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2 Times Sunday Magazine

AUGUST 9, 2015

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Times Feature

By Ananda Latchman

“D

on’t do that”, “Don’t do this”, “Do it this way because…” How many of us grew up with our grandparents or elders saying those words to us? Whether based on religious beliefs, no logical reason or superstition, myths and old practices are still very much alive in our Guyanese society today. In many households, these myths and old practices are imprinted on us until they become a norm. Derived from our Indian ancestors, these myths and old practices, which are still revered by many in India, are practiced in many Guyanese households.

Myth: The power of lime and nimbu mirchi (lemon-green chillies/peppers) Associated practice: Pregnant women are encouraged to keep a lime in their purse while attending funerals. Shopkeepers, merchants and other people tie lemons and green chilies on the doorways of their shops and homes. Significance: It’s believed to be a sym-

bol to ward off the evil eye and spirits. Myth: Nazar Utarna/Kaala Tikka Associated practice: Putting a small spot of kajal/black tikka on the forehead, behind the ear or on the bottom of children’s feet. Significance: The Hindi phrase nazar utarna literally translates into “getting rid of the effects of the evil eye” and many believe this practice gets rid of the evil and

neutralises/counteracts the effect of “bad eye”. In India and Guyana, it is believed that the “evil eye” can cause damage to the person towards whom it turns, ranging from general bad luck to ill health and other problems. The logic behind this process of nazar utarna is that applying kaala teeka makes the child in question look ugly and therefore unattractive to the “evil eye”.

Significance: We have all experienced this at one point or the other; however the surplus of theories that revolve around this occurrence is astonishing: eye twitching signifies that somebody is about to arrive; right eye twitching is good for men; left eye twitching is good for women. It’s believed that goddess Seeta’s left eye was auspicious and predominantly quivering. To quote Valmiki’s Ramayan: “Seeta’s surrounding row of eye-lashes were curved, and were predominantly quivering, like a red lotus quivered by the blow of a fish.” Hence, the twitching of left eyelids and throbbing of left limbs of a woman herald the arrival of good times for her.

sun. By having puja and ceremonies facing east, you are praying towards Suryanarayana – the “supreme lord of the universe”.

Myth: Sweeping or cleaning the

Myth: The power of elephants Associated practice: Many persons have elephants [statues or ornaments] in their living rooms or placed strategically in their homes, office or working environment. Significance: The Indian elephant goes back to the mythologies: as the gods and the demons churned the oceans during sagar manthan for the elixir of life - amrit (nectar) that would make them immortal; there surfaced the navratnas (nine jewels).

Myth: Bad luck at the threshold of a house Associated practice: One shouldn't engage in the exchange of money or any transaction at the doorstep or threshold to a house. Significance: This is supposedly because the threshold was the site of an inauspicious activity: the gruesome slaying of Hiranyakashipu (from the “Bhagavatam”).

but we still do so out of habit and of course because the superstition is very much alive and knocking. The belief is twofold – to ward off evil or bring you good luck. When we mention something good that we would like to see happen in the future, many of us touch or knock on wood twice to keep from jinxing the expected good fortune and to distract spirits with evil intentions, refuting evil thoughts and fortune. Why knock twice? The first is said to make the request and the second is believed as a “thank you”.After all, myths are polite too.

house after 6pm Associated practice: No one is supposed to sweep or clean their homes after 6pm. Significance: Mata Lakshmi, goddess of material and spiritual prosperity, love and wealth, is said to enter our homes as the sun sets at 6pm. Hence, we should open the front door during dusk, so that Lakshmi (fortune) enters the house, and never sweep the house during night time or Lakshmiwill leave your home. Myth: East is the most preferred direction for all activities Associated practice: Never sleep with your head facing north or west as it claimed that only the dead lie that way. Always face the east when performing puja or religious ceremonies. Significance: To sleep facing east means your legs will be towards the sun; it is considered a sign of disrespect to the

One of these jewels was the elephant. The elephant is, therefore, considered absolutely precious; to be preserved and protected.It symbolises strength, protection and good luck. The elephant’s trunk is also very important as it is both very sensitive and very strong: used for drinking, picking up food, greeting friends or warding off enemies. Hence, the position of the trunk is important. The trunk being up symbolises the showering of good luck. How to place your elephant to ensure optimum good luck? There are two ways: first, you face it opposite to the doorway, like if it is walking in the house, its significance is as if the good luck is entering the home not leaving and secondly – facing east of course! Myth: Touch wood /knock on wood Associated practice: Literally touch-

Myth: Eye twitching Associated practice: The twitching or temporary spasm of your left/right eyes.

ing, tapping or knocking on wood for luck or to prevent the testing of fate. Significance: Where the myth and legend derived from is anyone’s guess; many of us are unaware as to why we touch wood,

Myth: Broken mirrors Associated practice: Throw out all broken mirrors from the home. Significance: Positive energy is brought into our homes by placing figurines, wall hangings, plants or other decorative items at particular positions and angles. Mirrors are a part of this practice as it is found to bring calm and reassurance in its reflective ability. The unclear images reflected on broken or cracked mirrors are believed to bring bad luck, hence it is best to throw out broken mirrors. Myth: Eating out of pots and licking utensils Associated practice: If you lick the bottom of a utensil or eat out of a pot, then it will rain on your wedding day. Significance: When experiencing rain on a wedding day, many of us Guyanese ask the ever popular question: “Did he/she eat from a pot?” Not just in Guyana, but in India also, it’s believed that if a person eats out of a pot or licks a utensil (pot, place, basin, etc.) then on their wedding day, there will be rain, and lots of it. If you are unmarried, there is one way to find out if this myth is true. Believe or not to believe is the question. But what is the answer? For everyone it’s different, with believing in some myths, practicing others and disregarding all. But in the end, tomorrow when we wake up facing the east and the sun, we will probably say thank you for bringing another morning, another day, or maybe when we pass an elephant we will make sure the trunk is up and faces the correct way. Whatever you choose to do, or choose to believe, we cannot deny that myths and the practices associated with them are a significant part of our culture and our daily routine and lives. (First published in 2014 Horizons Guyana Magazine)


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AUGUST 9, 2015

Times Sunday Magazine

3

Times Feature

International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples 2015

adequate medical supplies and functioning electrical generation systems. Some local reports suggest that despite this, for many in the hinterland, the situation is better than before. The international NGO adds that most of the Amerindian communities continue to depend on creeks, rivers or shallow home dug ponds for their water supply. Communities close to mining areas (for example bauxite and gold operations) continue to be at particular risk due to lack of access to safe sources of potable water.

Developing indigenous communities Conservation

Mabaruma Hospital, Region One, built by the previous government (GINA photo)

E

very year, August 9 is commemorated as International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples. The day is celebrated with special events around the world, including at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. This year's theme, “Ensuring indigenous peoples’ health and well-being”, concerns indigenous peoples' access to health care services, as improving indigenous peoples’ health remains a critical challenge for indigenous peoples, member states and the United Nations. “On this International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples, I call on the international community to ensure that they are not left behind. To create a better, more equitable future, let us commit to do more to improve the health and well-being of indigenous peoples,” says United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. In Guyana, the welfare of indigenous peoples is constantly being addressed by various government and non-governmental organisations. As the indigenous population in Guyana reside mainly in the hinterland, accessing quality health care remains a challenge for com-

munities and authorities. According to a PAHO/ WHO Health in the Americas report, indigenous Guyanese are the poorest group in the country, with women having the highest poverty level among all Guyanese women, though it notes that their cultural lifestyle may lead to what they termed “measurement error when using the same consumption basket to calculate poverty lines, and that expenditure patterns for this group may be quite different from those of other ethnicities.” The 2012 report notes also that indigenous Guyanese are self-sufficient in some areas, including food security. With regard to health conditions and trends, the report states, with reference to a Guyana, Ministry of Health statistical bulletin: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 (unpublished), that neoplasms (tumours) and AIDS were the leading cause of death in 5.5 per cent of indigenous Guyanese. Cases of cervical cancer, it states, are significantly higher among indigenous women. The report notes that a Guyana Cancer Registry study highlighted factors that could contribute to the findings among the Amerindian population,

Guyana

gether to, over time, establish tourism as a central part of the region’s economy by increasing the number of visitors to the region and improving visitor satisfaction. Ensuring a properly planned and operated nature-based tourism sector is one of the most effective ways to raise the standard of living residents of the Rupununi in a manner that increases the value of its natural and cultural assets. CI is an international not-for-profit non-governmental organisation and has been working in Guyana through the locally registered Conservation International Foundation (Guyana) for more than 20 years linking human devel-

Lethem Hospital, Region Nine, also built by the previous government (GINA photo)

including mean age at first sexual intercourse of16.8 years, a 22.8 per cent prevalence of high-risk HPV among 412 women screened, and a mean of 4.5 babies per woman. According to the Minority Rights Group’s World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples’ website, while the government has established health worker training programs and basic service ‘Health Huts', in communities such as Parishara, Hiowa, Semonie, Katoka, Yupukari, Kaicumbay and Quatata

all in the Rupununi, Region Nine, major gaps exist in cases requiring advanced medical care. Indigenous community health workers (CHW) are trained in basic areas of primary prevention, health promotion and health education. Urgent referrals go to the Regional Hospital. Most of the cottage and Regional Hospitals in the Guyana interior notes the MRG, also, continue to lack

Community Health Worker Stephen Frederick attending to a baby at the Nappi Health Centre (GINA photo)

A health facility in Region Eight equipped with drugs

(CI) recently mentioned in a press release that Rupununi-based stakeholders in the tourism sector agreed to collaboratively work towards the formal establishment of an organisation to coordinate the further development of the sector in the region. Visit Rupununi, as it is currently being called, is intended to see the stakeholders, including indigenous communities, working to-

opment with conservation of the earth’s living natural heritage; including supporting the development of the country’s tourism sector. Its states it mission as: “Building upon a strong foundation of science, partnership and field demonstration, CI empowers societies to responsibly and sustainably care for nature, our global biodiversity, for the wellbeing of humanity.”


