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A new vision for mobility in Amman Public transport The potential role of BRT in improving public transport levels of service.

1. Abstraction


2. Methodology


3. Literature review


4. BRT System


5. International case studies


6. Local case study


7. Conclusions


8. Recommendations


9. References




1. Abstraction 1.1 Motivation Will we be riding a modern metro and bus system that takes us across Amman with comfort and ease?Any serious discussion aboutAmman and its problems bound to hit upon the issue of transport.Whether we’re complaining about the increasing occurrence of traffic jams, how Amman has turned into a car city, how we have lost some precious pedestrian areas, the tragedy of traffic accidents, social inequality and the city’s identity. Transport has something to do with it. In this paper we study the public transportation trying to find the most suitable transport system fitting with Amman's current situation and context.

1.2 Problem Statement The current level of service provision of public transport in Amman, as in other cities in Jordan, is inadequate and ineffective in meeting user needs, income and aspirations in addition to the multiplicity of authorities that work individually without coordination between them.

1.3 Hypothesis The basic assumption of this research project is that BRT has a critical role to play in improving public transport levels of service, particularly for the urban users of public transport in Amman.

1.4 Aim This research seeks to assess the potential role of BRT in improving public transport levels of service, providing a new vision for mobility and public transport in Amman.

1.5 Objectives/Approach •

A global and comprehensive study about public transportation focusing on BRT system as a very effective method.

Studying a local Rapid Bus try in the university/Queen Rania Street where special large busses will operate between modern, specially designed stations.

Draw conclusions on the appropriateness of the change to the BRT system as an integral/key intervening public transport strategy targeted at improving public transport service levels particularly for the urban users in Amman.

Recommend appropriate measures that can be adopted to make the change to the BRT system mostly beneficial to the urban users of public transport.

1.6 Result As we seek to find the most suitable solution for the transport service in Amman. BRT system came as one of the most appropriate systems because it's ease of implementation in terms of cost, the required infrastructure and dealing with context "in comparison with other transport systems", well performance in the long run and the system benefits we are going to gain as we illustrate in the following research providing some conclusions for better understanding.



2. Methodology We studied the research “Bus Rapid Transit – Sustainable Transport: A Source Book for Policy-Makers in Developing Cities, Module 3b and Eschborn, Germany. “Conducted by Wright, L. back in 2004. “Characteristics of bus rapid transit for decision-making” United States, Department of transportation funded by the Federal Transit Administration back in February 2009 Based on these researches we chose to talk about an existing planned BRT system in Amman (Jordan) And it’s impact on improving the level of transport services provision.

First we have an introduction telling about the BRT system (concept, features and characteristics) to see how important it is for Amman and its situation to have such a system and its compatibility with Amman’s current condition.


we have international case studies in Turkey, Colombia and Mexico to show how effective such a system is and its impact on problems we have in Amman in terms of a BRT system.





we are analyzing the case of the already planned BRT system in Amman, trying to identify its current condition, benefits, recommendations and future plans.



3. Literature review 3.1 Introduction The chapter presents a review of literature on the problems and characteristics of public transport system(s) in developing world cities in general and in Amman in particular. This is then followed by a review on the appeal of BRT for developing world cities in the end, a brief description of Amman's public transport situation.

3.2 Problems and characteristics of road-based public transport systems in developing countries The provision of public transport services in a large number of cities in the developing world often does little to meet the travel needs of the population, particularly residents of low income areas (Palmer, 1997; Wright, 2004). The road-based public transport in developing world cities is characterized by a myriad of informal and formal vans, mini-buses, and full-sized buses (Wright, 2004), and the services provided are generally poor and often regarded as inadequate. Standards of safety, security, comfort, convenience, regularity, punctuality (where schedules apply), reliability, and speed are often low, and low incomes also lead to problems of affordability of fares (Palmer et al, 1997; Wright, 2004). There is also general public dissatisfaction in many developing countries with the quality of public transport services. Wright (2004) identifies the following deficiencies in the current services that the public transport customers typically complain about: 1. Inconvenience in terms of location of stations and frequency of services. 2. Failure to service key origins and destinations. 3. Fear of crime at stations and within public transport vehicles. 4. Lack of safety in terms of driver ability and roadworthiness of public transport vehicles. 5. Service is much slower than private vehicles, especially when public transport vehicles make frequent stops. 6. Over loading of vehicles makes ride uncomfortable. 7. Public transport can be relatively expensive for some developing-nation households. 8. Poor-quality or non-existent infrastructure (e.g., lack of shelters, unclean vehicles, etc.). 9. Lack of organized system structure and accompanying maps and information make the systems difficult to use; and Low status of public transit services (Wright, 2004).

