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FIT For Purpose ICING TRAINING
Chilling Out In The Sim AIRLINE TRAINING PROFILE
Egyptair At Gateway To Africa And Middle East CONFERENCE REPORT
The Challenge Of Simulating ATC ISSN 0960-9024 | US $17/£8.50
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Chris Lehman Editor in Chief, CAT Magazine
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Manually Speaking The debut of digital aircraft with highly sophisticated autoflight systems can now be measured in decades. Long gone are the days when physical strength was needed to fly large aircraft with their un-boosted controls and flight engineers were required to monitor and manage enormously complex systems. One can get a taste of how long ago that was simply by asking today’s crop of aspiring aviators what a flight engineer is. Chances are they have never actually met one. Glass cockpits with FMS, integrated avionics and autoflight were undeniably responsible for launching a new era of air transport economy, safety, and comfort. Without this automation, RVSM, RNP and CAT III approaches would simply not be possible. But increasingly, and not only because of a number of high profile aviation accidents where a lack of manual flying skills evidently contributed, there is a realisation that treating automation as some sort of panacea has been unwise. There are major concerns over the deterioration of manual flying skills in commercial air transport operations, stimulating a new look at training programs and new rule-making by regulators. It must be said that the message from some of the manufacturers and air carrier training departments over past years has helped create the situation. The mantra was that pilots must understand that “... they are system managers; manual flying skills are just not as important as they once were.” And it must be admitted that in day-to-day normal operations, manual flying skills are not that important. The automatics deliver the comfort, safety and economy that we all want. But when abnormal situations arise such as system failures and extreme weather, we need to have confidence that there remains a reservoir of ability to handle the situation, including flying the aircraft using only raw data and visual cues. In “heavy” long haul operations, it is not uncommon for F/Os to only get a few minutes of manual flying a month, or one landing, perhaps even less. Some pilots will say that they use every opportunity to “switch off” the automatics in an attempt to maintain skills. But this is not a practical solution in all cases. Company policies and SOPs can apply strong pressure to avoid hand flying, and the operating environment, fatigue, and confidence level may mitigate a pilot’s inclination to do so. So what about recurrent training? Some say that six-month proficiency checks with their predictable exercises do not make maximum use of the training opportunities the FFS offers. Is the airline willing to put up an extra simulator session to maintain and hone manual flying skills? Additional FFS sessions cost money. Those carriers that use the data generated by their training quality assurance programs to introduce additional training - including FFS sessions - to tackle whatever problems are encountered, are to be commended. This is our industry at its best. And proper application of Threat and Error Management (TEM) and CRM programs can be powerful tools to help ensure that all flight crew skills are maintained. Over the years, CAT has commented that the characteristics of the professional pilot population are changing. The crew of the “Miracle on the Hudson” made this point in all of their appearances in the US national media, evidently surprising many. Some argue passionately that the decline in general “stick and rudder” skills over these past years is not only because of a reliance on automation, but also because the path to the left seat is much shorter, and the experience levels much closer to regulatory minimums than ever before. Many conclude that the necessary skills were therefore not fully developed in the first place. One result is that new regulatory attention has been triggered, including the US regional airline “Call to Action,” and pending new rule making mandating upset recovery training. Much of this is actually appropriate, but ultimately the training industry itself must lead, just as it always has. Safe travels, Chris Lehman • Editor in Chief, CAT Magazine CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
CEOs on Training A SERIES
“FlightSafety training helps to prepare Boeing’s corporate pilots to meet any circumstance – from the routine to the most challenging.”
JAMES ALBAUGH President and CEO Boeing Commercial Airplanes Jim Albaugh, executive vice president of The Boeing Company and president and CEO of Boeing Commercial Airplanes, is responsible for all of the company’s commercial airplanes programs and related services. Prior to his current position, Albaugh was president and CEO of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems and previously served as president and CEO of Boeing Space and Communications. Albaugh joined Boeing in 1975 as a project engineer. He holds bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and physics from Willamette University and a master’s degree in civil engineering from Columbia University.
is proud of the company’s motto: “Inventing the Future.”
our staff to achieve proficiency on all our aircraft systems,”
In fact, it is Albaugh’s forward-looking vision that reinforces
says Albaugh, “which in turn adds value to our services.”
corporate pilots and maintenance technicians.
FlightSafety is clearly the best choice for professional
oeing Commercial Airplanes President and CEO Jim Albaugh
his selection of FlightSafety as the training provider for Boeing “FlightSafety has an outstanding reputation for training excellence that enhances safety, and it’s constantly engineering
“The superb realism of FlightSafety’s simulators enables
For Boeing Commercial Airplanes – and for Albaugh – aviation training to enhance the safety of its passengers, its crews and its aircraft.
more effective training technology, such as its electric motion equipped simulators,” says Albaugh. “I take comfort in knowing that FlightSafety helps our pilots to maintain and improve proficiency and to be prepared for the most challenging and unusual events.” Boeing, the premier manufacturer of commercial jetliners for more than 40 years, supports more than 12,100 jetliners leader of such an industrial powerhouse, Albaugh is amply
For more information, please contact any of our Learning Centers or call Scott Fera, Vice President Marketing: 718.565.4774. Our headquarters are at the Marine Air Terminal, LaGuardia Airport, New York 11371-1061. Email: email@example.com
qualified to evaluate FlightSafety’s simulator technology.
in service with a worldwide customer service network. As the
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A Berkshire Hathaway company
cover credit FIT Aviation
contents CAT 6/2009
05 Editorial Comment
08 ICING TRAINING Chilling Out In The Sim – The Need For Icing Training. Loss of control due to airframe icing is still one of the biggest problems in air transportation.
08 Icing training
14 AIRLINE TRAINING PROFILE Nicely Placed – Egyptair At Gateway To Africa And Middle East. The carrier is growing fast, has a favourable geographical situation, and it enjoys all the advantages of a 25 airline member network.
18 CONFERENCE REPORT Edge Of The Flight Envelope Is Critical For Upset Training. The main cause of commercial aviation fatalities is now in-flight loss of control. Report from RAeS.
26 Maintenance training
21 UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES Better Rules Needed If Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Are To Fly. The list of civil applications for unmanned aerial systems seems endless. But UAS advocates grow increasingly impatient with restrictions.
26 MAINTENANCE TRAINING Searching For Common Ground – Can The Fixers Ever Achieve Harmony? As technologies advance, so must AMT training. We look at whether harmonization among regulatory authorities is key to this imperative.
30 FLIGHT TRAINING FIT For Purpose - Florida Institute of Technology Revamps And Expands. These days it is unusual to find flight schools and colleges expanding their training aircraft fleets and curricula.
30 Flight Training
32 CONFERENCE REPORT EATS Moves To Prague And Invokes Character Of Saint Exupéry. The European Airline Training Symposium (EATS) was held in Prague mid November. This year’s meeting heard inspiring accounts of new training technology and processes.
34 CONFERENCE REPORT The Challenge Of Simulating ATC - RAeS Flight Crew Training Conference. Sometimes solutions are produced because they are technically possible, rather than absolutely necessary.
36 CONFERENCE REPORT OAA And SAS Present A Greener Rationale For The Future. At a recent series of presentations, the trainer and airline outlined their proactive stance on embracing environmental responsibilities. 32 Conference Report
Manually Speaking. Increasingly, and not only because of a number of high profile aviation accidents... there is a realisation that treating automation as some sort of panacea has been unwise.
37 CONFERENCE REPORT NBAA Convention Strives To Uphold Safety Standards As Slump Bites. Attendance was down 25% but the National Business Aviation Association’s 2009 convention still drew some 23,000 people.
38 NEWS Analysis and Seen & Heard. Updates and briefs from the training market, compiled and edited by Lori Ponoroff and the CAT editorial team. CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
The Need For Icing Training 08
CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
Image credit: NASA.
Chilling Out In The Sim
Loss of control due to airframe icing is still one of the biggest problems in air transportation. Guest author, Dr. Nihad E. Daidzic suggests that realistic flight simulation could be the best tool for comprehensive pilot training of icing hazards.
Image credit: NASA.
nlike thunderstorms, which are visually apparent and thus a relatively straightforward task to forecast and avoid, icing can be a sneaky, silent killer. A major challenge today is providing realistic, in-depth icing-hazard training for pilots. That includes not only better theoretical education on icing and associated risks, but also realistic flight simulation to practice typical ice encounters, counter-measures and control recoveries. As a result, a set of best practices for icing avoidance and recoveries could be defined and implemented worldwide. According to FAA, ice is usually reported by pilots as: trace, light, moderate or severe. This is a somewhat subjective classification as it is based on the effect icing has on an aircraft and not necessarily on the actual size and density distribution of supercooled droplets. Severe icing conditions for a general aviation light plane might be reported as light icing conditions by a large jetliner. No de-icing equipment is designed for, or able to cope with, severe icing conditions for any extended period. Indeed severe icing implies that de-icing equipment cannot handle the rate of ice accumulation and any prolonged exposure to it would spell disaster. There are about 2,000 known shapes/ forms of ice crystals. In aviation ice is classified as rime, clear (glaze) and mixed ice. Mixed ice consists of the mixture of glaze, rime ice, entrapped air bubbles, etc., and is particularly dangerous due to rough surface and protruded shapes. Rime ice consists of small, supercooled droplets and occurs mostly at lower temperatures (-20° to -40°C). Its rough surface increases friction coefficient significantly, but rime ice is brittle and can break easily, which is not necessarily a
Fig. 1: The effect ice accretion has on airplane drag (or thrust required) due to increase in parasitic drag only (left side). Increased weight and decreased coefficientof-lift will result in even more inferior drag curve with accompanied higher stalling speed and slower maximum airspeeds (right diagram).
good thing as that may result in asymmetric aerodynamic forces and loss of control. Clear or glaze ice is created by supercooled large droplets (SLD) in air temperatures ranging from -10° to 0° and is usually encountered in thunderstorms or freezing rain (or drizzle) with incredible rates of accumulation.
Phenomena Three primary adverse phenomena work against a pilot in icing conditions. Two of them lead to reduced performance while the third, and the most dangerous, could lead to loss of aircraft stability and controllability. The weight of ice sticking to the airframe increases the stalling speed by the square root of the load increase and compresses the flight envelope, leading to reduced maneuverability margin. In most
cases, however, this effect alone can often be neglected. Even an unbelievable 20% weight increase, due to ice accretion, will raise the stalling speed by “only” 10% which is not so critical, since the airplane is usually lighter during cruise, approach, and landing. In addition, increased weight will also require a higher thrust setting for the same airspeed. Ice accretion on airfoil surfaces, airframe and other parts of the airplane will lead to increased parasitic drag. Normally ice is more or less porous, which will increase the surface friction coefficient directly and affect the boundary layer development and thicknesses, thus affecting the form drag too. The increased wall shear stress will destroy the low-drag advantage of advanced laminar and supercritical airfoils. This in turn reduces the airplane’s speed at the constant thrust setting (Fig 1). In effect the increased low-speed buffet airspeed and decreased maximum airspeed narrows the flight envelope, bringing an airplane closer to an “edge of the envelope” and creating yet another “coffin-corner”, where the margin between stalling speed and maximum flying speed becomes ever smaller. For example, a 20% increase in parasitic drag CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
coefficient results in about 9% decrease in cruising airspeed for the same thrust setting – about 20-30kn for a typical turboprop aircraft. Ice accretion, however, can create much more parasitic drag than that. A not impossible 40% increase in parasitic coefficient of drag due to ice would result in something like a 20% decrease in cruise airspeed for the same thrust. Now that is really significant. Simultaneously, ice can also negatively affect the thrust generating engine and/or propulsive efficiency, leading to even slower cruise airspeeds. The longer an airplane stays in icing conditions and the higher the liquid water content (LWC) of the atmosphere, the faster the ice will accumulate and the less time a pilot has for action.
Fig. 2: The effect ice accretion has on the coefficient of lift and stalling angle-of-attack for a typical airfoil. Also sketched is an airfoil with leading-edge ice horns and runback ice (slightly exaggerated for better visual effects).
Performance Unfortunately it is not only the airplane’s performance that suffers, aircraft stability and control endure as well. The most dangerous side of airplane icing is that exotic ice accretion on the leading edges of a wing (ice-horns) and/or ridges built some distance away from the leading edge on the upper (suction) airfoil surfaces, will cause premature boundary-layer separation and often uncommanded roll accompanied by aerodynamic stall. This all would occur at lower angles-of-attack and higher airspeeds compared to clean wing (Fig. 2). In fact, leading-edge horns of ice can significantly reduce the wing’s maximum coefficient of lift causing a 20% or more increase in stalling airspeed. The “runback” ice that often forms from SLDs, which are water droplets in a thermodynamically meta-stable state that will freeze upon contact with the solid surface, will “creep” back from the wing’s leading edge and form streaks of frozen ice, ridges, and “feathers” somewhere within the first quarter of the wing chord. That is exactly at the locations responsible for generation of most of the lift force. Also runback ice could cause abrupt boundary-layer separation, local changes in flow patterns, the formation of recirculation “bubble”, and turbulent wakes at the place where the ailerons (or flaps) are normally located. This will cause flow disruption and result in unwanted roll upset. As we know from basic fixed-wing aerodynamics, stalling speed has to increase to offset the reduction of the 10
CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
maximum lift coefficient, leaving a severely restricted flight envelope for a pilot to deal with. In addition, maximum coefficient of lift achieved at lower stalling angles of attack will decrease and will often result in a steep decline of lift characteristics in a post-stall region, increasing the chance of unrecoverable spin entry once stall occurs. The conditions under which most transport category airplanes are certified are explained using, for example, FAR 91.527, FAR 135.227, and FAR 25 Appendix C. Droplets of median volume diameter (MVD) 40µm (micrometers one micrometer is one-thousandth of a millimeter) are used for certification in quasi-continuous (17.4nm horizontal distance) icing conditions, while for intermittent maximum icing (2.6nm horizontal extent), droplets of up to 50µm are allowed. Everything above that is regarded as SLD and the certification does not deal with it. However, SLDs (drizzle or rain) can be as large as 500µm and even bigger (up to 3-4mm). For comparison, typical cloud droplets are 10-20µm diameter. Accordingly, single representative SLD will have a diameter 50 times larger. Interestingly the amount (volume) of liquid, i.e., ice, that will freeze on the airframe, from one such SLD will be equivalent to 125,000 tiny cloud droplets. Accordingly one typical SLD (500µm) will be equivalent to about 1,000 largest supercooled droplets allowed in FAR 25 icing certification (50µm). To make matters worse, there is
something called “tail-plane icing” in which the tail elevator/stabilizer accumulates ice, loses ability to keep the airplane level, and the nose drops down, often following a sudden forward yoke/ stick pulse. This usually happens at slower airspeeds, in approach configurations (when flaps are extended), all when the horizontal stabilizer has to deliver more downward force. In airplanes without hydraulically boosted controls, due to developed wake on the lower suction surface of the horizontal stabilizer, the elevator could snatch downward, pushing the airplane’s nose over. This is also the regime where the center of pressure on the main wing moves downstream and away from the airplane’s centre of gravity, thus increasing the main wing destabilizing pitching moment. Any tailplane stall would thus result in a sudden downward jerk. If not handled adequately the airplane could easily end up in a vertical nose-down attitude.
