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A Firm Maintenance Foundation in Atlanta
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Stand Up and Lead "Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall." – Stephen R. Covey "Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through argument, debate, and doubt to offer a solution everybody can understand." – General Colin Powell CAT’s sister magazine is Military Simulation & Training (MS&T), and like its title suggests, that journal explores the world of military training and simulation. One of the advantages of being editor of both magazines is that I have perhaps a unique window on the synergies and commonalities between the two communities. Many in the airline training world will recoil from this last statement. Some will forcefully remind you that flying passengers from A to B safely and without incident is very different than the profession of arms. Synergies and commonalities abound, however, and they always have. Perhaps somewhat ironically, there is cause for the civil community to mourn the passing of the “military-trained” airline pilot that was the norm for decades. There are now precious few airline pilots who hail from this very tight, highly-selected and proficiency-based training background, and the air carrier community has been dealing with some of the negative consequences of this reality for over a decade. Much has been written on the subject as it pertains to flying skills, but less on the leadership side. Military pilots are also rigorously selected for leadership and command acumen, and it follows that as the demographics of the airline pilot community shifted, we lost some of these transferred attributes. No one suggests, however, that you can’t be an effective leader or excellent pilot without a military background; there are many industry leaders and extraordinary pilots who have never put on a uniform. The issue seems to be more that in the conservative world of civil aviation, we hear few contemporary voices of real leadership, and one can’t help but wonder why. In an era where the issues are hugely comChris Lehman plex, multinational, and even fundamenEditor in Chief tal, we seem to have a dearth of people who can exhibit the kind of leadership needed to move the industry forward. Industry alphabet groups abound, but they often only speak for their stakeholders. Effective trans-national, apolitical and altruistic industry voices are seemingly nowhere to be heard.
" Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through
argument, debate, and doubt to offer a solution everybody can understand."
We still don’t seem to be able to communicate to some regulatory authorities – and politicians – that the proficiency-based pilot training model pioneered by the military has much application to the civil world, and in fact the pilots from these programs largely laid the foundations for the safe civil aviation industry we have today. We can’t seem to communicate that the high cost of training, lack of training funding, and unattractive student risk/ reward ratios are discouraging new pilot entrants, and that this fact is threatening the very foundation of the industry. We can’t seem to make any headway in international regulatory harmonisation, either in operations, flight training or even training device alignment. Regulatory authorities often move at a glacial pace, seemingly uninterested in industry’s need for clarity and haste, with the result that business decisions are postponed, and opportunities lost. Well-orchestrated, and in some cases wellfunded, anti-aviation lobbies divert attention from the real safety issues, prevent objective debate about environmental issues, and place obstacles in front of airport expansion plans. The critical economic impact of aviation operations is rarely acknowledged and hence the public is unaware of the connection between the local airport they helped shut down because of “noisy, unsafe little airplanes”, and their vacation flight to the Caribbean. We need clear, unambiguous national and international leadership in this industry. I was reminded of this fact a few months ago with the passing of Mr. Al Ueltschi, founder of FlightSafety International, at age 95. Ueltschi was not perfect – few leaders are – but he was a visionary, professional pilot, industry leader, and noted philanthropist. He was the “father of modern aviation training.” No doubt Mr. Ueltschi would have vigorously endorsed my quotations of both Stephen Covey and General Colin Powell. Safe Travels, Chris Lehman CAT Editor in Chief
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05 Stand Up And Lead. Editor in Chief Chris Lehman considers the kind of leadership needed to move the industry forward. 08 A Firm Maintenance Foundation in Atlanta. Group Editor
Marty Kauchak visits the Delta Air Lines TechOps center in Atlanta, Georgia. 12 From Where Will They Come? Robert W. Moorman considers the looming pilot shortage and what action can be taken to resolve it. 17 Green Is Not An Add-On. Chris Long explores how air carriers
On the cover: Delta Air Lines aircraft tails. Image credit: Delta Air Lines.
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and training providers are finding new ways to make their operations ‘green’. 23 The Low-Cost Approach. Chuck Weirauch reviews the low-cost training device sector. 28 Aviation High. Aviation High Schools are receiving some interest in the US. Lori Beth Bradner, M.Ed and Dr. C. Hall “Skip” Jones describe a unique high school in Florida. 30 EATS 2012 – Regulatory Change and Human Performance. Highlights from EATS 2012 in Berlin, Germany. 34 Seen & Heard. Updates from the training and simulation community. Compiled and edited by Fiona Greenyer.
CAT MAGAZINE 6.2012
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A Firm Maintenance Foundation in Atlanta Group Editor Marty Kauchak journeys to Atlanta and gains insights from the Delta TechOps Training Center on a wide range of maintenance training developments at that airline and the broader community.
number of cultural, technology and business factors are forever changing the way the industry’s maintenance personnel are trained. In one instance, more complex, yet increasingly reliable aircraft with fewer requirements for preventive and corrective maintenance are entering service around the globe. Pete Compitello, the manager for Technical Training at Delta’s TechOps Training center, recalled where at least eight maintainers would support an L-1011 upon arrival,
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“with a Boeing 777 or an A330, you don’t need anywhere close to that number of people.” Nowhere are the winds of change in the community as evident as at the Delta TechOps Training center. The Atlantabased staff is responding to a number of external and internal developments to graduate trained maintainers to permit the airline’s dynamic fleets of aircraft to operate safely and as scheduled around the globe. CAT had an opportunity to visit
the Atlanta center during one of its “slack moments.” Whereas the center conducted more than 402 courses for 3,059 students this March, the staff was catching its breath while delivering 202 courses for 1,155 students in September. The center’s brand also had a recent bit of added luster. Its training meets or exceeds not only Air Transport Association 104 Level III Guidelines, but also EASA Part 147 Standards for aircraft type ratings.
The center's student population includes current and aspiring maintainers from Delta and other organizations. Image credit: Delta TechOps Center.
The TechOps Training center’s student population includes current and aspiring maintainers from Delta and other organizations. Compitello pointed out the center’s aircraft maintenance training courses for aircraft type and systems, and technical skills-based training are marketed around the world. In addition to training audiences from his airline, “we also have students from the Navy, the Air Force and unspecified airlines.” The facility presently provides aircraft courses for: Boeing’s 737, 747, 757, 767 and 777; MD-88/90 and DC-9; and Airbus’s A319/A320 and A330. Technical skills training and other courses support the aircraft from the cabin overhead to the tires. The content for the TechOps Training facility’s courses averages about 60 percent technology-enabled instruction and 40 percent hands-on learning. At first glance, this mix appears out of alignment, given the rapid rate of advancements in learning technologies and the way younger Americans integrate technology devices into every aspect of their lives. But a closer look at Delta’s fleet maintenance requirements, the attributes of its learning audience and other considerations show the TechOps staff has it right. One instance where about 40 percent of the instruction is hands-on learning, is in the EWIS (electrical wiring interconnect systems) course. Randy Scott, the course’s instructor and developer, explained some of the tactile skills needed to master the content. Beyond running wires and validating how the wires break out from each other, students learn to tie knots and other advanced skills. “Tying knots turns out to be a very involved process, really. There are right ways and wrong ways to do it.” While new accessions into the Delta maintenance workforce have an insatiable appetite for technology, the learners also have other compelling expectations. “The majority of the mechanics are tactile learners – they love working with their hands. And while they want more technology, our course evaluations often note they want more hands-on training on the aircraft,” Compitello added. So as TechOps Training optimizes opportunities for its students to learn and enhance their skills in all weather conditions on the flight line and in maintenance bays, it has embraced technology when feasible. CAT had the opportunity to visit one electronic classroom which was configured to support an introductory course on the Airbus A319 and A320. An instructor operator station, complemented by a whiteboard and a presentation screen, help deliver content to 22 aspiring A319/A320 maintainers seated at their desk top computer-configured work stations. The introductory A319/A320 class provides fundamentals of the models’ auxiliary power units, engines, flight controls and other major systems through 80 hours of computer based instruction. Separate, follow up classroom lessons and on-thejob training are provided on the autopilot and other individual subsystems and components, as well as aircraft taxiing, engine run ups and other operational tasks. Aerosim-provided content for the introductory A319/A320 course allows instructors to challenge learners by inserting operating casualties and other abnormal conditions for the fuel and other systems, and evaluate the students’ responses.
After completing their assigned classroom courses, students move to the next tier of the center’s building block approach to training – using part-task trainers (flight training devices) to refine their skill sets. Conceptually, prior to most students conducting live training on a Delta aircraft, they will have mastered a number of skills in the virtual environment. “They will have been in ‘a cockpit.’ They already sat there, touched the buttons and completed other tasks. Once you get in the live aircraft there’s another set of pressures. You don’t want them to step on a flight deck for the first time on a live aircraft,” Compitello emphasized. For their part, the airline’s maintenance personnel are able to request seats in courses through the TechOps Training staff which, in turn, uses SumTotal’s Learning Management System. Similar to their counterparts in other aviation sectors, the TrainingOps staff also makes every effort to achieve aircraft concurrency in its programs, whereby the latest on-board materiel upgrades are reflected in course content. One of the TechOps Training organization’s many deliverables is to allow new accessions in the airline’s maintenance community to achieve regulatory and company certification in about 18 months.
The Staff The TechOps’ cadre of instructors forms one foundation of the facility’s academic prowess. While about 50 percent of the staff has military aviation maintenance experience, the entire group averages 12 years of flight line experience. Additionally all of the aircraft maintenance instructors are FAA Airframe and Powerplant certified, and have updated line qualifications on the airline’s models. To keep the instructors up to date and aligned with the needs of the Delta maintenance force, the facility observes a training product support period every summer. “For two weeks we stop training. The instructors go out, perhaps to a station that is seeing the A319/A320 for the first time and is having a problem with it. Even though the maintainers have been trained, we’ll send instructors CAT M AGA Z INE 6 . 2 0 1 2
Maintenance TraininG to that station to work out on the line with those guys to help them,” Compitello added. The center’s instructors also conduct regularly scheduled exportable-type training at other classrooms in the airline’s global maintenance network. Instruction by TechOps Training center staff is furnished at New York City (JFK), Minneapolis, Salt Lake City and other US sites, and Narita, Japan.
Front Office Perspectives CAT also had an opportunity to meet with Wilma Miller, the general manager for TechOps Training. In that discussion she provided a number of insights of interest for the community. The industry veteran described some of the internal and external requirements that encourage her staff to embrace technology in their courses. Recalling that her airline’s operations side does not want to lose its personnel for lengthy periods, she noted, “We have to do things quicker. We continuously update our material so we keep them less time, as well as trying to have more of a blended effect.” The insertion of technologies into the center’s courses help her technologically-savvy learners remain engaged and learn, without a steady stream of “talking heads” presenting the instructional syllabus. As these and similar requirements would appear on the surface to encourage enthusiastic spending on learning technologies, other factors weigh on the business case to invest in maintenance devices and other equipment. While complimenting the simulation and training industry on its latest menu of technology offerings, Miller noted that at the end of the day, she must ask: are some of these devices really worth the money? Calling the return on investment (ROI) her greatest challenge, Miller must also know: “what are we going to get – what is the payback?” She continued, “There are so many other things that could be the cause of a change in behavior in a problem – the procedures that are followed for instance.” And while Miller said trainers can often take credit for solving a problem, “we often can’t claim credit for all of it.” Indeed, Miller emphasized that she cannot obtain funding from her corporate office for learning technology without demonstrating an ROI. “And it makes it difficult for the up-and-coming generation that automatically wants all of this technology. It is difficult for us to give them this technology because there basically is not a lot of return on investment.”