3.3 Appeal of BRT for developing world cities Wright (2004) asserts that BRT attempts to address each of the above-identified deficiencies in current services by providing a rapid, high quality, safe and secure transit option. Actually, in this day in age, the BRT concept is becoming increasingly utilized by cities looking for cost-effective transit solutions (Wright, 2004). BRT is growing in popularity throughout the world, notably in Asia, Europe and South America, in contrast to other forms of mass transit (such as light and heavy rail) mainly due to its cost as well as the following merits: • • •

Flexibility – BRT systems can be designed with considerable flexibility, and this flexibility leads to a wide range of integrated BRT systems. Furthermore, BRT has great operational flexibility; Affordability – BRT systems cost less to implement and have lower operating costs than rail systems (Wright, 2004). Capability to be implemented rapidly and incrementally – BRT is capable of rapid implementation and therefore can have an immediate impact on existing public transport problems. In addition, BRT systems can be implemented incrementally and are thus able to accommodate city specific constraints more readily than fixed track systems that need to be developed more fully. Unlike rail systems, limited BRT systems can be operated effectively as funding allows, with high benefits) (Fox, 2000); High capacity – BRT also provides sufficient capacity to meet demands in many corridors, even in the largest metropolitan regions. BRT high-capacities can match or exceed the passenger volumes of some of the busiest light rail systems (Wright, 2004).

The BRT concept is described in greater detail later on.



3.4 Problems and characteristics of Amman's public transport system

3.4.1 Amman current conditions • • • • • • •

High population growth rate Youthful population (53% below the age of 25) Large land area (1,680 sq. km) About 2.5-3 million people Business and commerce center Major commuter traffic Relatively low HH incomes Median is $7,600/year Limited public transport Great dependence on cars 10% per year car registration

3.4.2 Baseline Conditions –Demand •

4.35 million daily trips: AM peak accounts for roughly 6.3% of demand Less concentration in PM Demand evenly spread during off-peak

Diagrams source: Transport strategy in toward a sustainable city by Ayman Smadi Creativity and Development Initiatives in Arab Cities April 27, 2009


3.4.3 Baseline Conditions –Supply •

Road network Extensive modern network (4,000 km) Several new interchanges State-of-the-art Traffic Control Center

Public transport network Basic system . Good coverage, but little integration . No reliable schedule -

System capacity . 200,000 pp/hr (internal) . 224,000 pp/day external



3.4.4 City • • • • • •

The situation of public transport in Amman Digressed over the year; Did not meet changing needs of distinct market segments Poor service quality (use only by captive riders) Many journeys require multiple changes and take too long Fragmented structure (individual operators) Poorly funded (both public and private) Lack characteristics of modern systems; Timetables, reliability, route coverage, safety, comfort...etc

4. BRT system 4.1 Introduction Bus rapid transit (BRT, BRTS) is a high performance public transport bus service which aims to combine bus lanes with high-quality bus 'stations', vehicles, amenities and branding to achieve the performance and quality of a light rail or metro system, with the flexibility, cost and simplicity of a bus system. Source: Wikipedia The first BRT system was the RedeIntegrada de Transport in Curitiba, Brazil (translated as 'Integrated Transportation Network') which entered service in 1974, which inspired the Trans Milenio in Bogotá, Colombia (opened 2000) and subsequently many other systems around the world.