Experiments Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) performed extensive flight experiments using their own Canadian-built De Havilland DHC-6 “Twin Otter” modified for icing flight research. According to NASA GRC, the only way to recover from tail-plane ice is to immediately pull back on the stick, which is completely opposite to how one would recover from main wing stall. The author doubts that such recovery maneuver would always be successful for every airplane type. But, regardless, how is the pilot to know that nose drop was caused by tailplane ice and not by a more familiar aerodynamic stall requiring forward yoke/ stick push? This is a similar catch-22 scenario to a high-altitude jet flying on the
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edge of its aerodynamic ceiling, where the merging low-speed buffet (aerodynamic stall) and high-speed buffet (transonic Mach effects) create dreaded “coffin corner”, where you are damned if you pull and damned if you push. The difference between the mainwing ice and the tail-plane ice is very subtle, and the best way to learn the difference would be to conduct quality training in a flight simulator using accurate icing flight models. Realistic flight simulation could be the best tool for comprehensive pilot training of icing hazards.
Task Designing realistic icing flight models for a particular aircraft type, however, is not easy. Simulation of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics, post-stall large angles of attack and/or sideslips is compounded by many uncertainties as to the accuracy of the results. Adding ice effects further complicates matters. Extensive wind tunnel tests on scaled aircraft models have to be performed followed by time-consuming and expensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. An icing wind tunnel at NASA GRC (and others worldwide) has been used to measure accumulated ice shapes on various airfoils at different icing conditions. Models of ice shapes have been designed based on wind tunnel and flight test research, and then used for experimental and computational simulation. Such ice-mimicking shapes (made of different materials) have then been attached at various locations on the wing and/or tail airfoils simulating ice-horns and/or runback ice to measure aerodynamic properties. NASA GRC and other academic and research institutions worldwide, are work-
ing diligently on aircraft icing problems. Many powerful computer programs, based on Large-eddy or Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) CFDs to simulate turbulent flow around growing or already formed ice obstacles, were developed to predict flow on different parts of ice-laden airframes. However, such computational and experimental analysis does not run in real time and cannot be used for flight simulation directly. Rather, the measured changes in aerodynamic forces and moments are recorded, analyzed, and used to augment existing dynamic models of clean airframes. The derived six-DOF aircraft dynamics incorporating icing dynamics, with associated coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment and other important integral aerodynamic parameters at various angles of attack and/or sideslip, could be employed in existing and future FFS and AATD flight models. NASA GRC has already designed an icing simulator, which essentially has the built-in icing model based on the DHC-6 flight model. In addition to these efforts, progress has been achieved in ice detection and protection using Kalman-filtering and neural networks. Nevertheless, none of these activities alone will provide 100% safety from icing danger. New technologies will reduce the risk of icing accident, but never eliminate them. In the end, faced with the icing hazard, basic airmanship, and competent, educated crews are the best insurance against accident. Loss of control (LOC) caused by ice accretion is an order of magnitude more difficult to predict and recover from than LOC of clean wing alone. Ice comes in so many shapes and forms and it accumulates on different parts of an airplane
at different rates, which affects stability, maneuverability and controllability in so many, often unpredictable, ways. Realistic flight simulation, however, will expose pilots to icing LOC that they never thought possible and educate them in how best to avoid potential disaster. A pilot who experiences degrading performance, control, and stability, and then recovers control of an ice-laden aircraft in flight simulation will develop more respect and competency towards icing hazards. So typical in most actual icing accidents are bewildered crews being surprised by a sudden loss of control. We owe it to our flying public to show the highest level of competence, skill and professionalism. When faced with icing danger it is important not to wait until that ofteninvisible point of no return is passed. In order not to become a “test pilot” during a scheduled flight, training in flight simulators featuring realistic icing effects is the best countermeasure. Actual flight tests in icing conditions are better left to wind-tunnel experiments and professional flight research crews operating specially equipped airplanes in very controlled conditions. cat About the author: Nihad Daidzic is associate professor of aviation, adjunct professor of mechanical engineering, and chair of the Aviation Dept at Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN. He is also president of AAR Aerospace Consulting located in Saint Peter, MN. Dr. Daidzic was previously a scientist at NASA Glenn Research Center for 6+ years. Nihad Daidzic is also FAA-certified multi-engine Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) and “Gold Seal” Certified Flight Instructor for airplanes and gliders.
Flight Into Terrain • Icing conditions Online Crew Courses
• Dangerous Goods • Aviation Security / GSAT • RVSM • TAWS • MNPS • ETOPS • ... and many more courses
CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
Airline Training Profile
Egyptair At Gateway To Africa And Middle East Egyptair has an enviable position in the current operating climate. It is growing fast, has a favourable geographical situation, and it enjoys all the advantages of a 25 airline member network. Chris Long assesses its training aspirations.
CAT MAGAZINE â€˘ ISSUE 6/2009
Egyptair has recently added 12 new B737-800s to its fleet. Image credit: Boeing.
he importance of membership of an airline alliance is not confined to code-sharing and route rationalisation. As engineer Hussein Massoud, chairman and CEO of Egyptair Holdings is pleased to point out, now that Egyptair is part of Star Alliance, Cairo can serve as the hub for those partner airlines into Africa. This, coupled with a central geographical location within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), puts Egyptair in a strong position to play a major role in the expansion of civil aviation in the region. That is the driver behind the considerable recent and planned investment in new aircraft and facilities. The fleet is set to double to 72 aircraft by 2014, with 12 new B737-800s already introduced into service since 2008, and a further eight due to arrive from August 2010. These will be joined by six B777-300s from March 2010, and eight A330-300s will come on-stream from August 2010. This will complement the 12 Embraer E170s, which have proved themselves to be economic and efficient on domestic and regional routes.
the new Terminal 3 at Cairo airport has largely overcome difficulties associated with the legacy facilities there, and it is ready to cater for increased passenger throughput.
Above Thales has supplied three Level D FSSs including a dual capability A330/A340. Image credit: Egyptair Training Center.
Further purchases of narrowbodies are being considered. Tourism accounts for 89% of Egyptair revenue. The predicted increase of that business as the economic crisis recedes, and the growth in demand through the Star Alliance, has increased the need for improved infrastructure. The opening of
All of which illustrates the context in which Egyptair Training Center (ETC) has been updated. ETC has been around since the early â€˜70s and is a profit centre reporting to Egyptair Holding Company. But it is in recent years in particular that it has seen significant expansion. The aim has been not only to prepare for the growth of Egyptair, but also to address the training needs in the MENA area. Analysis of predicted training needs both inside and outside the airline has driven the selection of a range of training tools to meet that challenge. Engineer Gamal Said, director marketing sales, customer service, indicates that some US$100m has been spent over the last decade updating this facility. Over that period Thales has supplied three Level D FSSs approved to JAR-STD 1A (ETC is a TRTO), covCAT MAGAZINE â€˘ ISSUE 6/2009
Airline Training Profile
Flight Simulator Engineering & Maintenance Conference 2009 For the first time in its history the Flight Simulator Engineering and Maintenance Conference (FSEMC) took place in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, with Egyptair hosting the 2009 event in Cairo. Despite the absence of some familiar faces from North America, numbers were more than made up by delegates from both the MENA region and further afield. Conference chair, Mike Jackson of Fedex, was pleased by the attendance, which continued to encourage a lot of networking and problem sharing by engineers with their peer group â€“ very much in the tradition of FSEMC. While there were many presubmitted technical issues to be discussed and resolved, there was particular interest in what Boeing had to say about developments in data licensing and IPR issues. The subject had generated considerable anxiety in the training industry, and in response to a question from Thales, Louis Valdez
ering the A320, B777-200ER and a dual capability A330/A340. In any one day the latter will typically be configured as an A340 or A330 for customers. The latter Level D FFS is a B737-800NG supplied by FlightSafety International and approved to FSTDA. All engine variants applicable to aircraft types are made available. As Said points out, the strategy of addressing the regional needs pays off when one considers that, for instance, many regional carriers have small fleets of B777s. It is not economically viable to have a FFS to service each small fleet, but the convenience of having a facility close by in Cairo means that the B777 FFS in particular is used to capacity. Demand for training is such that further FFSs are planned, starting with an A320 family device followed by one for the Embraer 170/190. There is provision to locate two further simulators in due course. The supporting training aids are in place and comprise several flight management system trainers, some of which are supplied by Thales and others, which have been made inhouse.
Tailor ETC has been a full member of the ICAO Trainair programme since early 2006 when it established a course development unit, a specialist department whose role is to produce and update courseware designed to match both ICAO and JAR requirements and, where necessary, tailor these to airline needs. The range of training is considerable and embraces not only flight deck crew, but also cabin crew and maintenance teams. The entire reach of cabin crew training is carried out at ETC and includes not only initial training, but also all type and recurrent training. Emergency training is carried out in part using a three-axis motion cabin emergency evacuation trainer (CEET) equipped with visual system made by TFC. It combines the cabin characteristics and actual aircraft doors of the A320/A340/B737 and B777. It can simulate fires, smoke, depressurisation, evacuation malfunction scenarios, and the integral video facility is used as a training tool. All ditching drills are carried out at a dedicated swimming pool at ETC.
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An additional but important capability is the extensive maintenance training, which is also available. All maintenance training, from ab initio to type qualification can be undertaken. The facility has both Egypt Civil Aviation Authority (ECAA) and EASA 147 approval, and can provide a full range of Airbus and Boeing type training, as well as engine run-up training for all engine types associated with those aircraft. To cater for the widest range of training to support the industry, ETC can provide training in other disciplines as well, including ground services and commercial, financial and administrative skills. The newest building will be formally opened in December, providing 54 more classrooms to bring the total to 94. This illustrates the degree of commitment that ETC has to reinforce its position as a primary regional training provider. The customer base is not confined to the MENA region, but has included more distant airlines from Europe (Austrian Airlines, Aerologic, Olympic Airways, Turkish Airlines…) and from Asia (PIA Pakistan Airlines, Air India, Armenian Airlines), as well as Alteon/Boeing.
Above US$100m has been spent over the last decade updating this facility. Image credit: Egyptair Training Center.
Massoud is clear that the MENA region has suffered less in recent troubled economic times than both the US and Europe, and believes that recovery in the region will therefore be much quicker. He fully intends that ETC will be in a strong position to benefit from that upturn. cat
of Boeing said that the Boeing view was that it was just clarifying existing principles of charges. It is entirely legitimate to recover costs of development from businesses, which were using the data to derive revenue. From now on this would not apply to an airline, which buys an FSTD to exclusively train its own pilots. But a charge of something like 15% would be levied on any third party training. Although this action would not be retrospective there was no indication as to whether this charge would apply to upgrades. Valdez recognised that this would inevitably mean an increase in FSTD prices, but he dismissed concerns that such an effect could impact on safety. Naturally safety is paramount, but it is the responsibility of airlines and regulators to ensure safety, and therefore safety is not linked to commercial issues involving training tools. It seems highly likely that this topic will generate considerable debate in the near future.
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CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
Left Simulator aerodynamic models need real input from flight data and quick access recorders, as well as other data. Image credit: Royal Aeronautical Society.
Edge Of The Flight Envelope Is Critical For Upset Training The Royal Aeronautical Society’s Flight Simulation Group hosts two-day conferences in June and November, and a conference on more general aviation training in September. This past June the theme was “Flight Simulation - Towards the Edge of the Envelope”. Ian Strachan reports.
he main cause of commercial aviation fatalities is now inflight loss of control (ILOC); this having surpassed controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) in recent years. The conference explored how the edges of flight envelopes can be trained better in simulators and in aircraft, both on type and on others better suited to training for upset manoeuvres. Although military aspects were covered, this article is about the commercial side. Opening the conference, RAeS President Dr Mike Steeden said that flight simulation makes “a tremendous contribution and society owes the flight simulation industry great gratitude.” Conference chairman Dr Sunjoo Advani continued by saying that “the real edge of the envelope is not only the aircraft and simulator, it is the human edge.”
Support There was considerable support for this event from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), with several representatives giving presentations. Dennis Cryder of the US National 18
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Transportation Safety Board presented NTSB figures for upset accidents over the last 16 years. These showed an average of 4.9 accidents per year, 2.8 of which involved fatalities. The fatality rate over the same period was 209 per year, with a total of 3,351 lives lost. Looking at all causes of commercial jet accidents from 1995 to 2007, figures from ICAO and the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) showed that 38% of fatalities were attributed to ILOC, compared with 21% for CFIT, 12% for system failures (non-powerplant), 10% for runway excursions, 4% for collisions or nearcollisions, then several other causes. Significantly, similar ICAO/CAST figures from five years earlier showed ILOC and CFIT being nearly equal. Compared with this the proportion of CFIT accidents has reduced, whereas fatalities in loss of control accidents have increased by 20%. Captain Bryan Burks of the US Airline Pilots Association (ALPA) called for a higher standard of upset training. He said that, unlike in the past, many commercial pilots had no military flying background, civil ab-initio training did
not require either aerobatics or spinning, and stall training was limited. In addition the increased use of automation in the airliner cockpit has led to a decline in manual flying skills. Burks called for a different philosophy for upset training, to include the “precipitating event”, followed by the strategies and techniques for recovery. The broader purpose should be “to teach pilots how to evaluate an upset situation and fly back to a safe and stable condition.” He said that many full flight simulators (FFS) did not model upset events properly and a “Level D Plus” simulator design was needed. Expanded flight simulator aerodynamic models needed to use real aircraft data from flight data and quick access recorders (FDR/QAR), and additional data from organisations such as Calspan, the NASA commercial aircraft programme, and the aircraft manufacturer. Improved motion cueing was required and more indication of G was needed. In the end, the goal was “to marry expanded situational awareness, knowledge and judgement, with stick and rudder skills.”
