newsletter, we recently developed a suite of training systems for the T-90 and T-72 tanks as part of a program we are pursuing for the Indian Army. These comprehensive T-90 and T-72 tank training systems are now available to the global market. The CAE GESI Command and Staff Training System is a constructive simulation system designed to run complex and comprehensive exercises from the company level up to division level. The GESI system is currently in service with six European nations for command and staff training. For naval commanders, we offer a tactical training system called the Action Speed Tactical Trainer (ASTT) that is used by naval commanders to practice and rehearse tactical doctrines in typical combat situations encountered at sea. The Indian Navy has been making effective use of this solution for several years. You will also read in this newsletter about CAE’s role on the Canadian Navy’s Halifax Class Modernization program.

2

CAE and IAI are delivering a comprehensive UAS Mission Training Centre to a military customer in Asia.

CAE is the ideal partner for militaries and major weapon system original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) seeking a training system integrator for air, land, or sea. We are a company focused on simulation and training delivery with the requisite experience, skills, and capability to design training programs and develop and support the entire training environment. We have proven skills and a track record of exemplary results in a variety of training-focused disciplines, including: training needs analysis, media evaluation and optimization, knowledge and skills transfer, instructional systems design, courseware, training devices, instruction, learning management information systems, facilities, maintenance and logistics support, configuration management, and technology insertion. So next time you think of CAE, it’s fine if flight simulation is the first thing that comes to mind, but understand and appreciate that CAE is so much more.

Executive Corner


Indian Army rolls out domestically produced T-90 Bhishma tanks During the summer, India officially unveiled its first batch of ten T-90 tanks built indigenously in India under licence from Russia. Named the Bhishma by the Indian Army after one of the strongest characters of the “Mahabharata epic”, the T-90 will be India’s main battle tank over the next three decades.

controls for both basic and tactical situations. The driver can also practice driving the tank in a variety of conditions, including different terrain and environments, reduced visibility, and other obstacles. The T-90 gunner trainer supports initial and continuation training for individual T-90 gunner personnel as they develop gunnery skills and rehearse for target identification, tracking, lasing and firing drills. In the T-90 gunner trainer, the gunner can practice both gun and missile firing in static and moving conditions.

India’s Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi, near Chennai, is expected to produce nearly 1,000 T-90 tanks over the next decade. The Indian Army already operates over 600 T-90 tanks acquired from Russia as part of a deal signed in 2001. The T-90 is a successor to the Russian-built T-72 tank and is considered one of the most advanced tanks in the world with night-fighting capabilities and the ability to fire guided missiles from its turret. The T-90 tank also has advanced protection systems to protect the crew and equipment CAE and Tata Advanced Systems have developed a suite of T-90 from anti-tank guided missiles as tank training systems. well as chemical, biological and radioactive nuclear attack. In order to successfully operate the fleet of T-90 tanks, the Indian Army requires skilled and highly-trained drivers, gunners and commanders. The Indian Army is currently in the request for proposal process to acquire a comprehensive suite of both T-90 and T-72 tank training systems. To pursue the training program, CAE India has teamed with Tata Advanced Systems Limited. CAE India and Tata have developed a complete T-90 training system that comprises three state-of-the-art simulation devices: a T-90 driver trainer, a T-90 gunner trainer, and a T-90 gunnery crew trainer. The comprehensive training solution offers the fidelity and realism required to efficiently and cost-effectively train the entire crew in the T-90 tank. Importantly, the crew can be trained individually or collectively as part of a troop, and the T-90 trainers are housed in a container for deployment to any location. The T-90 driver trainer provides initial, continuation and refresher training to individual drivers. Specifically, the drivers can familiarize themselves with the instrumentation, communications equipment and various

Feature Story

T h e T- 9 0 g u n n e r y c r e w trainer provides training to the commander and gunner at the individual, crew and troop levels. Along with developing individual skills, the gunner crew trainer creates a team environment to support coordination skills, decision-making and crew communications. Through effective training of these skills, the T-90 crew will improve its efficiency in working as a team and as part of an entire troop during combat operations.

CAE and Tata have delivered a prototype T-90 training system to the Indian Army for testing and evaluation as part of the competitive procurement process. The Indian Army is expected to select a T-90 training system provider sometime during 2010. CAE will also be marketing its comprehensive T-90 training solution to other global militaries operating the T-90 tank. “We are committed to bringing state-of-the-art simulation technologies to India’s defence forces, as well as developing technologies here in India that can be exported to the global defence market,” said H.J. Kamath, President of CAE India Pvt. Ltd. “Our development with Tata on a complete T-90 training system is a perfect example. We believe simulation-based training will become increasingly important to enhancing operational readiness and mission preparedness, and we look forward to working closely with India’s defence and homeland security forces to help ensure mission success.”

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New CAE engineering capability to reduce risk for prototype aircraft development CAE Augmented Engineering Environment™ to enhance design, system integration, flight tests, and service entry phases for today’s complex aircraft Prototype aircraft present a unique, high-risk development challenge. Now aircraft original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have a new suite of tools to help reduce risks through key phases of a new aircraft’s progression. CAE’s Augmented Engineering Environment (AEE) leverages the company’s expertise in modelling and simulation, systems integration, and testing of multiple generations of avionics systems. CAE’s partnerships with many OEMs to develop training solutions in parallel with aircraft development have provided CAE an in-depth understanding of this dynamic environment. The benefit of CAE’s Augmented Engineering Environment to the OEM is the capability to identify and resolve integration issues as early as possible in the aircraft development program, minimizing more costly downstream risk. The AEE accelerates the cockpit design cycle by integrating control panels, avionics, all aircraft systems, a visual environment, and aircraft dynamics. Flight test time can be optimized via cockpit procedural evaluation and aircraft operational evaluation in the ground test environment. CAE has delivered full-flight simulators and other engineering training devices and services for more than 40 prototype civil and military aircraft. Elements of the AEE capability have been applied to programs such as Korea Aerospace Industries Korean Helicopter Program (KHP) and Boeing’s P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft program. For Korean Aerospace Industries (KAI), CAE developed a generic handling qualities simulator that has been used by KAI as an engineering development tool during design of an indigenous utility helicopter. KAI has used the handling qualities simulator to test and validate a range of systems for the new helicopter.

For Boeing, CAE designed and manufactured the P-8A systems integration lab (SIL) that is being used in the development of the U.S. Navy’s new P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft. The P-8A SIL is serving as an engineering development tool to test and validate various mission scenarios, and familiarize aircrews with the P-8A aircraft. The most comprehensive use of CAE’s Augmented Engineering Environment tools will be as part of Bombardier’s CSeries Complete Integrated Aircraft Systems Test Aircraft (CIASTA) program. Working closely with Bombardier, CAE will apply the full AEE capability to an engineering development simulator and a prototype full-flight simulator, as well as additional CAE engineering design and support services. The CSeries, which Bombardier estimates will consume 20 percent less fuel and be the “greenest” aircraft in its 100-149 seat class, is scheduled to enter service in 2013 with launch customer Deutsche Lufthansa AG. The CSeries engineering development framework will initially be populated with generic simulation models to evaluate system design and integration concepts. As supplier hardware and software become incrementally available, the generic models will be replaced with actual aircraft components. Today’s military aircraft have a high degree of complex avionics and weapons systems, not only in the cockpit, but networked with realtime maintenance data as well. CAE understands the complexities of new aircraft development, the iterative updates, and configuration management challenges. CAE has the proven ability to integrate, in a simulated environment, multiple supplier elements that use different computing languages, operating systems and interfaces. The AEE capability enables CAE to manage the test environment using a higher level of integration, which allows the aircraft manufacturer to concentrate their resources on aircraft development activities.

CAE has delivered a handling qualities simulator to Korea Aerospace Industries to support KAI’s development of an indigenous Korean Utility Helicopter.

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Technology Executive Developments Corner


Integrating soft factors to enhance military joint training environments The role of military forces in theatre has changed. No longer is it solely force-on-force combat operations. In many cases, the military is the only large organization available in theatre and, as such, is being called on to perform many other roles, including police security, humanitarian, economic infrastructure rebuilding, and political and diplomatic roles. To accomplish these, the military must build relationships with the local community to gain support for efforts against insurgent activities. These interactions not only create important sources of information and intelligence, but also provide other non-kinetic course of action options to resolve situations to the satisfaction of all the parties without violence. In preparation for their growing role in theatre, military personnel need to understand the dynamics of the local community – its politics, economy, and culture – in order to build these relationships. Today’s military planning and training environments have been structured to address the kinetic, or military tactics, aspects of combat, but they do not necessarily address the non-kinetic, or ‘soft’, factors associated with interacting with civilian populations.

The challenge The US Army TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity (TRISA) Modelling and Simulation (M&S) office put forth a challenge to the training industry – how do you characterize the soft factors within a simulation-based contemporary operating environment to more effectively train for joint military operations? TRISA is currently involved with other departments within the US government as part of a comprehensive Human Social Cultural Behavior (HSCB) program to develop HSCB models to use within the modelling and simulation domain for doctrine development, mission rehearsal, and training. This has become a multifaceted effort to define how these factors determine their influence on real human behavior, and establish the course of action (COA) responses that coalition forces can undertake to influence the situation.

Applying Web 2.0 techniques to intelligence data management To address this challenge, CAE’s Professional Services team in Orlando, Florida analyzed how intelligence data is collected and managed – to determine how it could be incorporated into the OneSAF Military Scenario Definition Environment (MSDE) planning process. Using opensource technologies, the team defined a data pre-processing activity that would provide a web-enabled information knowledge base (iKB) to collect and encode intelligence data and analyses, converting the data from unstructured data to structured knowledge and enabling a strategic theatre “road to war” situational awareness and support analysis for theatre intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB).

Spring/Summer 2009 Technology Developments

The iKB uses data mining and the semantic web RDF/OWL knowledge encoding techniques that are used for Web 2.0 applications with georeferencing. Through enhanced data management techniques, iKB will allow human subject matter experts (SMEs) to search intelligence data using software agents and sort through massive amounts of data on kinetic and non-kinetic factors more efficiently and effectively to create links between the data collected for better intelligence analysis and decision-making.

Strategic Focus The addition of soft factor capabilities into the entity simulation behaviors within OneSAF is one current priority of TRISA. TRISA has identified a need for a standalone analyst capability that models soft factors not just over hours and days, like the Joint Non-Kinetic Effects Model (JNEM) and OneSAF in tactical scenarios, but over weeks, months, and years in strategic theatre-level scenarios. The enhanced OneSAF environment will also be used to support the American, British, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand (ABCA) Armies Coalition‘s joint training initiative called Allied Auroras.

iKB, a collaborative tool As a web-enabled knowledge base, the ABCA contemporary operating environment tool provides the means for SMEs to work on evolving knowledge in parallel with all of the other SMEs sharing their insights. The iKB becomes the group memory of the collaboration. As SMEs rotate assignments, the iKB acts as the persistent memory that allows new SMEs to come on line, learn, and start contributing without knowledge loss. This is essential because military rotations have enormous potential to lose lessons learned and do not provide continuity to maintain the relationships established and knowledge gained.

Feeding the training environment To support training, the iKB outputs the data into Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) standard military scenario development language (MSDL), which then can be used to develop scenarios for analysis, training, and mission rehearsal within the OneSAF MSDE as well as the HSCB for simulated exercise execution. As personnel prepare for operations, their planning and training scenarios address more than the physical aspects of combat and include the political, economic, and cultural influences when dealing with the civilian population. For more information on CAE’s development of a contemporary operating environment, please contact caeps@cae.com. CAE staff will also be presenting a paper at the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC).