On Tech Ops’ Horizon Delta TechOps Training maintenance students will see a number of developments in 2013. In one instance, the TechOps staff is meeting with OEM Boeing to gain insights on the anticipated differences in maintenance tasks between the airline’s legacy 737-800 fleet and the soon-to-be delivered -900 variant. Mike Mackey, the center’s manager for technical training for the 737, pointed out if the differences are great between the baseline technologies of the new -900 and the -800 legacy fleet, there will be a new “Differences” course. If the differences are not significant, the procedures will be included in existing courses. 10
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In another major task, the staff is developing the maintenance training syllabus for the Boeing 717 to support the delivery of the first airframe to Delta in August 2013. A team of prospective Delta 717 maintenance instructors is attending familiarization courses with the OEM on the airframe, and with system manufacturers of the aircraft’s engines, APU and other components, to ensure a seamless transition of the aircraft into the airline’s fleet. Prospective line maintenance personnel will begin their transitional training to the 717 in April and May of next year. Next year, the organization expects to open maintenance training facilities in Honolulu. On the technology side, the TechOps Training center also plans to take delivery of new tablets for its students’ classroom use. cat
The TechOps' cadre of instructors forms one foundation of the facility's academic prowess. While about 50 percent of the staff has military aviation maintenance experience, the entire group averages 12 years of flight line experience. Image credit: Delta TechOps Center.
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From Where Will They Come? Shortages of professional pilots come and go, but there is a confluence of factors that could make this crisis significantly worse. Robert W. Moorman investigates.
or years every semester, University of North Dakota Professor Kent Lovelace would ask his classes the same question: “What do you want to do down the road?” Many students enrolled in UND’s John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences would not only tell him eagerly “what airline they wanted to fly for, but what aircraft they wanted to fly.” Today it’s a different story. “The perception of an airline career isn’t what it used to be,” said Lovelace, chair of UND’s School of Aerospace Sciences, during a revealing roundtable discussion whilst at the Regional Airline Association’s annual convention in May 2012. The thrill of becoming an airline pilot has diminished to the point that UND Aerospace student body is “shifting away from professional flight” into other areas, including air traffic control, management and – believe it or not – unmanned aerial systems operations, Lovelace said. “The whole dynamic has changed,” said Mark Sawyer, president and chief operating officer for Aerosim. “The flying job is not as appealing as it used to be. And yet, airlines can’t seem to worry beyond next month’s schedule.” Aerosim, known primarily as a provider of flight simulation products, in January 2010 purchased the Delta Flight Academy, 12
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which provides pilots for US regional airlines. From 2006-2008, the Academy trained around 350 professional pilots annually, mostly US citizens. When Aerosim took over, the number of domestic students dropped to 40 graduates per year. The school will graduate around 65 students this year, Sawyer said. Eightyfive percent of Aerosim Academy’s student population comes from outside of the US. These students are described as international self-sponsored or airlinesponsored pilots. A UND survey of 17 different colleges with aerospace programs, asked flight instructors what they wanted to do following their coursework. Sixty-nine percent wanted to be airline pilots. As they became more experienced, the number of pilots wanting to fly for the airlines dropped. UND first noticed the “trend of diminishing interest” in students wanting to
Aerosim Academy will graduate around 65 students this year. Image credit: Aerosim Academy.
growing crisis: 28,000 pilots are retiring soon from the US major airlines; private pilot certifications were down by 64% on an annualized basis from 1990 to 2010; commercial and ATP certifications were down by as much as 60% during the same time period. Research by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association state there has been a steady decline in the number of general aviation pilots in the US. In 1980, there were 827,000 active, certificated pilots. By 2011, that number had dropped to 617,000. Dropout rates for student pilots are as high as 80%.
fly professionally in 2009 when Lovelace and fellow UND Professor Jim Higgins produced a report for the National Defense Transportation Association. Since then, concern over the impending pilot shortage has grown, even among industry groups. “The pilot shortage is coming, and it’s going to have a real-world impact,” said RAA President Roger Cohen, who spoke to the Wichita Aero Club’s luncheon this summer. Cohen said the pilot shortage would result in service reductions to mid-size and small communities. Many in the aviation community are familiar with Boeing’s forecast of a worldwide need for 466,000 professional pilots over the next 20 years. But meeting that goal will be challenging, according to most training experts CAT interviewed. The demand is there, but the supply may not be. Statistics from various aviation groups paint a picture of a
In the old days, the military was the principal source of pilots for the airlines. But that hasn’t been the case for years. Most airline pilots today come from the private sector. Yet that source is threatened by a host of factors. Demand for more pilots is being driven by attrition, retirements, projected growth of airlines and robust sales of hundreds of commercial aircraft. But the supply of professional pilots might not meet demand. New pilot qualifications and age standards, airline bankruptcies, lack of training capacity, rising costs of training and lack of financial aid for students to pay for advanced flight training are reasons young people give for not wanting to become a professional pilot. Students complain that banks are not willing to lend money for a piloting career, where initial pay rates are abysmal. The National Association of Flight Instructors reported that Sallie Mae took a $1 billion loss in 2009 for educational loans, which could explain, in part why it might still be difficult to obtain funding, particularly for advanced flight training. “We’ve got kind of a perfect storm this time,” said FAA Deputy Director John Duncan, speaking at the same RAA forum. The Air Line Pilots Association International (ALPA), which represents nearly 51,000 pilots at 35 airlines in the US and Canada, doesn’t believe there is a shortage of qualified airline pilots in the US and Canada. Furloughed pilots and the flight of professional pilots to foreign carriers are to blame for this perceived airline pilot shortage. But ALPA does
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Pilot Supply recognize that young people are fed up with the cost of training and low pay and are looking elsewhere for a career. The union issued a statement on the issue: “Today, young adults who are interested in becoming airline pilots are instead turning to other professions because they cannot justify spending $150,000 or more to acquire the flight training, ratings, and flight experience necessary to obtain a job that pays [initially] only $20,000 per year in an industry with a history of significant instability.” Academics agree, “The debt versus the pay can become an insurmountable obstacle,” Lovelace said. Airlines need to make professional flying more appealing. Starting pay for new first officers at regional carriers particularly is “horrible when you start,” said Professor Dan Macchiarella, who is chair of Aeronautical Science at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University’s Daytona Beach, Fla. campus. “It should be higher.” ERAU’s Flight Training Department has 150 Certified Flight Instructors and turned over 70 in the past year. Most went to regional carriers, including Cape Air, Air Wisconsin, American Eagle, Piedmont, SkyWest and Compass, Macchiarella said. Advanced pilot training costs will increase noticeably, say training experts, with the passage of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010 (HR 5900), which requires the FAA to increase pilot hiring flight hour requirements. The Notice for Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), which precedes the passage of the final rule, would require first officers to hold an Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) rating with 1,500 hours of total flight time. Currently, first officers are required to have only a commercial pilot certificate, which requires 250 hours of flight time. Mandating as much as 1,250 more hours before they can get hired is prompting some prospective pilots to look elsewhere for a career. Language in the NPRM provides allowances for pilots with fewer than 1,500 hours of flight time, but who have an aviation degree or military pilot experience, to obtain a “restricted privileges” ATP. Former military pilots with 750 hours of flight time would be eligible to apply for an ATP certificate with restrictive privileges. Graduates of a four-year aviation degree from an accredited school would be able to obtain an ATP with 1,000 hours of flight time. These pilots could serve only as a first officer, not a captain. It’s anyone’s guess if these allowances will be part of the final rule. Macchiarella said the 1,500 hour rule is the biggest nearterm problem exacerbating the looming pilot shortage. “These requirements are going to seriously impact the ability of collegiate aviation programs, academies and general aviation to be the source for pilots,” he said. Despite this and other challenges, ERAU enrollment for Aeronautical Science, the professional pilot degree program, increased 1% to 1,111 after being on a downward trend since 9/11. Last year’s open enrollment was 1,099. “Our association does not believe that the 1500 hour rule is the right answer” to enhancing safety, said Jason Blair, Executive Director of the National Association of Flight Instructors (NAFI). “The proposed changes would, NAFI believes, adversely affect pilots, flight instructors and the flight training industry as well as create repercussions throughout the entire aviation industry.” 14
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Those repercussions include exacerbating the pilot shortage, Blair added. In a White Paper released in March 2012, NAFI noted an important by-product of the approaching pilot shortage: “In the absence of a sufficient supply of individuals with the credentials to act as a flight crewmember, repercussions could include airlines’ inability to maintain regular scheduled service.” With fewer qualified pilots, there are fewer CFIs. “There is roughly a 38% drop in the number of CFIs being certificated each year,” the White Paper stated. The CFI community is divided on the 1,500 hour rule. The older CFIs say bumping up the total hour requirement is necessary to enhance safety, while the younger ones say the rule is arbitrary and unfair. Younger pilots say their financial burden is significantly higher than their older counterparts, whose training was paid for by the military and, in some cases, the airlines, which hired them. Adding to the approaching pilot shortage in the US is the high demand for them in other regions worldwide, particularly China and India with 11% and 8% Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rates respectively, according to an ERAU study. A number of countries don’t have the ability to train enough professional pilots, so they’re cherry picked from the US and Europe. Six hundred or 15% of the pilots at India’s five largest carriers and 15% of Turkish Airlines’ pilots are expatriates. Emirates Airways, which has over 200 aircraft on order, was to have hired 500 expatriate pilots in 2011. Another concern: Raising the retirement age of airline pilots in July 2009 to 65-years-old kept experienced pilots working, although it delayed the advancement of younger pilots. But now many of those older pilots are nearing retirement, and that will add to the pilot shortage.
Shortage Solutions One way to counteract the looming pilot shortage is for trainers and the industry to reach out to the airline pilots of tomorrow. Several schools to which CAT spoke are doing just that. They’re beefing up their outreach programs to prospective professional pilots and placing more emphasis on their job expositions held annually.
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Developing pathway or bridge programs between schools and airlines is one idea getting traction. The fledgling ERAU-Cape Air-JetBlue Airways bridge program is noteworthy. ERAU graduates are hired initially by the regional airline Cape Air and guaranteed an interview with JetBlue. A few ERAU trained Cape Air pilots now work for JetBlue, said ERAU. The formation of a US Aviation Academy Program, a public/private venture that would provide airline pilots is
MPL, which is embraced by European and other nations, requires less hours, but more intensive training, while the FAA’s long-time training model is based primarily on hours flown. “Maybe our paradigm needs to change about how we develop pilots and prepare them to take the right seat,” Duncan said. The FAA turned down CAT’s request to interview Duncan about the proposed flight academy and the possible re-consideration of the MPL license, as a way to increase the pool of qualified pilots. No official explanation was given, but agency sources indicate that most requests to interview FAA personnel on these and other issues have been delayed until after the US presidential election. As a way to provide more professional pilots, “the Academy concept deserves a lot of conversation as does the Multi-Crew Pilot License and ab initio,” said Scott Foose, Senior Vice President Operations and Safety for the Regional Airline Association. “None of them are solutions for supply concerns, but they offer quality solutions that pilots coming out of the pipeline meet the expectations of the airlines.”
another idea being bandied about. Serious discussions are taking place about establishing a program that links academic education with pilot training, which leads to certification and ratings. The Academy also would include a co-op program for practical experience. At this point, the Academy is “an idea,” nothing more, said one FAA source. The FAA’s Duncan intimated that it might be time to re-evaluate the MultiCrew Pilots License (MPL) as a way to expedite the training of first officers.
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Shaping the future of airline training for the region
Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium 17–18 September 2013 Centara Grand Convention Centre Bangkok, Thailand Conference by:
MPL and ab initio training has “worked very well outside of the US, and there is no reason to think it would not work well in the US,” Foose said. “But under the current regulatory structure it would be very difficult.” US regional airlines are not having trouble obtaining qualified pilots, Foose said. But this could be a temporary situation brought on by the troubles of other regional carriers, training experts indicate. Comair, once considered one of the larger and more successful US regional carriers, is out of business. Memphis-based Pinnacle Airlines, which is in Chapter 11 bankruptcy currently, has furloughed several pilots, as part of its restructuring efforts. A number of these pilots have been rehired by other US regional airlines. Reducing the cost of pilot training is a must to ensure a continuing supply of new pilots. "How can we continue to recruit, retain, and engage the best and the brightest when many of the private banks have been tightening restrictions on financing available to potential new pilot students, and others have left the pilot training loan market completely," asked Lori J. Brown, assistant professor in the College of Aviation, Western Michigan University. WMU has come up with a novel idea of lowering education/training costs in its’ three aviation related programs: maintenance, aviation administration and flight science, which include the pilot track. The school is integrating some of the iPad technologies into the training regimen, according to Brown. The college purchased 20 iPads recently and sealed a deal with mobile pilot app developer ForeFlight LCC. The deal allows students to get a 33% discount on the app, which allow pilots easy access to the checklists, document storage, weather maps, instrument procedures, navigational tools and training books. Performance monitors available through the app help pilots achieve better accuracy while flying. Kalamazoo-based WMU is also looking at ways to replicate expensive, full motion simulators with flight training devices with less expensive hardware and software. UND Aerospace is also trying to do more with simulation to reduce pilot training costs. WMU was invited recently to join the FAA Center of Excellence Partnership to Enhance General Aviation Safety, Accessibility and Sustainability (PEGASAS). The program is a consortium of universities trying to find ways for academia, industry and government to create cost-sharing partnerships in general aviation and safety. Core members include Purdue, Ohio State University and Texas A&M. Affiliate members include: Arizona State University, Oklahoma State University, Southern Illinois University (Carbondale) and University of Minnesota, among others. All university members have nationally recognized collegiate flight education programs. Before initiating any grand plans for increasing the professional pilot supply, there needs to be consensus building among all interested parties. Airlines, trainers, regulators, academia, aviation organizations and politicians must become more aligned in reaching out to the pilots of tomorrow. All parties will have to convince the next generation that being a professional pilot is still a viable and rewarding profession. cat
Green Is Not An Add-On Chris Long reviews how air carriers and training providers are exploring new ways to make their operations ‘green’.