The world’s first BRT system, Brazil

4.2 Conceptual clarification of BRT 4.2.1 Rapid transit concept “Rapid transit is not a transport mode as such, but, as its name implies, is a means of mass transportation offering a faster service than the alternatives which are available, typically with average operating speeds of 50 kph or more; this generally requires exclusive rights of way” (Wright, 2004: 17). Rapid transit services are commonly provided by light rail, but certain heavy rail systems also fall into this category, as do bus, guided bus or trolleybus services which operate on dedicated rights-of-way and which are therefore faster than those sharing road space with other traffic (Diaz, 2009). 4.2.2 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) concept According to Wright (2004), BRT can best be defined as “a mass transit system using exclusive right of way lanes that mimic the rapidity and performance of metro systems but utilize bus technology rather than rail vehicle technology.” A more detailed definition from the BRT Implementation Guidelines is: BRT is a flexible, high performance rapid transit mode that combines a variety of physical, operating and system elements into a permanently integrated system with a quality image and unique identity.



In simple terms, “BRT is a flexible, permanently-integrated package of rapid transit elements with a quality image and distinct identity” (Diaz, 2009: 26). This definition highlights BRT‟s flexibility and the fact that it encompasses a wide variety of applications, each one tailored to a particular set of travel markets and physical environments (Diaz, 2009).

4.3 BRT elements, system performance and system benefits 4.3.1 Introduction This section explores BRT through a progression of three different perspectives. Firstly, seven major elements of BRT are presented along with their respective features and attributes. Secondly, key BRT system performance attributes and important benefits of integrated BRT systems are identified. Thirdly, the BRT elements are related to attributes of system performance. The section then concludes by an assessment of experience with BRT system performance. BRT elements, system performance and system benefits are shown in Figure 1 below. It is important to note that BRT systems are built by choosing and integrating among BRT elements. The integration of elements, in turn, improves system performance and the experience for customers. Improvements to system performance (in combination with features of BRT elements) generate benefits to transit agencies as well as communities (Diaz, 2009).

Major Elements of BRT • • • • • 4.3.2 • •

Running Ways Stations Vehicles Fare Collection ITS Major Elements of BRT Service and Operations Plan Branding Elements

System Performance • • • • • •

Travel Time Savings Reliability Identity and Image Safety and Security Capacity Accessibility

System Performance • • • • • •

Travel Time Savings Reliability Identity and Image Safety and Security Capacity Accessibility

Figure 1: BRT elements, system performance and system benefits Source: Diaz (2009)

4.4 What BRT is and what it is not 4.4.1 What BRT is There is uncertainty among elected officials and even some transit professionals about what BRT is and how it differs from conventional bus services and systems. While this question is difficult to answer, in part because the options available for each BRT element are so extensive that there are an infinite variety of integrated BRT systems (Diaz, 2009), it can be said with much confidence that BRT is far more than just a bus (Wright, 2004). Wright (2004) ascertains that while BRT utilizes rubber-tired vehicles, it has little else in common with standard bus services and systems. Under its current definition, BRT is “a systematically coordinated service, fully integrated with other modes in a community”. Unlike conventional bus services and systems which rely on fairly standard equipment and operating procedures, BRT involves the following: • Rolling stock of improved design; • Expanded physical facilities, including possibly preferential or exclusive lanes; • Upgraded operational procedures, ranging from fare collection to traffic signals; and • Advanced information and control methods, relying mostly on intelligent transportation systems.