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Canadian Forces Halifax Class Modernization Program Under the Canadian Forces’ Halifax Class Modernization (HCM) program, CAE’s Professional Services team is providing expertise to support the integration of the new combat systems for the Halifax-class frigates. The Combat Systems Integration contract, which is primed by Lockheed Martin Canada, is providing a new command and control system, radars, tactical data links, electronic support measures, and other warfare capabilities for the Canadian Navy’s 12 Halifax-class frigates, which were commissioned between 1992 and 1997.

Validating requirements CAE Professional Services’ involvement in the Halifax Class Modernization program began under the Halifax Modernized Command and Control System Frigate Life Extension (HMCCS FELEX) program. Applying a user-centred approach, CAE’s team provided human factors and modelling and simulation expertise to develop and validate user and system requirements. Through extensive human performance research and analysis, CAE’s team evaluated the various roles within the operations room to understand the tasks and functions associated with each role, how individuals must interact as a crew, and the systems and interfaces they use. By understanding these elements, the requirements team was able to identify and validate proper system requirements to support the acquisition and design processes for the new combat systems. Modelling and simulation provided the ideal environment to visualize requirements for validation by all stakeholders.

Designing the operations room Under the current HCM contract, CAE Professional Services is providing human system integration and human factors engineering support to design the interfaces, workstations, and layout of the operations room. Extending from its analysis under the HMCCS program, CAE’s human factors team is applying user-centred, simulation-based design methodologies to develop graphical user interfaces and the physical layout of the operations room that addresses the needs of the users and optimizes crew interaction.

Integrating systems The CAE Professional Services team includes subject matter experts in the field of naval systems integration with a proven track record of providing systems and software engineering support to the existing close combat system in both the Iroquois and Halifax classes of ships for over 25 years. Under the new HCM contract, CAE will continue to provide similar support, linking existing and new subsystems to the new close combat system. Specifically, CAE will provide the software adaptors to integrate several of the subsystems as well as software engineering support and testing to Lockheed Martin Canada. Additionally, CAE will support the SHINCOM system, the communications trainer, communications intelligence trainer (COMINT), and related engineering support.

Providing in-service support CAE has a strong track record of providing support to the close combat systems currently in operation and will continue to support them for the long-term as the Canadian Navy undergoes their modernization. As systems are deployed, they require a robust lifecycle management support team to ensure their operational readiness. CAE Professional Services is leveraging its experience supporting original equipment manufacturers and has established itself as the only long-term inservice support partner on the HCM program. Under this program, CAE Professional Services is developing an integrated information environment, which will apply performance-based logistics and operations-centred maintenance methodologies to support the maintenance and upgrades to the combat systems as they are deployed in operations. Using performance metrics to analyze and model the system’s lifecycle, CAE Professional Services is able to empower systems managers and maintainers to ensure operational readiness of systems, logistics networks, and resources.

CAE Professional Services provides analytical and engineering services to support acquisition programs from research to operations, leveraging the use of modelling and simulation technologies for analysis, training, and operations. For more information, contact caeps@cae.com.

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Program Spotlight


Ready for battle:

CAE’s land simulation capabilities help prepare Army soldiers for today’s challenges Though many may not associate CAE with training systems for Army ground forces, the company has been providing advanced land training solutions to armies around the world for almost three decades. CAE has extensive experience providing simulation-based training solutions for command, control, and communications; forward observation; air defence; armoured vehicle drivers and gunners; and command and staff training. These training systems have been helping prepare ground forces and their commanders to accomplish a range of missions on today’s battlefield. The nature of today’s battlefield, however, is changing rapidly and placing more demands on the training systems required to support Army soldiers and commanders. Whether in combat or providing humanitarian aid, soldiers now face a wide range of situations that are often unplanned and unexpected. One answer to the training challenge is to make increased use of realistic, immersive synthetic environments in which you can subject the soldiers and battlefield commanders to challenging situations. An example is the U.S. Army’s use of the computer game Virtual Battlespace 2 (VBS2) as a desktop tactical training and mission rehearsal tool. CAE is now providing virtual databases to the Army for use with VBS2 as part of the Synthetic Environment Core (SE Core) program. Perhaps no other company better understands the use of modelling and simulation than CAE. This includes the application of modelling and simulation to not only traditional training, but also analysis as well as operational decision-making. CAE’s experience and expertise in simulation and synthetic environments is perfectly suited to providing armies with a full complement of simulation-based solutions – from the initial up-front use of simulation for concept development and experimentation through to embedding simulation into operational systems so commanders can conduct real-time “what if” scenarios. As widely accepted, simulation is still the most cost-effective means of training, and CAE’s track record and experience in the land simulation domain is extensive. Some of CAE’s most notable training systems for armies include:

Capabilities Focus

• Simulators for armoured fighting vehicles and tanks; • Forward observation, close air support and forward air controller trainers; • Command and staff constructive training system. The British Army uses the Warrior armoured fighting vehicle in the observation post vehicle configuration for fire control and observation missions. CAE has developed the Warrior Observation Post Vehicle training system that incorporates three Warrior vehicle simulators and an instructor operator station. Each simulated vehicle includes a simulated turret housing the commander and gunner, a driver’s compartment and a fully-equipped rear compartment. CAE has also recently developed a complete T-90 training system that is comprised of simulation devices for the driver, gunner and gunner crew. The CAE Infront 3D forward observer trainer provides realistic training in the application and adjustment of artillery and mortar fire. In addition, the CAE Infront 3D trainer can be used by forward air controllers to train for guiding fighter pilots in the release of ordinance on a chosen target. The Royal School of Artillery has been a long-time user of CAE’s forward observation training systems. CAE’s GESI Command and Staff Training System is a constructive simulation system designed to run complex and comprehensive exercises from the company level up to division level. Using the CAE GESI system, commanders and their staff conduct normal training exercises in regular command posts while using operational equipment. They have no perceptible contact with the simulation. The CAE GESI system is then used to represent a virtual battlefield, including weapons, vehicles, aircraft, ground forces and more. The commanders determine the course of the simulation exercise by the decisions they make. The CAE GESI system is currently in service with six European nations for command and staff training from the battalion to brigade level. CAE is an experienced provider of land training systems for armies worldwide, and the company’s continued developments related to simulation for analysis, training and operations give CAE some unique and exciting capabilities in this area. For more information on CAE’s land simulation capabilities, contact us at milsim@cae.com.

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News & Notes UK Joint Helicopter Command Recognizes MSHATF At the 10th Anniversary Gala Dinner and Awards Ceremony held recently at the Museum of Army Flying at Middle Wallop, the United Kingdom’s Joint Helicopter Command (JHC) recognized CAE’s Medium Support Helicopter Aircrew Training Facility (MSHATF). Following is an excerpt from the JHC’s awards ceremony program. In the course of an average year in excess of 10,000 training hours are flown in the simulators and over 120 aircrew on conversion, refresher or re-role courses receive comprehensive ground school instruction within the facility. There can be no doubt that as an industry partner, CAE makes an outstanding contribution to the overall effectiveness of the JHC. Throughout its existence, the staff and instructors of the MSHATF have striven for excellence and in the course of doing so have placed the facility on the map as a world-class training establishment, which is the envy of many of our European partners. This is a testament to the sheer hard work and determination of the CAE team to provide relevant, realistic and contemporary training to all users of the facility.

Marc Parent succeeds Robert E. Brown as President and CEO of CAE Marc Parent (shown at right in photo above) succeeded Robert E. Brown as President and Chief Executive Officer of CAE as of September 30, 2009. Mr. Brown will continue as an advisor until the end of December 2009. Under Mr. Brown’s leadership since 2004, CAE’s annual revenue grew 77 percent to C$1.7 billion in fiscal 2009. CAE also launched more than C$1.6 billion in R&D projects. “I am privileged to follow in Mr. Brown’s footsteps,” said Mr. Parent. “I am also proud to work with the men and women of CAE who are the best in the world in their field. Together we will continue to grow our company by leading in our core markets, listening to our customers, leveraging our core competencies in other industries, and investing in innovation.”

Staff from CAE’s MSHATF join Wing Commander Roger Flynn (center) during the JHC’s recent Gala Dinner and Awards Ceremony.

CAE awarded contract for tactical mission trainers for UK MFTS program As part of the United Kingdom’s Military Flying Training System (MFTS) program, Lockheed Martin has awarded CAE a contract to provide ground-based tactical mission training solutions for the UK military. CAE will provide tactical mission trainers to be used for training rear crews and observers in aircraft platforms such as the Nimrod maritime reconnaissance aircraft and Merlin maritime helicopter. CAE’s tactical mission trainers feature realistic tactical displays and high-fidelity sensor and subsystem simulations, including electronic support measures, radar warning receiver, and missile approach warning system. The UK MFTS program is a private finance initiative (PFI) involving the UK Ministry of Defence and Ascent, a joint venture of Lockheed Martin and VT Group. UK MFTS will provide comprehensive training to all new UK military aircrew across the Royal Navy, Army and Royal Air Force (RAF). CAE is already under contract from Lockheed Martin to provide two Hawk 128 full-mission simulators as part of the MFTS program.

Mr. Parent joined CAE in 2005 as Group President, Simulation Products, responsible for the design and manufacture of simulation products for the civil and military markets. His role was expanded in 2006 when he was appointed Group President, Simulation Products and Military Training & Services. He was promoted to Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer in 2008 and became responsible for all four of CAE’s segments as well as new growth initiatives. He also became a member of CAE’s Board of Directors. Mr. Parent has 25 years of experience in the aerospace industry. He began his career at Bombardier Aerospace where he held senior positions of increasing responsibility in engineering, management, product development, and operations at Bombardier’s facilities in Montréal, Toronto, Wichita, and Tucson. Mr. Parent is Chairman of the Board of Directors of Aéro Montréal, Montréal’s aerospace cluster. He is also Chairman of the Aerospace Industries Association of Canada for 2009-2010, and a member of the Board of Directors of the Canadian Association of Defence and Security Industries (CADSI).

Chris Stellwag, Editor Lisa Prentiss, Doug Wahrenberger, Contributors Cynthia Gallo, Graphic Design Reader feedback and contributions welcome

CAE, 8585 Côte-de-Liesse, St-Laurent, Quebec, Canada H4T 1G6 • milsim@cae.com • cae.com Military Simulation and Training News is a publication of CAE. © 2009 CAE All rights reserved. NM0921_P0632-P02

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Executive Corner


Training Transformation

Integrated Training with Help from the Italian Air Force Joint and coalition training at the NTC and the US Air Force’s Green Flag West marked a first. JFIIT’s Casey Bain tells the story.

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he U.S. Army and Air Force are working hard to improve joint and coalition training at the National Training Center (NTC), Fort Irwin, CA, and the Air Force’s Green Flag West (GFW) in Nellis Air Force Base, Nev., according to senior leaders at the combat training center (CTC). A recent August exercise marked the first time that Italian warfighters have participated in maneuvers at the CTC. The country deployed 10 AMX/A-1 close air support (CAS) aircraft, 34 pilots, six joint terminal attack controllers, and a variety of support personnel to Nellis. Helping to integrate this training were members of U.S. Joint Forces Command’s (USJFCOM) Joint Fires Integration and Interoperability Team (JFIIT). “NTC and the Air Force’s Green Flag are great examples of how we can link traditional service-level exercises into one well-synchronized joint training event that benefits all participants and services,” said Army Maj. Richard Meredith, JFIIT lead at NTC.