One of the primary considerations for the selection of the Mechtronix FFS was the fact that it has “the lowest energy consumption by half of any comparable simulator.” Image credit: IFTC.
recent remark by Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier illustrates the aviation industry's focus on Green Issues - “(the decision) by the ICAO Council brings the aviation industry one step closer to a coordinated, globallyacceptable approach to better-manage civil aviation emissions. The positive cooperation between ICAO and the European Commission provides the international community with a real chance to make progress on a worldwide agreement on aviation CO2 emissions, and to prepare a sustainable future for international aviation.” Wrapped up within the debate on global warming, emissions are just one of the elements which have given rise to environmental concerns. Noise and use of the finite sources of hydrocarbons are among the continuing issues for operators and environmentalists alike. Given that it only contributes 3% of total global emissions there is a paradox in that aviation, which arguably has made the most obvious progress since the dirty, noisy and thirsty aircraft of the mid-to-late 20th century, still remains a target for a disproportionate amount of criticism. The improvements to date have already recognised the concerns of the wider public by improving in all these sectors, but only in recent years has the
industry taken the initiative in promoting its successful efforts in addressing these challenges. Certainly the primary driver has been the commercial imperative to increase efficiency and reduce fuel burn – the ever-increasing price of oil forces that. The huge reduction in the noise footprint, however, was in reaction, not just to commercial pressure, but to the increasing public concern with noise as a pollutant.
ATM An article “The Green Factor” in CAT 3/2012 covered many of the aspects impacting efficiency within the ATC environment. Other programmes are also addressing environmental issues. The Single European Sky ATM Research Joint Undertaking (SESAR JU) is cofinancing a third series of pre-operational C AT M A G A Z INE 6 . 2 0 1 2
Green Operations demonstration projects to accelerate adoption of environmentally friendly Air Traffic Management (ATM) operations. What is encouraging is that more and more initiatives are grouping multinational inputs, potentially leading to a rapid and widespread adoption of best practice in this field. A recent SESAR press release stated: “Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions (AIRE) is a programme first launched in 2007 by the European Commission and the United States’ Federal Aviation Administration to improve flights’ energy efficiency, lower engine emissions and reduce aircraft noise. Since 2008, SESAR JU is managing the European side of the programme through collaborative projects involving multiple ATM stakeholders (airports, ANSPs, airlines and industries). The first two waves of AIRE demonstrations in 2009 and 2010/11 have proven that fuel burn - therefore CO2 emissions - can be significantly reduced through a partnership approach, utilising today’s technologies. The gains achieved in AIRE I and AIRE II were quite significant (up to 3% savings on fuel and CO2 emissions), whilst the investment was minimal - and mainly based on the design and training of new operational procedures. It was clearly a win-win initiative in which a number of trial procedures have now become everyday operations. The 2012/13 wave of demonstrations (or AIRE III), is building on insights gained through the previous activities and expanding the programme’s scope. New geographical locations are integrated, new partners are involved, new areas of efficiency are trialled, so that solutions proven successful can be industrialised quicker, by a wider aviation community.”
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Manufacturers A manufacturer's perspective comes from Mark Albert, Director Simulator Services, Boeing. He is clear that a green approach was fundamental in the design and commercial operation of the Boeing 787. Not only was the start point for the design a requirement to produce a more efficient aircraft, but critically, that philosophy carries over into the training and operation. The adoption of digital platforms across training for all disciplines – flight crew, maintenance teams, cabin crew etc. not only improved training – effectively those in training use the same tools as they will when on the day job – but because there is no paper the environmental impact is hugely reduced. No longer are long paper trails for work required, nor large volumes of printed amendments to be actioned. The introduction of the Boeing EFB removes another mass of paper from the cockpit. In American Airlines, for instance, the improvement in the company fuel burn resulting from the removal of 40 pounds of written manuals equates to a US$1.2 million annual saving. The proven success of that less paper methodology is expanding to all legacy Boeing fleets. So far as the more sophisticated training systems, like the FFSs built by L-3, are concerned, the good news is that they consume a fraction of the energy of earlier devices, and now use organic and recyclable hydraulic fluid. Environmental progress all round.
Operators Most airlines are drilling right down to the detail of day to day operations to identify even small improvements to operating techniques. Typical of those initiatives are the processes now employed at Finnair. In a presentation, entitled “Airline Economical Flying Know How”, which was delivered at EATS 2012 by Tero Arra, Head of Training at Finnair Flight Academy, he illustrated not only the economic benefits of identifying incremental changes in operating procedures, but showed that as a natural consequence of making these small changes, there was measurably less environmental impact. Details such as selecting the optimum taxi speed, requesting direct routing, landing at an optimum point and using
As a consequence of making small operational changes for economic benefits, there was measurably less environmental impact too. Image credit: Finnair.
best deceleration techniques all contribute to lower fuel burn and reduced use of all resources. Such procedures are not necessarily new or unique, but training the flight deck crew to consider these refinements reinforces the importance of environmental issues in the mind-set of operating crews. Some 65% of all operating efficiencies on any given flight are influenced by pilot decisions – so if they bear in mind these sort of fine details, which are not presently part of formal licence training, both commercial and environmental improvements are possible.
New Training Thinking What the training industry needs now is a breakthrough in how training is delivered, and already innovative approaches are being created. At a ceremony which attracted
national coverage in Antalya, Turkey, a new training facility built by IFTC was recently inaugurated. An indication of the significance of the event was the presence of some important dignitaries; Mr Binali Yıldırım the Minister of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications, Mr Ahmet Altıparmak, the Governor of Antalya, and Mr Bilal Eksi the Director General of Civil Aviation all attended. IFTC has been operating as a Flight Training Centre in Istanbul since 2008, as reported in CAT 6/2010. According to Marty van Veluw, CEO of IFTC, one of the primary considerations for the selection of the Mechtronix FFS was the fact that it has “the lowest energy consumption by half of any comparable simulator.” What also appealed to him was the greatly reduced environmental impact. Whilst there is general support for
environmental responsibility within the industry, it has historically been seen as a nice-to-have as opposed to a must have. Van Veluw, on the other hand, is a passionate advocate for some fresh thinking in the provision of training. Naturally the core aim was to be able to provide high quality training to match that at the Istanbul unit, but a real driver was also to build a sustainable training facility. Drawing on considerable expertise from Holland, in the form of Andre Schoonenwolf of SPARK Intelligent Design, a renowned expert in renewable energy, a new centre was designed using the latest thinking and materials to create a trainee-friendly training environment. With the specification for sustainability clearly stated, van Veluw believed that solar power – readily available on the southern coast of Turkey, should be selected as the primary power source. Given that IFTC signed a partnership with Boeing in December 2011, it is fitting that the first Mechtronix FFS to be installed was a B737 NG device. The building is modular, with no administrative ancillaries. All it contains are the essentials for training – the device, the computer room, the briefing/debriefing rooms and the lounges for the operating crews and maintenance teams. The total volume with its associated heating and cooling demands is therefore reduced, and the modular principle means that additional units can be added when necessary. Each unit has its stand-alone solar energy captors. These supply energy for
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Green Operations the daytime centre activity, but also provide a significant surplus to the national grid. They are so efficient that the surplus generated during the day is sufficient to pay for the running of the centre during the night hours. This should result in a zero sum energy consumption after just one year. Standby power uses modern battery technology which is also charged through the solar panels. An additional improvement is that the air is “treated by ionizers to ensure the best possible atmosphere for the alertness and concentration of the instructors and pilot trainees.” Now that one module is operational, discussions for another device are continuing, but what is already underway is the construction of a cabin trainer module using the same eco-friendly principles. The modular concept can be extended for other companies who can, if they wish, use the same site to provide another simulator to be managed by IFTC. The attention to the overall context of training extends to landscaping and the use of local plants to reduce
the demand for water. This is a novel and holistic approach to the environmental impact of training, but van Veluw's vision extends beyond the building itself. Even the company transport reflects this eco-philosophy – a Toyota Corolla has been locally modified by dropping in an electric motor – also charged by the solar panels, and has covered some 160,000 trouble-free kilometres during use as a company car. The ripples of interest extend outside the world of aviation and after the opening ceremony other industries expressed an interest in using this same model.
impact. That is something which the aviation industry has well understood, and has not only rolled out a new generation of quiet, efficient aircraft, but is committing huge research resources to find and embrace new technologies to continue that improvement. For some time the industry has recognised that green issues are not an add-on – they are primary drivers which have been woven into all aspects of the industry. A working, practical model of that philosophy is embodied in the IFTC facility in Antalya, which should serve as an example of a fresh approach and perhaps as a model of best practice, for the training industry around the world. That industry stands alongside the travelling public, and shares the concerns about the environment. These are continuously being addressed, and reducing the environmental impact actually brings commercial advantage as the operating efficiencies kick in. That is an accurate, optimistic and upbeat message which we can, and should, bring to the broader and more savvy public. cat
Promotion What is worth noting is that – in spite of the increased public awareness and concern over environmental issues – the demand for air transport is still increasing, even in these difficult economic times. It can therefore be judged that for the travelling public the issue is not really about whether or not they should fly, but rather how that can be achieved at least cost and with minimal environmental
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Civil Simulation and Training news Issue no.32 December 2012
CAE and APS to provide upset prevention and recovery training to CAE Oxford Aviation Academy cadets CAE and Aviation Performance Solutions (APS) are providing comprehensive academic and in-flight Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT) to flight instructors and student cadets attending CAE Oxford Aviation Academy flight school programs. Student pilots receive Basic UPRT training. Instructors go through a Professional Pilot UPRT program. The UPRT program is designed to teach pilots how to recognize, avoid and effectively recover from stalls, airplane upsets and a range of other unusual attitude situations, as well as enhance overall manual flying skills to improve safety of flight. “The program CAE and APS are delivering to cadets and flight instructors is a proven approach to reducing the potential threat of loss of control in-flight,” said Jeff Roberts, CAE’s Group President, Civil Simulation Products, Training and Services. “Graduates will not only understand the theoretical concepts of stalls and loss of control, they will develop confidence through the practical experience of recovering their aircraft safely.” “APS all-attitude, all-envelope upset training exposes pilots to ‘edge of the envelope’ situations which are not part of typical commercial or business aircraft training programs,” said Paul BJ Ransbury, President of APS. “Pilots of all skill levels can be taught how to recognize, assess, avoid and, if necessary, recover from escalating flight conditions that could lead to loss of control in-flight.” Loss of Control In-flight (LOC-I) is defined as flight that occurs outside of the normal flight envelope with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. LOC-I is the number one cause of fatalities in commercial aviation. As part of CAE’s Air Transport Pilot License (ATPL) program, APS has begun training CAE Oxford Aviation Academy cadets and instructors. Ground school and in-flight training using Extra 300L aircraft take place at APS’ school at the Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (the former Williams Air Force Base) in the United States. Simulator instruction is in CAE’s ERJ-145 full-flight simulator (FFS) located at an Arizona State University campus, also at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport. Beginning in 2013, upset training will be provided in Mesa to more than 200 cadets and instructors annually. CAE and APS plan to offer the UPRT program to cadets and instructors at other CAE Oxford Aviation Academy ab initio flight schools worldwide, including Europe this year and other Academy locations based on market conditions. CAE and APS have previously provided UPRT training to CAE commercial and business aircraft clients, and have collaborated on an e-Learning course and an online simulator instructor tool, both based on the Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid, Revision 2.
