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The fight to protect women’s sexual reproductive health The unapologetic ingenuity of Indigenous women

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Editor’s note Today, the world observes International Day of Women and Girls in Science under the theme: “Equality and Parity in Science for Peace and Development”. In keeping with this observations, countries all across the globe are holding seminars, shows, outreaches and other events in order to rally behind bringing the theme to fruition. On February 8-9, the Royal Academy of Science International Trust (RASIT), the Government of the Republic of Malta, the United

Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and a number of other missions and organisations hosted a two-day forum at the United Nations headquarters in New York to address key issues relating to the theme, including a review of relevant United Nations plans and programmes of action pertaining to the situation of Science, Technology and Innovation; Understanding Equality and Parity in Science through capacity building, cooperation and data

Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018 governance (gap in statistics, data to address policy concern, stakeholder coordination, data sharing/exchange, etc.) among others. In keeping with this international observance, this week’s Pepperpot brings you stories looking at how women see their own role in the area of science, how Indigenous women contribute to scientific practices, considerations that should be made for underprivileged women in healthcare and other stories. As the world strives toward eradicating gender inequality, it is important that we remain informed about the concerns of women and girls and seek ways in which changes can be made, if equality is to be achieved.

International Day of Women and Girls in Science

“Equality and Parity in Science for Peace and Development” THE idea for an International Day of Women and Girls in Science was generated during the first High-Level World Women's Health and Development Forum organised by the Royal Academy of Science International Trust (RASIT) and The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, and held on February 11th 2015 at the United Nations headquarters. Following an outreach to a number of partners and stakeholders at all levels and with RASIT’s partnership with the Ministry for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs and Civil Liberties, the Republic of Malta, a milestone year was reached in which the 70th Session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution (70/212) proclaiming February 11, annually the International Day of Women and Girls in Science. The sponsorship of more than 68 countries and the approval of all Member States to the resolution signal the global community's interest in transforming our world through achieving equality and parity in science for sustainable development. The partnership between the Royal Academy of Science International Trust (RASIT) and the Government of the Republic of Malta illustrates Sustainable Development Goal 17. In both 2016 and 2017, the Royal Academy of Science International Trust organised the commemoration of the International Day in close collaboration and partnership with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA) and the Government of Malta. The participation of the highest levels of the UN system agencies and programmes, Inter-governmental Organisations and Member States, demonstrates the continuing resolve and commitment of international community to eliminate gender inequality in science, employment, opportunities and education.

CONCEPT NOTE AND PROGRAMME AGENDA Despite some progress in recent years, achieving equality and parity in science remains an important challenge for policy-makers and the scientific community at large. This commemoration will examine the need for policy changes at all levels, to address the gender imbalance that exists in scientific fields, as well as in other areas including technology, engineering, mathematics and cutting-edge, innovative technologies. The role that women in science can play at all levels has become a priority on the science agendas of many national and international political institutions. Although the number of female science graduates has increased, true equality and parity in science has not yet been

achieved. Over the past 25 years, the United Nations and its agencies have realised the gender-gap in science; however, the advancement of women and girls in science has not only stalled, but the international community is seeing a recidivist slide backwards. The question to be asked is "Why?" Why have there been so few female scientists chosen to speak at high-level events, or selected to take part in international decision-making bodies, or to deal with policy formulation? In striving towards equality, peace and prosperity and towards universal sustainable development, we must recognise the role of women in science in achieving implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The role of the UN Commission on Science and Technology for Development in suggesting policy recommendations to Heads of State and Government, as well as to parliamentarians, will be highlighted, the significant role of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), as the responsible UN entity serving as the Secretariat for the Commission, will be discussed, and similar to neglected areas of science and the official UN bodies that deal with them will be presented. The role of the scientific diaspora will also be discussed. The 2018 International Day of Women and Girls in Science Forum (IDWGS-2018) aims to mobilise women in science expertise from a wide range of disciplines that can contribute to achieving sustainable development goals. It will explore innovative ways to measure and assess data produced by international organisations. The forum will also provide a unique opportunity for policy-makers and women in science experts to propose an International Framework and Action Plan for Equality and Parity in Science. The purpose of this forum is to harness the strategies, expertise and resources across the broadest spectrum of policy-makers, professionals, civil society and the private sector to move equality and parity in science for sustainable development into the mainstream discourse. It is anticipated that this will spark sustained public demand for lasting political action in support of an ambitious outcome from the 2030 Development Agenda process and other declarations and Outcome Documents of other UN fora. The Forum Planning Committee has made every effort to ensure that perspectives from north/south, gender, youth, older persons, indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities, global geographic areas, expert constituencies, and international networks are included. (http://womeninscienceday.org)