This exercise included the use of MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aerial systems (UAS). “We’ve expanded Green Flag to include both the MQ-1 Predators and MQ-9 Reapers, which are, depending on who you ask, the most important ISR platforms for conducting full spectrum operations in a counterinsurgency environment,” said Army Brig. Gen. Robert “Abe” Abrams, commanding general, NTC and Ft. Irwin. “So when you ask how important is it to integrate joint assets here? It’s not a level of importance – it’s essential.” JFIIT assisted the integration of a variety of joint intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets between the Army’s 2nd Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 3rd Infantry Division, and aerial assets from both nations. “Our mission is to help integrate ISR assets with an Army BCT so that the unit can learn how to leverage the capabilities of these assets that they otherwise won’t see until they arrive in country,”

Above An Italian pilot prepares to taxi and takeoff during Green Flag West. Image credit: Casey Bain.

added Meredith. “This exercise teaches our forces how to work together to defeat an irregular threat.” Italian Air Force Col. AArnn Pil. Giorgio Foltran, commander of the Italian detachment at GFW, explained the importance of his country’s participation. “This exercise has been a great opportunity for our aircrews to discuss different tactics and techniques with American pilots,” said Foltran. “We’re learning lots of lessons to take with us when we return home including how to provide CAS for a U.S. Army brigade during convoy escort missions, in an urban environment, and while using UAS.” “We want a realistic assessment of our pilots, JTACs, and our entire team,” said Italian Air Force Lt. Col. Andrea Amadori, 132nd AMX squadron comMS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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Training Transformation

mander. “The feedback that we’re receiving from this exercise has been outstanding. It demonstrates the strength of our military partnership and the importance of training together to learn from each other.” According to NTC leadership, experts from organizations like JFIIT and others enhance the integration of joint assets and provide vital resources to help educate units on how to use the available capabilities of the entire joint and coalition team. “The single most important capability that we have to train the joint force is our people,” said Abrams. “It’s the observer controllers, opposing forces, contractors, cultural role players, and all Above our joint partners. It’s the people aspect Italian flight leads prepare their mission that makes the difference and sets us plan at Nellis Air Force Base. apart from everybody else in the world.” Image credit: Casey Bain. Abrams said NTC’s primary focus and mission is to provide realistic training reflective of the operational climates train our brigades how to use air assets to which units are preparing to deploy. and train our tactical air controllers on “Our charter now, since late 2003, is how to fight in a full up, competitive, realto create an operational environment that istic environment with a BCT to leverage reflects what’s going on in theater – as a their air breathing and non-air breathing rehearsal exercise – a mission rehearsal capabilities.” exercise for units going to combat,” he W24-MP advert:Layout 1 15/10/2009 10:50 Page 1 NTC and GFW provide services with said. “This is the place where we can

a realistic and rigorous training venue, preparing them to fight as a joint and coalition team. “It’s not about us – it’s about creating one seamless team,” said Air Force Lt. Col. John Walker, commander, GFW and the 549th Combat Training Squadron at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev. “Where we really earn our money is integrating our close air support (CAS) capabilities with the Army and a BCT. There’s learning on both sides, but it pays big dividends to our forces once they are deployed.” ms&t

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MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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28-07-2009 17:48:54


national focus

Pilot Training in Bulgaria The Bulgarian Air Force faces transformative and budget challenges. Alexander Mladenov describes how they’re training fixed- and rotary-wing pilots.

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ormer Warsaw Pact member Bulgaria was granted NATO membership in April 2004. This event, as the Bulgarian Air Force (BuAF) moved into the 21st century, launched the most dramatic structural and inventory overhaul of the last 50 years, and greatly affected training requirements and the way pilots and ground specialists are trained. The BuAF had to rapidly adopt NATO tactics, techniques and procedures, as well as to introduce Western hardware and upgrade selected types of its remaining Russian- and Czech-made inventory for NATO interoperability. The BuAF fleet currently numbers some 106 fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft operated at one fighter, one forward deployment (attack), one helicopter, one training, and one transport airbase.

Fixed-wing Training Challenges The theoretical training of the future BuAF officers begins at the National Military University (NMU) based in Veliko Tarnovo. It is a four-year training course 36

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

for officers who graduate with a Bachelor’s degree. Students destined for the BuAF spend only the first year at Veliko Tarnovo, where they study basic military and academic disciplines. Then they move on to the NMU’s Aviation Facility at Dolna Mitropolia for the remaining three years of their training. Dolna Mitropolia is also home to the BuAF’s Training Air Base, which controls two flying squadrons, one of them equipped with the Pilatus PC-9M and the other with the Aero L-39ZA training aircraft. There are two aircraft maintenance squadrons and one airfield servicing squadron within the Training Air Base structure that provide the required logistical support to flight operations. Those students destined to undergo pilot training begin their flight training after the end of their second year with NMU on the Pilatus PC-9M turboprop trainers. Six such trainers were delivered to the BuAF between November and December 2004 at a total cost of just over CHF 50 million (more than 33 million euros). The contract covered the delivery of the six training aircraft as well as flight

Above With a glass cockpit and head-up display, the Bulgarian Air Force’s PC-9s are used for initial and basic flying training. Image credit: Alexander Mladenov.

crew and crew conversion training, delivery of documentation tailor-made for Bulgarian operating conditions, a package of spare parts, ground support equipment and one PC-12 special mission aircraft. As many as eight BuAF instructor pilots received their conversion training with Pilatus Aircraft in Switzerland between September and November 2004, and in mid-2005 they began training for the first group of student pilots on the PC-9M in Bulgaria. The BuAF uses the PC-9Ms featuring the latest avionics with a large multifunction display and CMC Sparrow Hawk HUD, trim-aid device (to provide jet-like handling characteristics), onboard oxygen generation system, engine improvements and maintenance interval extension for initial, basic and to some extent for a portion of the advanced pilot training course, including simulated


weapons employment. Pilatus training specialists also contributed to the design of a Western-style syllabus for training of future BuAF fighter pilots. This syllabus comprises some 190 hours to be flown on the PC-9M and then 60 more hours of advanced and lead-in fighter training on the Aero L-39ZA jet trainer. Those students destined to be trained as transport pilots also fly some 60-90 hours on the turboprop trainers, and then continue their flight training on the L-410 twinengine utility turboprop or the PC-12 in the BuAF 16th Transport Air Base at Vrazhdebna, near Sofia. A drastic fall in serviceability of the BuAF’s L-39ZA fleet was recorded in the mid-2000s due to equipment reaching the end of its service life and a lack of funds to procure spare parts. The fleet size was eventually reduced from 35 to only 12 aircraft in active service. No less than 23 L-39ZAs are reported to have been sold between 2002 and 2004, mainly to customers in the United States. As many as four surviving L-39ZAs were upgraded in 2005 to achieve basic NATO interoperability and ICAO compatibility, in the course of which they were given the Trimble AN/ ASN-173 GPS receivers, L-3 Communica-

undertaken to extend their service life, the L-39ZAs will in future only be used in advanced and lead-in fighter training. Due to the shortage of funds, the intended upgrade with new avionics and glass cockpits is likely to be shelved. It is noteworthy that even in the non-upgraded form, the L-39ZA is still deemed good enough for training of pilots who will then convert to the RSK MiG MiG-29, since this jet fighter (the backbone of the BuAF’s fighter assets) has conventional cockpit instrumentation similar to that of the jet trainer. Above Graduating in 2006, the first female pilots in recent BuAF history were trained on the Bell 206. Image credit: Alexander Mladenov.

tions AN/ARN-154(V) TACAN transceivers and VOR/ILS/DME nav aids. All 12 L-39ZAs remaining on strength with the BuAF are currently grounded as they have reached the end of their service life, although they are scheduled to be cycled through a life extension and overhaul programme between 2009 and 2013 to enable them to remain in use until 2018-2020. After these efforts are

Bell 206B-3 for Rotary-wing Pilot Training The Bell 206B-3 Jet Ranger was the first Western-made aircraft procured by the BuAF and as such it caused rather a cultural revolution in the early 2000s. It proved to be an excellent and cost-effective training helicopter and a very useful bridge for adopting Western aviation technology and mentalities in Bulgaria. Thanks to the positive experience with the Bell 206B3, the much more sophisticated Eurocopter AS 532AL Cougar was easily introduced into service in the BuAF between 2006 and 2008.

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national focus

The procurement contract for the Bell 206B-3s was priced at US $8.861 million and also included conversion training of six pilots and 16 technicians at Bell’s training centre in Fort Worth, United States. Two of the helicopters were ordered in the highskid configuration. In addition to the training they are capable for medevac and external cargo transport. The other four Jet Rangers were delivered with the standard low skid and boasted much better navigation equipment, as well as NVG-compatible cockpits. These have an avionics standard similar to that of the US Navy TH-57C trainer and feature dual-attitude gyros, heading indicators, VOR, ADF, ILS and GPS systems. The helicopters are grouped in an independent training flight within the structure of the 24th Helicopter Air Base at Krumovo near the city of Plovdiv. In ten years of service with the BuAF, the six Bell 206s logged in excess of 9,000 hours, and as many as 15 student pilots received their initial flight training on the type; no less than 65 other BuAF pilots (with either rotary-wing or fixedwing backgrounds) also converted to the type. The first female pilots in recent BuAF history were also trained on the Bell 206, graduating in 2006. “The first 10-15 hours of the initial training for new pilots comprise only hovers and flying circuits around the airfield, take-offs and landings, auto-rotations and then proceeds forward with VFR navigation flying, as well as landings on off-airfield sites. This is usually completed after 30 hours and is then followed by basic instrument flight. The advanced phase of the training includes airway navigation, formations, liaison missions, personnel transport, air reconnaissance, etc. The most complex part of the training is the mountain flying,” says Capt Valentin Georgiev, a Bell 206B-3 instructor with over 1,000 hours of experience on the type. The Jet Ranger has no autopilot (this piece of equipment is present on all other BuAF helicopter types) and is thus somewhat difficult to hover and fly, but instructors consider this to be a big plus for beginners learning their basic flying skills. A number of pilots trained on the Jet Ranger and then converted to the AS532 Cougar, a heavy-class, twin-engine rotorcraft used in tactical transport and SAR roles. The student pilots receive some 100-105 hours on the Jet Ranger over three training periods. After promotion to officer rank they then continue building hours on the Bell 206 in anticipation of being selected for conversion to a heavy type of helicopter, which can be the AS532 Cougar, Mi-17 or Mi-24. Col Petio Mirchev, Deputy Commander of the 24th Helicopter Air Base: “The Bell 206B-3 helped to save generations of Bulgarian military helicopter pilots. In the years when there were no other serviceable helicopters at our base and there were also no funds allocated for the procurement of enough fuel and spare parts, we eventually managed to continue the flight operations on the affordable Jet Rangers. For me personally, the Bell 206 experience really helped the subsequent conversion to the Eurocopter AS532 Cougar due to the use of imperial measure in the instruments - all Russian helicopters I had trained before used metric units for their instrumentation - and the commonality of the navigation equipment.” ms&t About the Author Alexander Mladenov is an aerospace consultant, writer and photographer specializing in Soviet/Russian and East European military aviation and aerospace industry subjects, both past and present. 38

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Human Performance

On The Cutting Edge New findings about how the brain works are affecting how we think about training. Chuck Weirauch outlines some research thrusts.