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Times Sunday Magazine

AUGUST 9, 2015

guyanatimesgy.com

Times Feature

Georgetown with a view of the St George's Cathedral n.d.

High St, Georgetown circa 1900 postcard

Brickdam, Georgetown n.d.

J

ohn Sargent, of Yorkshire, England, often shares some of his most valuable postcards and photos of British Guiana, when Georgetown was known as a “Garden City”, online. Sargent’s interest in Guyana and collecting old photos of the country were prompted by 19th century British naturalist, Charles Waterton. “I have no connection with the Watertons apart from the fact that I live in the village of Walton in Yorkshire, England,” Sargent told Guyana Times Sunday Magazine, “the village was once the home of Squire Charles Waterton (1782 - 1865) of Walton Hall. Waterton was a pioneering naturalist, and created the world's first nature reserve at his home, Walton Hall in England. He spent some time in Guyana, and I thought that it would be interesting to visit the country itself,” Sargent has visited Guyana once, in 2012, as a tourist. “I stayed in Georgetown and had a very enjoyable time with a number of excursions to places such as Mibiri Creek, Fort Island, the coastal strip across the Demerara, and Kaieteur Falls. A short stay, but very enjoyable,” Sargent recalled. The pictures he shares with Sunday Magazine were either bought online, in auction houses in Britain, or are from photos other persons have shared with him.

Who was Charles Waterton?

Charles Waterton arrived in Georgetown in 1804 to manage the plantations of his father (Walton Hall) and his uncle, Christopher Waterton (La Jalousie and Fellowship), who had returned to England. One of his uncle's estates, of which the principal crop was coffee, had no less than 500 slaves working on it. The other estate produced sugar and cotton, worked by 300 slaves. Walton Hall is near The Jib and Hampton Court, north of Anna Regina on the road to Charity. In The Argosy, published in 1883, Walton

Camp street, Georgetown n.d.

Hall is recorded as being part of Hampton Court, the most northerly plantation in the colony: “This fine property formerly consisted of four separate sugar estates, viz., Walton Hall, Devonshire Castle, Hampton Court and Windsor Castle. The three latter were vacuum-pan estates in a small way, but from want of labourers to carry on the proper cultivation of the soil, one by one ceased to have an independent existence; and in the course of time the Colonial Company became sole owners of this fine block of land.” Such spare time as he had, Charles spent with his paternal aunt Anne Daly and her husband Michael at their estate, Bellevue. This became his second home. He also met Charles Edmonstone who lived at Mibiri creek; the friendship endured the test of time. Waterton’s family owned plantations at La Jalousie, Walton Hall and Fellowship and he managed them for a while. When he inherited them from his father, he disposed of them. Later, Waterton wrote his "Wanderings in South America" about his journeys in South America. His wife also had connections with Guyana. Waterton eventually married Anne Mary, Edmonstone's second daughter. He had attended Anne's christening in 1812, on his return from his first wandering; 17 years later, this infant became the wife of the Squire. Edmonstone had originally been a timber-cutter and merchant, in partnership with William Reid (a fellow Scot). Reid had married an Arawak named Princess Miranda, daughter of a chief. Their daughter, Helen, married Edmonstone. William Reid lived on Kamuni Creek. Charles Edmonstone lived at Warrows Place, Mibiri Creek, a tributary of Demerara River, not far from Santa Mission. For more information and photos of British Guiana, visit http://overtown.org. uk

Town Hall, Georgetown, British Guiana, 1920s postcard

Water Street looking south, Georgetown circa 1910 postcard


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AUGUST 9, 2015

Times Sunday Magazine 5

Times Women

F

Shinella Andrea Ghent tells her story

ormally from Wales, West Bank Demerara, but now residing at Onderneeming Housing scheme West Bank Demerara, I was born Aug. 23, 1988 to Meolene Munroe and Joseph Ghent. My formal education began at Wales Community High School, which at that time housed primary and community level students. The school’s motto was: ‘To Strive for Excellence’. I wrote the Secondary School Entrance Examination and gained a place at the West Demerara Secondary School. Again I was reminded through the motto: “Self- Discipline Is the Key to Success.” These fuelled my motivation for both excellence and to be successful in whatever I put my hands and mind to do. It was at the secondary level that I wrote the Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) Examination in 2005 and was successful. In that same year, having received my results, I commenced studies at the University of Guyana. I successfully pursued studies in a Diploma in Social Work in 2007. During this period, I commenced teaching at the Wales Community High School, which was a wonderful ex-

perience of giving back to my community. After attending the Wesleyan Young Adults Camp in 2008, my life was transformed by the message delivered by Rev. Marlon Hestick. I was encouraged not to place limitations on my life. It was with this in mind and my deep passion to enter the field of law that propelled me to commence studies and read for the Bachelor of Laws Degree. In 2012, this was made a reality when I was successfully awarded a Bachelor of Laws Degree (LLB). Since then I embarked on a fruitless and frustrating journey of job hunting in order to acquire some experience. As a qualified person, being unable to find a job was disheartening. But I thank God for my mother, Meolene, who I worked with selling at our stall in Vreed-en-Hoop opposite Republic Bank. On numerous occasions, the Regional Democratic Council issued notices for us to vacate the area, with no interest that it was our main source of income. Many looked at me in despise [sic], viewing me as a market vendor, but they did not know that I was just a qualified person who was unable to secure a job.

With colleague and fellow Guyanese Andrew Liverpool after being admitted to the Bar in Fiji

Shinella Ghent

Shinella when she was admitted to the Bar at the High Court of Fiji

I nonetheless did not give up on my ambitions, and through those challenges I became stronger in my pursuit for higher achievements. I applied to the Hugh Wooding Law School and wrote the entrance examination in 2013, but was not awarded a place. These placements I was told were subject to the availability of spaces. I subsequently applied in 2014 to the University of Fiji, following the guidance of one of my former professors at the University of Guyana, and was accepted into the graduate diploma in legal practice program. This was a long awaited breakthrough that I had earnestly prayed for as I believed it was another step in my long journey to pursuing and fulfilling my dream. This journey was not an easy one as it took me thousands of miles away from everything that was familiar. My faith in God and His word was a constant reminder and comfort that the latter is sweeter than the former. I was also reminded by Ms Nicola Samuels Smith and other members of the Mountain Heights Wesleyan Church that I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me, and this is my encouragement to others.

It was with pride and hard work that I received the graduate diploma in legal practice from the University of Fiji and subsequently admitted to the legal bar as a barrister and solicitor at law (attorneyat-law) on July 21, 2015. I will be returning home to Guyana with a wealth of experience and new friends from Fiji and the Caribbean who were all my family away from home. I am also cognizant of the task and challenges set before me, but I am optimistic that He (God) who had begun a good work is faithful to complete it. As I set my eyes on finding a job in the legal sector in my beloved country, Guyana, I am more confident now that one will be waiting for me.

Dedicated late night studying

My future endeavour is to read for a masters in Legal Drafting and to continue to strive for excellence, while I serve my country. I would like to express heart filled gratitude to all those who supported me throughout my journey especially my parents, my uncle Deputy Fire Chief Winston Mc Gregor and his wife Mary Mc Gregor,

and the other members of my family; Mr Adolphus Rogers and the members of the Mountain Heights Wesleyan Church, especially Pastor Bunny Mark Samuels and family. A special thank you is also extended to Donna Keiller-Mckinnon, lecturer at the University of Guyana, who acted as an ambassador for the Guyanese and Caribbean students in Fiji.