Source: Keywords on



These BRT programs and actions are all different and are tailor-made for each situation. As mentioned before, they are aimed at providing faster, more reliable and convenient bus services than those provided by conventional bus operations. The services provided by conventional buses are too often unattractive, unreliable, time consuming, inaccessible, inconvenient, crowded, dirty, and unsafe (TCRP Report 63 cited in Diaz, 2009, Wright, 2004). In this light, BRT should not be seen as a separate transportation mode nor as just an additional bus service, but rather as an advanced variant of the conventional bus mode. Possibly, the most fundamental difference between BRT and conventional bus services (and other transit modes) is BRT‟s central focus on the customer. BRT systems are designed around the customer-based needs of speed, comfort, convenience, cost, and safety rather than around a specific technology. The quality of customer service is directly related to customer satisfaction. Accordingly, BRT is generally defined as a high-quality, customer-oriented transit that delivers fast, comfortable and cost-effective urban mobility. All in all, BRT is really just a collection of best practice traits from a range of mass transit options (Wright, 2004). For instance, BRT combines the quality of rail transit and the flexibility of buses (Diaz, 2009). 4.4.2 What BRT is not? BRT is not so much a concern with the vehicle itself as it is a matter of how it is operated and to what extent it receives full or partial priority on public rights-of-way. It is also not just about the exclusive lanes, excluding the other key system elements, which would result in a bad quality system that does not function efficiently with the desired impacts. A BRT system is about a total quality approach and involves more than the bus lanes (Fox, 2000). The afore-mentioned key system elements and their integration are equally, if not more important to form a fully integrated BRT system which will ensure fast, reliable, safe and secure, accessible, high capacity service, which also has a distinct identity (Diaz, 2009).

4.5 Common BRT System Features According to Wright (2004), there is no precise definition of what constitutes a BRT system and what represents simply an improved transit system. However, the following is a list of features found on some of the most successful BRT systems implemented to date: • Exclusive right of way lanes; • Rapid boarding and alighting; • Free transfers between lines; • Efficient pre-board fare collection and fare verification; • Enclosed stations that are clean, secure and comfortable; • Clear and prominent route maps, signage, and real-time information displays; • Transit priorities at intersections; • Modal integration at stations and terminals; • Clean bus technologies; and • Excellence in marketing and customer service (Wright, 2004)

Source: It should be noted that local circumstances dictate the extent to which the above characteristics are actually utilized within a system (Wright, 2004). It is also important to note that the acronym BRT may be new, but the concepts of rapid bus operation are old and well tested. Virtually, many of the concepts at the heart of BRT have been in use for decades. In particular, dedicated transit ways/bus ways and exclusive bus lanes, limited-stop and express services have become part of the transit planning vocabulary because they have enhanced speed and reliability and thus encouraged public transport usage (Diaz, 2009). BRT was successfully implemented in Latin American cities, such as Curitiba, Bogotá and Sao Paulo, as well as elsewhere including Brisbane, Los Angeles, Ottawa, Rouen, Beijing, Delhi, Jakarta, Nagoya, and Taipei. It has become a global phenomenon synonymous with quality public transport.



5. International case studies 5.1 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Istanbul, Turkey: Metrobüs An example of a successful BRT solution in a Eurasian metropolis Istanbul in brief The Metrobüs BRT system in Istanbul is a successful response to the specific requirements of the city of Istanbul. The city’s population explosion, it's unique location on the Bosporus and the risk of earthquakes are just some of the special challenges that were met by the BRT transport solution.

• •

Population: 12,500,000 (city) Population density: 2,400 inhabitants / km2

Key data for the BRT concept: Inauguration: September 2007Daily passenger load(total): 600,000 Length: 42 km with 33 stopsAverage daily passenger load(per bus): 1,900 Frequency (rush hour): one bus every 45-60 sec.Maximum passenger load(per hour per direction): 30,000 Average speed:40 km/h

Key success factors for Metrobüs

The initial situation The city of Bogotá had been planning to build a subway since the 1970s. However, the construction of a rail network went well beyond the city’s budget, sothe project never came to fruition. The result: chaos on the roads, as 600 officials and 300 unofficial bus operators had to transport more than 70 percent of the population on approx. 21,500 buses despite the lack of an overall network structure. In addition, there were around 850,000 private cars on the city’s roads.



The result: Metrobüs in Istanbul The Metrobüs has been so successful that the city is currently working on expanding the BRT system. This will make the system even more attractive and further increase people’s mobility. The next extension is planned for 2011 and will cover 10 km. The results of the BRT system are impressive. The operating speed and passenger numbers are both extraordinarily high. With its high transport capacity, reliability and comfort, the Capacity from Mercedes-Benz has played an important role in this respect. The BRT system has been flexibly adapted to suit Istanbul’s difficult geographical situation and various circumstances without the need for any major construction work. Metrobüs demonstrates just how well BRT can be adapted to very different city structures and existing transport systems, and can act as a connecting element.