I

f you think that you are just stuck with the smarts you were born with, or what is commonly referred to as your intelligence quotient (IQ), think again. Recent cognitive research at the University of Michigan with National Science Foundation and US Office of Naval Research (ONR) support suggests that at least one aspect of a person’s IQ can be improved by training a certain type of memory. The results are significant, because increased fluid intelligence (general reasoning skills and problem-solving proficiency) scores could translate into improved general intelligence as measured by IQ tests. There is also evidence that training a person’s working memory may increase their general intelligence. It’s generally accepted that the “smarter” a person is, the better they are able to deal with new and unexpected situations. That’s just one example of how cognitive research is making significant inroads into the understanding of how humans learn, develop skills and apply newly gained mental capabili40

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ties towards solving complex problems. Applying the findings of such research to develop improved training techniques is key to helping armed services personnel adapt faster to the current ever-changing environment of non-traditional, or irregular, warfare.

Increasing Fluid Intelligence In a cognitive research project funded by ONR, University of Illinois scientists found that 25 hours of instruction that employed a computer-based strategy game was sufficient to increase fluid intelligence levels in study participants, said Dr. Ray Perez, Program Officer for ONR’s Human and Bioengineered Systems Division. This division conducts research and develops products in training, education, human performance, human factors, social, cultural and behavior modeling, cognitive science and other areas. The ONR sponsors research such as cognitive psychology, neuroscience and instructional science in part through the DoD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI).

Other MURI sponsors include the Army Research Office (ARO) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). Perez describes fluid intelligence as the ability to solve novel problems without prior knowledge of them. “For Warfighters, this is comparable to dealing with an insurgent that has a totally new kind of tactic that you have not seen before,” he said. “We want to train that Warfighter to respond to that new tactic, solve it, and have a counter-tactic in which he will be successful in defeating that particular enemy.” He explained that the University of Michigan research essentially replicates the University of Illinois study. Both studies are significant because in the 50 previous years of scientific literature in the field of cognitive science, fluid intelligence was thought to be hardwired at birth and not influenced by any kind of training or education of any kind. According to that literature, fluid intelligence was primarily determined by one’s heredity, period. Although the study results are still quite controversial,


scientists recognize that the university research data that led to these conclusions is sound, he added.

Image credit: US Navy/Oliver Cole.

Brain Plasticity and Training Another area of considerable ONRfunded neurological research is that of brain plasticity. This is the notion that the human brain will relearn, restructure and reorganize itself depending on its experiences. One such universityconducted study is entitled “Capitalizing on Research on Animal and Human Brain Plasticity to Enhance Warfighter Training and Performance.” A classic example of brain plasticity is how areas of that organ responsible for the activity of an arm or leg take on a different function when that limb is lost. “We at ONR are using state-of the-art functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques like MRIs to figure out what are the mechanisms for this brain plasticity,” Perez said. “The reason for that is if we can have a better understanding of how the brain functions and how it learns for various kinds of tasks, we have a good base as to how we are going to design our instruction and our training. The kinds of skills and abilities that we are interested in are decision-making, problem-solving, situational awareness and communications skills. All of these kinds of things are what you need in performing various kinds of military tasks, particularly in small teams.”

Cognitive Readiness By employing cognitive psychology, neuroscience and instructional science, ONR is building on the concept of cognitive readiness, or the art of concentrating on the assurance of the readiness of Warfighters for conflict rather than weapons systems. That concept includes the mental preparation, and the knowledge, skills and attributes that an individual needs to establish and sustain competent performance in the complex environment of modern military operations, Perez explained. This environment, as in the current state of irregular warfare, is one where those warfighters must be able to perform successfully in environments that are unexpected, never before encountered, dynamic, ill-defined and that involve high stakes. “They key word here is producing the Warfighter that is adaptable, is agile on the battlefield, can adapt to the enemy

and the battlespace, and can be innovative,” Perez emphasized. We are using the combination of these three research areas, the science of learning if you will, and the application of various training technologies to help us train Warfighters that are adaptive.”

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Games and Gamers The ONR, as the science and technology lead organization for the Navy, has the responsibility to perform due diligence as to the potential effectiveness of games used for Navy training. Gaming technology has been applied to some ONR-funded research and development efforts, leading to some valuable advances towards the goals of providing training that will lead to more adaptive Warfighters. The University of Michigan and University of Illinois research initiatives are examples of this effort. The effectiveness of gaming applications was also borne out by another ONR-funded study at the University of Rochester that showed that video game players have perceptual abilities that are at least 15 to 20 percent better than those of nongame players. Other gaming technology applications include the ONR-developed PCbased Flood Control Trainer, used to train recruits at the Great Lakes Naval Recruit Training Center in Illinois how to fix a leak in the compartment of a ship. Those recruits who have used the training game prior to their “Capstone” final training exercise aboard the high fidelity USS Trayer in the Battle Stations 21 simulator make 50 percent fewer errors and increase their situational awareness by the same percentages over those recruits who did not use the game, Perez reported. “We have begun to use video games to train non-game players to be able to have the same kind of skill levels and perceptual abilities as the gamers,” Perez said. “With about 50 hours of instruction on these games, we can increase their perceptual abilities for up to two years. Why is this important? If you have better perceptual abilities, you are better at target recognition and acquisition and a better Warfighter.”

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Human Performance

to train novices to perform like experts? In order to do that, you would have to conduct cognitive task analyses based on how an expert performs in a certain task and create a cognitive model based on that data. This computer model would then be incorporated into a computer-based intelligent tutoring system, with the expert serving as the standard from which to compare the performance of a new student. When the student learning a task has difficulty in doing so, the system provides the needed instruction derived from how the expert would perform in a given situation. According to the Navy, advanced human behavior-modeling software is becoming needed to improve the automation, efficiency, and overall capability of US forces. Human behavior modeling has become a critical element of computerized military language and culture training programs, where avatars roleplay unique national cultural behaviors in a simulated environment. Funding for cognitive modeling research has come from ONR, Sandia National Laboratory, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and other government agencies. Cognitive modeling is an area of computer science that deals with simulating human problem solving and mental task processes in a computerized model. Such a model can be used to simulate or predict human behavior or performance on tasks similar to the ones modeled. Based on initial success with the expert modeling approach, military organizations,

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including ONR, and industry are pursuing this concept for the next-generation of training products based on cognitive research and analysis. “In expert modeling, you are working to determine how do you make someone an ace who is successful every single time,” said Ken Woolman, Senior Human Performance Architect for Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training and Support and company Fellow. “One of the areas that we are really paying a lot of attention to is how do you get a novice to perform as an expert before they get into the actual critical environment where it is life-threatening, especially for our soldiers. We now are experimenting with the expert modeling approach in our research and development areas, since this is one area in the whole area of cognitive human performance in cognitive modeling that shows real promise.” While it is relatively easier to identify physical expert behavior and traits and strive to train them, determining those mental cues that lead to such performance is much more difficult. On top of that, researchers must discover the best ways and means to train such expert responses to stimuli in the environment. Simulation can be successfully employed in this training, since in simulated environments and scenarios people can establish a model of what is the correct reaction to any particular stimulus, Woolman pointed out. So Warfighters can take that model with them when they enter the actual environment, he

added. There has always been a belief that there was a behavioral element to such responses to stimuli, but there are also emotional, social and cultural pieces to the cognitive model as well. Today all that can be put into the simulation, Woolman summed up. “We have always established the use of certain media (for training) from a physical point of view, especially to determine how much fidelity does a training device have to have,” Woolman said. “We are now moving into the area of understanding that there are also mental kinds of cues other than just the five senses. Once we have identified these cues, we can then determine what is the required response if we trigger those cues.”

New Science of Learning Both Woolman and Perez believe that current research has only begun to provide evidence that will lead to further breakthroughs in training technology and applications. “The point of this is that we feel the state of the art in the neurosciences are coming together with the behavioral sciences, such that we can begin to really make an impact on training new skills, knowledge and abilities,” Perez said. “We’re right on the cusp of some revolutionary findings through the four disciplines of the New Science of Learning – neuroscience, developmental psychology, artificial intelligence and education – and will be making fantastic advances in the next five years.” ms&t


Conference Report

Left Screenshot from the Virtual Cultural Awareness Trainer (VCAT) Image credit: Joint Knowledge Online. Below Dan Gardner, Director of Readiness and Training, Policy and Programs for the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Image credit: Baltic Defence College.

2009 ADL Fest Evolution, partnerships and growth mark another year of ADL. Chuck Weirauch reports.

T

he Virtual Cultural Awareness Trainer (VCAT) was one of the stars of the 2009 Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Implementation Fest held in Orlando August 18-20. Distributed online on the Joint Knowledge Development and Distribution Capability (JKDDC) this pre-deployment courseware is exactly the kind of the new key “soft power” training enablers being sought by DoD Training Transformation and ADL leaders. Dan Gardner, Director of Readiness and Training, Policy and Programs for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, cited the VCAT as an example of the kind of training technology that must be developed and adopted to improve warfighter knowledge and skills for today’s irregular and hybrid warfare. He also called for a focus on other non-kinetic competencies and the need to provide training to develop innovative and adaptive team leaders at all levels who can operate independently in new and complex missions. Gardner also announced a new ADL partnership with the Defense Acquisition 44

University (DAU). Under the agreement, as of December 1 the DAU will open its Teaching and Learning Lab within the Joint ADL Co-Lab in Orlando’s Games Lab. Here, the DAU will work together with the Orlando ADL staff on gaming technology development, virtual machine technologies and virtual worlds. ADL Initiative Director Paul Jesukiewicz provided ADL Fest attendees with an overview of the program’s recent developments, including an expansion of research and development efforts, including a partnership with the Army Research, Development and Engineering (RDECOM)’s Simulation Technol-

ogy and Training (STTC) laboratory in Orlando. Under the new plan, the ADL organization, which previously had considered outside stewardship of the Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) standard, now will instead retain that stewardship and allow it to become more general in nature. The new plan also called for a restructuring of the ADL organization, Jesukiewicz said. One change already made is the management and integration of the ADL Hub Co-Lab in Alexandria, VA and the Joint ADL Co-Lab in Orlando as one entity. Additional changes will be made at other ADL centers, including international Partnership Labs. Also in the plan is the expansion of existing partnerships and new ones with George Mason University and the Naval Postgraduate School. The incorporation of ADL into immersive learning environments was another conference area of emphasis. Additional research focus will be on immersive ADL gaming technology courseware, a Virtual Worlds Testbed and the Immersive Learning Podcasts initiative. Mobile learning was yet another area of interest, with Judy Brown, ADL Mobile Learning lead, providing attendees with an overview of how military commands, academic institutions and industry are employing hand-held devices to provide condensed educational courseware and training applications for distance learning users. One example of the several she cited was how the Marine Corps, the Navy and the Special Operations Command are using such devices for language learning and review. ADL has continued to focus on the expansion and strengthening of international partnerships. Represented at this year’s conference were the Norwegian, Romanian and Canadian ADL Partnership Labs. The 2009 ADL Fest proceedings are available at www.adlnet.gov under the Events category. ms&t

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Still Going Strong DSEi lived up to expectations and reflects a healthy industry. Walter F Ullrich reports.