6 Times Sunday Magazine

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AUGUST 9, 2015

Times Book World

The Shaping of Guyanese Literature

Sir Francis Hincks.British Guiana governor (1861–69) Part I

By Petamber Persaud

F

rom time to time, our writers, mainly but not exclusively biographers and historians, would exhibit tangible forms of recognition on Guyanese men and women who have made or continue to make outstanding contribution to the devel-

opment of Guyana. P. H. Daly was one such person who “made historical biography literally his one, true, and only love” (Seymour). There are many other writers who have done similar work but this series starts with Daly mainly because of a prompt from recent articles in ‘History Today’, the UK monthly magazine, on

Anglican Bishop Dr William Piercy Austin

the style of writing history: “a general set of principles for practitioners of public history”; engagement of the quasi historian with the academic historian, highlighting the “ordinary” and the “elite”, and to “return history to its mission as a critical social science.” In his series of three volumes “Stories of the

Heroes”, Daly highlighted some forty men who contributed in one way or the other to shape aGuyana in which we now live. Those names include Laurens Storm Van Gravesande, Rev. John Smith, and Revs. Wray and Davies; Van Hoogenheim, Hugh Lyle Carmichael, James Carmichael-Smith, Rev. William Henry Brett, Egbert Martin, Sir Francis Hincks, Patrick Dargan, Count De Kersaint, Van Batenburg, Joseph Bourda, Henry Light, Philip Wodehouse, Lord Gormanston, Frederic Mitchell Hodgson, William Piercy Austin, Anthony Butler, captains Lawrence and Peake, John Murray, Louis De Souza, James Alexander Swettenham, A. R. F. Webber, Gordon Guggisberg, Edward Brands Denham, Compton Theodore Galton, John Joseph Purcell, Oswald Hutton Parry, Edward Alfred Luckhoo, Joseph Alexander Luckhoo, and Alfred Athiel Thorne. Many of these men entertained visions of an independent Guyana (the books were published in the early 1940s). Some bore the distinction of laying the foundation of a modern Guyana, introducing English as the official language of court, starting and editing newspapers, banning the word “colonist” from public use, and fighting racism. Two reverends broke the power of the planters. One reverend was martyred, result-

James Carmichael-Smith

ing in the end of the slave trade in British colonies. Of that large number, only five were born in Guyana, although many more than the five have lived for a lifetimein this country, some died and buried here. The five men born in Guyana were Egbert Martin, Isaacs Edward Adrian Patoir, William Alfred Douglas, Edward AlfredLuckhoo and Joseph Alexander Luckhoo. Two of the five men had trust funds set up in order to help the less fortunate; those funds were name in their honour. Before Daly started on that substantial work, he had to battle with himself on a number of questions like who is a hero, who sets the criteria, why there are so few biographical histories, why is biographical history glossed over in general history–“I had to do a great deal of examination of conscience on the reasons for the existence of this book. Is a knowledge of history of any practical use? What are the functions of history in civic education and public life?” J. I. Ramphal, principal of Modern Educational Institute, writing the preface to book two in 1941, declared the “Authorship in British Guiana is a selfless task and attempted at considerable personal sacrifice. That this is so is no surprise, for as yet our financial magnates have displayed neither a sense of oneness with this country nor a desire to patron-

ize art and literature. To them, as to most of us in Guiana, literature and art are foreign products that must be imported. To them local efforts are mere imitations unworthy and unnecessary.” Leaving the author to confess, “I ought to point out…that the inclusion of commercial literature [advertisements] in this book is not a measure in conformity with my literary ideals…but it conforms with those inexorable financial laws which even Mr Micawber understood so well…the publishing of this was greatly simplified by the generosity of Mr C. N. Delph, manager of the Daily Chronicle, whose concessions transformed what might have been an extraordinary feat of financial heroism to one of daring, dexterity and determination.” And there are many more stories of heroism in the fields of art and literature, and there are many more unsung Guyanese heroes;both men and women whom we will encounter as the series unfolds. Responses to this author telephone (592) 2260065 or email: oraltradition2002@yahoo.com What’s happening: The Guyana Annual Magazine 2014-2015 issue in now available at Guyenterprise Ltd., Lance Gibbs and Irving Streets, Tel # 226-9874 and from yours truly.


guyanatimesgy.com

AUGUST 9, 2015

Times Sunday Magazine 7

Times Heritage

I

n 1803, during the European Napoleonic Wars, the British government conquered the colony of Berbice – then un-

der Dutch rule – and took control of a number of presumed government slaves. These slaves were mainly artisans from New

Amsterdam, Berbice estates, and were referred to as winkel slaves (Dutch for “shop”). At the end of the war

Entering Winkel today

the British government conceded that some of the slaves were the property of a private shareholding company called the Berbice Association, but the winkel slaves were not since they were considered “public” slaves as they worked in the colony’s public works department. In 1812, the Winkel Department was established to manage all repair works needed by the residents,

Sign commemorating the establishment of Winkel Settlement

Camp and Regent Streets, British Guiana n.d. (Photo by John and Pauline Grimshaw)

Victoria Regia, Waterloo Street, Georgetown (Postcard late 19th or early 20th century)

and the winkle slaves were required to execute these works. The winkel slaves remained the property of the British government until 1831 when they were given their freedom, three years before the 1834 Emancipation, and seven years before the 1838 end of the Apprenticeship period, where the freed slaves were compelled by law to serve their old masters just

as they had done when they were slaves. The free Winkel people, who were, since 1790, living in their own village behind Queenstown in New Amsterdam today, were allowed to keep their residences. It wasn’t until 1890 however that their descendants, via a court appeal, were awarded ownership of their colonial ancestral homes in Winkel Village. (Source: National Trust of Guyana)


8 Times Sunday Magazine

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AUGUST 9, 2015

Times Travel & Tourism

Kato is located in Region Eight, known for its natural beauty and its stunning nature scenes, all vital aspects of village life. Made up of a close-knit, selfsufficient community that cherishes its indigenous heritage, the village of Kato includes government buildings such as the nursery and primary schools, a guest house, a police outpost, medical facilities and school dormitories. Neighbouring is Paramakatoi. (Cover photo: Waterfall on the Chiung River, minutes away from Kato,

Aerial view of Kato (Photo by Sarah K)

Photo by Sarah K)

Welcome sign at the entrance of the village (Photo by Marco Basir)

Houses in Kato (Photo by Marco Basir)

Just outside of Kato (Photo by Thea Shahrokh)


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AUGUST 9, 2015

Times Sunday Magazine 9

Times Healthy Living

"T

he environment" is often seen as leading to damage to mental and physical health by contributing to stress. Martin Tolley of University of Northampton’s Environmental Psychology course writes that stress can be said to exist when the environment is felt to be making demands on people that exceed their ability to cope. Stress generally is a situation or condition which places an individual under some pressure, involves adjustment in behaviour and can cause changes which are unpleasant, sometimes maladaptive and even associated with physical damage. The situation is the stressor, and the behaviour is the stress response. The process also involves cognitive appraisal - the person assesses the potential threat and also assesses how personally to cope with the situation. He notes that Evans and Cohen (1987) suggest that there may be four types of stressor: Microstressors- the everyday hassles, being stuck in a traffic jam, losing your lecture notes, not being able to find a parking space etc. These are short-lived (although they may be frequent problems) minor situations which are focussed on

T

he U.S. National Centre for Victims of Crime states in one of its help bulletins that the trauma of victimization is a direct reaction to the aftermath of crime. Crime victims suffer a tremendous amount of physical and psychological trauma. The primary injuries victims suffer can be grouped into three distinct categories: physical, financial and emotional. When victims do not receive the appropriate support and intervention in the aftermath of the crime, they suffer "secondary" injuries. The physical injury suffered by victims may be as apparent as cuts, bruises, or bro-

the individual, but the cumulative effect of them may have a big effect on certain individuals. Life events. Holmes & Rahe (1967) produced a life events scale listing events which many people experience at some time in their lives — divorce, [unemployment], moving house, death of a loved one etc. These may be of long or short duration, but if too many of them occur over a short period they can often result in illness and difficulties. Cataclysmic stressors. Are major upheavals which are generally acute and short in duration (although the after-effects may not be), and affect large segments of the population or community. Stressors include war, flood, serious train crashes etc. Ambient stressors. These are environmental pressures like wind, pollution, noise, overcrowding etc. which are often relatively minor, but which can affect people over a long time period and affect everyone in the vicinity.

Poverty-generated stress

Stanford University and Harvard Kennedy School’s Collaboration for Poverty Research (CPR) notes that

ken arms and legs. However, it is not uncommon for victims to be fatigued, unable to sleep, or have increased or decreased appetites. Many victims believe that the stress caused by victimization endangers them to physical problems later in life. Victims and survivors suffer financially when their money or jewellery is taken, when their property is damaged, when their medical insurances does not cover all expenses, and when they must pay funeral costs. The primary emotional injuries of victimization cause both immediate and longterm reactions to victims, their loved ones and, sometimes, their friends.

Tips for Coping These are some ideas that may help you cope with the trauma or loss: Find someone to talk with about how you feel and what you are going through. Keep the phone number of a good friend nearby to call when you feel overwhelmed or panicked. Allow yourself to feel pain. It will not last forever. Spend time with others, but make time to spend time alone. Take care of your mind and body. Rest, sleep, and eat regular, healthy meals. Re-establish a normal routine as soon as possible, but don't overdo. Make daily decisions, which will help to bring back a feeling of control over your life. Exercise, though not excessively and alternate with periods of relaxation. Undertake daily tasks with care. Accidents are more likely to happen after severe stress. Recall the things that helped you cope during trying times and loss in the past and think about the things that give you hope. Turn to them on bad days.

poverty-generated stress has been shown to produce many negative outcomes among children (e.g., lower school achievement). A recent UK Poverty and Social Exclusion report points out too that for families living on a low income, the recent recession has generated additional burdens for parents in these circumstances, including increased time pressures, a decline in nutrition, and higher stress levels. Women in particular bear the burden of coping states the review, ‘Parenting on a Low Income’. Key findings of the report are: 1. Parents experiencing financial hardship ‘do without’ everyday necessities, social activities, and holidays – putting a strain on parenting and family relationships. 2. Living on a low income can bring multiple stresses such as food and fuel poverty, debt, dispossession, and restricted social opportunities – affecting family relationships, harming parents’ physical and mental health, and contributing to feelings of stigma, isolation, and exclusion for the whole family. 3. People on low incomes increasingly tend to live alongside others who are materially disadvantaged. Deprived neighbourhoods have inadequate housing