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The Next Generation of Aviation Professionals
Despite continuing challenges in the world’s economies, aviation growth is moving forward, especially in emerging markets. The pilot shortage, already evident in some regions, will become more acute with the impending retirement of a significant number of pilots and the unknown potential impact of the proposed 1500-hour licensing rule in the U.S. In addition, the new pilot training regulations proposed by EASA are an attempt to address critical issues such as Loss of Control In-flight, pilot competencies, human factors and ergonomics, which may well affect not only simulator design but the design of future aircraft as well. So how can we develop the new generation of pilots who will become skilled not only at flying a complex modern aircraft but who also have essential competencies in decision-making to effectively deal with unusual situations? How do we train pilots to be not only managers and monitors of aircraft systems, but how to truly be airmen … and airwomen … with both the manual flying skills and mental agility to make quick decisions in unusual situations precipitated by weather or systems failure or human error? How do we make training more operational? More realistic and immersive? More evidence-based and focused on tomorrow’s aviation environment? At CAE, we have the unique opportunity to see the entire training spectrum from a holistic perspective. We cover the complete life cycle of commercial aviation training – from the recruitment and screening of cadets who have never set foot in a cockpit to instructing or provisioning of veteran pilots who command the latest fly-by-wire marvel of engineering. We have nearly 1000 advanced full-flight simulators deployed with airlines around the world and in our network. We have been selected by aircraft manufacturers to develop the first FFS for more than 40 new aircraft, and some OEMs are now using our Augmented Engineering Environment tools to help develop the aircraft itself. And we continue to innovate with breakthrough developments such as SOQA (Simulator Operations Quality Assurance), which uses CAE Flightscape data analysis software and full-flight simulator data to identify areas where customized, evidence-based training can be applied to address recurring flight issues outside standard operating parameters.
CAE recently expanded our training portfolio by acquiring the well-respected Oxford Aviation Academy, including Parc Aviation. We now have a comprehensive end-to-end solution for supplying high-quality pilots of all experience levels to our customers. In the weeks and months since the acquisition, we have had teams diligently examining pilot training methodology best practices, from within our organization as well as from our partners and customers. Our objective is a harmonized approach focused on producing highly competent professional pilots and tailored to an airline’s operating procedures and culture. Safety, quality and improvement start with an attitude … an attitude which must pervade the culture of the training organization … and requires a free flow of communication from the bottom up. Such a professional attitude is second nature to the people in our flight schools and type rating training centres and throughout the CAE team. We certainly applaud initiatives to promote global harmonization of pilot training standards. But at the same time, we recognize that each nation and each aircraft operator has unique circumstances. So there needs to be flexibility and customization, taking into consideration the business model, the procedures, and the culture. We commend industry organizations for seeking to raise the bar on pilot training for the next generation. Today, we have an opportunity together to write a new standard for pilot training that will reflect the capabilities of modern aircraft technology, modern simulator technology, and modern learning methodologies. We’d like to hear your views of how civil aviation training should evolve in the coming years. Send us a note at email@example.com. Let’s have a conversation about training the next generation of aviation professionals. Jeff Roberts CAE Group President Civil Simulation Products, Training and Services
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The Low-Cost Approach Chuck Weirauch examines the low-cost training device sector and looks at how new levels of fidelity are now achievable.
magine a complete full flight simulator with the same fidelity as a Boeing 777 or Airbus 380 FFS being delivered on a laptop computer-type platform. Rather than just a dream, according to Mitesh Patel, Head of Project Management for L-3 Link Simulation & Training UK Ltd (formerly Thales Simulation & Training), it may be possible to accomplish this technological feat within the next two to three years. It is also a goal of the company to meet this challenge as a part of its efforts to not only lower the costs of pilot training but to reduce the size of the training computer footprint as well. “Right now, along with improving the quality of the simulator, we are also trying to reduce the cost as much as we can and helping the airlines reduce their costs of training,” he stated.
Employing Low-Cost Devices Moving in this direction is also a reflection of a recent trend due to technological advancements that Patel believes airlines are beginning to recognize. This trend is that the airlines can now conduct a lot more of their training on low-cost training devices, traditionally considered to be part-task trainers, and build more and more of their syllabuses around these types of devices - such as flat panel trainers or even desktop trainers - rather than time in full flight simulators.
One area in particular where L-3 UK is employing such lower-cost devices as advanced instrument and procedures trainers is in the training for new aircraft systems, such as those for the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 aircraft. One example is for the HUD system on the 787, Patel explained. With this training approach, the operation of the system is second nature to the pilot by the time he or she gets to the full flight simulator. Another area where what Patel calls low-level devices are becoming more useful is in recurrent training ahead of the FFS sessions. “We are seeing more airlines using low-level devices in their training centers at their home bases prior to sending students to the third-party training centers,” Patel continued. “They are also keeping students at the home base longer. This is what I see happening more and more in the future, especially with the low-cost airlines.”
Prepar3D is allowing training providers to reduce hours in the full flight simulator by putting more elements into part-task trainers. Image credit: Lockheed Martin.
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Training Technology Advanced Simulation Software Lockheed Martin's new Prepar3D flight simulator software is helping advance the proliferation of low-cost flight training devices by providing more capability, such as improved physics engines for developers, as well as the add-on flexibility of the Microsoft Flight Simulator X software it replaces. Like with FSX, any aircraft cockpit can be configured, from a Cessna 172 to an Airbus A380. Several lower cost training providers have incorporated this new flight sim software platform into their products. Prepar3D is based on Microsoft ESP technology. According to Chester Kennedy, VP of Engineering for Lockheed Martin Global Training and Logistics, the additional capability of Prepar3D is allowing flight schools and other flight training providers to reduce hours in the full flight simulator by putting more tasks into what were traditionally thought of as part-task trainers. That capability was recently expanded when Lockheed Martin opened up the software to third-party developers so they could make their new add-on products, such as additional aircraft and full-fidelity airports, available to training department curricula developers. Also just added is the capability to import multiple data sources, Kennedy said.
Redbird Redbird Flight Simulations in Austin, TX is one of several flight training providers employing Prepar3D flight simulation software in their extensive line of low-cost training devices. These devices range from the $7,000 single-screen, table-mounted TD model for single-engine piston aircraft training to the $28,000 FAA AATD-certified fixed LD to the $60,000 full-motion-AATD FMX model. The company has delivered its products to flight schools, colleges, universities and learning institutions worldwide. “When we got started, customers were looking not only for ways to offer flight training in cost-effective ways, but also to enhance training,” said Redbird VP for Sales, Marketing and Services Charlie Gregoire. “Everyone thought that flight sims would be a good way to train, but they had not trickled down to flight schools because the sims were just way too expensive and impossible to implement at a small airfield and flight school. So we took a look at the challenge of how we could bring this kind of training into the general aviation market place with all of the capability and more of those devices that were available to flight schools at a fraction of the cost. Now flight schools are looking to develop new ways of training with our new devices.” Redbird is working to test and develop some of these new ways of non-traditional, simulation-and-scenario-based flight training with lower-cost simulators at the Redbird Skyport FAA Part 141 flight school in San Marcos, TX. The flight school opened in November 2011 and is equipped with only Redbird flight simulators and training curricula. This October, Redbird announced that the school had graduated 20 private pilots, as well as completed 18 instrument ratings, one multi-engine rating and one instrument instructor certificate. Students took an average of 38 flight hours to complete their private pilot ratings, which is less than two-thirds the national average, the company said. But rather than base student performance on an hours-flown basis, the school bases it on pilot proficiency, said Roger Sharp, General Manager for Flight Oper24
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ations at Redbird Skyport. The school charges a flat $9,900 to complete private pilot training, but this fee includes unlimited simulator and aircraft time, Sharp pointed out. “We teach people all basic flight maneuvers in the simulator before they ever get to the aircraft,” Sharp explained. “One reason is to build the intrinsic memory of these maneuvers into the student, and we can do this much more effectively in the simulator. The student has to demonstrate some level of proficiency in the simulator before they do it in the airplane. We feel that the simulator is not an adjunct to the training, but is the core of the training. Students move along to the next level when they demonstrate proficiency.”
HotSeat HotSeat Chassis, Inc. is another provider of FAA-approved low-cost flight simulators running Prepar3D. The Terryville, CT company has sold more than 2,500 simulators, ranging from its $5,000 singlescreen unit to its $15,000 six-screen Pilot Pro to flight schools, community colleges, universities, high schools, FAA magnate schools, NASA, major aerospace companies and even custom military versions to the Canadian Forces for F/A-18 training, for example. The devices can train up to the Advanced Aviation Training Device (AATD) level. “But most of what we are doing is training procedures and scenario events,” said HotSeat President Jay LeBoff. “Our approach is to teach the procedure and then train with scenarios. We bring people to about 70 percent proficiency before
Redbird's tablemounted TD model for single-engine piston aircraft training. Image credit: Redbird Flight Simulations.
they ever sit in an airplane. And when they do sit in an airplane, they are 100 percent familiar with everything. With our scenario-based training, we deliver a very immersive environment that is a handy tool to help training providers’ shortcut the traditional flight school approach.” Such low-cost sims enable smaller flight schools to incorporate simulation into their training curricula, and other learning institutions to be able to offer CAT Artwork aviation programs or Simulator flight training that Your Choice, Your would not otherwise be able to do so, LeBoff pointed out. One example of the Peggy Prichard latter is theAdvertising Bronx Aerospace Academy, Manager, & Promotions where middle and high school students FRASCA INTERNATIONAL, INC. in Bronx, NY, learn about the science Ph: 217-344-9200 of flight and career opportunities in the aviation industry. “Price point is a very important factor in all of this,” LeBoff said. “Customers can put ten of our simulators in a room for the cost of one of our competitor's simulators. The idea is to increase student interest in an aviation career and reduce the cost of getting a GA pilot's
license. It's one way to help meet any pilot shortage in the future.”
Avionics Training According to Graham Hodgetts, President of Fidelity Flight Simulation, the employment of low-cost simulators is becoming more vital to what the company feels has become the most critical area of flight training, that for avionics systems. These systems are becoming more complex and sophisticated, so training has to keep up Zenia Bharucha with them, he said. Karen Kettle “Avionics has&become Office Manager Sales a&very important aspectCo-ordinator of aviation, and that's why Marketing we have concentrated on the avionics aspects of flying aircraft in general aviaThe Halldale Group tionPage in particular,” Hodgetts 1/2 Horizontal Ad pointed out. “We do x124mm that by looking at the complete 178mm functionality of the avionics. Pilots have to know the avionics suite, because there have been numerous accidents caused by people taxiing head down working with their avionics on the ground, as well as in the air.” More training is also being conducted in lower cost simulators so that pilots can
get their recurrent training finished in a fraction of the time than if they were to try to do it in the aircraft, Hodgetts said. “Because of advancing technology, we are able to build smaller, faster and more capable simulation at a lot less expense, and I think what is going to happen is that the FAA and its regulations are going to catch up with the new technology and recognize it and put it to use,” Hodgetts summed up.
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John Dixon, President and CEO of Elite Simulation Solutions in Oviedo, FL said that his company tells its customers the incorporation of low-cost simulation devices into flight school curricula accomplishes two things; one is increasing revenue for the schools. The other is that adding such devices functions as a good part of a risk-management system, since students can do in a simulator what they are not allowed to do in an aircraft. Learning such things early on in low-cost devices could potentially save their lives, particularly in helicopter sims,
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3081 Ann. version CAT_Civil Aviation Training 12-11-13 13:40 Page1
THESE EVENTS PROVIDE UNIQUE OPPORTUNITIES TO EXCHANGE VIEWS, BEST PRACTICES AND EXPERIENCES ON HOW TO ENSURE THAT ENOUGH QUALIFIED AND COMPETENT AVIATION PROFESSIONALS ARE AVAILABLE TO OPERATE, MANAGE AND MAINTAIN THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT SYSTEM. THEY ALSO REPRESENT AN IDEAL FORUM TO DISCUSS HUMAN RESOURCES, PARTNERSHIPS AND TRAINING ISSUES WITH ICAO, REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, STATES, TRAINING ORGANIZATIONS, OPERATORS AND THE INDUSTRY.