T

he Defence Systems and Equipment International 2009, held from 8 to 11 September 2009 at the ExCeL London, UK, lived up to its expectation of being the world’s largest fully integrated defence and security exhibition. The global economic crisis has apparently had less of an impact on the defence sector than on other industries. “We have a healthy defence industry, so far as the MoD market is concerned,” said Quentin Davis, UK Minister for Defence Equipment and Support after awarding a £150million prime contract to Thales UK to cover the first stage of the Future Integrated Soldier Technology (FIST) programme. “It is expanding in real terms – sadly, because the world continues to be an uncertain and dangerous place,” the Minister said. Nevertheless, reflecting the past and current economic environment, DSEi seminars evaluated the current economic crisis, assessing the implications for the defence industry and for manufacturing as a whole. The international trade and military experts who attended DSEi were much more confident than those who attended other, non-full-blooded 46

military trade fairs. “Higher earnings in the defence corporate sector largely compensate losses in the automotive sector,” the head of press of an international technology group told MS&T. The exhibition director, Sally de Swart, said she was satisfied with this year’s DSEi: “The high level of participation by both exhibitors and visitors at this year’s DSEi underlines the importance that is being attached to countering the emerging threats to world security. The impressive innovation in land, sea and air platforms on display was clear evidence that industry is rising to the challenge.” Security, in general, and personnel and equipment protection in particular, were addressed at DSEi 2009. Almost half of the exhibitors showcased force protection and security products. In view of the situation in Afghanistan, industry is not only adapting more and more rapidly to the requirements made by the procurers, but is sometimes even anticipating potential needs. Out of the 1,262 organisations listed for DSEi, 152 companies or governmental agencies specified that they are involved in simulation and training. That is more than at the Paris

Eurosatory a year ago, where a special simulation cluster had even been set up for S&T. Of the 1,200 companies participating in the exhibition, MS&T noted: • BAE’s South African Land System Dynamics presenting M-First, a mobile and fully interactive marksman rifle shooting training; • CAE highlighting the T-90 tank training system used to train the driver, gunner and commander of the armoured vehicle; • KONGSBERG DEFENCE & AEROSPACE AS presenting BaSE (Battlespace Synthetic Environment), which provides modules for rapid development of customised simulation applications for all services; • Laser Shot providing firearm and force option training solutions, enabling progressive training from laser based systems to live fire, and from individual marksmanship to crew level gunnery; • Meteksan Savunma offering solutions and products for armed forces in the areas of modelling and simulation, sensor technologies, and satellite & space; • MilSOFT showing their development and integration of C4I systems, data links and messaging, image exploitation systems, electronic warfare, and modelling and simulation; • RGB Spectrum showcasing new intelligent display, visual data recording, streaming and signal transmission products for command-and-control, simulation, C4ISR and training; • Rheinmetall Defence presenting its state-of-the-art Combat Compartment Trainer (implemented into new LANCE turret), which is suitable for any kind of turret system; • RUAG Electronics’ displaying products that encompass virtual and live simulation systems, as well as complete combat training centres; • Saab demonstrating Deployable Tactical Engagement Simulation (DTES), a fully deployable instrumented training system that supports the British Army’s overseas training; • SAIC presenting its Mini MILES Pistol Simulator, the smallest member of the company’s tactical engagement simulation (TES) systems; and • Theissen Training Systems specialises in targetry applications for live-fire training from small arms to tank and anti-tank weapons for practically all types of firing ranges. ms&t

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

FLIGHTSA


CEOs on Training A SERIES

“United Technologies is committed to providing its customers the highest level of service with the best people and technology. FlightSafety shares this approach, making them an ideal training partner for UTC.”

LOUIS R. CHÊNEVERT President and CEO, United Technologies Corporation Louis Chênevert was elected President and Chief Executive Officer of United Technologies on April 9, 2008. He served as President, Chief Operating Officer and as a Director of United Technologies since March 8, 2006. Prior to that, he held the position of President of the Pratt & Whitney division of United Technologies. In May 2005, Chênevert was inducted as a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He also serves on a number of boards including the Board of Directors for the Friends of HEC Montreal and the Director’s Advisory Board for the Yale Cancer Center.

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Left L-3 Link’s Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD). Image credit: L-3 Link Simulation & Training.

L-3 LINK TO DELIVER ADVANCED HELMET MOUNTED

DISPLAY SYSTEMS FOR F-16 PILOT TRAINING L-3 Link Simulation & Training was awarded a contract by the U.S. Air Force to supply its Advanced Helmet Mounted Display (AHMD) to simulate “out-thewindow” computer generated imagery on currently fielded F-16 Unit Training Devices (UTDs). The AHMD, affixes to an F-16 pilot’s helmet and will replace current flat panel displays. Once training begins, pilots are able to view out-the-window imagery and systems symbology across a 360° field-of-regard. The AHMD also supports night vision goggle training requirements and incorporates F-16 avionics symbology for the aircraft’s Heads Up Display. The expanded field-of-view and increased visual display capabilities offered by the AHMD will enable pilots training on these upgraded F-16 UTDs to accomplish 90 percent of trainable tasks. 48

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L-3 Link will integrate AHMDs on F-16 UTDs at U.S. Air Force and Air National Guard installations beginning in March 2010 and will conclude deliveries in December 2010.

CUBIC AWARDED $25M IN GROUND COMBAT TRAINING CONTRACTS Cubic Defense Applications, Inc. received more than $25 million in combined contracts for ground combat training instrumentation and technical services from a number of customers around the world. Cubic will supply laser-based MILES tactical engagement simulation systems, exercise control and communications equipment for combat training centers, software upgrades, modifications, technical services, logistics support and operator

training to U.S. military, civilian security customers, and foreign military sales contracts. Cubic’s equipment, software and services are destined for multiple locations, including U.S. Army installations at Fort Benning, Fort McCoy, U.S. Army Europe, and the Alaska Training Range. Other customers include the National Guard, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, and other Department of Defense and civilian nuclear security teams in the United States

BOEING DELIVERS APACHE LONGBOW CREW TRAINERS TO US ARMY The Boeing Company has delivered two new Apache Longbow Crew Trainers (LCT) to the U.S. Army at Fort Hood, Texas, which the Army have declared as “ready for training”. The helicopter trainers reflect the Apache Extended Block II configuration, ensuring concurrency with the latest AH-64D Apache Longbow helicopter capabilities. They simulate the aircraft’s fully integrated avionics and weapons systems, including a modem that transmits real-time battlefield information to air and ground forces. The LCTs also incorporate a new image generator that provides an eightfold increase in terrainand cultural-feature fidelity, giving the aviator a more realistic virtual environment to support mission rehearsal.


U.S. SELECTS ACADIS® FOR CBP TRAINING Envisage Technologies will implement its Acadis® Readiness Suite at six U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) law enforcement training academies across the U.S. under a contract from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. CBP plans to use the Acadis Readiness Suite modules for training management, automated scheduling, automated testing, qualification/certification management and reporting to modernize key aspects of its law enforcement training operations. CBP will upgrade the legacy Academy Class Management System (ACMS) with a modern enterprise platform designed to simplify complex tasks and increase training throughput by automating key aspects of academy operations.

ALION TO HELP U.S. ARMY INTEGRATE M&S Alion Science and Technology won a $3.3 million task order to support the U.S. Army Modeling and Simulation Office (AMSO) in attaining the tools and expertise necessary to oversee and manage modeling and simulation processes across all Army M&S domains. Alion will provide subject matter expertise and services to support AMSO and the Modeling and Simulation Proponent Office’s mission to train and supply qualified M&S professionals to the Army, recruit and manage the M&S community to best meet the Army’s warfighting needs and to create a fully trained Army M&S community. Alion will also perform geospatial analysis, analyze technical requirements, and conduct staff-level research – leading to solutions designed to achieve M&S integration across the Army.

The visual simulation system consists of three SRX-S105 Sony high-resolution projectors driven by Presagis’ Vega Prime image generators (IG) and Scalable Display’s EasyBlend calibration software. The screen is a partial dome with a 260 degree horizontal and a 60 degree vertical field of vision.

MYMIC GETS FCB PENTAGON SUPPORT CONTRACT MYMIC LLC won a prime contract from the U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC), Indian Head Division, to provide key support to the Department of Defense acquisition process. The contract is for a base year with two option years and is worth $26.5 Million if both option years are executed. Under the terms of the contract, MYMIC LLC will provide Functional Capability Board (FCB) support services to the Joint Staff (J8), within the Pentagon, and to the U.S. Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM). Functional Capability Boards support the Joint Staff investment decision process through the development of Capabilities-Based Assessments (CBA). These assessments form the analytic basis of the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) by identifying needs and gaps in military capability and recommending approaches to address these gaps. An MYMIC team will advise and assist the Joint Staff in the areas of planning, analysis, assessment, evaluation, monitoring, and documentation of programs to provide FCB support services. The MYMIC Team will be led by Daniel Henkel, MYMIC VicePresident, and includes Northrop Grumman Corporation, ManTech SRS Technologies Inc., Systems Planning & Analysis, Piton Science & Technology, and Celerity IT LLC.

ALION TO ANALYZE U.S. ARMY WARFIGHTER CAPABILITIES Alion Science and Technology won a $1.8 million task order to support the Army in validating and prioritizing the requirements for current and future capabilities. Under a contract to support the Department of Army Capabilities Integration, Prioritization & Analysis Directorate, Alion will provide support services and subject matter experts to help the Army make short-term, mid-range and long-term decisions that impact the funding, development and fielding of capabilities to the warfighter. The work includes analysis, reviews, recommendations, tools and training in support of the Army Experimentation Program, the Army’s Five Year Test Program, the Army Studies Program, the Army Advanced Technology Objective Process and related initiatives. The new task order runs through July 31, 2010, under a three-year contract that is in effect through July 31, 2013.

TerraTools® 3.8 Correlated Virtual & Constructive Simulations

VDC AND SCALABLE DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES INSTALL DISPLAY SOLUTION FOR U.S. MARINES VDC Display Systems and Scalable Display Technologies installed a visual display solution for the U.S. Marines Corps’ Multipurpose Supporting Arms Trainer (MSAT) program. VDC lead the contract to develop a state-of-the-art visual system for the MSAT-3 simulator at the Naval Air Strike and Air Warfare Center in Fallon, Nevada. The objective was to provide an eye-limiting stable Primary Visual Display that would exceed training requirements including day, twilight and night capabilities which would allow trainees to use actual field equipment and night-vision devices to detect targets close to real-world environments not possible with other multi-projector solutions.

The Technology Leader in Rapid Generation of Urban Environments www.terrasim.com

Visit us at I/ITSEC 2009 - Booth 1229 MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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world news & analysis

CAE WINS C$75 MILLION IN MILITARY CONTRACTS CAE won a series of military contracts in September and October worth more than C$75 million, including a number of defence and professional services contracts to support military and homeland security programs in Canada and the United Kingdom and a range of other military products and services contracts. • Lockheed Martin - Lockheed Martin awarded CAE a contract to provide ground-based tactical mission training solutions for the United Kingdom’s military, as part of the country’s Military Flying Training System (MFTS) program. CAE will provide tactical mission trainers for training rear crews and observers in aircraft platforms such as the Nimrod maritime reconnaissance aircraft and Merlin maritime helicopter. • CASE Standing Offer - Canada’s Department of National Defence (DND) gave CAE’s Professional Services organization the Synthetic Environment Simulation Services standing offer prime contract to support the Canadian Advanced Synthetic Environment (CASE) project. Under this contract, CAE and several Canadian partner companies will support the implementation and operation of simulation-based synthetic environments at various DND establishments. CAE will also explore next-generation simulation technologies to support synthetic environment experiments, mission rehearsals, training exercises and research and development. • Thales Canada - CAE’s Professional Services organization was also given a five-year contract by Thales Canada to provide support to the Land Command Support System (LCSS) for Canada’s DND. CAE will provide systems engineering services to Thales in support of the Canadian Army’s electronic warfare systems currently in operation.