Dr. Morton Bard, co-author of “The Crime Victim's Book”, has described a victim's reaction to crime as the crisis reaction. Victims will react differently depending upon the level of personal violation they experience and their state of equilibrium at the time of victimization. Victims of non-violent crimes -- such as theft -- may

PBS.org’s “NOVA Next” states that stress from poverty decreases child brain sizes—even at birth. Though the idea has been controversial, some scientists have long suspected a link between socioeconomic class and cognitive ability—but they’ve never unearthed clear-cut, biological proof of it. A new study, published in Nature Neuroscience, might be the closest experts have ever come to defining

such a connection. Led by neuroscientists Kimberly Noble of Columbia University and Elizabeth Sowell of Children’s Hospital in Los Angeles, California, the team examined 1,099 individuals between the ages of three and 20 years old, and found that income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. In other words, as income increased, brain surface area increased as well. The researchers suggest the effects may be seen as early as birth, too, due to environmental factors like nutrition in-utero and maternal stress. Epigenetics could play a role, too. “People’s experiences exert a strong influ-

ence on their biology by silencing genes or turning them back on, significantly changing the way a cell functions without changing its DNA sequence,” wrote Eleanor Nelson for NOVA Next last year. Stress, anxiety, and even trauma may be passed down through these subtle genetic mechanisms, and that may affect a child’s brain structure as well. While not irreversible, the effects of socioeconomic status on cognitive ability are more pronounced than scientists imagined. With quality care and nutrition, however, a child born in destitution can have the same potential as the highly privileged.

experience less of a personal violation than victims of violent crimes, however, that is not always the case. Homicide is the ultimate violation for a crime victim, and leaves behind the victim's survivors to experience the personal violation. All people have their own "normal" state of equilibrium. This normal state is in-

fluenced by everyday stressors such as illness, moving, changes in employment, and family issues. When any one of these changes occur, equilibrium will be altered, but should eventually return to normal. When people experience common stressors and are then victimized, they are susceptible to more extreme cri-

sis reactions. There are certain common underlying reactions that a victim will undergo either in the immediate hours or days after the crime. Frequent responses to a criminal victimization include, but are not limited to: shock; numbness; denial; disbelief; anger; and, finally, recovery.(TO BE CONTINUED)

and a lack of basic amenities and services, all of which can contribute to stress.

Poverty-generated stress and childhood health


10 Times Sunday Magazine Times Fashion Fun style for sunny days

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esigner Sonia Noel has infused her signature latticing, kaftan silhouettes and versatile wraps to create a trendy beach style. “These outfits are definitely perfect for a weekend at one of our beautiful resorts in Guyana, or for any summer parties. These kaftan tops are made from cotton, chiffon and cotton jersey fabric, and can be worn as a swimsuit, cover-up or with shorts, skirts, leggings or jeans,� Noel outlined in an interview with Guyana Times Sunday Magazine. For more information on this collection call 226-3099. (Photos by Shiv Dindyal)

AUGUST 9, 2015

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AUGUST 9, 2015

harlie Puth is an American singer, songwriter and record producer. He gained popularity through YouTube. He is best known for writing and singing on Wiz Khalifa's single “See You Again”, taken from the movie “Furious 7” soundtrack, as a tribute to the late Paul Walker. The song became a huge success, peaking at the top of the Billboard Hot 100. Puth has since released his first single called "Marvin Gaye", featuring guest vocals by Meghan Trainor. "Marvin Gaye" topped the chart in New Zealand and also reached the top 10 in Australia. The 23-year-old produced the song "Slow Motion" for Trey Songz. In June 2015, he released "Nothing But Trouble" with Lil Wayne, off the soundtrack to the documentary “808: The Movie”. Puth’s unique set of eyebrows have raised questions from fans, wondering why his eyebrows appear the way they do. He tweeted that he nearly died from a childhood incident due to head trauma. He revealed that his right “eyebrow is permanently like that” because it has scarring left from a dog bite from when he was two years old.

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Star Times Hollywood


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Times Hollywood

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ayn Malik celebrates his single life by getting a new tattoo; lotus flower. The former One Direction singer was snapped sporting the ink during a night outing. Zayn showed off his new artwork which was etched on his left arm. The lotus flower tattoo is known to

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hris Brown lashed out at his baby mama, Nia Guzman. As custody battle between him and the former model continued, the 26-year-old R&B singer took to Twitter to slam her for allegedly using their baby girl, Royalty, as a "meal ticket." "Some men my age run from their responsibility as fathers. I embrace mine. Just sucks that some females use children as meal tickets," he wrote. "Using a child as leverage is never ok. The highest praise to the men who actually want their kids."

It was recently revealed that Breezy had filed legal documents for a second paternity test on Royalty. Nia's boyfriend Brazil Riesling is reportedly listed as the toddler's father in her birth certificate and the singer is seeking to change that. In addition, Brown asked judge to set clear the custody guidelines and the amount of the child support after Nia demanded a raise from US$2,500 to US$15,000 in the monthly payment and requested only supervised visits for Brown and their daughter. (AceShowbiz)

symbolize "rebirth." The day before, the 22-year-old star hinted at the body ink with a cryptic post on Twitter which featured a picture of the flower cut out on piano keys. In addition to the lotus flower, he has some other impressive collection of tattoos, one of which was

the huge cartoon design of Perrie Edwards on his other arm. Earlier this week, reports emerged that Zayn called off his engagement to Perrie. It was said he dumped her with one simple text message, which left the Little Mix singer "devastated." (AceShowbiz)

yourself," it read. "Glad security was on him right away and of course Taylor carried on like a pro!" Despite the scary moment, Swift said on Instagram she had fun per-

forming in Edmonton that night. "Thanks Edmonton - tonight was insanely fun and I can't wait to be back on your stage tomorrow night!" she wrote alongside a photo of her. (AceShowbiz)

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aylor Swift almost had an accident when playing a recent concert in Edmonton, Canada. During the show on August 4, an overexcited male fan in the crowd almost pulled the singer off the stage during the performance of "Bad Blood". As seen in a video posted on Instagram by another concertgoer, Swift was in the middle of performing the song when a male fan standing close to the stage tried, and fortunately failed, to grab her leg. Visibly surprised, the 25-year-old superstar stopped singing and appeared to give the fan an unbelieving stare before continuing the show.

A caption for the clip revealed that the grabby fan had to deal with the security for nearly harming Swift. "Some crazy town grabbed at Swifty Swift tonight! Jeez buddy, keep your hands to

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elena Gomez has announced the next single off her upcoming "Revival" album. During a presentation from her label Interscope Records on the first day of the 2015 iHeartMedia Music Summit, it's revealed that the star's new song would be called "Same Old Love". The track was reportedly written by Charli XCX and was co-produced by Benny Blanco and Stargate. Currently having no official release date, it will come as a followup to lead single "Good for You" which made its debut at No. 9 on Billboard Hot 100 following its arrival in June. Selena's "Revival" album is due out on October 9. The project will mark her first studio effort since 2013's "Stars Dance" and her first CD since 2014's "For You". The latter title, a greatest hits collection, was the former Disney princess' last release under Hollywood Records. "I think that I am turning into a young woman, so this is the next phase in my life, and I think it is important for me to take control over it," Sel recently said of her forthcoming album. "[Fans] can expect a lot of insight on my perception of things. I think it shows a lot, not just about love. It's

more about my perception on retaliation or friendships or pain in different ways. Faith. Having a spiritual connection. It kind of covers all bases." (AceShowbiz)

Mariah Carey's screaming toddler was pulled off her during photo op

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ariah Carey brought her 4-yearold twins, Moroccan and Monroe Cannon (better known as Dem Babies), along as she accepted her star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on Aug. 5. Although Moroccan and Monroe are the children of a true diva, they are still children and do not care that such a megastar

is their mother. To them, she's simply mom. Carey has become the latest star to appear on Hollywood's Walk of Fame. The singer released her first album in 1990 - and went on to achieve worldwide fame. Her fans turned out in force to see the plaque unveiled. (Huffingtonpost)


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Star Times Bollywood

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hilpi Sharma is an Indian film actress and model. This 23-year-old Delhi beauty made her acting debut in “Green Signal”. She then went on to act in “Kannada” and in Tamil and Malayalam films. Sharma is slated to make her Bollywood debut in No Entry Mein Entry, also starring Salman Khan. Apart from acting and modeling, Sharma has launched, initiated and been involved in several projects where she actively promotes and advocates for the welfare of women and children.