Thread Analysing the detail of some loss of control accidents, John Cox, CEO of Safety Operating Systems of Washington DC, showed graphics of its flight paths. A common thread was a failure to recover from a stick-shaker / stall situation. In one case this started at flight level 330 and continued to impact with the ground. Wing drop and low roll damping at altitude, leading to large angles of bank, complicated these situations. In turn this sometimes led to a reluctance to push the yoke forward or to hold it forward for long enough. In one instance where recovery was eventually made, several upset events were generated by a constant desire to pull back the yoke at inappropriate times, instead of holding it forward or even just maintaining a neutral position once pitch and roll angles and airspeed had recovered to safe values. As a former military instrumentrating examiner (IRE) on Canberra and Hunter, I well remember testing unusual
position recoveries using the turn needle only with the artificial horizon covered. This was generally no problem, but we were all used to aerobatics and G-forces. The drill was first to roll to reduce the indicated rate-of-turn to within plus-orminus one, check for adequate airspeed, only then pulling the stick back where necessary. Another rule-of-thumb was that, when applying pitch during recovery, a reversal of airspeed change indicated approximately the horizon position. Returning to the present, it is fortunate that the incidence of fatal ILOC events is low in scheduled airline service. But Cox’s presentation showed an urgent need for better training, particularly in stick-shaker / stall / wing drop situations. His conclusions were that flight crew training should emphasise stall recognition and recovery and, on simulators, extensive work is needed to improve the accuracy of aerodynamic information at and beyond the stall. Specific upset training is available now. Jim Priest of Calspan Corporation described such a course at its Flight Research Training Centre at Roswell, New Mexico. This starts with academics, covering the aerodynamic background of upsets, followed by the theory behind recovery techniques. Flying first uses a Beech Bonanza certified for aerobatics, followed by a specially modified Learjet, more typical of an airliner cockpit and handling. The Calspan Learjet has flyby-wire controls and associated computing to modify control and stability to optimise it for upset training for specific airline types. A safety pilot / instructor is always carried. The Bonanza is used to show attitudes and manoeuvres that pilots have not experienced recently (or at all in some cases). A Level D simulator is also used, its motion platform giving sensations of movement in all six axes, said to be required for realistic upset training. However, the G experienced in upset situations is not felt and Jim Priest wanted more cues of the forces “on the pilot’s butt”. I suggested that an inflatable seat cushion, as used in simulator G-seats in many military fighter simulators, could be tried in the Calspan simulator for extra “seat of the pants” cueing. In addition, other G-seat functions could be considered, such as seat-pan lowering and variable strap tension as computed G varies. Seat pan lowering makes the pilot
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stretch to keep normal sight lines (as in a real aircraft due to body compression under G), and strap pressures on the pilot are lower under positive G and more under negative as the body moves upward in the seat. Ideas from delegates included improved drive algorithms for motion platforms, such as those developed by Dr Advani and Van Biervliet / Sabena Flight Academy, the latter with a system called lateral manoeuvring motion (LM2). Other suggestions included adding indications of computed G on the external world visual system either in large numerals or as a colour change, as aircraft limiting G was approached. With regard to the Calspan course, on prior testing it was said that a high probability of recovery from upset manoeuvres was virtually zero. This was said to rise to 76% after the course, the remaining 24% having a “moderate probability” of recovery. Jim Priest concluded by saying that over 500 airline pilots had so far been trained from 21 airlines, including American and United. Similar training is offered by APS Emergency Maneuver Training of Mesa, Arizona, also using academics, aircraft and simulators. APS President Paul Ransbury gave upset recovery success rates of 42% before training and 97% after. The retention figure after 19 months was said to be 76%.
Cueing Continuing the theme of improving simulator cueing, David Gingras and Jack Ralson of Bihrle Applied Research proposed a flight simulator training endorsement program (F-STEP). They said that stall / post-stall modelling had a proven track record in military aircraft such as F-16, F-18. F-22 and F-35. There was therefore no reason why something similar could not be done for large commercial aircraft. NASA already had a commercial transport modelling and simulation programme. This used wind tunnel tests and “well established techniques” for data reduction, providing “a better prediction of lateral-directional dynamics in post-stall flight.” The F-STEP programme would utilise latest improvements in modelling techniques and was intended to produce requirements for the expansion of the aerodynamics model for upset training. For the simulator flight model, extrapolations are made outside the centre of the envelope, but become progressively less reliable unless based on real flight data. As a retired test pilot I pointed out that during certification testing, the flight envelope will have been tested further than the envelope cleared for routine service, at both the low and highspeed ends. This data should be incorporated in the higher levels of simulators before they are certificated by the regulators for pilot training. In addition, there are incidents and accidents in service, from which flight data outside the originally tested envelope will become available through aircraft flight recorders. There should be a mechanism to incorporate this in the flight simulator aircraft model, the position of regulatory authorities being crucial in making this happen.
Turbulence Peter Jarvis and Captain Lou Nemeth of CAE discussed upsets due to wake turbulence, wind shear, microbursts, icing and aircraft system failures. Professor David Allerton of Sheffield University also addressed wake vortex encounters. The CAE team said that for upset recoveries, “management of G” was important and there was “a propensity to over-react by novice pilots.” 20
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Above: Fatalities for the 10 years: 1993-2002 – World Commercial Jet Fleet Accidents (Data: Boeing)
Simulator modelling of the stall region needed improvement and lack of cues of continuous G was again said to be a problem. A training centrifuge “can simulate continuous G cues but there is a risk of nausea, and it is still a simulator.” It was concluded that aircraft platforms are needed to train G awareness and confidence. In current simulators, dynamic data was often unavailable for modelling stall conditions and for some simulators, data was only available up to operation of the stickpusher, well before the stall itself. Modelling of the stall region, however, could be improved using wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The open discussion forum at the end of the conference expanded on the two days’ presentations and dialogue. It agreed with CAE’s proposal to form a working group to carry this work forward. This is to be co-ordinated by the RAeS Flight Simulation Group (FSG). It follows previous FSG-chaired international work, which resulted in discussion, consensus and drafting of documents, leading to their publication by ICAO. An example is ICAO 9625, the Manual of Criteria for Qualification of Flight Simulators, now in edition 3 after an RAeS-led consultation and update process, with a second volume on helicopters in preparation. The title of the new body is the International Committee for Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE). A meeting between FSG and AIAA personnel was held the day after the conference, to discuss future co-operation. Conference chairman Dr Advani has produced a draft “master plan” that has been circulated to interested parties. ICATEE will involve industry, regulatory, training and academic experts. Another task is to review work in research centres, universities and industry, where it involves extended flight regimes. This includes pre-stall conditions, buffet, full stall, deep stall, wing drop and sideslip, incipient and full spin, and so forth. The working group will explore the best ways of applying this data to FFSs and suggest areas where other devices, such as aircraft, centrifuges or disorientation trainers are appropriate for upset training. Extending the limits of flight models for simulators has to allow for non-linear and less-predictable behaviour outside the centre of the flight envelope. In addition, there is the incorporation of extra flight data that is acquired as a result of envelope excursions in service due to incidents and accidents. An important object will be to devise improved procedures for initial training and recurrency checks, followed by proposing how to translate this into regulatory guidelines. There is much to do – watch this space. cat
UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES
Better Rules Needed If Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Are To Fly The list of civil applications for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) seems endless, from law enforcement agency surveillance to aerial photography, firefighting, forestry, environmental research and many others. Despite regulatory concerns, Chuck Weirauch learns that pressure to move forward is growing.
ven more expansive than the throng of supporters excited by this technology is the list of potential users who want to deploy UAS because of their flexibility and lower operating cost than manned aircraft. All, including the military, want access to fly in the same airspace as commercial, business and private aircraft. In the interests of safety, however, aviation regulatory agencies worldwide have been reluctant to grant that access, while UAS advocates grow increasingly impatient with such restrictions. Adding to the mix of entities pressuring FAA, EASA and other regulatory bodies to lift the current UAS airspace restrictions, are the companies that make them. Add all of these UAS advocates together and put them in an already simmering pot, stir, and the widespread addition of such aircraft into an already highly complex flying environment seems inevitable. FAA, along with the aviation industry, US military and governmental and
academic research institutions, are currently working to develop new advisories, guidelines and rules to allow the safe integration of UAS operations into the countryâ€™s National Airspace System (NAS). Recommendations from all sources were submitted to the Federal UAS rulemaking committee, which forwarded them to the FAA for review in March 2009. However, the agency is not expected to publish a UAS notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) document until mid-2011. After the consideration of public commentary and further deliberations, it could be years before the final rules are issued.
Immediate To help provide a more immediate mechanism for public agencies such as the US military, government, local municipalities and academic research institutions to conduct UAS missions in the NAS, FAA has developed the UAS Certificate of Authorization (COA) program. All public operators must submit to FAA an application for a COA and be approved. This
Equipped with an infrared imaging sensor in its underbelly pod, the Altair UAS can aid fire fighting efforts. Image credit: General Atomics Aeronautical Systems.
directive includes such operators as the Air Force for Global Hawk UAS operations, and the US Customs and Border Protection Agency for Predator UAS operations. Other public operators include government agencies such as NASA, the US Forest Service and police departments. Such operators may have multiple COAs for different missions, each with specific rules for operation and airspace. According to FAA the agency issued 102 of the up-to-a-year-long COAs in 2006, 85 in 2007 and 164 in 2008. Operators can renew their COAs when they expire, depending on need. As of October 2009, the agency issued 89 COAs and had 188 applications pending. The FAA also reported that 60 airworthiness certificates on 17 unique UAS CAT MAGAZINE â€˘ ISSUE 6/2009
UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES
designs in the “experimental” category for research and development, crew training, or market surveys had also been issued. Demand for such certifications is expected to grow exponentially in the near future. To be precise, FAA has heavily restricted the scope of each COA, specifying certain provisions for operation in a defined airspace. One such requirement might be to only fly under visual flight rules (VFR) during specified daylight hours. The agency also routinely calls for coordination with an appropriate air traffic control facility, along with the need for a transponder able to operate in standard air traffic control mode with automatic altitude reporting if applicable. Another stipulation in most cases is that a ground observer or an accompanying chase aircraft must maintain visual contact with the UAS during flight. As one might imagine, unmanned aerial vehicle advocates are not happy with such restrictions.
AUVSI The Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) has several objections to the COA program and the entire FAA UAS rulemaking process. In the main it is that the COA rules are too restrictive and can be employed only by public operators and not private firms. Another is that the overall rulemaking process is simply taking too long and slowing both UAS research and development as well as the growth of the UAS market. Like the FAA, the AUVSI focus is the safe and efficient access of UAS into the NAS, but also the accelerated one as well, said Mike Fagan. He is chairman of the AUVSI advocacy committee and served on the Federal UAS rulemaking committee. Along with several other concerns, the AUVSI wants users of micro and small UAS to be exempted from FAA rules, Fagan said. These aircraft operate in airspace, which FAA has designated as nonnavigable by manned aircraft, namely under 400 feet from the ground and close to buildings, where commercial operators such as roofers and many others would want to use such UAS, he pointed out. “We don’t want to shortcut safety, but the problem is that the FAA is putting UAS under the same restrictions as manned aircraft.” 22
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Mike Nelson is an MQ-9 Reaper UAS instructor pilot and UAS course manager at the University of North Dakota’s Center for UAS Education, which is under contract to develop Reaper courseware and instruction for the Air Force UAS Joint Center of Excellence at Creech Air Force Base, NM. UND also provides MQ-1 Predator UAS training for the US Customs and Border Protection Agency. Nelson related some of the success and frustration the military and government agencies have expressed regarding conducting missions under FAA COAs and why both want more access to the NAS. According to Nelson, Reapers flying out of Grand Forks AFB operate under four different COAs, with the training COA for the training UND conducts for Air Force students. The other three required are operational, transit and emergency COAs. Although the COAs allow access to extensive Class airspace, it is restricted to a specific designated area in VFR clear weather and daylight conditions. While training is possible under these limitations, it is very controlled and regulated, Nelson said. COA restrictions for the Customs and Border Protection Agency are more problematical, because its operational COA limits the range over which the agency can operate in, and that is less than the area it needs to cover while also imposing the same type of weather and VFR conditions, Nelson said.
Consolidate Under a recent reorganization, FAA consolidated its UAS program within its Flight Technologies and Procedures
Above The Aerosonde aircraft is used by NASA as a “hurricane hunter.”. Image credit: NASA.
Division, under the Flight Standards organization. As division director Les Smith explained, it is now the Joint UAS Program Office with both Air Traffic and Aviation Safety components. The Program Office is involved with both UAS research and the development of UAS regulations. “Our concern within the FAA is safety of the operation of aircraft that are in the NAS today and the people on the ground. So we want to ensure whatever unmanned vehicle goes up has the capability to keep the operating safety margins the same as we have with manned aircraft,” Smith said. “We don’t want to lower the standard that we have today. Anything else we introduce into the realm has to do no harm.” The FAA does not foresee the requirement for COAs going away soon, and they may become an element of the final regulations. Experimental airworthiness certificates are primarily for UAS manufacturers. They can operate under the airworthiness certificate, but they too must apply for COAs to operate in a specific area with a specific type of mission and equipment. Manufacturers primarily use test ranges for such work. The AUVSI feels that such restrictions hamper UAS advancement. Several FAA facilities and universities are involved with UAS research. In 2008, FAA signed a cooperative agreement with the University of New Mexico
to develop the country’s primary UAS Flight Test Center (FTC) for government and private R&D work and testing, as well as contributing to the development of standard UAS regulations.
See and Avoid One problem FAA has with UAS operating in the NAS is that most vehicles do not carry transponders, or have any other means by which air traffic controllers can identify and keep track of them in the airspace. That is why COAs mandate that UAS must fly under visual flight rules (VFR) and require that observers, either on the ground or in aircraft or both, provide “see and avoid” flight monitoring information to the UAS pilot about other aircraft in the area. Considerable research, now mainly for the military, is underway to develop “sense and avoid” technologies onboard autonomous UAS that would allow the unmanned aircraft to detect any other aircraft in the area and remain out of their flight path. However, smaller UAS would not have the capability to support “sense and avoid.” Furthermore the technology is years from application, and must be demonstrated and proven to FAA before
any UAS with this capability would be allowed to fly in NAS. “See and avoid is what is required for UAS pilots today,” Smith said. “Sense and avoid will be a challenge for the future and a primary area of research today. We are [some way off] the time that an operator can fly UAS in the NAS on demand. The ultimate goal would be to have routine access to the NAS, but we are a long way from that point.” Along with mostly maintaining its manned aircraft operating rules for UAS, FAA also currently requires similar operator qualification and training requirements for UAS pilots and operators, Smith said. They are: UAS pilots operating under instrument flight rules (IFR) must have a private pilot’s certificate with an instrument rating. If operating 400 feet above the ground, UAS pilots have to hold a private pilot’s certificate with a VFR rating. Operating below 400 feet, UAS pilots must have completed private pilot ground school and have taken the written exam for it. UAS pilots have to maintain the same currency required by Part 61.