E-3 CONTRACTOR TRAINING AND SIMULATION SERVICES CONTRACT L-3 Link Simulation & Training won a one-year $14.4 million contract option from the U.S. Air Force to provide continued support of the service’s E-3 Contractor Training and Simulation Services (CTSS) program. As the prime contractor on the E-3 flight crew training program, L-3 Link provides training services for the E-3 CTSS under a con50

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Above E-3 flight crews are trained at the L-3 Link facility adjacent to Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City. Image credit: L-3 Link Simulation & Training.

tract initially awarded in 1999. Annual contract options could extend L-3 Link’s support of E-3 flight crew training through 2014. E-3 flight crews are trained at the L-3 Link facility adjacent to Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City, Okla. Pilots, navigators and flight engineers initially undergo classroom instruction and computer based training. Depending on their mission role, flight crew members next advance to train on either a navigator part task trainer, flight training device or two high fidelity operational flight trainers. L-3 Link provides student instruction; develops courseware and training materials; performs logistics and maintenance services; and ensures that training materials and equipment remain concurrent with changes to the E-3 Sentry Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft.

FLIGHTDECK SOLUTIONS WINS EP-X CONTRACT Flightdeck Solutions (FDS) won a contract from Boeing Integrated Defence Systems for a High Fidelity Flightdeck Demonstrator of the EP-X aircraft that

will be used for development purposes as market for this program grows. The EP-X is a manned airborne intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and targeting aircraft that will replace the U.S. Navy’s EP-3 signals intelligence (SIGINT) platform. FDS will deliver the EP-X unit in Seattle this fall.

SAIC WNS $32 MILLION TASK ORDER FOR C-IED TRAINING SERVICES Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) won a task order worth more than $32 million to support the Tactical Command and Control (C2) Division by providing counter improvised explosive device (C-IED) training services. The task order with the U.S. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SPAWARSYSCEN) Atlantic is for three years. It was awarded under the U.S. Navy’s SeaPort-e contract. SPAWARSYSCEN Atlantic provides full-service systems engineering and acquisition to rapidly deploy capabilities to warfighters. Under the task order, SAIC will support the center’s C2 division by providing C-IED tactical training support; help instruct deploying Marines; and provide logistical and documentation support to the division’s evaluation and assessment team, Engineer Training and Education Center of Excellence and the U.S. Marine Corps’ (USMC) Training and Education Command.


CUBIC TO SUPPLY COMBAT TRAINING CENTER TO JORDAN Cubic Defense Applications won an $18 million contract to supply mobile combat training center instrumentation and training services to the Kingdom of Jordan. Cubic will provide a battalion-sized system capable of expanding to brigade or larger under a Foreign Military Sale coordinated by the U.S. Army Program Executive Office for Training, Simulation and Instrumentation (PEO STRI). The new combat training center (CTC) will feature an operator-friendly, Windows-based exercise control (EXCON) component, 2D and 3D tactical communications, and dynamic after-action review capabilities. Cubic’s laser-based tactical engagement system -- the MILES Individual Weapon System -- will provide GPS-based real-time position location for dismounted soldiers and vehicles as well as simulated weapons performance. Jordan’s new combat training center is scheduled for delivery in 2010. Cubic will provide operations and maintenance of the training center instrumentation as part of the overall contract.

ISM DELIVERS HH-60, FAA LEVEL D UPPER MOTION PLATFORM Industrial Smoke and Mirrors (ISM) delivered a HH-60, FAA Level D upper motion platform to Aero Simulation Inc. (ASI) that is to be integrated with a Bosch Rexroth electric motion system

with an ISM electric actuation system, which reduces maintenance costs and the handling and disposal of hydraulic fluid and provides superior performance characteristics.

NATIONAL GUARD DEVELOPS DESKTOP JTAC SIMULATOR

Above ISM supplied the upper motion platform as well as the six axis cockpit shaker. Image credit: Industrial Smoke & Mirrors.

and Rockwell Collins’ 220 x 60 visual display system. ASI is under contract to supply the completed unit to the U.S. Coast Guard’s Air Training Center (ATC) in Mobile, Alabama. ISM also supplied an electric sixaxis cockpit shaker instead of the industry standard three-axis component. The actuators are oil cooled, making the component’s life three times as long. The cockpit can achieve up to 20Hz, eliminating the need for the motion system to impart the vibration cues and improving system component reliability. The company redesigned the existing egress ramp, replacing the ramp hydraulic actuators control system

Some Air National Guard JTACs (joint terminal attack controllers) developed their own desktop close air support training simulator wherein soldiers use a MetaVR Virtual Reality Scene Generator™ (VRSG) in a first person shooter mode with a gamepad as the navigation device. Working in the JTAC mode of VRSG’s First Person Simulator (FPS) trainees see targeting and designating symbols similar to what they would see in a range finder or laser designator. Working with others in a simulated exercise using the MetaVR software’s game-like interface, a JTAC trainee at a desktop can simulate walking and using binoculars and designator devices, while interacting and communicating with others such as a pilot via a simulated radio over the network. The JTAC trainee views a UAV feed through a ROVER, while locating common reference points for carrying out a mission and laser designating a target. JTAC and UAV operators are currently training on MetaVR’s Afghanistan database, which is available to MetaVR customers on active software maintenance using VRSG version 5.5 or later.

S i m u l a t i o n & Tra i n i n g S y s t e m s VRM’s range of Mi-17/171 training devices includes: FFS/FMS - Full Flight/Full Mission Simulators FTD - Flight Training Devices CPT - Cockpit Procedures Trainers Virtual Reality Media, a.s. Rybárska 1, 911 01 Trenčín Slovak Republic Tel.: +421 32 6518 100 Fax: +421 32 6518 222 www.vrm.sk

… all proven and available for testing at VRM.

Visit VRM on Booth 715 at I/ITSEC MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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VT MÄK RELEASES VR-VANTAGE VERSION 1.1 VT MÄK, (MÄK), a company of VT Systems Inc (VT Systems), released VR-Vantage 1.1, marking the introduction of SensorFX, an add-on module to VR-Vantage from JRM Technologies. The new version offers new features, performance optimizations, and more integrated content. SensorFX changes VR-Vantage from a visual scene generator to a sensor scene generator. SensorFX models the physics of light energy as it is reflected and emitted from surfaces in the scene and as it is transmitted through the atmosphere and into a sensing device. SensorFX also models the collection and processing properties of the sensing device to render an accurate electro-optical (EO), night vision or infrared (IR) scene. Along with the support for the new sensor capability, the latest release of VR-Vantage includes visualization of tactical graphics, including route, waypoints, and height cues. VR-Vantage 1.1 also includes support for Linux operating systems.

FRENCH ARMY OPENS SIMULATION CENTRES French Army Light Aviation Training Application School (EAALAT) inaugurated two helicopter training centres on October 8 – the Tiger Simulation Centre at the Franco-German Tiger Training School and the EA-ALAT Simulation Centre. The Tiger Simulation Centre offers equipment built by Thales jointly with the German company Rheinmetall Defence Electronics. It features four simulation suites, each including two full-mission simulators and two cockpit procedures trainers. The simulation systems reproduce the flight conditions of both French and German versions of the Tiger helicopter, simulate the weapon systems and provide operational scenarios for daytime and night flights with both light-intensification and infrared equipment. The EA-ALAT simulation centre houses a suite of systems developed by Thales including three Flight & Navigation Procedures Trainers (FNPT 2) for IFR (instrument flight) training on Fennec helicopters and the Edith six-seat tactical trainer, which provides 80 percent of the tactical training received by helicopter commanders and can be reconfigured on demand to simulate Gazelle, Puma, Tiger or NH90 helicopters.

locations worldwide. The base period of performance is from September 28, 2009 through September 27, 2010.

PRESAGIS RELEASES STAGE 6.0 Presagis released STAGE 6.0, the newest version of its simulation software for the generation and execution of complex, largescale training and analysis scenarios. STAGE 6.0 supports the development of simulations for applications such as network centric operations, battle-lab evaluations, command and control applications, military embedded training, operational research, and future system performance evaluation. It is a flexible, integrated simulation environment that offers an open, standardsbased architecture, and support for a full range of Presagis software products, third party applications, and industry database and communication standards.

RAYTHEON WINS U.S. COMBAT TRAINING PROGRAM IN KUWAIT Raytheon won a $44 million contract to improve, deliver and maintain an advanced combat training program for U.S. Armed Forces and coalition partners in Kuwait. The multiple-year contract through the U.S. Third Army Command begins in October and is part of the Warfighter Field Operations Customer Support (FOCUS) program. Raytheon will support all training and training-related tasks for the U.S. military to prepare warfighters, according to Mike Edwards, a Raytheon Technical Services Company LLC vice president and program manager of Warfighter FOCUS. The Raytheon-led Warrior Training Alliance includes Computer Sciences Corporation, General Dynamics Information Technology, MPRI and more than 100 other companies.

AMERICAN SYSTEMS WINS $140 MILLION SATMO CONTRACT AMERICAN SYSTEMS won a multiple award task order contract (MATOC) worth up to $140 million to provide training services and technical assistance for the U.S. Army’s Security Assistance Training Management Organization (SATMO). SATMO deploys Army Security Assistance Teams (SATs) to support overseas Security Assistance Organization (SAO) training objectives. Specifically,the Organization forms, prepares, deploys, sustains and redeploys SATs composed of nearly 800 soldiers and civilians to more than 60 countries each year to assist host nations in achieving training goals and to further U.S. foreign policy objectives. Under the terms of the contract, AMERICAN SYSTEMS will compete for task orders to provide training and technical assistance overseas in support of geographically aligned Combatant Commanders Security Cooperation Strategies, U.S. foreign policy and the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). Work under the contract, which has a 12-month base period and four 12-month option periods, will be performed at military MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

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SELEX TO PROVIDE FIST TRAINING SELEX Systems Integration Ltd was selected by Thales UK Ltd as the preferred training provider for the Surveillance and Target Acquisition (STA) capability for the UK Ministry of Defence’s (MOD) Future Infantry Soldier Technology (FIST) program. FIST is being designed to enhance the 24-hour capability and mission effectiveness of ground forces, particularly in the areas of day and night surveillance and target acquisition, navigation, command, control and battle preparation. DE&S is managing the program in conjunction with the Thales FIST Prime Contract Management Office. The training package includes producing the training needs analysis and course material. Initially, SELEX Systems Integration will deliver the Train the Trainer solution, and other options will be considered as the program matures.

NATO SUCCESSFULLY TESTS NEW MOBILE NETWORKING TECHNOLOGY The United States European Command’s (EUCOM) jointly held it 15th multinational

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interoperability exercise “Combined Endeavor” in The Netherlands, Denmark, Bosnia and Herzegovina in September. About 1,200 participants conducted approximately 1,000 Communication Information Systems (CIS) interoperability tests during the two-week exercise where NATO C3 Agency (NC3A) experimented with and demonstrated the use and capabilities of Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) for military use.

Testing the capabilities of MANET for military use. Image credit: NATO C3 Agency.