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Times Bollywood

Straight from the sets: A day in Shah Rukh Khan's life

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ishwarya Rai Bachchan is making her comeback in movies after five years with Sanjay Gupta's “Jazbaa”, but the actress says she never felt the gap while working in the film because of the wonderful cast. "You will see it (me) more often now," said the actress when asked about her reason of not doing films for so long. She was recently seen on the catwalk for designer Manish Malhotra at the finale show of Amazon India Couture Week (AICW). "It's lovely working with everyone in 'Jazbaa' as the cast is so wonderful. From Irrfan Khan to Shabana-ji (Shabana

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Azmi), everyone was lovely. I never felt the gap," added Aishwarya, who took a four-year break from the big screen to raise her daughter Aradhya. (Times of India)

ood news for Shah Rukh Khan’s fans. You can now interact with Khan via Facebook. And the format is live, so you just don’t get to chat with the actor but also watch him via live video format. When it comes to technology, actor Shah Rukh Khan has always been on the forefront of experiencing it. Facebook partnered with

SRK to test and launch their new application in India called Facebook Mention. In Facebook Mention, there is an option called Facebook Live. This application is only available for top celebrities currently. The social networking site is making it possible for the fans to get closer to their idols. And for SRK, it is the most useful app to interact with his fans extensively in a live video format. Shah Rukh Khan is the first Indian celebrity to use the app. He recently interacted with his fans using the app. He even gave them a glimpse of the set of his new film via the app. Facebook has also partnered with a few international celebrities to test and launch this feature all over the world. In the US, they have partnered with Hollywood actor Dwayne Johnson. (Hindustan Times)

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agazine covers have been in the eye of the storm for air-brushed pictures, and Vogue India’s latest cover has sparked the debate yet again. The cover, featuring Rani Mukerji, has run into controversy as many feel the actress looks far more perfect in the picture than she does in real life. The “ageless” cover, as the publication calls it, drew flak as soon as it hit the stands, with many saying that Rani, a natural beauty, does not need photoshop to transform into someone else. Other actors who have been featured on covers agree that too much photoediting spoils the shoot.

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ost Bollywood actors aspire to work with Amitabh Bachchan at least once in their career. And Kangana Ranaut is no different. Recently, she shared screen space with the veteran in an ad film that has been directed by filmmaker Rajkumar Hirani. In fact, post the shoot, Bachchan even said many flattering things about her on social

"Are we saying only slim is perfect? Kudos to Huma Qureshi for doing the cover about embracing your body. We must stop chasing after the perfect body," says actress Richa Chadha. Actress Shilpa Shetty, who has graced many magazine covers, said: “While it’s justified to remove injury marks or a bra strap showing, sometimes the face or body of the celeb is digitally altered to an extent that they change beyond recognition. That’s too much.” While the publication’s fashion director Anaita Shroff Adajania says "there’s no controversy", the editor Priya Tanna and Rani were not available for comment. (Hindustan Times)

media. Praising his co-star, Bachchan wrote on Twitter: “At work at last with the wonder called Kangana Ranaut .. she be so good .. and talented and wonderful (sic).” On his Facebook page, he said, “The joy and the ecstasy of working with Kangana Ranaut .. albeit for a short one day ... but so wonderful and enlightening (sic).” (Hindustan Times)


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Times Trends

Trending Now

Star of the week

Everyone's Wearing... ‘Co-ords’

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o-ords (co-ordinates) are seriously having a moment. Whether they're suits, bodycon combinations or pretty ‘summer’ two-pieces, celebrities are going mad for them. Check out these favourite looks for inspiration on your next co-ords. (Glamour)

Beyonce's sister Solange looked stunning in her emerald green maxi button-up top and matching tailored trousers

Fashion model Karlie Kloss matches her crop top and maxi skirt for a super cool look

Hollywood actress Gemma Arterton's pretty, graphic top and skirt make for the perfect co-ord

Model Gigi Hadid looks simply showstopping in this glorious salmon pink bodycon look

S Taylor Swift knows that matching her top to her skirt is seriously cool. The songstress looks ready for anything in her baby blue combination

Beyonce proves she's not afraid of wearing neon brights! Her bright and bold combo is sure to get her noticed

Supermodel Cara Delevingne looks ace in this grey two-piece suit, while adding a little sex-appeal with her underwear-as-outerwear look

Singer Demi Lovato looks super summery in her tropical printed blue and white coord. Adding a neon accessory to your coord will up your style credentials even more

ignificantly contributing to Guyana’s entertainment industry, Hashim Alli is a man of many talents. He made his debut in the dance arena when he joined thethen Sitare Dance Troupe. Travelling across the country and the Caribbean performing with the group was just not enough however, for this multitalented individual. In 2004 he decided to produce his own television shows:“The Blue Jeans Unit” and “Rhythm Blast”, designed to highlight and promote local talent. Then in 2007 he made his acting debut in the local dance drama, “Not just another Indian movie Prem & I”. His most recent acting gigs were in “Murder at Giuseppe’s” and “The Parika Market star boy”. Now, Alli is more focused on his television show “Entertainers Platform” - a programme presenting local talents. He is also an active member of the Apsara Group, a local dance company. Apart from dancing, choreography, managing pageant contestants and being a host, Alli is passionate about fashion. He is the co-founder of Nachle Designs, designing the male collection, ‘Yours’, along with his fiancé, Melicia Partab, who designs the label’s female collection, ‘Hers’. Knowing firsthand the value of determination, Alli’s advice to youths is: “You can achieve anything your heart desires once you have seriously thought about it, rationalize it, believe it and work towards it. Always remember life is like a ball: no matter the direction you spin it, it will always come right back to you and success will follow.”


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Times Art

Another successful year for

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Some of children doing Papier mâché using recycled bottles (Photo by Natasha Azeez)

Working with clay as Khan supervises (Photo by Natasha Azeez)

he Faculty of Education and dren to develop their language skills. It will Humanities of the University of also educate individuals on Guyanese folkGuyana (UG) recently concluded lore characters and oral traditions. This proits fifth annual Emeritus Professor Doris gramme will cater specifically for the children of the Sophia area and it is free,” Azeez Rogers Art programme for children. The programme, for children four to 16 years, is aimed at instilling a love of art in children, and encouraging self-expression through art. Art lecturer at UG, Michael Khan, and Natasha Azeez, who works along with Khan in many of his art projects, along with student teachers from the university, were the art stimulators of the programme. This year, participants received individual trophies sponsored by two parents Raffia Khan Glitter work (Photo by Natasha Azeez) McWilfred and Sumaiyah Natasha Lewis. Some of the classes offered in the programmes were art making/painting, craft, drama, and photography. The programme began July 13 and ended July 24. At the closing of the programme, there was an exhibition of their creative work at UG. Khan and Azeez believe “via art children express their thoughts and ideas and are able to explore, to discover, to investigate and to create at their own level of development.” According to Azeez, another outreach project for children would be the annual reading programme conducted by the UG library. This would begin Aug. 11, 2015 and run for three weeks. Sessions would be held Tuesdays, Thursdays and Fridays, from 9am to noon. Ole Man Pappie (played by Michael Khan) would be the storyteller at this event. “Storytelling offers a three-dimensional approach to the written and A drama piece done by the children participating spoken word, which will help chil- in the art programme (Photo by Natasha Azeez)

(Painting; Howard, 1974), MA Art Education (Howard, 1975), PhD, Art Education (Penn. State, 1980), for her significant contribution to the Department of Arts. Prof Rogers has been the lighthouse for arts in Guyana and rejuvenated art at UG; she was instrumental in the creation of a degree programme in art, prior to that, one did not exist. Her committed service to the University of Guyana covered the period from 1988 until her retirement in 2008. Her unique contribution to the development of the university includes her design and introduction of the BA Degree Programme in Fine Arts in 1990, and the important establishment of the Art Education component on both the Turkeyen and Berbice Campuses while she was coordinator in the Division of Creative Arts from 1988 to 2003. The external image of the university was advanced and the quality of its graduates deepened by Prof Rogers’ initiation of the ‘summer’ attachment of final year art students at Chloee Phillip receiving her trophy from Raffia McWilfred

Emeritus Professor Doris Rogers Art Programme 2015 participants with facilitator Michael Khan (Photo by Natasha Azeez)

pointed out.

About Emeritus Professor Doris Rogers

Parents admire their children’s work at the exhibition on closing day (Photo by Natasha Azeez)

The title of Emeritus Professor is conferred on retired members of the academic community who attained the rank of professor; achieved the distinction of personal chairs; honourably distinguished themselves in the service to UG, in the pursuit of scholarship and in the administration of the affairs of the institution. The Emeritus Professor Doris Rogers art programme is a dedication to Doris E. Rogers, TTC (Guyana, 1964), Dip. Art Teaching (South Australia, 1969), BFA

Tougaloo College, Mississippi USA, for exhibitions and workshops, as well as the annual public exhibition of art by university staff and students. Prof Rogers’ value to the institution was also enhanced by the fact that she is an exceptional painter, celebrated among the foremost national artists of Guyana, who has researched the art and its techniques in Nigeria, and has exhibited extensively in India, Nigeria and North America Honoris causa.


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Times Tech

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ogus iPhones aren’t always obvious. Sometimes they appear in seemingly legitimate online ads or real-world stores. Regardless of where they appear, they’re out there. According to Yahoo Tech, Apple won’t discuss the issue, despite repeated requests for information. Anti-counterfeiting watchdog groups say the problem is big, but they don’t have numbers. Anecdotal evidence is there: There was the recent seizure of more than 40,000 counterfeit iPhones in China. Sales of the fakes are not uncommon overseas. Among those who have been caught peddling fake phones stateside recently are a father-son duo in Orange County, Calif.; a teen in Utah; and two stores in a Maryland mall. Fake iPhones are just part of a much larger counterfeit-electronics problem.