FAA UAS Roadmap As a part of its UAS regulatory efforts, FAA is developing a UAS Roadmap for the Future. Regulations for small UAS, which the agency notionally considers to be under 55lb, will be addressed first, Smith said. Other UAS categories similar to how the military defines them will be addressed in progression. The overall Roadmap will include milestones for requirements for the military and civilian communities and will address the certification of aircraft, pilots and operators. The policy, guidance and regulations that will make the Roadmap approach a success will be written over the next few years, Smith explained. Meanwhile, FAA is working with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to harmonize both the UAS operating procedures and the airspace, along with the standardization of equipment with the international aviation community, he added. “We have met similar challenges before, such as the integration of jet aircraft into the NAS,” Smith said. “UAS are the wave of the future, no question about it.” For more information on current FAA UAS regulations, go to www.faa.gov/uas. cat
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Preparing for Change, Preparing for R
Proposed changes in legislation directly affecting US pilot training, coupled with ongoing change internationally and an anticipated rebound in airline hiring late 2010/ early 2011 will make next year’s WATS event a must for all stakeholders in airline training.
These changes include: • The US HR3371 Pilot Training Bill mandating significant increases in flight hours required for new regional airline pilots • Pilot demographic issues including ongoing retirements, recruitment and retention. • Continuing dialog on the N&O rewrite • A renewed focus on NextGen air traffic control and its implications in the cockpit • New Training Paradigms - the need for new ‘pilot training regimes’ • Improvements in aviation English language standards • Continued changes to Simulation and Training technologies • Challenges and developments in the e-learning sector • A resurgent market. Major aircraft manufacturers, economists and airline execs all predict a return to growth by 2011. And the training load may increase before that.
@ WATS 2010 Our international conference team led by CAT Editor in Chief Chris Lehman will produce the now traditional 4 WATS conference tracks which will explore today’s most pressing training and simulation issues across the following communities: • Jet Transport Pilots • Regional Airline Pilots (RATS) • Maintenance Personnel • Cabin crew And while at WATS delegates will be able to network with more than 80 suppliers of training and training technology, more than 100 world airlines including representatives of almost all US major and regional carriers, world regulators and a significant contingent of carriers and regulators from Latin America. And... SCSI, the Southern California Safety Institute will be merging their annual Cabin Safety Conference with the WATS Cabin Conference to form a new International Cabin Safety & Training Conference bringing together the entire cabin community at the only safety and training event of 2010. The Regional Airline Association (RAA) will be using WATS/RATS to deliver perspectives on regional airline training including leading a breakout on HR3371. The Air Transport Association (ATA) Maintenance Training Committee will again be focusing their members attention on maintenance matters during WATS while the ATA Pilot Training Committee will be holding its Spring meeting at the event for the first time.
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or Recovery! The Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) will be welcoming its membership to WATS for their Spring meeting and presenting a renewed focus on e-learning at the event. Invitations to participate have also been sent to other key stakeholders in the ab initio area and in accreditation and licensing. Highlights of WATS Across both the pilot and regional airline training tracks, session topics will include: operational safety insights, flight deck human factors, new hire issues and training, simulator training techniques, e-learning, training for the new aircraft technologies, the evolving regulatory environment, and simulation technology updates. Careful conference design has always ensured that topics specific to the regional airline community will be addressed in dedicated (RATS) sessions. Topical breakout sessions will include participation by the FAA’s National Simulator Program (NSP). The maintenance training track will continue the tradition of emphasizing international expertise in maintenance human factors, the use of simulation, and dealing with the new technologies such as composites and digital cockpits. Further, industry experts will provide briefings on the maintenance regulatory structure and the challenge of attracting, training, and retaining aviation maintenance personnel. The new association with SCSI brings even more dynamism to the WATS cabin training track. Dedicated sessions will address cabin training trends such as the adoption of AQP and distance learning. The development of a safety culture will be central to the track as will cabin security training and the one crew concept. Health issues and “lessons learned” will also be discussed.
Fall Conferences Produce Outstanding Results! “Both APATS in Hong Kong this September and EATS in Prague this November were not only busy but also showing near record airline attendance and interest” commented WATS Organizer Andy Smith. Both of WATS’s sister events were stronger than the previous year and drew attendees from across their regions, and the renewed interest in WATS is a good indication that our industry is beginning to rebound from the recent economic shockwaves.
“2010 is a recovery year for the airline industry as a whole but it seems likely that the pent up demand for training and equipment that we saw at WATS 2008, much of which went unsatisfied up to the collapse of last year, will be back in view again at WATS next April” commented Smith. “We expect a very busy show” he continued. So plan your trip now to the foremost event on the airline training calendar and, as a recent attendee to EATS commented “do three months business in three days”.
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Searching For Common Ground –
Can The Fixers Ever Achieve Harmony? As technologies advance, so too must AMT training. In the first of two articles on maintenance training, Robert W. Moorman asks whether harmonization among regulatory authorities is key to this imperative, or if industry and airlines should lead?
armonization is the process of bringing views or methodologies together, according to various dictionaries. For the training of aircraft maintenance technicians (AMT), harmonization is the synchronization of regulatory standards or procedures. Debate over the best way to enhance AMT training has percolated for some time, but it now appears to be boiling over because of the need to keep up with advances in airframe and engine technology. On one side of the debate are the trainers who want regulatory authorities worldwide to adopt a European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)-like standard for the training of AMTs. This scenario sees the regulatory body taking a more active role in determining basic requirements for trainees becoming AMTs. To meet EASA standards, airframe and powerplant AMTs must now have significantly greater electrical and avionics training because today’s aircraft are 26
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far more advanced than those of a few years ago. It is a digital world and AMTs have become much more than wrench turners, or so the logic goes. Europe was first, but now regulatory authorities in Canada, China, Australia and the Middle East are following suit. South America wants to develop its own standard, which is a mix of EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) wisdom. On the other side of the debate is FAA, which some say has taken a more passive role in updating its maintenance training standards, despite “plenty of interaction between FAA and EASA on many matters,” according to an FAA spokeswoman. In the US an individual needs to be a mechanic with an airframe (A) and/ or powerplant (P) rating to supervise, approve maintenance for return to service and perform required inspection item (RII) inspections for an air carrier or repair station. To obtain a mechanic certificate under 14 CFR Part 65, the indi-
Above LTT provides a good snapshot of an EASA-regulated European trainer. Image credit: Gregor Schläger/Lufthansa.
vidual must attend a Part 147 school or prove that s/he has a requisite number of hours in the maintenance field. The individual must also pass an oral, written and practical test. Once hired an AMT undergoes additional training on the specific aircraft on which s/he works. But the advanced training is driven by airlines or MROs typically, not FAA. While FAA training rules for AMTs are considered less prescriptive than those of EASA, FAA plans to revise within two years Part 121.375 rules regarding maintenance and preventive maintenance training programs. “The first place you will see the change is at the airlines,” said Dr. William Johnson, FAA’s chief scientific and technical advisor in human factors and
aircraft maintenance systems. “FAA is taking a very strong position on letting airline requirements drive maintenance training,” not the regulatory authority. According to Johnson, FAA is more concerned about the “critical process used for determining and designing training programs, than what precisely should be in the training program.” At present, airlines have to submit their training plan to FAA, which either accepts or rejects the plan. Wording of the revised rule would likely change from “accepted” to “approved” training. The distinction is more than just semantics. It means that airlines might be required to enhance their maintenance training program to include areas such as composite training. “If it becomes approved training,” said Johnson, “FAA will say you have to do this and this and this….” The revision could also include a requirement for human factors (HF) training in the list of mandatory items needed to have an approved airline-run AMT training program, he said. But two years is a long time for a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), which includes a lengthy comment period and
it could be three years or longer before FAA initiates any change in AMT training, according to training experts.
Effort A few years ago there was a lot of discussion about upgrading FAA’s minimum standard for the certification of airmen, which included mechanics, from Part 65 to Part 66. The rewriting effort failed, except for a name change; mechanics were thereafter called AMTs. No official explanation was given as to why the effort fell apart, but some sources felt the rewriting effort was grounded because airlines feared that adding a transport category to an AMT license would prompt the unions to ask for more money. There is no shortage of opinions, however, on the need to upgrade training standards for AMTs, in both basic and advanced training. “FAA is lagging behind in setting training standards,” said Mike Lee, director of maintenance training business development for FlightSafety International (FSI). “Standardization of maintenance training is absolutely necessary,” said Christoph Meyerrose, managing director
of Lufthansa Technical Training (LTT). “I don’t know how long FAA will stay passive” on AMT training, said Mark Malkosky, director of technical training operations for CAE. “Something will have to move to bring the standard to a global environment.” Even if FAA does not offer a major rewrite of AMT training standards, the agency could provide “incremental improvement for certificating of brand new mechanics,” said Rayner Hutchinson, vice president of quality and safety for AAR, the Wood Dale, Illinois-based MRO. Even OEMs express a desire for a standard for initial and recurrent training for AMTs. Embraer training division released the following statement to CAT: “In other areas of the globe, mainly in the Americas, we do see a need for regulatory authorities to mandate tougher standards so that there would be some sort of harmonized maintenance training requirements all over the world.” Another area in need of improvement, according to Embraer, is the requirement for recurrent training for AMTs, similar to that already mandated for pilots. The Brazilian OEM would also like to see standards developed for competency-based
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training of AMTs. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) are leading such an initiative. LTT’s Meyerrose put the issue of FAA’s role into perspective: “Latin America has been talking about raising their standards [for maintenance training] for the last five years. Yet their plans to revise their existing system will take another five years. If FAA plans to come out with regulations in two years’ time, that would be OK.”
Taking The Lead Others believe that industry, not FAA or other regulatory authorities, will lead the way in upgrading training standards for AMTs. “We have US carriers that have maintenance requirements that typically exceed FAA requirements and European customers with tougher standards than EASA requirements,” said Dave Lattimer, vice president of regulatory compliance for Timco, a Greensboro, N.C. based organization. It has invested heavily in better training of its AMTs. Having tougher standards for AMTs may not necessarily translate into additional business, but they do provide a “higher comfort level” for Timco’s customers, said Lattimer. LTT provides a good snapshot of an EASA-regulated European trainer. It offers a three-and-a-half-year in-house vocational training program, where AMT candidates enter straight from high school. Approximately one-third of the training program, the theoretical part, is conducted at the public technical college, while the remaining portion is conducted at LTT. Upon graduation the AMT receives both the German skilled worker certificate, as well as the EASA Part 66 category certificate. But EASA Part 147 for basic training requires that the certificate holder receives on-job maintenance experience. After one year the individual is given their category A license. To achieve the advanced category B license, the AMT must undergo an additional four to five months’ training, plus an additional six weeks level 3 type training. Candidates must have a minimum two years’ work experience before they can get their B license. It takes six years typically to achieve category B level from starting initial training. 28
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Above Boeing Training and Flight Services has developed three composite maintenance training programs. Image credit: Boeing.
Composite The call for required composite maintenance and repair training is one issue receiving universal support, whether or not regulatory authorities mandate it. Driving the need for more composite training arguably is the B787 airliner, the first (nearly) all-composite commercial airliner. Boeing Training and Flight Services, formerly Alteon, developed three composite maintenance training programs. The first teaches inspectors how to identify and assess levels of composite damage to the airframe, and then recommend an appropriate means of repair. Boeing also teaches inspectors how to use damage assessment tools. The second program instructs AMTs to make repairs in accordance with the B787 structural repair manual. The third level trains engineers to design their own composite repairs for items not covered in the structural repair manual. The new design repairs must follow approved engineering data of the Boeing Company. “We’ve already done a lot of composite training for the 787,” said Steve Pen-
nington, director of maintenance training for Boeing Training and Flight Services. Abaris Training Resources and Renaissance Aeronautics Associates and Advanced Composites Training (ACT is the training division of RAA)) are two independent training houses that believe that all regulatory authorities should mandate composite maintenance and repair training. “It certainly should be required of anyone who works on composites,” said Mike Hoke, president of Abaris Training Resources, which provides composite maintenance training. A&P schools provide only elementary training in composite maintenance and repair, “Which is OK for repairing the wheel pants on a Cessna 150, but it’s not going to cut it on a pressure vessel for the B787,” Hoke said. His competitor agrees: “It should be mandatory,” said Wilson Boynton, president of London, Ontario-based RAA/ ACT. “I have seen many horror stories of people attempting repairs on composite structures.” Composite technology is continually evolving and there is a real need for regulatory oversight. “What we’re teaching now is considerably more sophisticated that what we did 25 years ago,” Hoke said. “Yet composites still are an immature technology and we’re learning lessons the hard way.” A number of airliners have composite structures, but the B787 presents “significant challenges” for MROs, Boynton said. Its “all-composite fuselage can’t be repaired by standard methods.” The Airbus A350 twinjet widebody airliner will present some of the same challenges when it enters commercial service in 2013. According to Boynton the B787 fuselage, being of a carbon fiber tape-wound monolithic structure, will present unique challenges for technicians engaged in the repair of typical impact damage from ground operated vehicles. “When damaged, composites structures such as these are exceptionally difficult to perform NDI inspections upon and the damage is not always localized to the area of impact,” he said. “NDI and repair technicians will require specialized training in the use of advanced composite ‘pre-preg’ materials and fastener installations that bear no resemblance to the procedures used in the repair of sheet metal structures.”
Training in advanced composites repair technologies has not kept pace with the introduction of these materials into modern airframe structures. “Training technicians to develop competency in composites repair is all too often seen as an expensive burden. It takes intensive training… for a technician to become an expert with composite structures inspection and repair. But it all starts with training the technician in composite courses that meet recognized national standards by industry organizations, government regulators or those that are approved and audited by the OEM’s,” Boynton said. Despite these challenges, business is good for those teaching AMTs on composite maintenance and repair. In May, Cessna Aircraft Company certified ACT as an approved training facility for structural repair technologies training on the new Corvalis 350/400TT all-composite aircraft. And Abaris recently won the contract to train FAA aviation safety inspectors in advanced composite maintenance and repair. At present FAA does not require composite maintenance and repair training, as does Canada. For now, the responsibility for training FAA-governed AMTs on composite repairs is left at the door of the airline, MRO or training facility.