The MANET concept can be a valuable asset for the NATO Deployable Communication and Information System (DCIS) and NATO Response Forces (NRF). A MANET consists of communication devices that do not require any


cation devices that do not require any pre-planned infrastructure. This allows for the rapid deployment and realization of a communications network, which can be especially useful in the case of mobile and disaster relief operations.

FIRST MI-17 FULL MISSION SIMULATOR IN CENTRAL EUROPE Virtual Reality Media (VRM) based in Trenčín, Slovakia won a contract with the Slovak Ministry of Defense (MOD) to build an Mi-17 fixed-base Full Mission Simulator that will be ready April 2010. This is the first Mi-17 Full Mission Simulator that will be based in Central Europe and the Slovak MOD plans to make it available for NATO and EU allies to train helicopter crews deployed in peacekeeping missions.

CUBIC WINS DEFENSE CONTRACTS WITH LEBANON AND KYRGYZSTAN

Live Fire “Train as you Fight”

Cubic Corporation won more than $5 million worth of defense contracts to supply combat training systems to the governments of Lebanon and Kyrgyzstan, new international customers for Cubic. Cubic will sell its EST 2000 Engagement Skills Trainer to both countries under contracts awarded by the U.S. Army’s Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI). The systems use digital video projectors, high-definition screens, game-based computer graphics and simulated weapons to create realistic, ballistically accurate “virtual” combat scenarios. They are used to teach and maintain marksmanship skills, team and squad training, and provide “shoot/don’t shoot” training for soldiers and police officers. Lebanon bought five 10-lane EST 2000s that will be used by the conventional and Special Operations Forces of the Lebanese Army at five locations throughout the country. They are scheduled for installation in the first part of 2010. Cubic will train the Lebanese Armed Forces to operate and maintain the systems, with Cubic providing logistics and technical support. Cubic also will develop, equip and support four of its smallarms virtual trainers in the Kyrgyz Republic and will install the systems in existing facilities on military bases in the country.

DEVELOPMENT OF UK DEFENCE TECHNICAL COLLEGE APPROVED The Vale of Glamorgan Council approved the planning application for the Defence Technical College (DTC) at MOD St. Athan. The DTC project involves the redevelopment of a large part of the 1,000 acre MOD St Athan site in South Wales, home to the RAF 4 School of Technical Training. The DTC will combine the technical training for all three Services creating the largest vocational training operation in the country at one site. With up to 3000 students present at any one time, the DTC will create a development similar in size to a small town – and will have all the facilities that would be expected of a small town, including recreational and sporting amenities. Metrix, the consortium behind the DTC is led by technology services company QinetiQ and facilities management specialists Sodexo. Mextrix was appointed Preferred Bidder to transform three types of specialist training critical to the UK Armed Forces, and to manage, build and run what will become the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) Defence Technical College (DTC).

Live Fire Targetry Products: • Electronic/Digital Ranges • Marksman Ranges • MOUT Ranges • Tank Gunnery Ranges • Radio Controlled Ranges • Deployable Ranges • Indoor Ranges For further information please call Theissen Training on +49 211 975040 or email info@theissentraining.com

theissentraining.com

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addressing the training needs of the middle east’s growing aviation and defence markets AerospAce & Defence TrAining show 03 – 04 March 2010

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HELISIM INAUGURATES NEW NH90 FULL MISSION SIMULATOR At a recent ceremony in Marseille, France, at Helisim, the training arm of Eurocopter, a trio of events merged. Not only was this the official opening of a new NH90 Full Flight Mission Simulator (FFMS), but it also marked the first 10 years of Helisim and the retirement of the man who has nurtured it to this point, the CEO, Guy Dabadie. Modeled on the existing NH90 simulators in Germany, the new FFMS was manufactured by HTMI (Helicopter Training Media International), a 50-50 joint venture between Thales and CAE. As with the German equipment, this FFMS is configured in the army version, but can be used to train for all roles. It is a given that helicopter operation routinely requires much more reliance on visual assessment of the surrounding environment by the pilot than is the case with a fixed wing operator. Realistic simulation of this essential requirement has historically been a challenge beyond the needs of classic fixed wing training devices. Helisim believe that the training effectiveness of this new training tool is particularly enhanced by the latest Thales View visual system that is installed on the FFMS with a field of view 230 x 85° (+30°/- 55° above/below the horizon) and high visual fidelity. This accuracy is primarily derived from satellite photos, and 3D modeling of terrain and primary features such as buildings featuring a 12.5 cm resolution creates a very realistic environment. Given that a principle customer will be the French army (Aviation Légère de l’Armée de Terre, ALAT) a large area of southeastern France forms the basis of this new database, with additional areas around some of the French Navy bases, although, of course this terrain can also be used effectively by the other customers. When demonstrated the fidelity was certainly impressive, both when the machine was maneuvered into tight landing zones and when positioning on board a French navy ship. This database will, during 2010, be introduced to both legacy full flight simulators for AS 332 L1; AS 332 L2; EC 225; Dauphin N2 and EC 155. Guy Dabadie stressed the high value of simulator training not only for the principle missions which both the army and naval versions will be tasked for, but also for the secondary role of SAR. Indeed the first version, which will be delivered to the French navy, will be for the SAR role, and only subsequently will the antisubmarine version some into service. Many of the tasks flown on SAR are in very demanding circumstances, stretching both the aircraft and the crews close to the limits. The place to train for those extreme situations is in the simulator, where the skills can be taught and practiced repeatedly, at no risk, until they are mastered. Helisim has now reached a training rate for the last 12 months of 12,000 flight hours and 2400 pilots from 120 clients have been trained in that year, thus confirming its strong position in the market. This position has been established in large part by the energy and vision of Guy Dabadie. He himself stated that aviation should also be sustained by the passion of those involved in it. Guy Dabadie exemplifies that model – with 9000 flight hours, some 7000 as a helicopter test pilot – he has an impressive record by any standard. The new CEO of Helisim, Alain Salendre, also has a strong background as a former military helicopter pilot, most recently in heading up the ALAT training facility at Le Luc, in southern France, however the last word on the day’s activities should probably come from the representative of the first customer of the NH90 FFMS, LTCOL Peter Harris from the Australian NH90 Program who said that “this new training device is perfect for the job, has very few problems and the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy pilots that have flown it are very pleased.” – Chris Long

Arrivals & Departures Mike Howarth is the new Managing Director of QinetiQ’s Managed Services business. Horwarth will focus on the provision of technology-rich outsourced services to government and industry both in the UK and overseas. He joins QinetiQ from Serco Defence Science and Technology where he was Managing Director, Training and Support Services. Lockheed Martin Corporation has announced that its Board of Directors has elected Christopher E. Kubasik to serve as president and chief operating officer, effective Jan. 1, 2010. In the new organizational alignment, Lockheed Martin’s four business area executive vice presidents, the senior vice president of Operations and Program Management and the CIO and vice president of Enterprise Business Services will report to Kubasik. Bob Stevens, currently chairman, president and CEO; will continue as chairman and CEO retaining oversight of the remaining corporate staff functions. “In addition to extending our commitment to program performance and operational excellence,” he said, “this new structure will enable me to devote greater attention to high-level customers and partners and to shape domestic and international business strategies. I also intend to increase my efforts to strengthen the corporation strategically, operationally and financially.” Currently, Kubasik serves as executive vice president of Lockheed Martin’s Electronic Systems business area. Alion Science and Technology named Robert Graebener to be Director of the Department of Defense’s Modeling and Simulation Information Analysis Center (MSIAC), which is run by Alion. Graebener brings more than 30 years of M&S experience and leadership to the MSIAC, where he will oversee the center’s modeling and simulation activities in support of programs throughout the government and with those allied to DoD M&S initiatives. Graebener will work to promote the use, deployment and sustainment of M&S throughout the DoD community to give the DoD scientific, technical and operational corroborative data is critical to its missions and national security.


world news & analysis

FORTERRA RELEASES OLIVE™ 2.3

Left Virtual Avionics Procedure Trainer (VAPT). Image credit: Rockwell Collins.

Forterra Systems will ship the 2.3 release of its OLIVE™ (On-Line Interactive Virtual Environment) software platform early October. It includes IT readiness enhancements for web process integration, user authentication, and client packaging, as well as user adoption features to improve the initial download and orientation experience for first time users. The 2.3 release allows users to integrate 3D meetings and events into existing web-based communities brainstorming and design sessions. Forterra developed the IT readiness features so organizations can integrate OLIVE with their IT systems and web infrastructure in preparation for larger scale deployments. IT can now integrate OLIVE based virtual meetings into web-based intranets, extranets or portals.

pilots flying King Air aircraft for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance Virtual Avionics (ISR) missions. Procedure Trainer Ken Schreder, vice president and genRockwell Collins recently delivered its eral manager of Simulation & Training first Virtual Avionics Procedure Trainer Solutions for Rockwell Collins explains: (VAPT) to the U.S. Air Force, who will use “The VAPT is expected to reduce aircraft IAVdevice hp adto(176x124) 5/11/09 09:31 training Page 1time, and better prepare pilots the train Iraqi Coalition Force

1– 5 February 2010 ExCel Centre, London, UK Limited defence budgets and the increasing need to ensure troops are better prepared for combat operations has seen AFV training and simulation propel to the top of the agenda for global militaries. The International Armoured Vehicle Conference & Exhibition recognises the fundamental need to deliver maximum training at minimum cost. A whole day of the event will be dedicated to international training, simulation and mission rehearsal programmes and systems - featuring:  Brigadier Piers Hankinson, Commander, Land Warfare Development Group,

Land Warfare Centre, British Army: Incorporating Lessons from Operations in Afghanistan to Enhance Training for the British Army  Thomas Lasch, Chief, Models & Simulation Branch,

Joint Multinational Simulation Centre, US Army Europe: Supporting Joint Operations with Gaming Technology: The US Army Europe’s Approach  Major Steen Holm Iversen, Chief,

Research & Development Branch, Danish Army Combat Centre: Delivering Low Cost and Flexible Training for the Danish Army with Steel Beast

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for simulator training, which will lower overall training costs and increase operational safety.” A team of Air Force and Navy Combat Air Advisors is providing pilot and mission system operator training to the Iraqi Air Force on newly acquired King ISR aircraft. A challenge the advisors are facing is converting the Iraqi pilots’ previous knowledge of the older MiG jet technology to the state-of-the-art systems used on the King Air. The system is based on Rockwell Collins’ advanced CORETM simulation architecture and features a modular, expandable and configurable combination of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology, PC-based hardware and Rockwell Collins re-hosted avionics software. This unique combination simplifies future upgrades, without expensive hardware modifications, and allows the VAPT to support multiple aircraft platforms or software configurations.

s to "This agenda promise ding lea bring together many ed ground experts and experienc discuss to combat commanders re of 21st tu the changing, joint na sons les century warfare and lus years learned af ter eight-p to d of war. I look forwar nference" co participating in the i, Vice Chief of General Peter Chiarell my Staff, United States Ar

For the Training and Simulation day agenda, and more information about the event, please visit www.armoured-vehicles.co.uk, or email: enquire@iqpc.co.uk >>> Conference and Exhibition Pass: Save up to £600 on the conference and exhibition delegate package when booking before 4th December >>> Exhibition Only Pass: Apply for your free exhibition only pass online at www.armoured-vehicles.co.uk >>> Please quote "MS&T2" when registering


18-20 May 2010 ExCeL London, UK www.itec.co.uk

Gain access to a unique global training and simulation audience Meet key military decision-makers with access to an estimated $1.6 billion European Defence Training budget*

85% of ITEC attendees do not attend I/ITSEC** NEW: First Time Exhibitor Zone with cost effective stand packages – the hassle free way to join us in London The target audience is great, and it’s a good cross section of industry, military and government. There are a lot of senior people here, and they really are decision-makers and influencers. David Rees, Senior VP, Director Training Strategy, SAIC

Reach your global audience by exhibiting at ITEC

To contact the ITEC team: T: Int’l +44 (0) 20 7370 8528 / N.A +1 203 275 8014

E: team@itec.co.uk

W: www.itec.co.uk

*Figure source Visiongain report Military Simulation and Virtual Training Market 2009 – 2019 **Statistic based on comparison of ITEC 2009 and I/ITSEC 2008 data

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Organised by

National Training & Simulation Association, USA

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world news & analysis

QWAQ BECOMES TELEPLACE AND LAUNCHES 3.0 Qwaq™ Inc., one of the premier providers of virtual collaboration spaces for enterprise, has changed its name to Teleplace™ Inc.; and launched Teleplace 3.0, a new version of its secure virtual workspace technology; and announced the U.S. Air Force is using Teleplace to train personnel worldwide. Teleplace 3.0 provides massive scalability to enable voice, text, and application collaboration across thousands of users with the addition of dynamic load-balancing and cluster expansion that allows organizations to scale up gradually.