The fakes

The hardest ones to spot are the phones that contain real Apple parts and run iOS but were actually assembled from smuggled parts or from scrapped phones that had been sent out — usually to China — for recycling. There, unscrupulous companies take motherboards from scrapped phones and put them into cases from other scrapped phones or into new cases made to look like real iPhones. Superficially, such fakes can look remarkably legit. But there are a couple of tell-tale signs. First, in trying out the phone, you might notice that the software response feels sluggish. That’s because the motherboard is from an older model. But there’s another way to tell that’s more certain: When you look on the back of an iPhone 6, you’ll see the phone’s electronic serial number — known as the IMEI (international mobile equipment station identity) — engraved in tiny print just under the iPhone logo. This is a unique serial number that identifies the specific phone. That number is also available if you go to Settings > General > About. If those numbers don’t match up, you’ve got a fake. The other way counterfeiters build fakes is by trying to disguise an Android phone as an Apple phone.

Here’s what to do to be sure:

First, try to invoke Siri by pressing on the Home button; if she doesn’t answer, it’s either a defective iPhone or a fake. Next, check out the icons on the home screen: For example, if you see a Google Play app, it’s not an iPhone. Or try tapping the App Store icon; if it doesn’t go to Apple’s App Store, it’s not an iPhone. If you’re really in doubt, check the serial number listing in Settings (just above the IMEI described above) and touch it until the word Copy appears, then press that. Next, in your phone’s browser, go to Apple’s online warranty checker. Touch the entry field there until Paste appears, and paste in the se-

rial number. You’ll see what model of iPhone it is, along with its warranty status. If it’s not a real iPhone, you’ll see an error message. Other indications that may help you identify an ersatz iPhone: It may be a little thicker than or not quite as heavy as the real thing (although that may be hard to spot without another iPhone of the same model for comparison); the screen resolution may be lower (ditto); and some details of construction may be wrong. The latter could include a SIM card tray that’s the wrong size (new iPhones use a nano-SIM); the wrong kind of screws on the bottom holding the phone together (real iPhones use five-pointed screw heads); and phone or box construction that feels cheap. To be absolutely sure, stick with an Apple Store, a store belonging to a carrier, or an authorized retailer. As always, follow the Golden Rule of scam avoidance: If a deal seems too good to be true, it probably is. Real iPhones don’t sell for $100 — or even twice that, unless they’re very old.

Tech news

Free, open Internet threatened says computer crime defence lawyer

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he dream of a free and open Internet is slowly being killed by overregulation, censorship and bad laws that don't stop the the right people, a top computer crime defence lawyer says. The annual Black Hat computer security conference in Las Vegas began Wednesday with a keynote address from Jennifer Granick, director of Civil Liberties at the Stanford Centre for Internet and Society. Granick said that while the Internet needs to be reasonably safe in order to be functional, it's no longer the revolutionary place it was 20 years ago. “The dream of Internet freedom is dying,” Granick warned during her address. Four things are killing it: centralization, regulation, globalization and loss of “the freedom to tinker,” she says. No one is murdering the dream of an open Internet, she said, but it's withering away because no one is prioritising its protection. On top of that, new Internet users are coming from countries whose citizens aren't protected by a Bill of Rights or a First Amendment. "Should we be worrying about another terrorist attack in New York, or about journalists and human rights advocates being able to do their jobs?" she asked. Researchers are needed to bring about changes that improve security and ensure better software, not attacked for doing their work, she says, and they need to take a more active role in making that happen. Security researchers need to fight for the rights to study, modify and reverse engineer Internet hardware and software or the general population risks losing Internet freedom, the Black Hat 2015 conference was told.

Tech BYTE

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NASA photo captures 'dark side' of moon

ASA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) last month captured a series of test photos with its Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera. One million miles from Earth, EPIC took images as the moon passed across our planet. (Scientists would say of this celestial activity that the moon transited Earth).


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Times Home & Cooking

Recipe of the Week

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he traditional “home on stilts” has mostly given way locally to two-storey homes with a lived-in ground floor. However, whether it is a budgetary or aesthetic choice, there is still much elegance and appeal in raised homes…

Corned Beef Hash Ingredients 2-3 tbsp. unsalted butter 1 medium onion, finely chopped (about 1 cup) 2-3 cups finely chopped, cooked corned beef 2-3 cups chopped cooked potatoes Salt and pepper Chopped fresh parsley Raised and resting on piers to capture cooling breezes and prevent flooding, this home from eplans.com has parking, storage or bonus space at its ground level

Method Heat butter in a large skillet (preferably cast iron) on medium heat. Add the onion and cook a few minutes, until translucent. Mix in the chopped corned beef and potatoes. Spread out evenly over the pan. Increase the heat to high or medium high and press down on the mixture with a metal spatula. Do not stir the potatoes and corned beef, but let them brown and sizzle. Use a metal spatula to peek underneath and see if they are browning. If nicely browned, use the spatula to flip sections over in the pan so that they brown on the other side. Press down again with the spatula. If there is too much sticking, you can add a little more butter to the pan. Continue to cook in this manner until the potatoes and the corned beef are nicely browned. Remove from heat, stir in chopped parsley. Add plenty of freshly ground black pepper, and add salt to taste. Serve with fried or poached eggs for breakfast.

Porches, verandas and decks are natural amenities for a raised floor system, adding usable living area to your home outdoors

GREATEST COOKING TIPS

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ccording to Bon Appétit, use light olive oil for best results when making a marinade or vinaigrette, or for sautéing and roasting. Extra virgin olive oil works best for a marinade or vinaigrette as well as a finish. Vegetable, canola and grape seed oil are best for sautéing, roasting, frying and searing – and for making a marinade and vinaigrette. Coconut oil is recommended when sautéing or roasting, while palm oil is suitable for frying, sautéing and roasting foods.

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HOME HELP

se a banana skin to dust live house plants – the dust clings to the skin and the juice nourishes the leaves. Make your wood shine by polishing it with a solution of two parts olive oil to one part lemon juice. Keep your cling film in the fridge. It is so much easier to use when cold. Clean underneath large appliances by stretching a sock over a stick, then running it under the stove or fridge. To keep a cake from drying out and going stale, place half an apple inside the cake tin with it. A lemon works just as well.

Also known as “elevated living”, with a raised floor, landscaping can be located near the foundation without inviting termite infestation and rot


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Times Sunday Magazine19

Family Times

PARENTING

Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

A JOKES

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ave you ever wondered why Republicans are so interested in encouraging people to volunteer in their communities? It's because volunteers work for no pay. Republicans have been trying to get people to work for no pay for a long time. I have six locks on my door, all in a row. When I go out, I lock every other one. I figure no matter how long somebody stands there picking the locks, they are always locking three of them. It's a great country, but it's a strange culture. ... This has got to be the only country in the world that could ever come up with a disease like bulimia; gotta be the only country in the world where some people have no food at all, and other people eat a nourishing meal and puke it up intentionally. This is a country where tobacco kills four hundred thousand people a year, so they ban artificial sweeteners! Because a rat died! You know what I mean? This is a place where gun store owners are given a list of stolen credit cards, but not a list of criminals and maniacs! And now, they're thinking about banning toy guns - and they're gonna keep the […] real ones!

The problem with the designated driver program is it's not a desirable job. But if you ever get sucked into doing it, have fun with it. At the end of the night, drop them off at the wrong house, preferably in their boss's front yard... You know, I remember Career Day in high school. I remember plumbers and lawyers . . . I don't remember a booth where you could sign up to learn how to shoot chickens out of a cannon at the windshield of an airplane, 'cause there would have been a line at my school to do that! Whatever cleaning goes on on the planet, women do 99 per cent of it. But see, women are not as proud of their 99 per cent as men are of our one! We clean something up, we're gonna talk about it all year long. It might be on the news, you don't know. A woman could be out repaving the driveway. Men actually have enough gall to walk out onto the porch and go "Hey baby? Man, it's hot as hell out here! Look, don't worry about emptyin' that ashtray in the den, I done got it, all right? Did it for you, sweet pea. I'm gonna take a nap now."

I married Miss Right. I just didn't know her first name was Always. Remember: Marriage is the number one cause of divorce. My wife told me the car wasn't running well because there was water in the carburettor. I asked where the car was. She told me, 'In the lake.' "A fellow told me he was going to hang-glider school. He said, 'I've been going for three months.' I said, 'How many successful jumps do you need to make before you graduate?' He said, 'All of them.'"

DHD, or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (formerly known as ADD) is a neurological condition that causes children to lose focus and behave in ways that, if untreated, may make it difficult for them to successfully participate in school, social and family life. Children with ADHD can be inattentive, hyperactive or impulsive, and many have a combination of these behaviours. Other learning disabilities or mental conditions can also accompany ADHD. ADHD can be surprisingly hard to spot because it affects individual children so differently. ADHD children can be rowdy troublemakers who get into fights and fail at school; excessively chatty straight-A know-it-alls who constantly interrupt their teachers, or "space cadets" who stare out the window unaware that rest of the class has left for lunch. While all young children can be impulsive, hyperactive or inattentive at times, for children with ADHD, these behaviours are so frequent and severe that they interfere with normal activities, often leaving them confused, frustrated, or angry. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, boys are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than girls (9.5 percent of all boys, versus 5.9 percent of girls) but experts are unsure if that means more boys actually have the condition, or if they're just more likely to have the type of ADHD that results in disruptive behaviour. Children who act out, especially in school, are more likely to be noticed and referred for diagnosis than those who drift off into their own world. The good news is that a great deal of research has been done on ADHD (which has been a recognized mental condition since the 1960s) and there are a number of strategies, including medication, behavioural modification and school accommodations, that can help children manage their condition and lead successful, happy lives.