High transport capacity and ride comfort with the Capacity, appealing and individual design Exclusive, completely separated bus lanes enable restrictionfree driving without delays(Average speed of 40 km/h) Pre-board fare collection (payment before boarding the bus) with turnstile access reduces processing time, thereby increasing the overall transport speed and providing stability of income Integrated tariff solution with electronic ticket for all transport systems (tram, subway, ferry and bus)

5.2 BRT in Mexico-City, Mexico: MetrobúsLínea 3 Corridor An example of a successful BRT solution in one of the biggest cities worldwide The Metrobús Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Mexico-City is the answer to congestion and air pollution that have plagued the city for a long time. Due to the success of the fast and reliable system the city expands the network continuously: the Línea 3 Corridor has been inaugurated in 2011 and is the third line of the city’s BRT system which started operation in 2005. Further extensions are already planned and in construction.

Mexico-City in brief • Population: 8,850,000 (city) 21,400,000 (conurbation) • Population density: 6,000 inhabitants/km2



Key data for the BRT concept: Inauguration: February 2011Daily passenger load(total): 120,000 Average speed:17 km/hAverage daily passenger load(per bus): 220 Frequency (rush hour): one bus every 108 sec.Maximum passenger load(per hour per direction): 5,300 Length: 17 km with 29 stops and 2 terminals

The initial situation With 600 new car registrations each day, a total of 6 million cars and around 21.4 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area, Mexico-City is one of the busiest conurbations in the world. The metro served for a long time as the dominating mass rapid transit system with approx. 250 km of length and 4.5 million trips per day. Over the time the city faced a rapid growth resulting in overcrowded lines and insufficient network coverage. Mexico-City tried to solve the problem with investments in street infrastructure through the construction of elevated highways called “segundos pisos”.

The result: Metrobús in Mexico-City Key success factors for MetrobúsLínea 3 Corridor Metrobús now serves 640,000 passengers per day on 67 km in total. Around 1,000 old vehicles – mainly microbuses – have been withdrawn from service and the BRT system is well integrated into Mexico-City’s public transport system, especially the metro. Thus, the implementation of Metrobús contributed a lot to the overall improvement of the city’s public transport. Due to the success of the system, it has been expanded stepwise over time. In February 2011 the third corridor of Metrobús between the stations Tenayuca andEtiopía was inaugurated and is encompassing 17 km. For the third corridor 54 new Gran Viale articulated buses from Mercedes-Benz with Euro V emission standards were purchased; thus, the corridor was the first BRT fleet in Latin America with Euro V vehicles.





High frequency to serve demand of thecorridor Barrier-free access to stations and buses forpedestrians and handicapped people Physical integration with regional buses,regional rail, metro and passenger cars Distinctive branding to create high passenger acceptance, awareness and


5.3 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Bogotá, Columbia: TransMilenio

An example of a successful BRT solution in a major city The TransMilenio BRT system in Bogotá is a prime example of a successful Transport solution and, in many areas, a benchmark for successful Implementation.The whole city is benefiting in a variety of ways from The improved mobility.

Bogotá in brief • Population: 7,200,000 (city) 7,900,000 (conurbation) • Population density: 4,500 inhabitants / km2

Key data for the BRT concept: Inauguration: November 2000Daily passenger load (total): 1,690,000Average speed:28 km/hAverage daily passenger load (per bus): 1,584 Frequency (rush hour): one bus every 63 sec.Maximum passenger load (per hour per direction):45,000 Length: 84 km with 114 stops

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The initial situation The city of Bogotá had been planning to build a subway since the 1970s. However, the construction of a rail network went well beyond the city’s budget, so the project never came to fruition. The result: chaos on the roads, as 600 official and 300 unofficial bus operators had to transport more than 70 percent of the population on approx. 21,500 buses despite the lack of an overall network structure.In addition, there were around 850,000 private cars on the city’s roads.