Dixon said. Elite offers products ranging from low-cost avionics training modules and flight consoles to fixed-wing AATDs and helicopter simulators. “Flight schools can weed out a lot of problems on a part-task trainer or procedural trainer before students ever get into a cockpit,” Dixon said. “According to a recent AOPA study, 30 percent of flight schools don't even have any type of simulation device, and that's just shocking. But more and more people are getting onboard with these devices because they are so effective in their training programs. And, as the FAA moves more toward scenariobased training, they are beginning to see the utility of these low-level training devices.” According to Wayne Keys, Elite's Director of Business Development, the company is seeing more customers trying to integrate simulation into their primary flight training with low-cost flight simulators, whereas before these devices were only used strictly for instrument training.
On The Other Hand Although a number of flight schools are looking more towards low-cost part task training
devices, John Frasca, President of Frasca International, Inc., said that his company's customers tend to have a higher throughput of students. In that respect, they can afford to purchase a higher quality of flight training device that “provides better transfer of learning,” Frasca pointed out. “Our customer base is not pushing low cost as the ultimate attitude,” Frasca explained. “I can't see Frasca building an $8,000 device. It just doesn't work for us.” cat
The HotSeat Pilot Pro. Image credit: HotSeat Chassis, Inc.
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Aviation High Lori Beth Bradner, M.Ed and Dr. C. Hall â€œSkipâ€? Jones describe the development of a new aviation high school in Florida.
veryone in the aviation industry is well aware of the personnel shortages that are projected to occur over the next two decades and probably well beyond. Several studies have made forecasts indicating that there will be very significant shortages of qualified flight crew and maintenance professionals. Discussions with representatives from Boeing and other companies have indicated that this situation includes engineering talent as well. Due to a combination of factors, the number of people wanting to go into flight and aircraft maintenance as a career is down. Many of the private and college/university aviation schools are still operating at or near capacity, but the ratio of domestic to foreign students has changed radically. Many American aviation schools are now training as many, if
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not more, foreign students than domestic students - some by a wide margin. Recently we have seen foreign airlines, especially those from China and the Pacific Rim, coming to the United States and hiring current airline pilots. This is a practice that will continue to grow and be successful due to their being able to offer excellent equipment, high salaries, excellent benefits and very attractive working conditions.
Options So what are the options going forward for the aviation industry? There are primarily two: go the ab initio route like most of worldâ€™s airlines have been doing for decades or foster and grow a cadre of young people with an interest in pursuing an aviation career on their own. If we want to pursue the second
option, the problem becomes how to reach and interest academically and technologically inclined young people in the correct environment in sufficient numbers at the right time with an organized, challenging, interesting and comprehensive aviation oriented program. To be successful, this must be done before the students reach college age. If not, they will have already developed other well defined and well developed interests and career goals and interesting them in aviation at that point will be much more difficult, if not impossible. One method of accomplishing this at the right time and in sufficient numbers is by interesting young people in aviation through the public school system by offering aviation programs in middle schools and high schools. Even a fairly modest aviation high school program
could generate 50 to 100 interested and motivated graduates a year and a large one could graduate several times that number. With the right leadership, management, organization, and academic program offerings, an aviation high school is an excellent vehicle to interest and excite young people who could become the aviation professionals of the future.
Students attending the Central Florida Aerospace Academy can prepare for the complete range of aviation careers. Image credit: Central Florida Aerospace Academy.
Anyone interested in starting an aviation high school must address two issues: the physical organization and set up of the school itself, and the academic program(s) that the school will offer. The authors have been actively involved in the start-up and development of an aviation high school in central Florida. This school is a stand-alone aviation high school offering all of the academic courses required for graduation onsite along with the aviation electives. The school offers three elective aviation tracks: aerospace, engineering, and avionics and maintenance. Depending on their academic course load, the students can take one or two of the elective tracks. The aerospace track was designed to provide a broad coverage of the aerospace industry rather than just concentrating on flight alone. Subject areas include economics, business and management, flight, maintenance, manufacturing, design, airports and airport operations, air traffic control, airlines, general aviation, government aviation entities, and the military. This track utilizes desktop flight simulators running Microsoft Flight Simulator X to provide the students with the opportunity to apply what they have learned in the classroom in the flight, air traffic control, and airport operations portions of the curriculum. The engineering track includes the investigation of a number of topics that can be related to a number of areas of engineering. Topics include mechanical drawing and drafting both by hand and using a computerized Autocad lab, product design and testing, manufacturing design, manufacturing processes, manufacturing production and management, quality control, quality assurance, Six Sigma, and selection of materials and processes. The avionics and maintenance track includes an FAAapproved Airframe and Powerplant Technician (A&P) program with a strong electronics and avionics component. Students in this track get hands-on experience with airframe and powerplant maintenance and inspection and aircraft electronics and avionics and accrue hours toward qualifying for an FAA A&P license. The first decisions that must be made by anyone interested in starting an aviation high school is to establish the mission and vision for the school. Despite the fact that many educators donâ€™t like to think of themselves as working for a business, all educational organizations are businesses and the ones that are run with that in mind are almost always more successful than the ones that are not. A mission statement is concerned with the overall aim of the school, delivers a clear and simple statement of the schoolâ€™s reason for being, and is intended to guide the schoolâ€™s leaders and managers in good times and bad. A meaningful mission statement can act as a moral and procedural compass and can help the leadership and management to make decisions aligned with their core values and organizational goals.
A vision statement takes into account the current status of the organization and serves to point the direction that the school wishes to go, what it wishes to become and is a means of setting a central goal that the school will aspire to reach. The vision statement helps to provide a focus for the mission of the school.
Organization After the mission and vision statements are firmly established, the next decision is what type of organization the school will have. This is one of the most important decisions that the school organizers will make as it directly impacts everything that will occur throughout the life of the school. In the United States there are basically three choices: private school, public school, or charter school. Private schools offer the highest level of autonomy in leadership, management, operations, curriculum and program development, staffing, funding, and establishing liaisons with outside partners. A private school is also the most costly for the students unless the school is heavily funded and endowed. The public school system is mandated to serve the educational requirements of every school age student living in that district. As a result, public schools are burdened with a myriad of socially and politically mandated programs that tend to drain resources away from the type of school that we are wanting to establish. They are also often burdened with inefficient and ineffective top heavy leadership and management structures, and people who are not in tune with the mission and vision of a school such as we are discussing. Public school systems also impose serious limitations on the level of autonomy the school may have in the areas of leadership, management, operations, curriculum and program development, staffing, funding, and establishing liaisons with outside partners. Charter schools are publicly funded, independently operated schools that are allowed to operate with more autonomy and greater freedom from state and local rules and regulations than traditional public schools, in exchange for an increased level of accountability. Charter schools are typically free to hire their C A T M A G A Z IN E 6 . 2 0 1 2
Aviation Education own personnel, design curriculum, and promote specific values. A charter school must negotiate a contract (charter), usually with a local school district or charter authorizer designated by the state. These contracts describe school goals, how the school will be run, the amount of public money it will receive, and the degree of freedom it will be given. Compared to regular public schools, charter schools have greater control over their budgets, greater discretion over hiring and staffing decisions, and greater opportunity to create and grow innovative programs such as aviation. Under these conditions of increased autonomy, school communities can mobilize to work together in new and innovative ways to achieve greater levels of success than what would be possible in a traditional public school. Because they are often the schools of choice, they are held to the highest level of accountability: consumer demand. Charter schools can provide better opportunities for studentcentered education, more educational choices, and operators have the opportunity and incentive to create schools that provide new and better services for their students. Regardless of the type of organization you select, the goals can be more easily attained through the creation of an Advisory Board to create a unified program with sustainable leadership. Community stakeholders enter into a partnership to develop the Advisory Board which is then responsible for sharing ideas to foster active business partners, community involvement, student recruitment, and aligning educational programs with regional workforce and economic development strategies. The council promotes and facilitates partnerships to direct the development of effective and sustainable career-themed educational programs that provide students with the opportunity to achieve their highest potential, while developing a foundation for lifelong learning. The board consists of local business leaders, primarily (but not exclusively) from the school’s theme industry who meet regularly and provide various resources for the school. These resources can include classroom participation (including presentations, judging competitions, etc.), coaching and mentoring, job shadowing, paid internships, funding (scholarships, field trips, etc.), professional development for educators, assistance with student recruitment, and advocacy for the school.
Academic Program The second consideration in starting an aviation high school is the academic program(s) that the school will offer. The ultimate goal of a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) educator is to change the pedagogical model and the role of the teacher in the classroom from that of “answer giver” and “problem solver” to facilitator and enabler. STEM education in general fits the natural way that young people learn and encompasses the very essence of curiosity, creativity, hands-on and mindson learning. STEM education also creates a diversified pipeline of future independent, critical thinking problem solvers. Following today’s trends in the aviation and aerospace industries, this type of learning and education will be the key to creating the workforce of the future. Classroom activities and curriculum should allow for the diversification and integration between the disciplines of science, technology, engineering and math. This is done specifically by choosing activites that allow for design 30
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under constraint, integration of field work which authenticates the learning, and allowing for real-world connections, hands-on and minds-on activities with multiple solutions, and projects that are student focused. Interestingly, this diversification and acceptance of independent thought and creativity illustrates to students the durable nature of science, technology, engineering, and math. The ability of the enterprise to expand and contract with the cultural tides while still maintaining a universal code of conduct which makes science and math a universal language and allows for the develoment of a scientific world view. Studying the successes from the past and partnering with the companies of the future allows students to understand the freedom they have to engage and explore with the assurance that certain basic systems and pat-
Classroom activities should allow for the integration between the disciplines of science, technology, engineering and math. Image credit: Central Florida Aerospace Academy.
terns are universal. It is these very principles that serve as reference points to elaborate and evaluate newly gained knowledge. Discovery, inquiry and investigation are the keys to growth. It is the hope of capturing the unique blend of the concrete sequential logician and the abstract randomness of the artist that engages students in the study of aerospace education. The idea of being able to communicate the qualitative nature of the universe using the language of quantitative data is the very essence of critical problem solving. The art and skill of scientific inquiry is to apply the enterprise and world view of science and math to new investigations in order to "validate" current observations and phenomena in the world as we know it today. Inquiry is a joint venture, relying on investigation by a cooperative team in hopes of attaining objectivity, removing bias, creating reproducible results, and promoting communication and understanding. Following the Common Core Model illustrated, there are several immediate benefits to the developing school program. The expertise allows for an expanded curriculum and extended learning facilities, the students and teachers gain access to workplace techniques and technology, and the use of advanced technology enhances the ability of the school to meet the needs of diverse student populations. This type of cooperative, community learning environment provides opportunities for individualized instruction and inherently promotes faculty interaction with the community. This type of interaction is symbiotic in that it contributes to staff development making education more relevant and valuable for students. Ultimately, it will improve high school graduation rates by decreasing the dropout rate.