Endorsed In addition to regulatory change prompted by advancing technology, aircraft maintenance and repair training now includes human factors. Regulatory authorities worldwide have endorsed HF as a necessary component in basic and recurrent training of AMTs. “With human factors, we know much more about the contribution of human error in accidents and incidents, with maintenance error gaining greater prominence,” said Paul Bredereck, CEO of Aviation Australia (AA), a leading maintenance training organization. In 2008, AA trained 8,902 people from airlines and aerospace companies from Asia, Middle East and Europe. Delta TechOps, the maintenance arm of the now merged Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines, requires all employees, not just AMTs, to take its 12 hour human factors training program, which FAA cited as an industry standard, said Wilma Miller, manager of Delta Tech Ops training program.
Another element of AMT training worth noting is that in order to comply with federal regulations, Delta TechOps has developed a multilevel training program to address electronic wiring interconnection systems (EWIS). The two-module program, which consists of CBT and instructor-led training, began in September 2009 and is applicable to employees in base maintenance, line maintenance, inspection, engineering and planning. Delta trains AMTs in Atlanta mostly, but also in Detroit, a key hub for Northwest. Miller said that Delta is still integrating the personnel of Northwest Airlines into the operation. One of the regulatory requirements of the merger is the “cross fleeting training” of AMTs at both airlines, Miller said. Integration of personnel must be completed before the carrier can fly under a single operating certification, which was expected by end 2004. At present, Northwest operates a subsidiary of Delta. Another development in AMT training sees trainers embracing competencybased training over traditional knowledgebased methods, which were followed up by seasoning on the shop floor. Research indicates that competency-based training reduces training times while producing better-qualified AMTs. “The trend to competency-based training and assessment will naturally increase as aircraft evolve,” said Markus Buergin, vice president of group technical training at SR Technics. “Today’s world of aircraft maintenance is different from the past, and must reflect this development if it is to be efficient and effective.” According to AA and other trainers, today’s AMT training programs should have: courses with clearly defined outcomes for the AMT candidate; software and hardware tools to help explain complex systems or concepts; facilitated collaborative learning techniques, where students can advance through teaming; and structured mentoring, whereby the instructor is more of a facilitator and role model than someone following the old chalk and talk method of instruction. “The greatest challenge we have today is not change in technology, but dinosaurs in management roles across the industry, who still believe skills can be gained through osmosis,” Bredereck said. cat
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FIT For Purpose – Florida Institute of Technology Revamps And Expands These days it is unusual to find flight schools and colleges expanding their training aircraft fleets and curricula. But that’s what Florida Institute of Technology (FIT) in Melbourne, FL has accomplished at FIT Aviation in the past year, writes Chuck Weirauch.
IT Aviation is a whollyowned subsidiary of Florida Institute of Technology and provides training for the Institute’s College of Aeronautics, of which it is an integral part. The College of Aeronautics is revitalizing and expanding its curricula as another element of the Institute’s long-term plans to better prepare students to meet the challenges of 21st century aviation. According to FIT Aviation director Nick Frisch, the flight school has bought eight new glass cockpit Piper Warrior IIIs and four Piper Seminoles within the past year, bringing the total number of aircraft up to 36. Meanwhile, existing aircraft of this type were upgraded with GPS capability. The university has also recently opened its new 12,000 square-foot Emil Buehler Center for Aviation Training & Research at the Melbourne International airport, where FIT Aviation has its new headquarters. The university is hoping that the new 30
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Above The University recently opened the Emil Buehler Center for Aviation Training & Research. Left Currently there are around 200 students enrolled with the College of Aeronautics who receive flight training at FIT Aviation. All images: FIT Aviation.
Air Astana to provide training for Kasakhstani students. Frisch explained that these two programs provide about a 35% international component to FIT Aviation’s pilot training. aircraft, as well as the appeal of earning a four-year degree in aviation, will draw more students in the near future. Currently there are around 200 students enrolled with the College of Aeronautics who receive flight training at FIT Aviation. The flight school also has a partnership with the Pilot Training College of Ireland to train some 80 students for Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) certification, in addition to an agreement with
Advantage “Right now, I’d say that a four-year degree program looks like a good bet for anybody in this economy. Most of our students come here to become a commercial pilot, but a four-year degree gives them the advantage of pursuing other aviation career paths, such as airport management,” he said. To improve its syllabus and provide
students with even more of an advantage, the FIT flight school studied complaints airlines have made about graduates on all kinds of training programs, according to Frisch. Common criticisms were that students do not have good exposure to the instrument flight rule (IFR) system, do not have much experience with advanced avionics, do not have a good concept of automation management, and really do not function well as a flight crew. “The program we have addresses three of these areas pretty well through using glass panel airplanes, more simulation and an emphasis on automation training. You almost have to address the flight crew training aspect separately, since under FAA regulations everything is optimized for single pilots. So we are addressing this issue separately with specialized courses to teach people how to fly as a crew. “Traditional American flight training is not what you need to go fly a modern cockpit airplane for an airline,” said College of Aviation Dean and former NASA astronaut, Winston Scott. “It still focuses on individual pilot skills. When you go to the airlines you work as a crew. So why not start early in training to embrace crew concepts, because this is how you are going to work.”
Emphasis Along with the enhancements of the FIT Aviation flight training syllabus, the FIT College of Aeronautics is working to increase its emphasis on research, as well as making sure that its curriculum reflects modern aeronautics, Scott said. One major research area is human factors (HF), along with research in crew resource management (CRM) and safety management systems (SMS). The college is also making curriculum changes that will include courses in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications, he added. “Human factors research at FIT will focus on such areas as training, fatigue and human-machine interaction,” Scott said. “Most aviation accidents are human-related, and we think that we can be a contributor in the future in the areas of HF and human-machine interaction.” A FIT goal is to develop a human factors Ph.D. degree program. The university recently hired Guy Boy, a worldrenowned expert in this field to head up the multidisciplinary program. The
program will incorporate research from the university’s psychology, engineering, business and college of aviation departments, as well as input from experts in other related fields. According to Boy, the HF in safetycritical systems Ph.D. program could be unique to the US, possibly the world. Today we are focused on technologycentered solutions, which includes the FAA’s NextGen program, he said. Instead, we need a human-centered approach, where there is a better understanding of the user and an injection of HF from the beginning of the design of solutions before they are built, Boy emphasized.
Event Boy is also program committee chair for HCI-Aero 2010, the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, which will focus on aviation crew and ground integration. Penned for November 2010, the event is geared to shared development of new methods for maintaining high levels of safety in aviation operations. It is sponsored by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) and FIT. Boy holds a research position at IHMC, in addition to a professorship at FIT. FIT is currently experiencing a decrease in domestic students and an increase in international students, according to Scott. However, the College of Aeronautics is embarking on a “very aggressive” recruitment program to grow the overall college student population to around 400. Scott believes that the current downward trend for airline operations will reverse over the next few years and that demand will increase. The college wants its students to be ready when that change takes place, not only for pilot jobs but also for opportunities in fields such as aviation management, aviation meteorology and computer science, which a four-year aviation degree program provides for them, he explained. “FIT is an outstanding academic and research institution, and we also have a first-rate flight training organization.” Scott summed up: “We are growing our capabilities to expand our student enrollments and to continue to provide a resource for the aviation community in the future.” cat
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Conference Report Organised by:
EATS Moves To Prague And Invokes Character Of Saint Exupéry A prime Halldale event, the European Airline Training Symposium (EATS) was held in Prague mid November. With Chief Moderators Peter Moxham and Dr. Michael Karim, and overseen by Conference Chair Chris Lehman, this year’s meeting was the eighth in the series. Inspiring accounts of new training technology and new training processes made for a rewarding delegate experience, as did a special Heads of Training meeting the afternoon before the conference. Chris Long reports.
ne of the aims of the 2009 edition of EATS was to provide an update on the evolution of EASA and to reach out to the “Eastern” European nations like never before. Milos Kvapil, head of aircrew training at Czech Airlines (CSA), set the tone in his keynote address. After briefly touching on the long history of CSA, he made the point that studying such an interesting background teaches two things. In the first place, people and the way they behave do not change a lot; we need to understand the fundamentals of that behaviour. Secondly, that a changing world is inevitable and however worthy past achievements may have been, we must adapt to new realities. Another aspect he emphasised was that while the pure operating abilities of a new generation of pilots are fine, those
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Left Keynote speaker Jean-Marc Clouzeau, head of flight standards at EASA. All images: David Malley/Halldale Media.
young pilots are relatively inexperienced in life skills. Training and guidance in those life skills as they gain experience are needed before they can effectively take on the responsibilities of command. A most obvious and critical change impacting the world of aviation is that of regulation updates. Given the clear regional focus of this event, it was fitting
and helpful that the view of the European Regulator, EASA, was heard through a second keynote speech delivered by JeanMarc Clouzeau, head of flight standards at EASA. He stated that the responses to the NPAs issued in 2008/2009 would be delivered as the Opinion on FCL Provisions, which is scheduled for publication next August. Even before that enters the public domain, EASA is working towards a process to embrace the new imperatives in the industry, by putting in place a European Aviation Safety Plan. This will identify, through risk assessment methodologies, key safety priorities and
related actions that are to be taken by the Agency and the member states in the following domains: Rulemaking - when rules need to be improved; Oversight when rules are acceptable but are not adequately implemented; Safety Promotion - when rules are acceptable and adequately implemented, but safety may be further improved through the dissemination of best practices. This type of initiative demonstrates the evolution in EASA practices, which will also adapt to new imperatives in flight crew training as they appear.
Evolution The long lead-time between theoretical definition and actual implementation of changes to training patterns often means that there is a need to provide updates to the community because of the lengthy implementation timeframes. Subjects such as MPL, Aviation English, and ITQI while well known to the community, benefitted from detailed updates and “lessons learned” perspectives. These often passionate updates gave a clear idea of not only what lessons have been learnt so far but also, critically, what changes in understanding need to occur to further enhance their effectiveness. Alongside these presentations were introductions to new themes and technologies – reducing impact on the environment should now be an integral part of flight operations, and embracing the concept of the Single European Sky. The training impact of Heads-up guidance systems (HGS) was included, as well as the introduction of GBAS and the importance of good SOPs. Most of these views were through the lenses of the airline operators. Because these are direct reports from the industry it is possible to develop an insight into what the critical training issues are and, more importantly, to see some ideas of best practice and how to address them.
Being There The really important aspect about EATS, however, is that you have to be there to benefit fully from that collective expertise. Presentations, although fascinating
Relieve training bottlenecks with Aerosim procedure trainers Above Networking in the busy exhibition hall at this year’s EATS.
in themselves, are only part of the story. The buzz of conversation after the sessions as delegates discuss subjects with their peer groups shows not only how much re-thinking is triggered by the topics, but also how much knowledge there is overall at the event. That energy continued at the exceptional conference reception held at the CSA Training Centre. Not only were delegates able to get up close and hands-on with the training equipment, but it was also in the context of being welcomed with enormous hospitality by CSA – a memorable and productive occasion. The last word goes to Kvapil of CSA, who said: “We should not train pilots in only their technical skills and CRM. We must also educate pilots to be a little like Antoine de Saint Exupéry - to love flying, to be romantic, to be honest, to be professional and, above all, to keep the high level of airmanship”. cat
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Facts and Figures Over 350 people attended EATS 2009 over two days of conference and exhibition including 59 international and regional airlines and five national civil aviation authorities. A lively and busy exhibition floor, brought together 39 leading companies within the airline sector, highlighting the value and worth of EATS at this time of global economic uncertainties. EATS next year is due to take place in Istanbul, Turkey on 9-10 November 2010... see you all there!
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The Challenge Of Simulating ATC RAeS Flight Crew Training Conference The aviation industry has often relied on technology to improve safety and performance and it has usually succeeded in developing much needed remedies. Sometimes, however, solutions are produced because they are technically possible, rather than absolutely necessary. Chris Long reports.
imulating a realistic air traffic control environment in pilot training was one of the topics addressed during a Royal Aeronautical Society flight crew training conference in London recently. Nassima Hamza of Thales gave a presentation entitled, “ATC Simulation... the final frontier”, in which she gave an initial report on a survey Thales has been conducting with the support of the RAeS and Halldale Media Group. The survey’s aim was to better understand the importance and relevance regulators, operators and training suppliers give to this potential capability. Currently the only aspect of pilot training where simulation of an ATC environment is mandated is during delivery of the later phases of the ICAO MPL training programmes. However, the survey also enquired whether there are other phases of training where this functionality would be of use. The survey was global in scope with responses from 74 individuals who commented on behalf of 47 different organisations. Some of the world’s largest air34
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lines contributed and, in addition, there was good input from regional airlines and large and small training providers. Major regulators and pilot organisations also had their say. Widely ranging views were inevitable with such a diverse but representative group of contributors and analysis of the data quickly identified that a significant majority believed there to be benefit in appropriate use of this technology. There were notes of caution, however, not least being that such simulation would have to be relevant and convincing for it to be attractive as a training tool. The challenge is to create a virtual world for trainees; any anomaly in that virtual world dramatically decreases training effectiveness. For instance, the ATC would have to be interactive with the crew undergoing training and all calls concerning other traffic would need to be coordinated, not only with the visual image available to pilots, but integrated with weather patterns and TCAS, as well as ADSB inputs. It can be
Above RAeS flight crew training conference in London, September 2009. Image credit: Royal Aeronautical Society.
difficult coping with the range of accents and different levels of competence in English that flight deck crews encounter on a daily basis. If the real world is to be accurately simulated these, too, should be reproduced.
Factors The attraction of such a system would seem to boil down to two factors. Firstly, greatly increased situational awareness, a skill that is difficult to recreate outside the airborne environment. Secondly, given that the majority of pilots have to work in a language (English) that is not their native tongue, an opportunity to improve those language and communication skills in dynamic situations. Significant technical challenges remain in producing a comprehensive,
robust and effective solution. The survey indicates that a half-way house of limited functionality would not be a worthwhile improvement of the existing widely-used system of relying on training staff to simulate the ATC input. In summary, some delegates felt that there are more important training challenges. For instance, instruction in the use of new technologies, which enhance situational awareness in busy ATC environments both airborne and on the ground. However, the majority thought that ATC simulation would improve training, but that it would need to be sufficiently flexible and convincing to integrate seamlessly into existing and future training tools. That is really the key – existing systems were judged to be too immature to be effective, but the aspirational case is to produce, at reasonable cost, a realistic addition to the range of options to be developed for training. How training equipment suppliers react to that challenge remains to be seen. There is still a great deal of activity in this area and maybe with a better idea of what the industry really needs, a suitable solution can be developed. To see the results of this survey the
Above RAeS panel from left to right: Stephane Clement (CAE), Barry Tomlinson (QinetiQ), Nassima Hamza (Thales), Mark Dransfield (Mechtronix), Jim Takats (Opinicus), Robert Barnes (RB Associates). Image credit: Royal Aeronautical Society.
white paper, produced jointly by the RAeS and Thales, is available for consultation on the Halldale Media Group [www.halldale.com] and RAeS [www. raes.org.uk] websites. In so far as the primary reference for the industry is concerned, the newly published ICAO 9625 rev.3 document states: “It is recognized that the flight simulation and training industry is currently developing technology applications and training requirements to include ATC environment simulation into FSTDs.