The result: TransMilenio in Bogotá The development of its public transport system has fundamentally changed the Nature of the city and it is now pursuing a policy aimed at further reducing the Use of passenger cars. This is clearly demonstrated by the “car-free” day, TheClosure of 150 km of Bogotá’s main roads every Sunday to traffic and the “Pico yPlaca” system, which stipulates the times that cars are not allowed in the city onspecific work days based on the last digit of their license plate number.

Key success factors for TransMilenio 1. Multi-lane bus services enable overtaking and the use of express bus lines 2. BRT solution led to the creation of trafficreducedzones in which only the BRTservices operate and the quality of life is increased 3. Pre-board fare collection (payment beforeboarding the bus) reduces station dwell times, thereby increasing the overall transport speed 4. Barrier-free entry makes it safer and quicker for passengers to get in and out

Local case study First we would like to view some of the current problems we have in Amman in public transport to strengthen the need of a BRT system. Transport Challenges •

Surge in demand due to Population growth/other socio-economic factors Increase in intensity of land use

Expanding metropolitan area

Road systemis already overloaded

Poorly public transport system -

Public transport mode share of 14% Majority of public transport trips are made by car based services, either shared taxi or regular taxi

No rapid transit or high capacity passenger transportation

Limited funding apportioned to transportation projects

Balance affordability with sustainability

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Traffic Congestion •

The cost of delay due to traffic congestion in Amman is estimated to be JD 567,000,000 (2006).

This is equivalent to about JD 200 per person per year.

This does not include other costs of traffic congestion, such as environmental impacts, sprawl, and traffic accidents.

Fuel Consumption

• •

Transportation contributes to 38% of Jordan’s fuel bill. This percentage is expected to rise if car ownership levels continue to increase at current rates.

Second Rapid Transit Network


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Phase 1 •

Three routes (30km)

Detailed engineering design completed -

Construction tendered

Service plan being finalized

Business model -

Publicly financed infrastructure Operations by private sector Revenue risk retained by GAM Pay per km Set of KPIs


Accomplishment •

Increase public transport mode share from 14% to Reduce dependence on private cars Reduce negative environmental impacts of Reduce portion of household income spent Reduce public space used up by roads and

40% in 2025 transport on transport bridges

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The Project

• •

40 KM -

Mostly underground

Project -

awarded to Egis Rail Preliminary design Feasibility study Environmental impact assessment Technology options Financing options


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Plans Criticism Disadvantage


Part A of plan 4 in Amman BRT Plans attached PDF


The future implementation of the BRT system will come up with the advantage of creationlivable, dynamic and interactive spaces that going to serve the area and users

The designer by the creation of the previous space caused the negligence of this underground pedestrian path in spite of the ability to enhance it and increase its importance

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Part B of plan 4 in Amman BRT Plans attached PDF


This BRT stop that came as a response to the traffic situation with the negligence of the safety aspect since it is situated on a crowded junction.

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Part of plan 7 in Amman BRT Plans attached PDF

The planner didn't take consideration of designing the street furniture which play a significant role in such a system

The construction of the BRT system will come up with a new steel pedestrian bridge that going to provide choice for users plus it is a safe method for mobility since it is elevated from the street

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Part of plan 9 in Amman BRT Plans attached PDF


The BRT bus stop at Al Rawdah roundabout doesn't provide a convenient place for users and vehicles plus it may increase the congestion

The pedestrian crossings and traffic crossings doesn't provide the best solution for people to move safely

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Amman’s BRT recommendations and Future Plans. Where should we be ? •

Rail-based rapid transit

Comprehensive bus network

– More buses (current is 3buses/10,000) – Bus priority corridors • Integrated network • Interchange points with intercity – Integrated trifling and ticketing • Commuter rail network • Effective contracting mechanism – Service management contracts – Quality standards and incentives – Subsidy to ensure affordable Fares • Comprehensive travel information and customer support

Action Plan • Create work teams and establish specialized departments • Develop effective regulations and policies • Assess problems and needs, and measure demand levels • Transport and Mobility Master Plan • Improve quality of service • Develop modern system using the latest technologies (metro/LRT, and BRT)

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Improving Bus Services •

More and better buses -

160 new buses Update old fleet High-quality (city bus)