advanced real-world monitoring and assessment tools, marketing and publicity, networking opportunities, and industry certifications for those who may not have the aptitude or desire to attend university programs. Together this creates a blended, integrated, cross-curriculum approach that prepares the organization to serve its customers and play a contributing role in society by creating the viable aerospace and aviation workforce of the future. Aviation high schools are an excellent vehicle to attract exactly the right group of young people at exactly the right time and prepare them with the basic knowledge and skills they need to successfully pursue an aviation career. About the Authors Lori Bradner, M.Ed, is a nationally recognized STEM educator. She holds a Florida professional teaching certificate with multiple science endorsements and taught multiple standard and AP science subjects at an aviation high school for several years. She is currently Executive Director of Education for the Sun-n-Fun organization in Lakeland, Florida. Dr. C. Hall “Skip” Jones is a 40-year old professional aviator and aviation educator with over 12,500 hours of flight experience and A&P and IA ratings. He holds a Florida professional teaching certificate with science and technology endorsements and owns a consulting firm that specializes in designing, developing, implementing and evaluating onsite and online education and training courses and programs in the aviation field. cat
Connections The key to this model is the creation and maintenance of connections between the industry, higher education, the school, the parents, and the community. The industry involves the immediate, related, satellite and support industries in aviation and aerospace. Higher education includes partnerships with community colleges, colleges, universities, trade schools and technology centers. The students, parents, faculty and administration become the driving force and the ties that bind these connecting pieces together. Maintaining such a diverse group of individuals united in a common purpose but with extremely diversified backgrounds is a challenge for any organization. The key to success is to keep all of the members engaged with activities so that everyone is involved in something pertaining to their interest and expertise. The symbiotic relationship established by a partnership among students, teachers, community stake holders and local businesses will assist in developing the mission and goals of the educational program while providing guidance for the reevaluation of existing curriculums and the potential creation of new, more modern curriculums designed to meet the evolving Common Core and National STEM Standards developed by the Department of Education. This type of learning environment and collaboration lends itself to “go to” advice, guest speakers, field trips, scholarships, and donations and equipment. It provides the very essence of successful business practices and a real-world focus and blends it with the current educational systems adding things such as expanded libraries, shadowing, internships, C A T M A G A Z IN E 6 . 2 0 1 2
EATS 2012 – Regulatory Change and Human Performance Held in Berlin, Germany, the 2012 European Airline Training Symposium (EATS) saw almost 500 delegates benefit from the perspectives of European and international training and simulation experts. Conference Chair Chris Lehman filed this report.
n the 11 years since its inception, EATS has grown to become the largest airline training event in Europe. Launched in 2002, the same year as the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the EATS event has grown to be more than a forum to discuss regulatory developments, although for 10 years this has certainly been an important component. Some 478 people from 64 airlines and 45 countries attended EATS 2012, along with 51 international exhibitors, including host sponsor Lufthansa Flight Training, gold sponsor CAE, and silver sponsors L-3 Link and CAE Parc Aviation. The theme of EATS 2012 was “Regulatory Change and Human Performance in Flight Training and Operations,” with conference moderation provided by Peter Moxham and Dr. Michael Karim. Speakers looked at the complete range Gold Sponsor:
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of current training issues, and noted that with changing personnel needs and demographics, there must be a renewed focus on “human performance”, which after all, is the central element of any training. This includes a greater emphasis on individualized and customized training and a recognition that we must continue to move beyond a “one-sizefits-all” training philosophy.
Kickoff The conference theme was picked up by both keynotes, first from LFT’s Captain Henrik Hartmann who discussed the “Key to take airline training into the future.” Hartmann pointed to the proper adoption of Evidence-Based Training (EBT) – including the risks of improper adoption – as well as the importance of skills-based training as opposed to maneuver-based. He further touched on proactive Safety Management Systems Silver Sponsors:
(SMS) and the great value of modern simulation devices in the delivery of personalized training. Bob Tyler of CAE followed suit in the second keynote by also emphasizing SMS, FOQA and Evidence-Based Training, this time in the ab-initio world. The role of flight data collection and cockpit video recording, as well as the evolving role of the instructor, were seen as pivotal, and Tyler noted the new EASA emphasis on Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT). Speakers went on to drill further into the details including the ITQI initiative of IATA which provides a framework for many of the industry’s training initiatives such as pilot selection, EBT, Multi-Crew Pilot’s License (MPL), and instructor training. The current status of flight simulation training device qualification and the need for international harmonisation was also explored.
Keynote speakers: Captain Henrik Hartmann, LFT (top), and CAE's Bob Tyler. All images: David Malley/ Halldale Group.
The conference returned to discussing the skills-based and individualized training theme with a look at Air Berlin’s successful adoption of the proficiency-based ATQP program. Manual flying skills deterioration was explored by Airbus, with the assertion that dedicated simulator sessions was the optimum way to address the concern, once again affirming the conference individualized training theme. EASA provided a regulatory update as did the UK CAA which outlined one National Authority’s journey to Part-FCL. 2012 was an important year for EASA, with FCL and Ops documents now legally binding as of April. There is considerably more work to be done, however, but EASA’s willingness to continue to use the EATS conference as one of its channels to update the community was appreciated by delegates. Conference presentations moved on to the details of the ab-initio training environment in Europe, the importance of FTO-airline agreements and the need for effective pilot selection and screening, including mentoring and helping students create a career path. The issue of training funding availability continues to be a sticking point, with no all-encompassing solution in sight. Cost pressures are also front and centre for the FTOs, but here too there are limited mitigations available, given the overall costs of aircraft operation and training. The issue of training to operate efficiently and “green” in jet transport operations was also outlined, and a growing list of carriers are conducting specialised training in this regard. As delegates heard, it isn’t just about taxiing with one engine shut down, it comes down to a “mindset” - flight planning, power/ fuel management, even being somewhat assertive with controllers. New for EATS 2012 was a dedicated session on cabin training issues. Moderated by Anna Mellberg Karlsson of Novair, the session explored the personnel and training issues of this community,
with specific focus on joint training and CRM techniques. Just like the pilot sessions, selecting and training for optimum human performance was at the core of the presentations. The consensus was that more cabin training content should be offered at EATS 2013, and a dedicated cabin track is already being planned. The final EATS sessions included a flight simulation and e-learning/mobile learning update. While e-learning and mobile learning continues its inexorable advance in aviation training, and is welcomed by the “digital natives,” it was also noted that perhaps flight simulators themselves have not progressed as far as we think. The growing use of flight simulators in customized training – such as manual flying, and training for economical operations – is a definite trend, as is the incredible advance of computer technology. Why then is the simulation transport delay specification of 150 mSec been unchanged for decades? And why don’t simulator manufacturers routinely include stall and upset recovery models in their high end and high cost flight simulators? All EATS 2012 conference presentations are available on the Halldale website at www.halldale.com/eats-2012 Join us for EATS 2013, to be held again in Berlin, October 29-30, 2013. cat - PMS 295 C = 00 45 7C - PMS 543 C = 8F C3 EA - PMS 1595 C = E8 7D 1E
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World News & Analysis
Seen&Heard A compendium of current news from the civil aviation training industry, compiled and edited by the CAT editorial team. For the latest breaking news and in-depth reports go to www.halldale.com.
Al Ueltschi, Founder of FlightSafety International Albert Lee Ueltschi, aviation training icon and founder of FlightSafety International passed away in October, age 95. Al Ueltschi was an aviation enthusiast, pilot, simulation and training pioneer and consummate entrepreneur. He soloed an aircraft at age 16 and was a “barnstormer” in the 1930’s earning money giving flying lessons and putting on airshows. He joined Pan American in 1941 and became the personal pilot of Juan Trippe, PanAm’s legendary president and founder. While at PanAm, Ueltschi founded FlightSafety, with the idea that corporate pilots needed to receive the same training as airline pilots, and he took the company public in 1968. Eventually, FlightSafety International grew to become the world’s largest operator of flight simulators, and employs some 4,200 people in 40 facilities around the world. FlightSafety International was acquired in 1996 by Warren Buffet’s Berkshire Hathaway. Mr Ueltschi’s list of aviation awards and honours is long and impressive, but perhaps the most prestigious was the Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy, which he received in 1994. Charles Lindbergh had received the same award in 1949, and in fact as a boy Ueltschi had been inspired by Lindbergh’s famous 1927 Atlantic crossing. Juan Trippe was also awarded the trophy in 1966. Mr Ueltschi believed in philanthropy and served as the Chairman of Orbis, the flying hospital which helps treat unnecessary blindness around the world. He co-founded HelpMeSee, which takes the learning systems and simulators developed in aviation and modifies them for medical purposes, particularly the training of cataract specialists. He also joined Bill Gates and Warren Buffet and signed the “Giving Pledge”, which commits the wealthiest individuals in America to give a large portion of their assets to charity. CAT Magazine extends its condolences to Mr Ueltschi’s family, friends and colleagues. His contributions to aviation training and safety have no equal, and this industry will miss his insight, guidance and generosity. – Chris Lehman 34
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Flight Simulators Advanced Training Device – ELITE Simulation Solutions has delivered a Model iGate G602 Advanced Aviation Training Device (AATD) to Mexican air charter operator Aeronaves TSM. The device is modelled after a Beechcraft King Air B200, and allows the instructor to simulate cabin depressurization, engine fires, engine power loss and failure, hot and hung starts, and GPS RAIM failures, among many others. Frasca Sim Sales – Nanshan International Flight Academy has ordered a CAAC Level D Cessna CJ1+ full flight simulator (FFS) from Frasca International, Inc. The simulator will be installed at Nanshan’s flight academy located in Longkou, China. The FFS will fully simulate the Cessna CJ1+ business jet and will include Frasca’s advanced FFS packaging, Frasca’s Graphical Instructor Station (GISt), the Collins Proline 21 Avionics Suite, a 60 inch stroke Moog electric motion system and RSI Visual Systems’ XT Series image generator with RSI CrossView 200 x 40 field of view display system. The simulator will also include Frasca’s reinforced motion platform base and other advanced engineering and manufacturing designs and processes. This is a significant order for Frasca as it expands its footprint within the Chinese commercial aviation flight training community. Cape Air, a regional airline based in Hyannis, Massachusetts, has contracted with Frasca for a Cessna 402 Level 6 flight training device (FTD). The FTD
FFS Certified – Farnair’s ATR full flight simulator for the 42-300 and 72-500 located in the new Training Centre near Vienna and Bratislava is now fully certified by the Austrian Authorities. The simulator can reproduce all problems related to icing and de-icing. Germany's Avanti Air is amongst the first to sign up for training on the new simulator. Together with the simulator, brand new multi-media based training for the ATR 42-300 and the 72-500 is being offered. This online training program is available for type ratings and recurrent training and checking.
will feature an actual Cessna 402 cockpit shell, Frasca’s TruVision™ with 220° x 60° visual display system and many other features. CAE Contracts – CAE has sold three CAE 7000 Series Level D full flight simulators (FFS) to Garuda Indonesia, including an Airbus A320, a Boeing 737NG and a Bombardier CRJ 1000. The contracts are worth more than C$40 million. The three simulators will be delivered to Garuda Indonesia's training centre in West Jakarta, Indonesia, and will be ready for training in 2013. They will feature third-generation CAE Tropos™-6000 visual systems and will be supported by CAE's True Airport online visual database service. Garuda Indonesia will be the first customer to implement the CAE SIMplify™ spares and repairs support program. This is a pre-planned, budgeted approach that leverages CAE's worldwide depots and optimises training centre operator inventory investment. A330 Training in Berlin – Operators of the Airbus A330-200 can now have their crews trained at Lufthansa Flight Training (LFT) in Berlin. On 1 November 2012 the company commissioned an Airbus A330-200 full flight simulator at the Lufthansa Flight Training Center in Berlin Schönefeld. The cockpit simulator was delivered
to LFT Berlin in July 2012. Beforehand, experts from Lufthansa Flight Training tested the device along with Air Berlin pilots at the headquarters of CAE in Montreal, Canada. Air Berlin is one of more than 100 customers that have their pilots trained at Lufthansa Flight Training in Berlin and will take up a large part of the capacity of the new simulator. B747-8 Sim Inaugurated – Six months after the introduction of the Boeing 747-8 at Lufthansa, the 'Queen of the Skies' has now also arrived at the Lufthansa Flight Training Simulator Center in Frankfurt. The youngest member of the LFT simulator fleet is also the world's first passenger version of the 747-8 simulator. The cockpit simulator was delivered to LFT at the end of August 2012 by CAE Inc. As the Boeing 747-8 is a major redesign of the classic 747 jumbo jet, delivery of the new simulator brings with it a whole range of technological innovations for pilots. An exact replica of the original cockpit, the 747-8 simulator is also equipped with all the original aircraft systems. A total of 19 flight simulators are housed at Lufthansa Flight Training in Frankfurt. FSTD Qualification – Alpha Aviation Group Philippines (AAG Philippines) has received the Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) qualification certificate for its A320 full flight simulator from EASA.