Women in Science Charting the challenging course Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

By Anthony Layne

THE United Nations has designated February 11 each year, “International Day for Women and Girls in Science.” Consequently, in observance, Pepperpot Magazine features several women and girls, who are involved in various areas of Science. Shebeki Adams, age 26, is a Quality Assurance Chemist with Sterling Products Limited (SPL), where she is attached to the Ice Cream and Yogurt Plant. Come May, Adams will have completed two years with SPL. Adams attended St Rose’s High School and graduated in 2008.She then proceeded to the University of Guyana and graduated with a Degree in Biology in 2013. As regards her career-advancement plans, Adams is considering to further her studies in Food Science. Ms Odessa Alleyne-Chester teaches Chemistry at St Rose’s High School and has been teaching Pure Science as opposed to Integrated Science, for the past 18 years. She also taught Physics before finally deciding to settle with Chemistry. Interestingly, Ms Alleyne-Chester said she did not have a grounding in Pure Science, since the school she attended had only Integrated Science on its curriculum. Consequently, when she applied to the Cyril Potter College of Education (CPCE), she had intended majoring in Social Studies. As fate would have it however, when she attended

Ms. Manifa Bourne

Ms Hansrajie Ramoo teaches Integrated Science as well as Human and Social Biology at St Rose’s High. Ms Hansrajie started teaching in 2003, after graduating from Saint Stanislaus College. After teaching for one year, she resigned to attend UG, from where she graduated with a Degree

Ms. Odessa Alleyne-Chester

the interview she was offered the opportunity to major in Pure Science; she bravely accepted the challenge and the rest, as they say, is now history. Ms Alleyne-Chester related the feelings of gratification and accomplishment she experiences, as increasing numbers of students opt for careers in Science; a development that is in keeping with the policy of the school to encourage students to pursue such careers. In particular, she recalled her exhilaration when her first student to graduate from the University of Guyana with a Degree in Medicine, invited her to the graduation. Finally, she has no intention of resting on her laurels, as she plans to pursue a Masters in Chemistry.

Science teacher Ms. Hansrajie Ramoo with two of her students in the lab

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in Bio-chemistry. Having enjoyed her first experience in teaching, she returned to the profession at St Rose’s in 2009 and subsequently returned to UG and pursued post-graduate studies in Education. What motivated her to teach Science? Said she: “ … I think that Science should be taught differently; a teacher actually has a lot of influence on a student’s performance, as well as how a student reacts to that subject, so for me, I wanted to make a difference and teaching it, I have seen that change.” Ms Ramoo plans to pursue a Masters in Bio-chemistry. Manifa Tandia Bourne is an Analytical Scientific Officer (ASO) attached to the Government Analyst-Food and Drugs Department (GA-FDD). Manifa graduated from UG with a Degree in Biology in 2014 and was appointed ASO the following year. Her reason for taking up a career in Science? Said Manifa: “Science is intriguing, it brings about constant learning; it’s an everyday learning process. It’s not like learning something a particular way and then having to repeat all over again. With Science, you have to learn things differently, compared to other disciplines; the other disciplines are a bit more restrictive and more limited. Science does not limit people, it is limitless.” Manifa is now Supervisor Ms. Keshanna Thorne (Photos by Anthny Layne) o f t h e W a t e r Chemistry Laboratory and her responsibilities include analysing water samples and documenting results. But it is not just about documenting results, said Manifa: the challenge lies in ensuring that the results are precise and accurate, because, as in any other aspect of food and drug operations, people’s well-being is at stake. What are her future career plans? Manifa said that she would definitely like to move on to another science-related endeavour, one that would allow her to delve deeper into her discipline, Biology. Keshana Thorne, age 20, is a third-year Pharmacy student at the University of Guyana. Keshana said that since she was in Third Form at Saint Stanislaus College, she had decided to pursue a career in Science, when so many others were gravitating towards Business. She was motivated to study Pharmacy, she said, because there always seems to be a paucity of health care workers, including Pharmacists. She therefore wanted to help make a difference. Upon completion of her one-year internship after graduation, Keshana intends to read for a Masters in Pharmacology or Psychology.