However, the use of ATC environment simulation in FSTDs is still in the development stage of its lifecycle. Suitable guidance material will be written and published, in an update to this document when sufficient experience has been gathered and the requirements reviewed by industry. Appendices A, B and C in Part II and in Part III of this document contain temporary material for ATC environment simulation requirements and testing that should not be treated as prescriptive for FSTD qualification at this time. The content of these three appendices should be used as guidance to industry for the continued development of ATC environment simulation for FSTDs.” The question of adoption of these guidelines, however, by the national authorities and regulatory bodies is still to be resolved. cat
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Per de la Motte, director of training for OAA. Image credit: OAA.
OAA And SAS Present A Greener Rationale For The Future Aviation receives a disproportionate share of blame for pollution. There is broad agreement that it emits between 2-3% of global CO2. This compares with a similar figure for the IT industry, for instance, about which the public hears very little, writes Chris Long.
t is imperative that the aviation industry actively pursues a dramatic reduction in current emission levels, particularly in light of the predicted growth in global travel. At a recent series of presentations at the Stockholm site of Oxford Aviation Academy, OAA and SAS outlined their proactive stance on embracing the environmental responsibilities of the aviation industry. Christian Hylander, vice president, international areas for SAS, pointed out that the corporate strategy of SAS is not to be content with simply being a follower in the challenge to meet environmental concerns. SAS has been at the forefront of research and cooperation in seeking new ways of dramatically reducing its environmental impact, for instance by being a founder member of the Sustainable Renewable Fuel Group. Lars Andersen, director environment and sustainability, noted how remarkable it is that aviation is the only business discipline to have presented a coherent global strategy for consideration at the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference 2009. He illustrated the wide range 36
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of activities to have come under review by SAS, believing that targets for reducing CO2 emissions by 50% by year 2020 are achievable. This would be as a result of, where necessary, changes to the fleet as older, less eco-friendly aircraft are exchanged for newer, more efficient transports. This year alone 21 older aircraft will be withdrawn from service and gradually, the new fleet of 12 fuel-efficient, quieter Bombardier CRJ 900s will be introduced. A vigorous programme of weight reduction, for instance with the new seats being fitted, will also contribute to lower fuel burn; a hard look at the infrastructure and support facilities will further identify ways to reduce the carbon footprint.
Eco Training Key to managing that essential reduction in emissions is lower fuel burn where possible. Per de la Motte, director of training for OAA has worked with his team to complete detailed research into ways to achieve that during normal aircraft operation. The start point is that safety should never be compromised. However, sensible adoption of suitable techniques,
which individually may only contribute a half to one percent reduction, can cumulatively add up to a significant improvement in fuel burn on any routine flight. There are of course airlines, which are already employing some of these methods, but very few are using all of them routinely, and many simply do not think along these lines at all. For instance, taxiing with engine(s) shut can have a significant reduction, particularly where long taxiing distances or delays are encountered. Selecting a lower flap setting (lower drag) for take-off where operationally possible, and adopting a lower acceleration altitude where noise abatement procedures permit can also help. Continuous descent profiles obviously contribute as well, as do direct routing and level changes to achieve more favourable conditions. When all these and other measures are put together the result is impressive. The appeal of the OAA initiative is that there is no requirement for changes to existing hardware or software, only in the way of operating it, and this can be achieved through a short training course. The course starts with getting the airline management fully committed to the programme. For operating crews the tailored approach will consist of a theoretical refresher on aircraft operation to explain the rationale behind various actions. There is then a very convincing practical phase in the FFS, in which a normal short flight profile is flown using standard procedures. Fuel burn at various key points is noted. An identical profile is then flown using these favourable techniques and fuel burn noted at the same points in the profile. The demonstration profile observed in the three simulators during this visit was a 20-minute flight between Gothenburg and Copenhagen, in which the economies varied between 18% and 20%. In the real world, of course, immediate operational imperatives may mean that all of these actions cannot necessarily be employed together on a single flight. However, research has shown that it is reasonable to expect a fuel burn reduction of 4-6% on any routine flight. Thinking about that level of annual fuel saving throughout an airlineâ€™s fleet is bound to bring a smile to the CEO and the accountants. It would seem that this course and way of thinking are worth looking into. cat
Embraer’s Phenom 300 made its first appearance in this year’s static display. Image credit: C Weirauch.
NBAA Convention Strives To Uphold Safety Standards As Slump Bites Attendance was down 25% on last year’s event but the National Business Aviation Association’s 2009 convention in Orlando (Oct. 20-22) still drew almost 23,000 people and provided a fitting platform for new developments in technology and training. Chuck Weirauch reports.
n spite of the overall downturn training-related sessions drew the largest audiences with training providers well represented, both in the sessions and on the exhibition floor. Safety management systems (SMS) received considerable attention, with FAA administrator Randy Babbitt emphasizing the importance of the widespread adoption of SMS, the stress being on pilot professionalism and mentoring. SMS is “the only option to take aviation to the next level of safety,” he said in his keynote address. NBAA announced that it has partnered with training vendors Argus International, Baldwin Aviation and AeronomX to offer new SMS workshops for the business aviation community. Robert Sumwalt, a member of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), told the Safety Town Hall Meeting that “getting the right attitude” was the first step in developing the proper safety culture. Such a goal requires management communication, standardization and discipline, training, data collection and quality assurance, he said.
Budget Appropriately named “Business aviation aircrew training on a tightening budget”, the primary annual meeting training session brought together several agents from training providers, business aircraft operators and FAA to share advice on how to provide more efficient and effective training in the current economic slump. Presenters passed on ideas and suggestions, focusing a good deal of attention on distributed simulationbased training, either via the Internet or using other computer technologies as the means to achieve such goals. Franco Pietracupa, director of flight training and operations for Bombardier Aerospace, spoke of his company’s efforts to provide onsite training to customer flight departments. FAA has approved more courseware for onsite delivery and such training provides substantial savings, he said. Pietracupa said that the need for e-learning would grow as governmental regulatory agencies added more operating requirements, with distance learning for recurrent training becoming a core
element for flight departments because of its cost-saving attributes. However, the industry must start looking at consistent systems integration courseware that could be delivered on a web-based platform. While such training saves money by reducing classroom time, the issue was not to cut training, but to maximize it, Pietracupa said. Joseph Hartmann, director of sales and business development at Aerosim Technologies, cited the recent FAA advisory circular, “Alternatives to classroom training”, noting that the airlines’ success in providing one day of recurrent ground school training using e-learning. He also wondered whether some initial training could also be provided to pilots at home via the Internet, or using a USB drive.
Home-based “If you were to take an application of a PCbased simulation training tool and post it via the Internet for home-based pilot training, you would be able to increase safety and proficiency and reduce the cost of training,” Hartman said. Steve Gross, director of worldwide sales for FlightSafety International, stressed the need to maintain pilot skills and proficiency, especially in light of reduced flying time due to the current slump. To help maintain such levels, he said pilots should undergo simulator training twice a year. He cited a study his company had conducted in Europe that highlighted this need. “We expected that, with the reductions of flying, we would see a reduction in handling skills. We were surprised at the significant declines in CRM, checklist flows, standard operating procedures and technical training. In [periods] of tight budgets and low flying times, simulation training [is still important]. There is significant value from the safety aspect, so don’t sacrifice the simulator training,” Gross said. Dan Jenkins, manager of the FAA’s Air Carrier Training Branch, gave his organization’s perspective on the benefits and pitfalls of contract training. “The biggest pitfall is thinking you can just send your pilot and a check to training and have the pilot sent back, ready to go,” Jenkins said. “Active oversight by your flight department is key to ensuring that your unique company needs are met and company culture is represented.” cat CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
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Seen&Heard Edited by Lori Ponoroff. For daily breaking S&T news - go to www.halldale.com.
Demand for pilot training will pick up next year when the economy improves. Image Credit: Lufthansa Flight Training/Jens Görlich.
facilities need to establish firm relationships with airline operators to understand demands and requirements of the aviation industry. While the aerospace industry is living through turbulent times, the mid to long-term prospects for Asia’s aerospace sector are strong. As the industry consolidates and rationalizes, aerospace companies must continually adapt and reinvent themselves to stay viable and competitive. In the end, businesses that deliver exceptional value even in times of downsizing and cost cutting will be the first to benefit from a recovery.
DEMAND FOR PILOT TRAINING EXPECTED TO RISE Although the need for pilots is down because of the world’s economic slump and attendant decline in air travel, demand for pilot training will pick up next year when the economy improves, according to a report issued by Frost and Sullivan in November. In 2008 the Asia Pacific pilot training market was worth almost US$10bn, according to the report. With pilot requirements expected to grow next year, however, the Asia Pacific local air traffic management systems do not have enough approach instrument landing systems and support for training, and 38
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so training institutions are investing in growing their infrastructures and facilities. These technical complexities with new generation aircrafts will drive the need for pilot retraining. The report states that, despite the economic downturn, simulation spend is increasing and the reduction of flight hours leads to more simulation hours. By using simulators, training facilities and airlines incur less cost, making it easier to train new pilots to fill the gap when economies worldwide recover. Frost & Sullivan believes flight simulation companies and training
CAAS APPROVAL FOR STATA ST Aerospace’s commercial pilot training subsidiary, ST Aviation Training Academy (STATA), was approved by the Civil Aviation Authority Singapore (CAAS) as a flight training organisation (FTO). This makes STATA the first thirdparty FTO in Singapore to provide pilot training without an airline affiliation. With this approval potential pilots have more training options in achieving the CAAS commercial pilot licence with instrument rating (CPL/IR), which is required by Singapore registered airlines. Pilots who train with STATA will be CAAS certified, obviating the need to convert licenses obtained from foreign FTOs to a CAAS license.
TRIO OFFERS JAA PILOT TRAINING
C90 FLIGHT SIMULATOR FOR TORONTO
FlightSafety Academy is to jointly offer JAA pilot training with Cabair and its affiliate Orlando Flight Training. FlightSafety Academy students in Vero Beach, Florida, working to qualify for a European license, will be able to complete their FAA qualifications there before moving to Orlando Flight Training in Kissimmee, Florida for the JAA ATPL ground school/CPL course, and then to Cabair in the UK to obtain a JAA instrument rating. Phase one of the 13-month, three-phase program, will be conducted at FlightSafety Academy in Vero Beach. It includes completion of the FAA private pilot license, single-engine instrument rating and an hours-build course to achieve 170 hours’ total time. The training will be completed in Piper Warrior Cadet aircraft over six months. Phase two will held at Orlando Flight Training, also over six months, with 750 hours of ground school, the required written examinations, and the start of a JAA commercial pilot flight training program. Students will achieve 10 hours’ CPL singleengine and eight hours’ multi-engine and will take a JAA CPL skills test. Students will travel to Cabair for phase 3, which includes a one-month instrument conversion program with 10 hours of flight simulator training and 10 hours in a multi-engine aircraft.
Toronto Airways bought a full-motion King Air C90 flight simulation device from Fidelity Flight Simulation. The simulator will be type-specific to the King Air C90, and will include aircraft systems and instructor operations customized for Toronto Airways’s training curriculum. It is the second simulation device bought by Toronto Airways from Fidelity Flight Simulation in its program to train Chinese flight students. The airline intends to offer King Air training to other pilots throughout a wide area in Canada and the US. The simulator will be approved by Transport Canada at FTD Level 5. The Fidelity C90 simulator will be reconfigurable between standard instruments and the Bendix King EFIS 40 electronic attitude deviation indicator and horizontal situation indicator. Dual WAAS-enabled Garmin 530 GPS units will be installed, along with a replica Goodrich TCAS 791 traffic collision and avoidance system and Collins WXR 840 weather radar. Electric dynamic control loading will accurately replicate flight control feedback depending on the aerodynamic profile. The external visual display includes a customized Canadian topographical and airport database.
THREE DEALS FOR EMIRATES-CAE Emirates-CAE Flight Training (ECFT) signed contracts with Jet Aviation, MSC Aviation, and Transaero for tailored pilot training at the Dubai centre for Boeing, Gulfstream, and Hawker aircraft platforms. Jet Aviation, a General Dynamics company, renewed its contract for pilot training on its Gulfstream GIV, GV, G550, and Boeing Business Jet aircraft. MSC Aviation, the flight arm of Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. (Geneva, Switzerland), signed a three-year contract to train pilots of its Hawker 800XPi (Pro Line 21) aircraft. Transaero Airlines signed an extension to its training agreement with ECFT for both wet and dry training of B777 pilots.
EMBRAER PART 147 CERTIFIED Embraer has been certified by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) as a Part 147 maintenance training organization (MTO). Its first customer, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines’s regional subsidiary, KLM Cityhopper began the program last month. The approval covers the four E-Jets of the Embraer 170/190 family – Emb-170, 175, 190 and 195, seating from 70 to 122 pax.
ICELANDAIR EXTENDS TRAINING WITH OAA Oxford Aviation Academy (OAA) and Icelandair signed an exclusive five-year agreement for flight simulator training for B757, B767 and Dash 8-100/300 for Air Iceland, an associated company of Icelandair. This agreement extends a 10-year relationship between OAA and Icelandair for flight simulator training in London. Under the new agreement OAA will install a B757 simulator in Copenhagen during 2010, and Icelandair will have access to the existing OAA B767 flight simulator in Stockholm.