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World News & Analysis MPS A320 – Multi Pilot Solutions B.V. (MPS) has delivered their first Airbus A320 fixed based simulator to European Pilot Selection and Training (EPST). The A320 is the third MPS simulator for European Pilot Selection & Training after two B737NG fixed base simulators. The simulator is equipped with a collimated visual system and comes with a qualification as a type specific FNPT II MCC per EASA regulations. The simulator can be upgraded at the request of the customer to an A320 advanced version by adding the circuitbreakers panels, upgrading the software and re-qualification to EASA FTD Level 1 or 2. B737NG FFS – Aerolineas Argentina has selected FlightSafety International to design and manufacture a new Boeing 737NG full flight simulator for the airline’s training center in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The simulator will be equipped with FlightSafety’s latest advances in technology including electric motion and control loading and enhanced VITAL X visual system and is expected to receive Level D qualification from Administración Nacional de Aviación Civil, (ANAC) following its installation. Synthetic Trainer – Pacific Simulators (Pacsim) have signed a deal with the Airline Academy of Australia (AAA) for the supply of a PS3.5 synthetic training device (STD) based on the Boeing 737NG. Due for delivery and installation in December this year, AAA will use this trainer as part of an 'airline bridging' program to address the shortage of 'airline ready' pilots in the Asia Pacific region. The PS3.5 is a fixed base device based on the Boeing 737-800. It includes a fully enclosed, scale cockpit accurately representing the avionics, systems and controls of the Boeing 737NG. Its unique high-definition (HD) wraparound visual system includes highly detailed scenery for thousands of airports worldwide. AAA will receive the PS3.5 with full upgrade options which include engine and cargo fire protection systems, pressurisation and pneumatic systems including oxygen masks, stick shakers, and Boeing-style clocks. AAA intends to use the device for jet entry training including jet orientation, multi-crew and instrument training. It is certified by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) as a Category B synthetic trainer. CEFAsim – Swiss AviationTraining (SAT) has become the world’s first flight training organisation to offer the CEFAsim simulator flight evaluation facility on an Airbus A320 simulator. CEFAsim technology makes flight training debriefings more efficient, more effective and more successful. CEFAsim software is a product of CEFA Aviation. As the simulator session progresses, the software records all the flight parameters and all the actions taken on the flight deck. It also gives the instructor the option of ‘bookmarking’ key moments or situations to return to them more quickly and easily during the subsequent debriefing. And by presenting visual, chart and audio sources together on the same user interface, the technology further allows any step in the session to be specifically analysed to enhance learning success. 36
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Pilot Training Arctic Survival – Finnair Flight Academy is relaunching its much requested and popular Arctic Survival course. The course will be organized in the Lapland region of Finland beyond the Arctic Circle in February 2013. This course is a unique opportunity to learn survival skills in the middle of the arctic wilderness and it provides tools and knowledge of priorities, crowd and situation management, use of the aircraft equipment that may be available and much more. The course is specifically designed for aviation and airline professionals as well as for aircraft manufacturers and aviation authorities. Collaboration – Swiss consultancy and training company, Q.C.M. quality control management AG (QCM), and Lufthansa Technical Training (LTT) are to jointly offer aircraft type training for the Airbus ACJ319 and Boeing 737BBJ business jets. They also have plans to hold specialist courses on the subjects of composite and structural repairs, continuing airworthiness and maintenance and to continue to expand the portfolio of jointly conducted training courses. Candidate Selection – Symbiotics Ltd. has announced a working partnership with UK representatives of Florida based Airline Career Academy (ACA). ACA (Europe) delivers regular seminars around the UK and Europe, aimed at introducing to potential trainee cadets both the career of an airline pilot and the professional pilot training programmes that they offer. ACA (Europe) will run a series of assessment days, during which candidates can undertake IATA-compliant pilot selection tests, using Symbiotics’ ADAPT online pilot selection system. The assessment includes FAST (Future Aptitude Screening Tool) which analyses both physical and cognitive skills in an aviation context. The inclusion of the ADAPT personality questionnaire ensures that ACA receive an instantaneous report from
Gulfstream Training – FlightSafety International’s new Gulfstream G650 and G280 training programs are underway using two full flight simulators at FlightSafety’s Learning Center in Savannah. The Dallas Learning Center offers training for the Gulfstream G280 using one full flight simulator. The simulators have received FAA and EASA qualification and are equipped with FlightSafety’s latest advances in technology, including electric motion and control loading, and newly enhanced VITAL X visual system. Practical hands-on training for maintenance technicians is available through the Total Technical Training program developed and is taught jointly by FlightSafety and Gulfstream. Other programs offered for the aircraft include flight attendant, crew emergency, Cabin Communications and Cabin Management Systems.
which they are able to understand the candidate's personality and suitability as well as being able to gauge physical and cognitive performance, such as accuracy and control. Symbiotics Ltd. has also signed a five year contract to provide Wings Aviation Careers (WAC) with ADAPT as part of their Cadet Ready Screening Program. Over the next five years, Symbiotics will provide WAC will full support on implementing the ADAPT online toolkits, user-licences and handbooks, to conduct analysis and evaluation of candidates wishing to join pilot training programs at their existing centre in Singapore and at their new test centres in Malaysia and Australia, planned for the near future. UPRT – CAE and Aviation Performance Solutions (APS) have announced an extension of their partnership to provide comprehensive academic and in-flight Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT) to flight instructors and student cadets attending CAE Oxford Aviation Academy flight school programs. Student pilots will receive basic UPRT training with options for an upgrade program. Instructors will go through a Professional Pilot UPRT program. Beginning in 2013, upset training will be provided in Mesa to more than 200 cadets and instructors annually. CAE and APS plan to offer the UPRT program to cadets and instructors at other CAE Oxford Aviation Academy ab
initio flight schools worldwide, including Europe this year and other Academy locations based on market conditions. Training BA Cadets – British Airways has announced its decision to train a second round of cadet pilots as part of their Future Pilot Programme (FPP). The FPP provides the framework for the training of the airline's cadet pilots over the next few years. Flight Training Europe (FTEJerez) has once again been chosen by BA as one of its cadet pilot training providers. FTEJerez and its predecessor, located in the UK, have been associated with British Airways for more than 20 years. Tom Powell, a current BA FPP cadet at FTEJerez, describes his experience at the college, "There is a lot of hard work to be done, but with a job as First Officer at BA waiting for me at the end of the course, the incentive to work hard is massive, and with the staff and facilities available here at FTEJerez, I feel I am in the right place to achieve the best possible results." Examining Pilot Shortage – Representatives of 14 US major airlines and regional carriers joined Embry-Riddle staff and faculty to address a projected professional pilot shortage facing the aviation industry as part of a day-long Pilot Supply Summit at the Daytona Beach Campus. The goal was to discuss and develop approaches that will best address the impending shortage of qualified pilots. Discussions will help quantify the issue, identify the primary
causes and define Embry-Riddle's role in supporting a solution. “The need for qualified pilots in sufficient numbers has never been greater in this country,” said the summit's moderator and Cape Air president & COO Dave Bushy. “Under the leadership of Embry-Riddle, we all have the opportunity to come up with ways to energize young people interested in aviation and to provide them structured pathways toward their goals.” Inaugural Cadet Program – Virgin Australia has welcomed the first eight cadets to its inaugural Pilot Cadet Program at its Annual General Meeting, held in Brisbane. The cadets were selected from a group of more than 1100 applications following an extensive interview and testing process. Virgin Australia chief executive officer John Borghetti said the program has been introduced to provide the airline and the industry with well-trained pilots. “Investing in training and development is crucial and we are pleased to be working with Flight Training Adelaide on this significant initiative. The first eight candidates we have selected demonstrated outstanding skill and aptitude and we look forward to supporting them through the next stage of their journey." Virgin Australia will assist all cadets financially, advancing upfront training course costs and will also support with accommodation and meals during the training program at Flight Training Adelaide. Each cadet will also have their own mentor, offering personal support and guidance throughout their training in Adelaide. The cadets will commence 55 weeks of training with Flight Training Adelaide, based at Parafield Airport South Australia. Following the successful completion of this training, they will operate as First Officers on Skywest Airlines' ATR-72 aircraft for approximately three years before transitioning to a Virgin Australia Jet First Officer position. Cooperation – Egyptair Training Center has started training Pakistani airline, Airblue, pilots on the A340. The training includes ground training on the CBT and then the A340 simulator led by Egyptair instructors. CAT MAGAZINE 6.2012
World News & Analysis Maintenance Training Future Training – Republic Polytechnic (RP), one of Singapore's leading tertiary institutions, and Pratt & Whitney have signed a two-year Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) aimed at training future aviation professionals to be industry relevant and industry ready. The MoU aims to nurture aerospace aspirants and promote a career for RP's students in this sector. Pratt & Whitney will provide internships and industrial attachments regularly to the polytechnic students for each year of the MoU. Additionally they will also develop a six-year fast track program, at one of its facilities, Turbine Overhaul Services Pte Ltd, for recruited graduates from the RP School of Engineering. Upon successful completion of the program, these hires will be converted to full-time salaried employees, providing Pratt & Whitney with a pool of qualified engineers as well as allowing RP students to enter the workforce quickly as competent, skilled engineers. Diversity in Engineering – Airbus and GEDC (Global Engineering Deans Council), the leading organisation for engineering education, has launched an award to recognize individuals who have been pro-active in bringing more diversity into engineering classrooms. They intend to reward initiatives which encourage students of all profiles, gender, social and cultural backgrounds as well as disability, to study and succeed in engineering. The long term aim of this new award is to increase diversity among the global community of engineering educators and professionals, so that the engineering industry reflects the diversity of the communities it supports. In addition it will ensure that more students have the opportunity to experience and value working in diverse teams during their studies. China Facility – Bell Helicopter has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to help establish a maintenance training facility for Bell 206L and 407 helicopters in the Guangdong province of China. The MOU will focus on training for the Bell 206L and 407 product lines, and includes access to training course materials, electronic training systems and continued support throughout training. Creating Jobs – Monarch Aircraft Engineering (MAEL) has announced plans to significantly expand its operations with a new 110,000 sq. ft. state-of-the-art maintenance facility, creating 150 new jobs, with the potential for a further 150, at Birmingham Airport in the UK. Due to be completed and operational by the end of 2013, the new MAEL facility will be the first UK hangar to have the capacity for Boeing 787 Dreamliner maintenance, with sufficient capacity for other wide body aircraft, such as Boeing 777, 747 and Airbus A350. The facility will be large enough to accommodate two Boeing 777-300ER aircraft or 10 narrow-body aircraft and will contain a number of component-repair and back shops. Partnership – The Kenya Aeronautical College has partnered with the Shenyang Aerospace University in China to train aircraft manufacturing engineers to bridge the technical personnel gap in the aviation industry. The partnership will allow students to pursue a five-year bachelor degree in Aerospace Engineering at the Wilson 38
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Airport-based college and then proceed to Shenyang Aerospace University in China.
Training Centres Amsterdam Facility – Bombardier and CAE are expanding their customer services offering for the growing number of Bombardier business jet operators in Europe by establishing a new Bombardier-dedicated training center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The facility is scheduled to open in 2014. Bombardier also appointed CAE as the Authorized Training Provider (ATP) for business jet pilot and maintenance training in Europe, and named the company as the worldwide Authorized Training Provider for Global 5000, Global 6000, Global 7000 and Global 8000 business jets. The new facility in Amsterdam will begin by offering pilot and maintenance training on Global 5000 and Global 6000 aircraft equipped with the Bombardier Vision Flight Deck, and then expand progressively based on demand. Training Centre Extension – Etihad Airways chief operations officer, Captain Richard Hill, has turned the first sod to mark the construction of a $15.3m extension to the airline's Flight Training Centre at its Abu Dhabi headquarters. The new 5,300 square metre facility will house six flight simulator training bays, classrooms for pilot and cabin crew training, pilots' briefing and debriefing rooms, a new pilots' lounge and offices.