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Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

India through my eyes A multi-cultural society that has a place for everyone By Indrawattie Natram

During the tour, I was afforded the opportunity to set my foot on the Jama Mosque. This mosque is known to be one of the largest and most well-known in India, and it was built in the 17th Century. The mosque is flanked by Red Fort and the old city of Chandni Chowk. Other interesting places visited was Red Fort itself, Raj Ghat which lies on the banks of the River Yamuna, Humayun's Tomb, Qutub Minar, India Gate, Rashtrapati Bhavan (The President's house), Akshardham Temple, the National Museum, Laxminaryan Temple and the Lotus Temple. Of all the tours in Delhi, my heart was captivated when we visited the Akshardham temple. The architectural design is beyond the explanation of words. The Hindu temple complex displayed millennia of traditional Hindu and Indian culture, spirituality and architecture. The Akshardham experience was truly an enlightening journey through India's glorious art, values and contributions for the progress, happiness and harmony of mankind.

WHETHER you are a Hindu or a Muslim or any faith or religion, India is a place that can make you feel at home. It is a country of rich, diverse culture and a multicultural society where people speak 122 major languages and 1599 other languages, according to the Census of India 2001. But despite these vast differences, the hospitality of the people is unexplainable. Unity in diversity is the beauty of India and despite whichever country you are visiting from you are assigned equal rights with warm welcome irrespective of your gender, caste, class, community, language or religion. My visit to India in early November 2017 had given me the opportunity to experience the country as a young professional. It had captured my eyes with its magnificent beauty and traditional values. Ancient, wild and colourful, India is definitely a place to behold. Whether breathing in the spice-filled air of the outdoor markets, tasting the myriad flavours of local cuisines or letting your eyes takes in the rich luscious green hillsides and plantations, my experience in India was truly a magnificent one. I can safely say "Athithi Devo Bhava", which means "The Guest is equivalent to God" is correct since Indians consider it a huge honour to accommodate guests and they go out of their way to satisfy them. At Jumma Mosque

“MY TRIP” I was given one of the most wonderful and prestigious opportunities through the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India's 44th Know India Programme to experience India. The programme affords members of the young Indian Diaspora the opportunity to indulge in the rich cultural heritage of the blessed land. The main objective of the ministry was to familiarise the Indian Diaspora Youth, in the age group of 18-30 years with development and achievements made by the country and to bring the Indian Diaspora closer to the land of their ancestors. The programme provides a unique forum for students and young professionals of Indian descent to visit India, share their views, expectations, experiences and to bond closer with contemporary India.

The 44th Know India Programme hosted 40 participants from nine countries, namely Trinidad and Tobago, Figi, Mauritius, Myanmar, Guyana, Israel, Malaysia, South Africa and Suriname. The first and last phase began with participants exploring the capital city of Delhi by visiting historic monuments, religious sites, universities, NGOs, industrial areas, cultural training institutions and learning the art of Yoga. Delhi, which is considered the soul of India, can be easily recognised from other states due to its busy traffic and the usual hustle. On arriving in India, the lights of the city were truly magnificent. The honking of the vehicle horns was definitely something different than in the Caribbean.