STORY TIME

Two Little Kittens

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wo large fishes lived in a big pond, and were close friends with a frog. They all spent a lot of time together on the bank of the pond. One evening, as they were assembled on the bank of the pond, they saw a few fishermen approaching. They had nets and big baskets with them, which were full of fishes that they had caught. While passing by the pond, they noticed that the pond was full of fishes. One of them said to the others, "Let us come here tomorrow morning. This pond is not very deep, and is full of fishes. We have never caught fishes in this pond." They agreed to return the very next morning, and continued their journey homewards. The frog was depressed on hearing the fishermen and said, "O Friends, we should decide what to do, whether to run or hide. These fishermen will return tomorrow morning!" The fishes however did not care much. The first fish said, "O Friend, It is just mere talks of few passing fishermen. Don't worry, for they will not come. And, even if they do, I know innumerable tricky water movements. I shall save myself and my family with ease." The second fish joined, "I am as talented in tricky water movements as you! I will be able to save myself and my family too. I support your stand, for I will not abandon the home of our ancestors for the sake of some mere talk of few passing fishermen." But the frog was not convinced, he

O

ur English has many ways of forming new words; blended words, also called portmanteau words, is one such device. Portmanteau words splice, and then merge two other words together in sound and meaning. Portmanteau (pronounced PORTMAN- TOE) coming to English from French porter meaning “to carry” and manteau, “cloak”, means “a leather traveling case that opens into two hinged compartments.” Author Lewis Carroll of “Alice in Wonderland” fame makes use of blended words in the nonsense verse poem “Jabberwocky”: slithy (slimy and lithe), mimsy (flimsy and miserable). Many portmanteaux (plural) have become so common in English we hardly know they are spliced and merged:

Reflections Two little kittens, one stormy night, Began to quarrel, and then to fight; One had a mouse, the other had none, And that's the way the quarrel begun.

said, "My friends, my only talent is that I can foresee danger. You may stay, but I will leave with my family to some other pond before morning." The very next morning, the fishermen came and cast their nets all over the pond. They had a big haul, and caught many fishes, frogs, tortoises and crabs. The two fishes tried hard to escape, but none of their tricks worked. They were caught, and when the fishermen dragged their net on the bank of the pond they were already dead. Being the largest of the fishes the fishermen caught, they proudly displayed the two, and carried them separately as they started homewards. Meanwhile, the frog had already found a well for shelter. Being worried and anxious, he came to the surface. But as he saw the fishermen departing with his friends, he became sad. He told his wife, "They were very talented, but lacked the only talent that was most important. As for me, I may have only one talent, but I swim happily with my family!" The wise indeed say: At the first hint of danger, act quickly to save yourself. (Tales of Panchatantra)

brunch (breakfast + lunch), smog (smoke + fog), and televangelist (television + evangelist). Also, newscast (news + broadcast) and electrocute (electro- + execute). Animals are also on the list of portmanteau words. Hybrid animal names are coined to describe the blended species: liger (hybrid cross between a male lion and a female tiger), and zedonk (hybrid of a zebra crossed with a donkey. Dog breeds include the cockapoo (cocker spaniel + poodle) and labradoodle (Labrador and poodle). Not to be forgotten are today’s blended computer tech words: alphanumeric (alphabet + numeric), bit (binary + digit), blog (web + log), animatronics (animation + electronics), pixel (picture + element), webinar (World Wide Web + seminar) and Internet (international + network). Consumer products and brand

"I'll have that mouse," said the biggest cat; "You'll have that mouse? We'll see about that!" "I will have that mouse," said the eldest son; "You shan't have the mouse," said the little one. I told you before 'twas a stormy night When these two little kittens began to fight; The old woman seized her sweeping broom, And swept the two kittens right out of the room. The ground was covered with frost and snow, And the two little kittens had nowhere to go; So they laid them down on the mat at the door, While the old woman finished sweeping the floor. Then they crept in, as quiet as mice, All wet with the snow, and cold as ice, For they found it was better, that stormy night, To lie down and sleep than to quarrel and fight. Anonymous (circa 1880)

names also employ portmanteau words which are often geared toward marketing: Breathalyzer (breath + analyser), Frappuccino (frappé + cappuccino) and Verizon (Latin veritas “truth” + horizon), to name a few. Then there is the stretch toward celebrity name blending: think Brangelina (Brad Pitt + Angelina Jolie) and the once married TomKat (Tom Cruise + Katie Holmes). Portmanteau words are not contractions, since a contraction, although it blends words together, combines two words that follow each other in a sequence (don’t = do + not/ can’t= can + not). Portmanteaux can be obtained by combining any two words.


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Times Sunday Puzzle

In each sentence below, two words are incomplete. The two words end in the same three letters, so they look like they should rhyme, but they don't. Try to figure out the missing letters in each sentence. Example: One symptom of bronchitis is a ro___ co___. (The two words are: rough, cough.) 1. Now that I can fly a kite, I don't m___ the w___. 2. That bully must ce___ to te___ his fellow students. 3. By his 18th birthday, the prince had gr___ into his cr___. see solution on page 23

see solution on page 23

see solution on page 23


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Times Sunday Magazine 21

Times Kids

GEOZONE

Creature Corner

Creature Corner

Map of world land biomes

A

T

he king vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) is one of the larger species of vulture in the world. It inhabits Central and South America – from Mexico south to Argentina. The birds have a wingspan of some 4 to 5.5 ft. (1.2 to 1.7 m), and can weigh 6 to 10 lbs. (2.7 to 4.5 kg). Like all vultures, it is a scavenger, feeding on any type of carrion wherever it can find some. A group of feeding vultures is called a wake. Perched high atop trees or airborne, their excellent eyesight allows them to spot a potential meal while the role their sense of smell plays in finding food remains debated among scientists. King vultures would also rely on the presence of other lesser vultures to detect carcasses. The king vulture is described as the only surviving member of the genus Sarcoramphus of the New World vulture family Cathartidae, found in the Americas. Old World vultures of the family Accipitridae are considered those birds of Europe, Africa and Asia.

Dot to Dot

World ecosystems and biomes

n ecosystem describes a specific area where organisms that live there interact with the sun, soil, water, air and each other. It could be any size – from a tiny pool of water to hundreds of square miles of desert. Some important cycles that occur in ecosystems to help maintain proper balance,include the food chain and food web (Energy Cycle); the Carbon Cycle; Oxygen Cycle; Water Cycle and Nitrogen Cycle.

A biome is a way scientists describe a large group of similar ecosystems. Biomes have similar weather, rainfall, animals, and plants. There are land biomes and aquatic biomes. Land biomes include desert, grasslands, savannah, tundra, tropical rainforest, temperate forest and taiga forest. Aquatic biomes comprise marine biomes, freshwater biomes and coral reefs.

The objective of the game is to fill all the blank squares in a game with the correct numbers. Every row of 9 numbers must include all digits 1 through 9 in any order. Every column of 9 numbers must include all digits 1 through 9 in any order. Every 3 by 3 subsection of the 9 by 9 square must include all digits 1 through 9.

Colouring Fun

please see solution on page 23


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AUGUST 9, 2015

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Maneki-neko By Laurie Triefeldt

The fortune cat is a lucky talisman that is very popular in Japanese and Chinese cultures. You have probably seen it in the front window or near the cash register of some Asian shops or restaurants. These adorable cat figurines typically hold a gold coin or fish in one hand, while inviting customers and good fortune with the other.

The fish is symbolic of abundance and good fortune.

What’s in a name? In Japanese, maneki-neko (pronounced ma-neck-ee-neck-o) means “beckoning cat” or “invitation cat.” But this lucky charm is also known as the Chinese lucky cat, the golden cat, the money cat, the welcoming cat and the fortune cat.

Where in the world?

Give a paw

The maneki-neko originated in Japan, and most agree that these lucky cats first appeared during the Edo period (17th century to mid-19th century).

Traditionally, the maneki-neko’s paw beckons with its paw facing forward in Japanese fashion. Some maneki-neko designed for Western markets have the cat’s paw facing backward.

Movable parts Some maneki-neko are designed to have moving arms. Like a bobblehead figurine, the arm can be set into motion by the touch of a hand. Some kinetic maneki-neko are solar-powered or run with a battery, allowing the arms to beckon for long periods of time.

This happy little maneki-neko lies on its side as it beckons with one hand.

Traditional garb In addition to holding a medallion or coin, many maneki-neko wear a collar, bell and decorative bib. This attire is similar to how wealthy Japanese nobles dressed their cats in the 17th century.

Variety Statues of these small, smiling cats have been made of carved wood or stone, porcelain or cast iron, traditionally painted in kitty calico colors of orange and black spots on white. Today, plastics, papier-mâché and other materials are used to make maneki-neko charms, keychains, piggy banks and a variety of miscellaneous ornaments.

Legends

Maneki-neko can be found with either the right or left paw raised (and sometimes both). There are many different beliefs regarding the meaning of the raised paw. Many people think that a raised left paw brings in customers, while a right paw brings good luck and wealth. Some believe the opposite, or that one paw is for luck and the other for wealth. Another theory is that a raised left paw attracts money, while a raised right paw protects it.

Color me lucky Traditionally, the maneki-neko is white with orange and black spots. Today, these happy kitties can be found in a variety of colors, each with different symbolic meaning. Some people think that the longer the arm, the more luck it will bring. This pair is dressed in the traditional collar and bib. The embedded marble or gem represents wisdom.