Financial support for bus services -

$24 million over 4 years Performance standards

• Electronic fare payment(smartcard)

Terminals, Stations and Stops •

Rehabilitate existing terminals

Establish stations and terminals to facilitate interchanges Park-n-Ride

Coordinated street furniture 700 modern bus shelters

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7. Conclusions 7.1 Strengths •

• • •

Reduce travel time Reduce travel by car congestion time. Running times are dependent on traffic congestion, delays at intersections, and the need to decelerate into and accelerate from stations. Station dwell time. Waiting and transfer time. Service reliability The availability of consistent service. Identity and image Capture how a BRT system is perceived by both passengers and non-passengers. Safety and security for public transport customers and the general public can be improved with the implementation of BRT systems, where these are defined as: Safety – freedom from hazards, as demonstrated by reduced accident rates, injuries, and improved public perception of safety. Security – the actual and perceived freedom from criminal activities and potential threats against customers and property. Accessibility The provision of a clear and well defined access routes.

7.2 Weaknesses • • • •

The absence of coordination between different sides and the difficulty of implementing such a system with the possibility of errors and reformulation processes. The compatibility with the already existed built fabric is not guaranteed. The need for a well-designed infrastructure could be a form giver and a constraint of the project success. The missing of a scheduled plan for the data collection and analysis phases which address the problem may cause conjunction and delivery delay.

7.3 Opportunities • • • •

The affordability of jobs in different sectors from driving buses to management. The BRT system plans and extensions could be the guideline for the upcoming urban spread. The existence of such a system helps to increase the integration and connect the city to a wider world. The opportunity to decrease the negative impacts on environment especially when going toward sustainable transport systems.

7.4 Threats • • • • •

Institutional Internal: adequate resources and processes External Coordination with many stakeholders How to influence national policy Technical Terrain, insertion into built environment, etc Financial Infrastructure cost Subsidy for operations (especially during transition) Social/political Bias against public transport from years of neglect

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8. Recommendations • • •

Anticipate change Understand socio-economic factors Prepare for impacts Improvements/strategies (multimodal) In Master Plan Give priority to moving People and Goods " Rather than Vehicles " Encourage compact Development " Save JD2Billion in road " Integration of all transport modes: o Pedestrian o Public Transport o Vehicles Integration of Public Transit with Land Use o Densification along High Order Transit Corridors & Nodes o Linking Places to Live, Work and Shop with Transit Effective land use policies and emphasis on transit.

Make a full understanding of demand.

Accountability to residents of Amman.

Integrate public transport with land use planning and pedestrianization, as well as other transport modes.

Make public transport an integral part of the decision making and funding process.

Pay attention to the urban design elements especially street furniture.

Respect the already existed context. Accessibility routes and corridors Infrastructure Natural resources Enhance local identity

Improve existing public transport services Newer Autobus brand New way of doing business

Fare policy and subsidy Smartcard payment system Modern terminals

Enhance Public Transport in Amman -

Develop a rapid transit backbone Three rail lines serving central Amman A network of BRT corridors Restructure and significantly improve bus services Restructure the minibuses, service taxis and regular taxis Integrate with the Zarqa-Amman LRT Develop interchange and terminal facilities Integrate transportation services Establish the regulatory and institutional capacity to support a world-class passenger transportation system

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9. References Websites •

Attached PDF Researches •

Diaz, R.B. (editor) (2009). Characteristics of Bus Rapid Transit for Decision-Making, Federal Transit Administration (FTA), United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT), Washington, DC.

Fox, H. (2000). Mass Rapid Transit in Developing Countries: World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review, Final Report, Halcrow Group Limited, London

Palmer, C., Astrop, A. and Maunder, D.A.C. (1997). Constraints, Attitudes and Travel Behavior of Low-income Households in Two Developing Countries. Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) 263, UK.

Wright, L. (2004). Bus Rapid Transit – Sustainable Transport: A Source Book for Policy-Makers in Developing Cities, Module 3b, Eschborn, Germany.

Attached Video •

Amman Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) video (

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Amman brt public transportation  

Urban Design Research UJ Amman, Jordan 2013