EU ANTI-PIRACY TRAINING FOR SOMALI SECURITY FORCES The European Union is taking a step forward to control piracy in the Gulf of Aden by sending a team of advisers to train Somali security forces to protect shipping in the region. This initiative is in addition to the on-going naval presence of a small EU taskforce to patrol shipping lanes in these dangerous waters. The training will be conducted in Djibouti, a nearby coastal country that hosts a French military base. An EU planning team will visit the region in October to frame the proposed training arrangements. The EU’s collective anti-piracy campaign started in December 2008 with a one-year mission called Operation Atalanta. An extension of the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), it is the first maritime mission in this framework. Although controversial in some EU

countries, the EU NAVFOR Somalia was extended for one year, through December 2010. Somalia’s government has consistently maintained the best way of combating the piracy is not international military intervention but help for Somali forces to enable them to police their own neighborhood.

KONGSBERG DELIVERS PROTEUS ASTT TO ROMANIA Kongsberg Defence Systems Simulation & Training delivered a PROTEUS Action Speed Tactical Trainer (ASTT) to the Romanian Navy in Constanta. The delivery took seven months to complete – including pilot plant delivery, development, production, final installation and system test. With the ASTT trainer the Romanian Navy can practice Tactical Combat Management Crew for frigates, helicopters and anti-submarine warfare, and interaction between the different units. PROTEUS is a flexible, configurable and expandable simulator currently being used by Norway, Sweden, Romania and UAE.

CUBIC GETS $40 MILLION TO TRAIN U.S. MILITARY ADVISORS Under a contract modification worth more than $40 million, Cubic Applications, Inc., the mission support services unit of Cubic Corporation will train thousands of U.S. military personnel to be military advisors to Iraq’s and Afghanistan’s national armies. The training is underway at Fort

Polk, Louisiana; Fort Benning and Fort Stewart, Georgia; and Fort Drum, New York. The series of 60-day training programs include classroom instruction and simulations of actual operations, during which trainees learn how to instruct their Afghan and Iraqi counterparts to plan and conduct military operations, and how to establish systems and processes, manage personnel, logistics and payroll. Cubic will provide role players to portray Iraqi civilians and members of the international media who are on the battlefield interacting with and observing the military forces. Iraqis and Afghans with military training in those countries will role-play Iraq and Afghan army officers.

FIDELITY REFURBISHES NAVAIR FLIGHT SIMULATION MOTION SYSTEM Fidelity completely refurbished the 2F141, MH-53E helicopter flight simulator motion system at the Naval Air Station in Norfolk, Va, before the six-week deadline. The simulator is used primarily for Airborne Mine Counter-Measures and vertical shipboard delivery and assault support missions. Two subcontractors – Servo Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) and Binghamton Simulator Company (BSC) – worked with Fidelity on the project. SKI refurbished the motion actuators and mounting components and BSC managed the removal, shipping and reinstallation of the actuators and mounting systems and performed hydraulic system hose replacement, maintenance and the final acceptance tests for the Navy.

EVENT NEWS AEROSPACE and DEFENCE TRAINING SHOW 2010 AIRPORT EXPO, DUBAI, UAE 3 - 4 March 2010 Middle East aerospace and defence event experts F&E Aerospace have teamed with specialist simulation and training information providers Halldale Media, to produce the upcoming Aerospace and Defence Training Show (ADTS) in Dubai on March 3-4, 2010. ADTS will feature an exhibition of the latest training and simulation offerings for regional airlines and air forces and will incorporate two simultaneous conferences, one led by Halldale’s CAT 60

MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

Magazine covering airline training and the other by its MS&T Magazine covering defence training. ADTS is supported by the UAE Armed Forces, Arab Air Carriers Association, Dubai Airports, Emirates Aviation College and Emirates Airline. The opening address will be given by His Highness Sheikh Ahmed Bin Saeed Al Maktoum - President Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, Chairman Dubai Airports, Chairman Emirates Group. The overreaching themes for the conferences are “Nationalisation” and “Training Autonomy”. The military aviation training conference will take place over two days incorporating the following:

Day 1 • Pilot Selection - How to Best Predict Success in Training • Human Factors Training - Recognising Local Culture • Training to Master EW Day 2 • UAV Operations - Training the Man in the Loop • Rotary Wing Training - The Search for Best Practice • Linked Mission Training - Putting the Whole Team Together • Emerging Technologies For the latest conference programme please visit www.adts.aero.


naTional Training and simulaTion associaTion

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SAIC WINS $19 MILLION CONTRACT FROM U.S. NUWC Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has won a prime contract by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) - Newport Division to provide engineering, technical, and management services for NUWC’s Autonomous Undersea Vehicle (AUV) Engineering Facility. The contract has a one year base period of performance, four one-year options, and a total value of more than $19 million if all options are exercised. The work will primarily be performed in Newport, R.I. The task order was awarded under the U.S. Navy’s SeaPort-e contract.

NUWC is the Navy’s premier research, development, test and evaluation, engineering, and Fleet support center for submarine warfare and other systems associated with the undersea battlespace. SAIC will provide engineering and technical support in areas including operator training and qualification; modeling and simulation; and analysis and assessment. SAIC will also provide services including software programming, design, development, and safety analysis; engineering design, development, and evaluation; information systems management; and program documentation. ms&t

Index of Ads 4C Strategies www.4cstrategies.com 41 AAI 19 www.aaicorp.com ADTS 2010 www.adts.aero 56 Agusta Westland www.agustawestland.com 35 Boeing www.boeing.com 25 CAE www.cae.com Centre Spread & OBC Christie Digital www.christiedigital.com/simrevolution 32 Cubic Defense www.cubic.com 13 Display Solutions www.displaysolution.com 10 DSA 2010 www.dsaexhibition.com 38 Elbit Systems www.elbitsystems.com 31 Equipe www.equipe-simulation.com 20 ETSA www.etsaweb.org 54 FlightSafety International www.flightsafety.com 47 Havelsan www.havelsan.com.tr 4 IAI - MLM www.mlm-iai.com 23 I/ITSEC 2010 www.iitsec.org 61 Industrial Smoke & Mirrors www.industrialsmokeandmirrors.com 39 IQPC www.armoured-vehicles.co.uk 58 ITEC 2010 www.itec.co.uk 59 Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace www.kongsberg.com 14

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MS&T MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009

L-3 Link Simulation & Training www.l-3com.com 21 MÄK Technologies 12 www.mak.com MetaVR www.metavr.com 43 Northrop Grumman www.northropgrumman.com/range 15 Nextel Engineering www.nexteleng.es/microsite/ncware 53 Presagis www.presagis.com 28 Raydon www.raydon.com 11 Raytheon www.raytheon.com IFC Real DB www.realdbstore.com 18 RGB Spectrum www.rgb.com 37 Rockwell Collins www.rockwellcollins.com 45 SAAB www.saabgroup.com 3 SAIC www.saic.com/iitsec IBC Selex Systems Integration www.selex-si-uk.com 17 Servo Kinetics www.servokinetics.com 42 SMI www.smi-online.co.uk/jointtraining13.asp 34 TerraSim www.terrasim.com 49 Theissen Training Systems www.theissentraining.com 55 VBS2 www.vbs2.com 6 Virtual Reality Media www.vrm.sk 51 WATS 2010 www.halldale.com/wats 52

Calendar 3-4 March 2010 ADTS 2010 – Aerospace & Defence Training Show Dubai, United Arab Emirates www.adts.aero 27-29 April 2010 WATS 2010 – World Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow Rosen Shingle Creek Resort Orlando, Florida, USA www.halldale.com/WATS 14-15 September 2010 APATS 2010 – Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium Shangri-La Hotel Bangkok, Thailand www.halldale.com/APATS 9-10 November 2010 EATS 2009 – European Airline Training Symposium Istanbul, Turkey www.halldale.com/EATS 5-7 January 2010 AUSA – Army Aviation Symposium & Exposition Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Arlington, Virginia www.ausa.org 26-27 January 2010 Joint Forces Simulation & Training Hilton London Kensington, London, UK www.jointforcestraining.com 1-5 February 2010 International Armoured Vehicles ExCel Centre, London UK www.armoured-vehicles.co.uk

Advertising contacts Business Manager: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 (0)1252 532009 [e] jeremy@halldale.com Business Manager, North America: Mary Bellini Brown [t] +1 703 421 3709 [e] mary@halldale.com


Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is a leading developer of composable systems across the live, virtual and constructive domains. Our solutions and services are focused on preparing the Warfighter for mission success. From OneSAFÂŽ to the Common Driver Trainer, from SE Core to our MILES and range instrumentation solutions, our live, virtual and constructive training and simulation products provide a complete range of capabilities to enable Warfighter readiness across the full spectrum of mission requirements. Stop by the SAIC booth 1649 at I/ITSEC 2009 to see these composable solutions in action. To learn more, visit us at www.saic.com/iitsec

Energy | Environment | National Security | Health | Critical Infrastructure Š 2009 Science Applications International Corporation. All rights reserved. SAIC and the SAIC logo are registered trademarks of Science Applications International Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. OneSAF is a registered trademark of the United States Army in the United States and/or other countries.

NYSE: SAI


CAE is providing the United States Navy with MH-60S and MH-60R tactical operational flight trainers for both front and rear crews. The fully integrated training solutions give the Navy the training systems required for pilots, co-pilots, and sensor operators of the new MH-60S and MH-60R Seahawk helicopters, which are the two cornerstones of the Navy’s Helicopter Master Plan. CAE is proud the Navy has recognized its simulation technology leadership, helicopter simulation experience, and world-class team for both the MH-60S and MH-60R programs. CAE’s products, services, and capabilities are all about helping our customers achieve mission readiness and stay one step ahead.

Come visit CAE’s booth (#2334) at I/ITSEC 2009 to see some of our latest products, services, and capabilities.

AM114a – 0436-P46

partner

MH-60S simutator cockpit

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MS&T Magazine - Issue 6/2009  

Military Simulation & Training Magazine - The International Defence Training Journal.

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