There are several stories about how the maneki-neko came to be.

This chubby, finely dressed maneki-neko has both front paws raised and is wearing a traditional collar with a bell. Some people believe the raising of both paws will protect the home or business.

The traditional tri-color cat is fashioned after the Japanese bobtail breed and beckons general good luck, wealth and prosperity. The white cat beckons purity and happiness. The black cat brings safety while warding off evil and stalkers.

One classic tale focuses around a struggling restaurant, bar or temple where the owner takes in a hungry and neglected cat. In gratitude, the cat sits in front of the store, beckoning to customers and bringing prosperity.

The golden cat beckons wealth and prosperity. The red cat offers protection from evil and illness, especially for young children.

Another legends tells of a wealthy lord who, while resting under a tree, observed a clever temple cat that appeared to be inviting him into the temple. When the lord moved from under the tree to enter the temple, the tree was struck by lightning. The lord was so grateful to the cat for saving him that he adopted the temple and helped to make it prosperous. In many of the stories, the cat’s name is Tama.

Right or left

The pink cat has come onto the market more recently and brings luck in love, relationships and romance.

This maneki-neko is quite unusual. Although painted with traditional calico colors, it has both of its back paws raised.

Sitting on a colorful silk pillow, this decorative maneki-neko rings two bells with both paws raised. Today, about 70 percent of maneki-neko made in Japan have both paws raised.

Blue or green cats, another more modern variety, are popular with students and bring good fortune at school and in studies.


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Times Sunday Magazine 23

World Times

O

n the 70th anniversary of the Hiroshima bombing, BBC’s Rupert WingfieldHayes reports that while the US has always insisted that the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were necessary to end World War Two, it is a narrative that has little emphasis on the terrible human cost. The first President George Bush famously said that issuing an apology for Hiroshima would be "rank revisionism" and he would never do it. The conventional wisdom in the United States is that the dropping of atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki ended the war, and because of that it was justified - end of story.

It's certainly a convenient end of the story. But it is one that was constructed after the war, by America's leaders, to justify what they had done. And what they had done was, by any measure, horrendous,WingfieldHaynes writes.

'There was no sound at all'

Keiko Ogura had just celebrated her eighth birthday. Her home was on the northern edge of Hiroshima behind a low hill. At 08:10 on 6 August, she was out on the street in front of the house. "I was surrounded by a tremendous flash and blast at the same time," she says."I couldn't breathe. I was knocked to the ground and became unconscious. When I awoke I thought it

Many of those who did not die from the initial impact of the bomb were left with horrific injuries

Brain Teaser Answer 1. mind, wind 2. cease, tease

3. grown, crown

SUDOKU

KID SUDOKU

CROSSWORD

was already night because I could not see anything, there was no sound at all." By mid-morning, survivors of the blast began pouring out of the city looking for help. Many were in a terrible state. "Most of the people who were fleeing tried to go to the hillside. There was a Shinto shrine near our house so many came here," she says."Their skin was peeling off and hanging. At first I saw some and I thought they were holding a rag or something, but really it was skin peeling off. I noticed their burned hair. There was a very bad smell."

A deliberate civilian target

Hiroshima was not a military target. The crew of the Enola Gay did not aim at the docks, or large industrial facilities.Their target was the geographical centre of the city. The bomb was set to explode 500m (0.3 miles) above the ground for maximum destructive effect. On the ground many survived the initial blast, but were trapped in the wreckage of their homes under wooden beams and heavy tiled roofs. Then the fires began. Shizuko Abe, then 18, remembers hearing the cries for help from beneath the debris as the flames swept forward. The whole right side of her body had been burnt, her skin hanging off. Now 88, she still bears the terrible imprint of the bomb on her face and hands. "They were such sad voices calling out for help. Even 70 years later, I can still hear them calling out for help," she says. No-one is sure how many died on that first day. Estimates start at 70,000. More than eight out of 10 were civilians. A US military team and Japanese camera crew shot more than 20 hours of film in March 1946. It is the most complete and detailed visual record of the after effects of the first atomic at-

A conventional view in the US is that while terrible, the use of the bomb brought an end to the war

tack. There is high-quality colour footage of the horrific scarring caused by flash burns from the bomb. There are injuries that had never been seen before. What is all the more remarkable is that the film was not seen in public until the early 1980s. It was marked secret and suppressed by the US government for more than 30 years. Instead, Americans were told a sanitised narrative of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: that a great scientific endeavour had brought quick victory, and saved hundreds of thousands of lives on both sides. Decades later, when Ms Ogura travelled to the Washington DC to see the unveiling of the Enola Gay at the Smithsonian Museum, she was astonished to find this version of history still holding sway.

"Many American people said to me, '"Congratulations, you could come here thanks to the bombing! Without the bombing you would have to do hara-kiri, you know, commit suicide'." "That is a very awful excuse. We do not blame the Americans, but they should not say that thanks to the bomb so many people could survive."

A lifetime of radiation secrecy

The atomic bombing has left one final legacy that sets it apart from all the other horrors of World War II. In the weeks after the bombing, otherwise healthy people began dying of a strange new illness. First they lost their appetite, then they began to run a high fever. Finally strange red blotches began appearing under their skin. No-one

knew it at the time, but these people were dying from radiation poisoning. To this day many hibakusha keep their pasts a secret, afraid that their families will be discriminated against because of the fear of radiation. "I had bad burns and looked deformed so I could not keep it secret," says Ms Abe. "My children were discriminated against. They were called 'A-bomb children'." Even today some hide the fact that a grandparent is an A-bomb survivor, afraid their children may find it difficult to find a husband or wife. No other bombing campaign in WW2 was as intense in the destruction of civilian lives as the US bombing of Japan in 1945. Between 300,000 and 900,000 people died.(Source: BBC News World Asia)

Radiation poisoning, a previously unknown condition, would claim thousands more victims in the weeks after the bombing. The crew of the Enola Gay were treated as heroes for dropping an A-bomb on the heavily populated city

THE PHILONOIST

Language change Q: What is the Great Vowel Shift?

T

he beginning of the 1400s saw a pronunciation transition from Middle English to Early Modern English. This event, known as the Great Vowel Shift, changed the whole vowel system of London English to eventually become the English generally spoken not just in England but around the world. This event, which is said to have developed from the 15 to 18th century, particularly affected the sound of long vowels of English. These long vowels today are recognizable by the general rule that a long vowel says its name (i.e. long “A” in tape; long “E” in theme; long “I” in fine; long “O” in

hope; long “U” in cute). In the middle ages, before the shift, “child” was pronounced “cheeld” and at Mid Shift “choyl”, while “mouse” was pronounced the way we say “moose” today. The confusion it caused for writers and speakers lasted at least until Samuel Johnson's and Noah Webster’s English dictionaries were published in 1755 and 1849 respectively, which are considered to have standardized the language. No one is quite certain why the shift happened;the Encyclopaedia Britannica suggests that migrants, especially from the Midlands and East

Anglia, arrived in London, mixing and changing speech in the British capital.Many linguists and scholars still differ on many aspects of how and why the vowel shift occurred.


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Times Sunday Magazine

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Fun Times

Archie

If you brainstorm with family and friends, you will (March 21- quickly resolve a pressing isApril 19) sue. Don't be afraid to ask for help when you hit a roadblock. Working as a team player will pay off.

ARIES

Stop putting yourself through unnecessary anTAURUS guish. Instead of fretting (April 20May 20) about the future, concentrate on making the best of today. Get out with friends and enjoy life.

GEMINI Mixed signals and misun(May 21- derstandings will lead to a June 20) series of mistakes. Be clear when communicating in order to avoid being blamed for an unintentional blunder. CANCER

Don't let others' actions dictate your mood or plans. (AUGUST Do what makes you happy 9-July 22) and don't worry about who wants to join you and who doesn't.

LEO Let everyone see your ex(July 23- ceptional leadership abilities. Aug. 22) Your unique flair will be more impressive if you play by the rules. The more you take on, the more you will accomplish.

Dilbert

VIRGO Don't rush forward too fast (Aug. 23- or you will miss an important Sept. 22) detail. Time is on your side, so proceed with caution and do things properly the first time.

LIBRA Love is on the rise. You (Sept. 23- deserve to have some fun, so Oct. 23) participate in activities that attract a wide range of people. Include family and friends of all ages.

Peanuts

Good fortune can be yours SCORPIO if you are savvy with your in(Oct. 24Nov. 22) vestments and recognize a good deal when it's offered. Do your homework and watch your money grow. Follow your instincts. You SAGITTARIUS may not convince others to (Nov. 23- see things your way, but you Dec. 21) will accomplish what needs to be done if you are steadfast and determined to reach your goal. Dependability and a strong

CAPRICORN sense of responsibility will (Dec. 22- lead to advancement. Going Jan. 19) above and beyond what is ex-

Calvin and Hobbes

pected of you will earn you favors and rewards. Don't let impulse get the better of you.

Romance is in the stars. AQUARIUS (Jan. 20- Don't try to do everything all Feb. 19) at once or by yourself. Take one step at a time and build a solid foundation for both your personal and professional lives.

Don't let anger or jealousy PISCES dominate your frame of mind. (Feb. 20You risk losing a meaningful March 20) friendship if you act out of revenge or spite. A compliment or some praise will result in an unexpected reward.

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