Commercial Aircraft Sales October 12 to November 26 2012
A320neo 40 Interjet A321neo 6 TransAsia Airways A330-200 2 Etihad Airways A330-300 15 Turkish Airlines A340-500 2 AJW Capital A350-900 4 Afriqiyah Airways A350-900 20 Singapore Airlines A380 5 Singapore Airlines B737-800 23 SilkAir B737 Max 31 SilkAir B737 Max8 20 Alaska Airlines B737 Max9 17 Alaska Airlines B737-900 13 Alaska Airlines B737 Max 35 Rostech B777-300ER 15 Turkish Airlines B787 3 Avianca E190 4 Azerbaijan Airlines E170 2 Azerbaijan Airlines
ATR Certification – ATR's Training Center in France is the first to obtain the FR.ATO.0001 certificate by meeting the new European Part FCL standards that define EC regulations for pilots' licenses. This also makes ATR the first Approved Training Organization in France under the new EASA regulation. The rules require restructuring the organization of pilot training and revision of training manuals, which are now harmonized on a European scale, as well as the integration of a new safety management system in the framework of pilot training. In France, approximately 800 organizations are affected by the new regulations.
Captain Hill said, "This expanded high-tech training and infrastructure facility will be one of the best in the world when completed in November 2013. It will be a showpiece for how we train and maintain the skills of our more than 1,200 professional pilots and 3,200 cabin crew, in addition to offering crew training support to our strategic airline partners. EASA Certification – ATR's newest flight training center in Singapore is now officially approved by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and is ready to start training courses. The center will provide a high level of training programs from flight crew type rating through recurrent training to differences courses. The EASA certification of the new ATR Training Center in Singapore gives way to a long term operational approval of the flight training equipment. It covers the full flight simulator (FFS) for ATR-600 series, the maintenance/flight simulation training devices (MFSTD) and a brief/debrief station.
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www.halldale.com/sim-census CAT MAGAZINE 6.2012
World News & Analysis Starflyer – Japanese air carrier Starflyer has inaugurated its new flight training center located in Kitakyushu Airport in south western Japan. The center houses the Mechtronix A320 FFS X™ which was qualified to Level D by the Japanese DGAC in October and provides facilities for cabin crew and maintenance training.
Helicopter Training Dual Qualification – Thales’ Reality H helicopter simulator installed at the training centre recently opened by helicopter operator SAF group in Albertville, France, has been granted FTD Level 3 and FFS Level B qualification by the French Civil Aviation Authority (DGAC), in accordance with European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) criteria. These qualifications allow this latest-generation system to be used for EC135 helicopter type-rating training. It can also be incorporated as part of an ab-initio training programme leading to a Commercial Pilot's Licence for helicopters (CPL H) or Air Transport Pilot's Licence for Helicopters (ATPL H), including Instrument Rating (IR) and corresponding Proficiency Checks (PC). Bell Helicopter Partnership – Bell Helicopter has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with SAIT Polytechnic to make its classrooms and labs at SAIT’s Art Smith Aero Centre in Calgary, Alberta available for Bell Helicopter to use in the delivery of approved maintenance, repair training and certification programs. The MOU allows Bell Helicopter Training Academy (BTA) instructors access to the SAIT Polytechnic classrooms and labs at the Art Smith Aero Centre to conduct Bell Helicopter factory approved type certificate maintenance training. The curriculum will cover mechanical, electrical and avionics training and pilot safety training.
Cabin Crew Training American Airlines Hiring – American Airlines plans to bring more than 1,500 new flight attendants on board over the next year. The process of recruitment 40
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ReaLED Technology – A new Boeing 777 full flight simulator (FFS) being manufactured by L-3 Link Simulation & Training UK will be using the very latest projectiondesign® FL35 projectors integrated with RSI Visual Systems' XT4 image generators and will meet the stringent requirements of Level D certification. The FL35 from projectiondesign uses no lamp or consumables and is designed to create images at a pixel precision of 2560 x 1600. With its 2nd generation LED illumination system the FL35 shows the amazing picture at double the resolution and at 50% higher brightness than any other LED-illuminated projector with an unmatched 100,000 hours life-time of the LED light source.
and hiring will start in November, with the first new-hire class beginning training in January 2013. "For the first time in over a decade, American is seeking to add more than 1,500 new flight attendants who we believe will bring new perspectives to the airline," said Lauri Curtis, American's Vice President – Flight Service. "We value our flight attendants and appreciate the important contributions they make to our company every day. We look forward to welcoming new faces and working together to bring a fresh energy to our team, while at the same time giving current flight attendants the opportunity to move up the seniority list and reducing the number of current flight attendants who have to serve on reserve."
CBT/Software Interactive Training – CPaT is to provide United Airlines with an interactive Electronic Flight Bag Trainer (EFBT). It covers both the B777 and B787, and provides training covering various functions of the EFB including Terminal Charts. The trainer will be delivered online and can be accessed using a PC, MAC or iPad and an offline application is being developed for future download. CPaT will be providing the Prescott, Arizona, campus of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University with its A320 Flight Training program. The program is being supplied in CPaT’s new Play Ready Training format, which allows students immediate access online without any software setup or installation. Delivery and customer acceptance has been completed for the EFIS/MSP to PFD/ND Differences program for the B737NG to United Airlines. CPaT modified United Airlines’ existing B737 courseware to include transition training for a flightdeck display
of PFD/ND. The program was delivered as part of United’s existing course, but it can also be used as ‘stand-alone’ training. Courseware – Jazz Aviation of Canada has selected Avsoft to supply web-based training Aircraft Systems courseware for the CRJ-200, CRJ-200 with -900 differences, Dash 8-300, Dash 8-300 with -100 differences and the Dash 8Q-400. Avsoft will also provide Learning Management System services to Jazz Aviation's entire workforce. Distribution – TrianGraphics has announced the establishment of a new distribution partnership with Simlabs Software LLP for the Indian market. Simlabs will act immediately as reseller. Trian3D Builder is a powerful database generation system for real-time applications. The software enables users to create large-scale detailed areas for applications based on image, height and vector data.
ATC Training Endorsement – Airways New Zealand has been recognised globally for its world-class air traffic control training offering, with the ICAO TRAINAIR PLUS Associate Member certification. Airways is the first training provider in Australasia to be awarded the ICAO certification, which provides an official stamp of quality assurance for Airways Air Traffic Services training. Further recognition of the educational performance and quality of Airways Training Centre solutions has come from the New Zealand government. The New Zealand Qualifications Authority has given the highest possible rating to the centre – ‘highly confident’ – for both its educational performance, and capability in self-assessment – how effectively it uses self-assessment information to understand and improve performance.
Company News TRAINAIR Plus Programme – The Gulf Centre for Aviation Studies (GCAS), the training arm of Abu Dhabi Airports Company (ADAC), has been unanimously elected to chair the International
Civil Aviation Organisation's (ICAO) TRAINAIR Plus Programme Steering Committee (TPSC). The TPSC has been created by ICAO to ensure better transparency, strategic planning and administration of the TRAINAIR Plus Programme as well as to ensure that members have a mechanism for active participation and contribution in all key aspects of the TRAINAIR Plus Programme. The TPSC will run on a two year cycle, and has elected for its first cycle GCAS from the UAS to lead the committee globally, with Hee-Hung Lee, executive director of Incheon Airport Training Academy, the training arm of Incheon Airport in Korea, as the vice chairman. The TPSC is a forum based on equal participation and collaboration and ICAO will act as the committee's secretary responsible for all tasks required to support the TPSC activities. The TPSC will play an important advisory role to ICAO, offering guidance and advice on the development and improvement of the TRAINAIR Plus Programme, and will also submit recommendations and reports to ensure improvement on key
implementation and strategic planning issues. Award for Axis – Axis Flight Training Systems GmbH has recently been awarded the Fast Forward Award by the Chamber of Commerce of Styria, for the most innovative product of 2012. The prize was awarded for Axis' groundbreaking FFS design, which marries state of the art fidelity with exceptional operational availability and economy. Axis' innovative features include trend monitoring and automated selftesting so that predictive maintenance can be done in off hours, to drastically reduce unplanned downtime, while automated simulator start up means that operations can start earlier in the day to maximize training hours. On the fidelity side, another Axis innovation is its icing function, which is unique on the market. Conventional icing simulations kick in suddenly, so that flight characteristics go from normal to unflyable more or less instantly. This and all of Axis' latest features are implemented in its ATR 42/72 FFS for Farnair's new Flight Training Organization, which was recently Level D certified.
PMCC Qualification – Cockpit4U Aviation Services GmbH has presented its new partner SIM4u. Both companies continue to expand their cooperation in the area of simulator training. A new fixed based simulator has been certified by the FAA. Equipped with an official Boeing 737NG flight dynamic model, partly original aircraft components and genuine LIDO navigation data the 100% scaled B737-800 FNPT II MCC provides extremely realistic conditions.
CAT MAGAZINE 6.2012
World News & Analysis Head-up Flying – Rockwell Collins has unveiled HGS™ Flight, a new app that lets users experience the company's Head-up Guidance (HGS) with synthetic vision on an iPad. The free app will be available for download in the Apple iTunes App Store. The HGS Flight app goes beyond standard head-up display symbology like flight path vector, speed and altitude, and lets users simulate flights using real-life advanced features that enable more precise flying. These include an approach guidance cue, speed error tape and acceleration caret. The app also features synthetic vision to allow users to see a virtual view of terrain despite any weather condition. Trade Mission – The US Department of Commerce has declared their recent Aviation Trade Mission with the Civil Aviation Authority of China (CAAC) to be “successful on all fronts.” The group met in five major Chinese cities including Shanghai, Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Beijing, and Hong Kong. US delegation members, including Pan Am International Flight Academy, held pre-screened one-on-one meetings
and networking sessions with Chinese partners and key aviation decisionmakers from the Chinese government and industry with a common goal to promote business between US commercial aviation and Chinese airlines and manufacturers struggling to keep pace with China’s rapid growth. China’s commercial aviation opportunities exist in multiple sectors, including tier-one suppliers, niche-parts manufacturing, airport design/construction, pilot and mechanic training and general aviation. Management System – Sriwijaya, a leading Indonesian domestic airline has partnered with New Zealand's merlot. aero to prepare for growth in the Indonesian domestic travel market. The merlot.aero system is the first fully cloud-based system airline operations management system, designed by a team of industry professionals specifically for the airline industry. It combines Software as a Service (SaaS) principals for real-time data and web services enabled applications which are then deployed over a cloud platform. This means Sriwijaya Air has been able to get up and running and fully integrated with
the new system quickly and painlessly using a web browser, rather than a whole new IT system. The system optimises daily aircraft and crew utilisation, controlling and reporting on core operational information. This enables airlines to manage their business, achieve regulatory compliance, maximise operational efficiency and focus on scalable growth. cat
Index of Ads AgustaWestland www.agustawestland.com
APATS 2013 Conference www.halldale.com/apats
AXIS Flight Training Systems GmbH www.axis-simulations.aero
Bosch Rexroth B.V. www.boschrexroth.com
21, 22 & OBC
CAT Magazine www.halldale.com/cat
Civil Full Flight Simulator Census www.halldale.com/civil-full-flight-simulator-census 39
FlightDeck Solutions www.flightdecksolutions.com
FlightSafety International www.flightsafety.com IBC Frasca International
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)
Airline simulation & training events organised by Halldale Group and CAT Magazine
16 - 18 April 2013 WATS 2013 – World Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow www.halldale.com/wats Rosen Shingle Creek Resort, Orlando, Florida, USA
15 & 35
L-3 Link Simulation & Training www.L-3com.com 7
17 - 18 September 2013 APATS 2013 – Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium Centara Grand Convention Centre, Bangkok, Thailand
Multi Pilot Simulations B.V. www.flymps.com 19 Pan Am International Flight Academy
29 - 30 October 2013 EATS 2013 – European Airline Training Symposium Estrel Hotel, Berlin, Germany
RAeS Conference www.aerosociety.com/events
Other simulation & training events
27 February - 1 March 2013 AeroSpace eXchange (ASX) Conference and Exhibition 2013 Singapore
WATS 2013 Conference
19 - 20 March 2013 Preparing the Aircraft Commander for the 21st Century RAeS, London, UK
7 - 10 April 2013 SCS SpringSim 2013 conference San Diego, CA, USA
30 April - 2 May 2013 MODSIM World 2013 Hampton, Virgina, USA 42
CAT MAGAZINE 6.2012
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