FAA AWARDS TRAINER CONTRACT Flightdeck Solutions (FDS) won a multi-project contract from the Federal Aviation Administration’s William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, for a complete FDS-A320-FBPT (fixed base procedures trainer). It will be used for research and development and as a secondary device designed to explore new approaches to simulator design. FDS will deliver the A320 FBPT early 2010 and is working with FAA on its research devices, including A320 components and full mock-ups for marketing and development. CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
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Arrivals & Departures Frank Visconti joined Aeroservice Aviation Center this month as chief executive officer. Aeroservice’s founder, Vito La Forgia will become chairman of the board. Visconti, with 20 years’ industry experience, was president of LGSTX Services, part of Air Transport Services Group (ATSG). Tom Steidel joined 3D Perception as chief operations officer, focused on developing and progressing processes and quality assurance. Steidel has extensive leadership experience and a broad base of technical knowledge in R&D, design, support and operational experience with industrial companies. Chris Kubasik will become Lockheed Martin Corporation’s president and chief operating officer, a new position in the company’s management, on January 1, 2010. Bob Stevens, currently chairman, president and CEO, will continue as chairman and CEO. Kubasik is being promoted into this role from executive vice president of Lockheed Martin’s Electronic Systems. He was previously Lockheed’s executive vice president and chief financial officer.
Captain Mike Varney has been hired by Mechtronix World Corporation as vice president of strategy and regulatory affairs. Mark Dransfield becomes senior director of business development and strategy. Varney will be a leading player in the group’s development of corporate strategy and planning for its training and flight operations products. Dransfield will work as liaison with the regulatory community while overseeing new business development, design and positioning of new and existing products and services. Debbie Jones has been promoted to manager of FlightSafety International’s Hawker Beechcraft learning center in Wichita, Kansas. Rich High has been promoted to regional operations manager with responsibility for seven FlightSafety learning centers. They assume these responsibilities from Marlin Schaefer, who will retire on December 31, 2009.
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B737NG SIMULATOR QUALIFIED Rockwell Collins achieved JAR-FSTD A Level D, zero flight time certification from the UK CAA for its new B737 NG full flight simulator (FFS), which is installed at CTC Aviation Group’s crew training center near Southampton, UK. The device uses Rockwell’s CORETM simulation architecture that is designed with the user and maintainer in mind. It features common open reusable elements including scalable software adaptable for multiple training devices, integrated tool sets and the latest display and image generation technology.
FRASCA PHENOMS FOR FINNISH AVIATION ACADEMY The Finnish Aviation Academy contracted with Frasca International for two Embraer Phenom synthetic training devices (STD) and an avionics trainer. Both STDs will meet JAR FSTD Level 2 and FNPT II MCC requirements and will include Frasca’s 220-degree visual system, TruVision Global. The avionics trainer will be a desktop design with Embraer’s Prodigy flight deck. All three devices will be installed at the Finnish Aviation Academy training facility in Pori, Finland. The first device is scheduled for delivery late 2010.
NORWEGIAN ORDERS SIX B737NG Norwegian Air Shuttle has placed an order with Boeing for an additional six Next-Generation B737-800s. With this deal, Norwegian will have a total of 48 B737NG airplanes on order, in addition to 22 airplanes from leasing companies. The new B737NGs will feature advancedtechnology blended winglets, an environmental innovation that reduces drag, resulting in less fuel consumption and a decrease in carbon emissions of 3.5 to 4%.
C$55M SIMS AND SERVICES DEALS FOR CAE CAE has signed contracts worth around C$55m to design and build FFSs and related training devices, and to provide simulator updates and relocations. The four FFS contracts are with Malaysia Airlines, Kenya Airways, Korean Air and Mount Cook Airlines. CAE sold a 7000 series B737-800 Level D FFS and a Simfinity B737-800
integrated procedures trainer (IPT) to Malaysian Airlines System (MAS). They will be delivered to the carrier’s training centre in Kuala Lumpur and are expected to be ready for training by end 2010. A 5000 series B737NG FFS and related training devices were sold to Kenya Airways – CAE’s first simulation equipment sale to this airline. The FFS, along with Simfinity virtual maintenance trainers (VMT), will be delivered mid2010 to the new training center Kenya Airways is building in Nairobi. CAE will also help Kenya Airways develop the new training centre and its B737NG pilot training program. A 5000 series Citation CJ1+ FFS was sold to Korean Air. It will be delivered to the airline’s pilot training centre on Jeju Island in the second half of 2010. The simulator will feature CAE’s nextgeneration visual solution, including Tropos-6000 image generator and liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) projectors. Korean Air uses Cessna Citation CJ1+ aircraft for advanced pilot training and will use the new simulator to enhance its pilot training program. CAE sold a 7000 series ATR 72-500 FFS to Mount Cook Airlines, a wholly owned subsidiary of Air New Zealand. The simulator will be delivered to Auckland in the first half of 2010 and will incorporate a six-degree-of-freedom True electric motion system and Tropos-6000 visual system with LCoS projectors. The FFS is expected to be qualified to Level D flight simulation training device standards by the Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand and other national aviation authorities. CAE has signed a contract with Aer Lingus to perform a major update to a CAE-built A320 FFS. The work includes upgrading of the cockpit to reflect the current Airbus standard, as well as improving the hydraulic motion system with the True electric motion system. CAE will also update the visual system with the Tropos-6000 image generator and LCoS projectors. The modified simulator will be ready for training in mid-2010. CAE signed a contract with Finnair flight training center to perform a major update to its CAE-built Airbus A330/340 FFS. The simulator, originally built in 1992 for ZFB Berlin, was acquired by Finnair earlier this year and relocated by CAE to Finnair in Helsinki. CAE recently completed the GE engine update on this
complete its ATPL training curriculum and better prepare pilot students for type rating training. The new FSTD will familiarize RAA’s pilot students with the automated flight deck, systems complexity, handling quality and performance of a large commercial jet featuring EFIS environment, EGPWS, FMS, TCAS, and weather radar. It features an FFS-quality image generator (IG), full HD projectors, a 180 x 35 degree FoV and continuous Earth Real Terrain System (CERTS), providing good visual realism. RAA will seek qualification JAR-FSTD A FNPT II MCC under EASA regulations.
simulator. The simulator is presently being used in training, with the next major update scheduled for completion by mid-2010. CAE will also upgrade the cockpit to reflect the current Airbus standard 2.3 for A330/340 aircraft. CAE will relocate nine FFSs and FTDs for China Airlines - the national carrier of the Republic of China (Taiwan) - and the China Aviation Development Foundation (CADF). The equipment will be moved from Taipei Songshan airport to a new consolidated training centre at Taoyuan International airport, China Airlines’s base of operations in northern Taiwan. All of the FFSs and FTDs were originally built by CAE. The six FFSs include a B747-400, B747-400F, A330/340 and A330-200 owned by China Airlines, plus B737-800 and A300-600R FFSs owned by CADF. The three FTDs are B737-800 and B747-400 FTDs for CADF, and an A330/340 for China Airlines.
AIR FRANCE A380 DOOR TRAINER An A380 two-deck door trainer has entered service with Air France in the Charles de Gaulle training centre. Its arrival allows the airline to consolidate its training program in time for the aircraft’s entry into service with Air France late November. The trainer was designed and built by RP Aero Systems in UK and includes fully functional simulated doors on the upper (U1L) and main (M2L) decks. Both decks are mounted on an extensive support structure and include slides
Above The RP Aero Systems-built A380 door trainer. Image Credit: RP Aero Systems.
located at the correct door sill heights. Deployable drawbridges allow the trainers to be used for both slide training and external door handle operation.
IN THE ASCENT Mechtronix Systems successfully certified the Ascent(R) XJ Trainer(TM) recently installed at Ben Air Flight Academy (BAFA) in Antwerp, Belgium. The unit is configured as a large twin-engine jet aircraft and was certified FNPT II MCC under EASA regulation by the Service Public Federal Mobilite et Transport. It will also be used for phase 2 of the MPL program. The trainer is equipped with a conversion kit to commercial turboprop and fully functional FMS, EFIS, TCAS, EGPWS, weather radar, and offers FFS comparable visual system fidelity featuring 180 degrees field of view. These features will allow students to familiarize themselves with the automated flight deck as well as the performance and speeds of today’s modern jets. Mechtronix has sold an Ascent(R) XJ Trainer(TM) to the Romanian Aviation Academy (RAA). The trainer is configured as a generic twin-engine heavy jet aircraft with a conversion kit to a regional turboprop. RAA plans to use the device to provide MCC training in a jet environment and jet orientation courses to
ASE achieved FAA 14 CFR Part 60, Level C qualification on a new Cessna Citation Jet1 (Model CE-525) FFS with a simulated Collins Pro Line 21 avionics suite. The ASE built CJ1 FFS is integrated with ASE’s proprietary electric digital control loading and motion systems and RSI Raster XT PC image generator with a 180 x 40 degree FoV.
PROGRAMS ALLIANCE Gestair Flying Academy is collaborating with Delta Connection Academy in Sanford, Florida and Houston, Texas, to produce new training programs. They include conversion of FAA to JAA licenses, time building packages in the glass cockpit Avidyne Cirrus SR20 aircraft, flight instructor programs and an English proficiency course.
GARMIN TRAINING STATIONS FOR RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY Fidelity Flight Simulation sold three Garmin G1000 mobile training stations to St. Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation, Russia. Each station features the Garmin displays and audio control panel, the GFC-700 autopilot, and the WAAS wide area augmentation system. All three units are also configured for the Cessna 172 flight model; include a Russian topographical, airport, and navaid database; and have a replica Bendix King ADF system to support NDB navigation and training operations commonly used in Europe. The Fidelity Garmin G1000 mobile training station collapses into a wheeled transportation case for mobility around the university, into the baggage area of a Cessna 172, or on a commercial flight. CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
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PHENOM SIM CERTS Two Phenom 100 FFSs from CAE’s 5000 series received certification from international regulatory authorities. The first, located at CAE’s training centre in Dallas, received certification from the US FAA and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The second, at the CAE training center in Burgess Hill, UK, was certified by EASA. CAE designed and built the simulators for Embraer CAE Training Services (ECTS), a joint venture between Embraer and CAE that provides pilot and technical training to Embraer customers of Phenom 100 and Phenom 300 aircraft.
SIMCOM ADDS NEW TRAINING TOOLS SimCom Training Centers expanded its Orlando facility’s training programs and equipment base with the addition of Falcon 20 and Westwind training programs and two Level C, full flight CAE simulators to support those programs. SimCom also installed a King Air 350 Pro Line 21 FTD. The simulators are getting updated visual systems and will be operational by December 1, 2009. Following re-entry to service, both will be outfitted with new instructor operating stations. The King Air device is a high fidelity FTD built by SimCom, and will be available for training by end 2009.
AICC UP TO SPEED The Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) meetings held in Stuttgart, Germany, in October focused on emerging technologies for training and advances in learning technology standards as applied to aviation. Aeroflot demonstrated an innovative use of Second Life (3D virtual world where users interconnect) to support aviation training, with live Second Life users interacting with each other and natural language processing chat bots (chat robot, a computer program that simulates human conversation) to refine radio communications and ICAO English for pilots. Additional presentations by leading researchers and innovative suppliers addressed social learning, international technology standards for training, and solutions for emerging issues facing the aviation community. The FAA will host AICC meetings in January 2010 in Palm Coast, Florida, USA. Anyone interested in aviation training and training technology is welcome to attend or to join AICC. The annual WATS conference will also host AICC meetings in Orlando Florida in April, 2010. AICC will also directly participate in the WATS conference by leading an e-learning session.
FLIGHTSAFETY TO OPEN IN JO’BURG FlightSafety International will open a new airline learning center in Johannesburg, South Africa in March 2010. FlightSafety will provide the training services, flight simulators and marketing. SIM AeroTraining of France will manage the facility and maintain the training devices. The first simulators installed will be used to train pilots and maintenance technicians who operate and support Hawker Beechcraft 1900 and Bombardier Dash 8-100 and Q300 aircraft.
MECHTRONIX SIM AT ELBIT Mechtronix Systems B200 King Air FFS X simulator installed at Elbit’s new facility in Netanya, Israel received Level D certification from Transport Canada and is now ready for training. Level D qualification, the highest licensing level for flight simulators, allows Elbit Systems to train and instruct civil aviation pilots, both from Israel and from abroad. 42
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Above CAE’s 5000 series Phenom 100 full flight simulator. Image Credit: CAE.
Elbit and Mechtronix cooperated to develop the B200 FFS level D platform. The FFS X features an electric motion base, LCoS projectors and replication architecture that make it easier and less costly to own and operate than “classic” simulators. FFS X architecture optimizes the use of OEM software for simulated displays and avionics, reducing the need for expensive aircraft hardware and maintenance.
CPAT SOLUTIONS FOR SAAS CPaT has sold its A320 aircraft systems CBT program to South Asia Aviation Services (SAAS) in Sri Lanka. The company bought the program to introduce its students to the systems and operation of the A320. Chira Fernando, director / chief operating officer, SAAS flight training, said: “Being able to provide students with a comprehensive and self-paced learning program will not only maximize the amount of learning achieved, it will also save money in the long run.”
QA FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS CAE introduced a program for business aviation customers that will incorporate a flight operations quality assurance (FOQA) service and enhance training using evidence-based scenarios derived from analysis of real-world flight data. Both capabilities are delivered using CAE Flightscape software tools. They are said to help customers reduce operations and maintenance costs by monitoring fleet safety performance using information downloaded from their flight data recorders. They can also tailor training using interactive 3D flight animations that help instructors and pilots visualize actual aircraft or simulator events. The first customer for the new service is a Fortune 100 company, which operates a large fleet of Gulfstream aircraft.
AIR NEW ZEALAND OPTS FOR A320 Air New Zealand has ordered 14 A320s to replace its existing domestic fleet of 15 B737-300s. Powered by IAE engines, they are larger than the B737-300s and will allow Air New Zealand to increase capacity on routes facing capacity constraints at some airports during peak times. Air New Zealand also placed purchase options on 11 additional A320s, including the possibility of selecting the larger A321.
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NRF AWARD FOR PARC Parc Aviation, part of the Oxford Aviation Academy, received the Large Agency of the Year 2009 award from Ireland’s National Recruitment Federation (NRF). Parc was chosen for its successful financial performance and its record number of aviation contractors on assignment worldwide. Judges described the company as “consummate ambassadors for the industry”. They went on to commend the dedication and teamwork of Parc Aviation staff towards clients and candidates and their continuing successes in securing new business in a challenging economic environment.
FRASCA KIT IN RUSSIA Frasca International received an order for two Cessna C172 FNPT IIs (flight and navigation procedures trainers) for Saint-Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation (SPSUCA). They will be the first Frasca devices to be sold and installed in Russia. The school also ordered 12 Cessna 172S Skyhawk aircraft. Both simulated training devices (STD) will feature Frasca’s TruVision Global visual system, graphical instructor station (GIS), electric control loading, dig-
ital sound and more. They will be outfitted with Jeppesen navigational database and Garmin G1000, GFC700 autopilot, Garmin audio panel, Garmin wide area augmentation system (WAAS) and more to simulate the C172. They will be qualified as FNPT II STDs.
PTS TOOL FOR TECHNICIANS CAE has launched a Professional Troubleshooting Skills (PTS) tool for training maintenance technicians in a methodical, logic-based approach with handson practice. With the instructor-led PTS course, technicians will be able to isolate, identify and fix suspected problems faster and reduce repair costs and aircraft downtime. The PTS course helps develop systematic processes and decision-making skills by focusing on the philosophy and logic of aircraft troubleshooting, rather than applying a “shotgun” technique. It can increase productivity in the hangar by helping maintainers learn to better determine the cause of a malfunction and the most timely and cost-effective resolution. The PTS simulation software uses multiple high-resolution monitors to
accurately display fault isolation. Troubleshooting exercises use actual electrical, hydraulic and other schematics and simulated aircraft systems that respond as the aircraft would to each troubleshooting procedure. Graphics provide a physical representation of the aircraft or system being examined so that students can observe the reactions to their actions.
EGYPTAIR AND NEOS OFFER COMPLETE EASA SOLUTION Egyptair and Neos have partnered to provide a complete, structured and innovative range of EASA solutions. The training will include basic EASA training, type rating training on several aircraft, and on-job training (OJT). Egyptair and Neos introduced their new product at the Dubai Air Show in November. It is the first EASA training solution for engineers and technicians in the Middle East and Africa.
ASCENT FLIGHT TRAINERS FOR AERO CLUB Mechtronix Systems sold two Ascent flight trainers configured as Cessna 172 with Garmin 1000 avionics, to Aero Club of India for its New Delhi and Patiala
Maintaining Progress – Revision And Rewrite Of ATA Spec 104 The Air Transport Association’s Maintenance Training Network (MTN) aims to improve aircraft maintenance training by developing guidelines for training programs, processes, procedures, methods and media, writes Basil Barimo, ATA Vice President, Operations and Safety. Its genesis can be traced back to 1984 when the ATA Engineering, Maintenance and Materiel Council (EMMC) recognized and responded to a divergence in training material formats and delivery methods from the (then) three major aircraft manufacturers. To address their concerns EMMC formed the ATA Maintenance Training Sub-Committee (MTSC), later known as the ATA MTN. In the 1980s with the dawning of the “digital age” in aircraft documentation and related training materials, there was concern among operators that each manufacturer would offer a separate delivery platform and process. This variation would result in unnecessary duplication and redundancy. To improve consistency and focus the first working group commissioned by the MTSC developed ATA Specification 104 – Guidelines for Aircraft Maintenance Training, completed initially in 1986. ATA Spec. 104 describes an approach to developing training materials for use by airlines in training aircraft maintenance personnel. It also provides guidelines for equipment and processes used to deliver these training materials. Thus it continues to be a key resource for airlines around the world. Refinement of ATA Spec. 104 continued to be a major focus 44
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of MTSC over the next 15 years, along with several other projects to address aircraft safety and regulatory concerns, including the proposed Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) 66 Policy, the Aging Transport Systems Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ATSRAC), and the FAA-Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) Harmonization of Regulations project. As ATA continued to provide Spec. 104 to its members and other industry operators, the JAA also used the specification as a reference in several policies. As a result of the continued visibility of this document, both US and European operators and regulators agreed on the need to review and revise Spec. 104, to both improve and update the document to reflect the latest developments in today’s training environment. Since mid-2007 the MTN has met several times and formed a working group to revise and update ATA Spec. 104. The MTN is a collaborative effort. It is open to all interested parties within the industry, including carriers, OEMs, training providers, regulatory bodies and others with an interest in improving aircraft maintenance training. Although most of the work of MTN is focused on ATA members (Part 121 operators), it is not necessary to be an ATA member or a Part 121 operator to join in meetings and working groups. The next MTN meeting will be held in conjunction with the 2010 World Aviation and Regional Airline Training Conference and Tradeshow (WATS) in Orlando, Fla., April 27-29. Visit www.airlines.org for more information.
training hubs. Aero Club will offer instrument rating training on the new devices to students as part of a project by the Indian government to offer new, modern training technology through this flying school. The trainers will feature a 180 x 35 degree multichannel visual system, and a Redifun Simulation (RSI) image generator. The semi-enclosed instructor operating station makes for easy interaction between instructor and student, and the visual and sound systems in the units are compliant to FFS Level D requirements. The Aero club of India will deploy the units in 2009 and seek qualification with India’s CAA under JAR FSTD A FNPT II.
JOINT TRAINING AGREEMENT FlightSafety International expanded its training services agreement with Gulfstream Aerospace to include the new Gulfstream G650 and G250 aircraft. Both companies are working together to develop comprehensive training programs, flight simulators and other advanced training devices. The initial training program will begin when the aircraft enter service and will include a Level D qualified flight simulator for each aircraft. It will be expanded in line with customer needs. The simulators will be equipped with FlightSafety’s electric motion and control loading technology and new Vital X visual system; training programs will feature Matrix, FlightSafety’s integrated training system. Maintenance technicians, who will service and support the new aircraft, will benefit from the Total Technical Training (TTT) program developed and delivered jointly by FlightSafety and Gulfstream.
SIMFINITY CLASSROOM CAE has opened its first Simfinity equipped classroom for maintenance training at Honeywell Aerospace Academy in Phoenix, Arizona. It features high fidelity, simulation-based multi-screen displays to support training across a range of Honeywell equipped business aircraft platforms. The first course taught in the Simfinity classroom addresses Air Transport Association (ATA) Level III line maintenance for the Honeywell Primus Epic(R) integrated avionics system. The five-day course covers operations theory, line
replacement unit (LRU) interface, flight modes, troubleshooting, and testing the Primus Epic system.
ETC WINS $40M SIM CONTRACT Environmental Tectonics Corporation’s (ETC) Training Services Group won a $40M contract from an Asian customer to provide a range of aircrew training and tactical flight simulation devices, including ETC’s Authentic Tactical Flight Simulator—400 (ATFS-400), and its Gyrolab GL-4000 Spatial Disorientation Trainer. Delivery begins early 2012 and includes installation, training and maintenance support. ATFS-400 integrates a high fidelity aircraft cockpit that incorporates a virtual tactical environment, into a high-performance, fully-flyable human centrifuge. It replicates the performance and feel of the aircraft and produces an authentic experience for pilots who can fly the ATFS like a tactical aircraft.
enhanced forecasting, trainee progress tracking and more. New enhancements provide better tools to support the AQP and ATQP programs ATMS has provided for many years, such as full AQP curriculum development, grading, FAA reporting, and data submission. Version 4.9 is the biggest release of new functionality ever - done in commemoration of AQT Solutions’ 10th anniversary.
SIMIGON AGREEMENT SimiGon signed an agreement worth more than $2m with a European customer to be the simulation based training (SBT) system provider for the development of a new academic training center during the next 18 months. The SBT solution, based on SimiGon’s SIMbox simulation and training technology platform, will be integral to the new, integrated training environment. SIMbox, as the baseline training system, will help teach flight cadets how to overcome the challenges of operating advanced aircraft.
ATMS UPDATE AQT Solutions has released Aviation Training Management System (ATMS) v4.9. It introduces more than 20 new (54 total) automatic notifications, which can be emailed to managers, instructors, trainees and customers. Features include
Commercial Aircraft Sales October 7 - November 17, 2009 Aircraft type Number Operator/Buyer
A320 A320 A320 A320 25 A330 A330 A330 A330-200F A350 XWB A380 B737-800NG B737-800NG B737-800NG Legacy 650 ERJ 135 ERJ 135 ERJ 145 Chall. 605
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Senegal Airlines Nepal Airlines Yemenia (11 opt) Air New Zealand 2 Senegal Airlines 1 Nepal Airlines 3 Turkish Airlines 2 Turkish Airlines 12 Ethiopian 2 Air Austral 6 7 4
Norwegian Air Shuttle Air Algerie Tassili Airlines
2 1 2 1
DC Aviation Royal Thai Navy SEAA Angola SEAA Angola
GULF AIR RENEWS FLEET Gulf Air, the national carrier of the Kingdom of Bahrain, marked the start of its refleeting program with the arrival of a new A320 aircraft into its fleet. The airline will add one A320 aircraft per month through April 2010 and two A320s in December 2010, completing delivery of its first group of A320 aircraft on order.
BAINES SIMMONS ACADEMY Baines Simmons was due to open a new training facility specializing in aviation safety and airworthiness training in November. The Aviation Safety Academy will be the only independent facility of its kind in the UK aviation safety industry and will be based at Fairoaks airport, near London. The £0.5m academy will feature two classrooms and a library. It will offer more than 50 courses covering a broad spectrum of regulatory and safety management themes, from EASA regulations to safety management systems. Each course is tailored to the specific needs of people in a range of roles, from logistics staff to quality auditors or aviation industry managing directors. The academy will be EASA and MIL Part 147 compliant, which means it meets the most stringent European training requirements. CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
world news & analysis
CPAT B737-400 TRAINING FOR VISION CPaT has sold its B737-400 aircraft systems CBT/WBT program to Vision Airlines. The program can be integrated into Vision Airlines’s established training programs. This development gives the airline the flexibility to train anytime, anywhere on standard PC technology, as the CBT is available on USB (Flash Drive) or via the Web.
STATA AND TIGER TRAINING TOGETHER ST Aerospace’s commercial pilot training academy, ST Aviation Training Academy (STATA), partnered with Tiger Airways to train the airline’s pilots on its fleet of Airbus A320, under STATA’s multi-crew pilot licence (MPL) curriculum. The MPL program is the first in Singapore and was due to begin in October with six cadet pilots. The student pilots will complete ground school in Singapore and flight training in Ballarat, Australia, before flight training in a multi-crew environment in Singapore. STATA and major industry players as stakeholders, including national aviation authorities, educational institutions, simulation experts and other aviation professionals, will evaluate and validate the program when it is completed.
dier Global Express FFS will be installed in the first half of 2010. A Cessna Citation CJ3 FFS recently received US FAA certification at CAE’s North East Training Centre (NETC) in Morristown, New Jersey. All of these devices leverage the latest capabilities of CAE’s 5000 series simulator design - CAE Tropos-6000 image generator, and CAE True electric motion system.
AIRBUS FREIGHTERS FOR MNG Turkish all-cargo operator MNG Airlines ordered two A330-200Fs to support its expanding cargo operations. These aircraft are in addition to the two orders it placed in 2007. cat
Index of Ads Abaris www.abaris.com
ADTS 2010 www.adts.aero
Aerosim Technologies www.aerosim.com 29, 31 & 33 Air France www.airfrance-flightacad.com
Baines Simmons www.bainessimmons.com
NEW SIMS IN CAE BUSINESS CENTERS
CAE is adding eight business aircraft FFSs at its pilot and maintenance training centers in Dallas, New York, London, and Dubai. They are expected to be ready for training in the next few months. Training for the Embraer Phenom 300 is planned to be in place at CAE SimuFlite in Dallas, Texas and CAE’s Burgess Hill UK training centre near London in coordination with deliveries of the new aircraft during 2010, as part of the Embraer CAE Training Services (ECTS) joint venture. Bombardier Learjet 45/45XR and Cessna Citation II simulators will be ready for training at Burgess Hill early 2010. Also early next year, a new Dassault Falcon 50EX FFS will be installed in Dallas, the world’s largest business aviation training facility. In Dubai at EmiratesCAE Flight Training (ECFT), a Hawker 800 XPi FFS is currently going through certification evaluation, and a Bombar-
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IFC OBC 35
Delta Air Lines www.delta.com
FlightSafety International www.flightsafety.com
Frasca International www.frasca.com
Lufthansa Technical Training www.ltt.aero IBC Oxford Aviation Academy www.oaa.com
Scandinavian eTraining Centre www.setc.nu 13 Swiss Aviation Training www.swiss-aviation-training.com 17 Thales www.thalesgroup.com
WATS 2010 www.halldale.com/wats 12, 24 & 25
Calendar 3-4 March 2010 ADTS 2010 – Aerospace & Defence Training Show Dubai, United Arab Emirates www.adts.aero 27-29 April 2010 WATS 2010 - World Aviation Training Conference & Tradeshow Rosen Shingle Creek Resort Orlando, Florida, USA www.halldale.com/wats
14-15 September 2010 APATS 2010 - Asia Pacific Airline Training Symposium Shangri-La Hotel Bangkok, Thailand www.halldale.com/apats 9-10 November 2010 EATS 2010 - European Airline Training Symposium Istanbul, Turkey www.halldale.com/eats
20-23 February 2010 HELI-Expo 2010 Houston, TX www.heliexpo.com 1-4 March 2010 Next Generation of Aviation Professionals Symposium Montreal, Canada www.icao.int/ngap 9-10 June 2010 Spring 2010 Flight Simulation Group Conference. Flight Simulation Technology: Future Potential RAeS, London, UK www.raes.org.uk
Advertising contacts Business Manager: Jeremy Humphreys [t] +44 (0)1252 532009 [e] firstname.lastname@example.org Business Manager, North America: Mary Bellini Brown [t] +1 703 421 3709 [e] email@example.com
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CAT MAGAZINE • ISSUE 6/2009
Training Solutions for the MRO industry Provided by the Lufthansa Technical Training network Maintenance Environment Simulation by LTT
From vocational training, basic technical training and type-related further training to management training – LTT offers a vast range of training which is vitally important to the safe and efficient operation of any forward-thinking aviation entity. LTT‘s extensive range of training products is tailored to meet the ever-changing needs of its customers worldwide. Tell us your training needs – we will come up with a solution! Lufthansa Technical Training GmbH Phone: +49 (0)69 696 2751 Fax: +49 (0)69 696 6384 E-Mail: Sales@LTT.DLH.de Web: www.LTT.aero
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Global training solutions tailored to your operations CAE is the civil aviation industry’s only end-to-end integrated training solutions partner. We deliver a comprehensive portfolio of simulation products, training, and services for every level of professional aviation – from Cadet-toCaptain for airlines, business aircraft, and helicopters. Our capabilities include: pilot screening and provisioning, ab initio academies, wet and dry training centres for flight and technical crew, flight data analysis, courseware and e-learning, cockpit procedures and maintenance trainers, simulated ATC environments, electric motion systems, image generators and visual database services, equipment upgrades and relocation, augmented engineering for aircraft development, training centre operations management, financing resources, and ... of course ... the world’s leading full-flight simulators.
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