TAJ MAHAL Visiting the wonders of Agra was inspirational. Agra is famed with one of the seven wonders of the world, the Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal symbolises the love of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. The edifice is adorned with white marble and is the finest example of the Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian Architectural styles. ANDRA PRADESH The second phase of the trip was a visit to Andra Pradesh. There I was able to experience the different cultures in Vijayawada, Rajahmundry and Visakhapatnam. The most welcoming stay was in this State, mostly because my ancestors resided here and I felt at home. Andra Pradesh has major cultural landmarks, including the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, and an ornate hilltop shrine to Hindu Vishnu, in the southern part. The beaches in the area were pristine and the people Turn to page XVIII ►►►


Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

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From a SUGAR FACTORY to a ROTUNDA By Francis Quamina Farrier IF YOU are a regular reader on my Pepperpot articles, you would know that I grew up in Mc Doom Village, East Bank Demerara, which is now part of the extreme southern area of Georgetown, Guyana’s capital city. As such, I grew up with sugar plantations and sugar factories all around, and have seen them thrive for decades, but later disappear and replaced by other successful enterprises. With that opening paragraph, you are already aware in which direction this feature article is heading; what has been the prospect of sugar workers when a sugar factory here in Guyana closes down. The examples go back for well over a century when sugar factories and plantations came to an end. Let’s think of Ogle and Chateau Margot on the lower East Coast of Demerara. In the case of the latter, the sugar factory’s chimney remains a tall and impressive edifice, which I know can be seen many miles out at sea, when land is not visible. I speak from personal experience. On the East Bank of Demerara, there were the Ruimveldt Sugar Factory, the Houston Sugar Factory and the Diamond Sugar Factory. As students we were taught that the Diamond Sugar Factory was the largest in the country; something we, as young students growing up in that part of the colony, were very proud of. We were also taught in school, some of the history of the sugar production and the many sugar factories which were closed down decades before our time. For example, we were taught that there used to be sugar plantations and factories on the Essequibo Coast - the largest was at Anna Regina - but they were all closed down over time, and that there was no longer any sugar production on the Essequibo Coast. Successful rice cultivation replaced sugar in that area of

the colony, and some rice farmers even became millionaires. Over the decades, sugar factories in Demerara and Berbice continued to be closed down one-by-one; sugar production in Guyana was slowly coming to an end; creeping oh, so slowly, like a turtle with a heavy parcel of Demerara Brown Sugar on its back. At this time, 2017/2018, the recent closing down of a few more sugar factories has taken on a very serious political debate, and from where I look, the sugar workers seem to be used as pawns

workers on the East Bank of Demerara, when they were in operation many decades ago. Replacing that large sugar factory at Diamond is a beverage production complex (DDL), inclusive of a mini Sugar Production Museum. After the closing down of the Houston Sugar Factory, the operation swam out to the Atlantic Ocean, so to speak, with a very successful fishing operation which has created employment for scores of Guyanese workers. A few of the sugarcane fields were even utilised as grazing pastures for cattle. Less than

The BANKS DIH Rotunda which is the headquarters of the company, and which has on display a number of D’Aguiar family artifacts. (Photo by Francis Quamina Farrier)

in a political wrangle and a tangle, which now happily, seems to be finally heading in a direction of a positive compromise, and hopefully with all the stakeholders being satisfied. However, this feature article is not about the bitter on-going political face-off between the Government and the Opposition, but rather, the sweet follow-up to the closing down of those three East Bank Demerara sugar factories at Ruimveldt, Houston and Diamond, which gave a livelihood to thousands of sugar

half a mile further north, the dismantling of the Ruimveldt Sugar Factory saw the erection of an impressive Rotunda, in a beverage, bread, crackers and other eatables complex, known as Thirst Park. There, some of the most brilliant minds have fashioned a respected and progressive public company; BANKS DIH Limited, which emerged from The D’Aguiar Imperial House (DIH) Family business. Historically, that was the very first private family company of its size to have

offered shares to the public, which was the initiative of the visionary businessman, Peter Stanislaus D’Aguiar. Hundreds of Guyanese bought shares, and over the decades have had no reason to regret doing so. Some of those shares have been passed on to the children and grandchildren of the original Shareholders. With the passing of the Founder Chairman, Peter D’Aguiar, the company has grown and prospered over the past six decades, with the capable leadership of the present Chairman, Clifford Barrington Reis, CCH, whose main message over the years to shareholders is, “Do not sell your shares.” As I am working on this article, a 15-yearold student of the Bishops’ High School has just told me that he saw me at the recently held January 27, 2018, Annual Shareholders Meeting at Thirst Park, and informed me that he is a Banks DIH shareholder. He said that his father bought the shares in his name. That supports one of the rallying points which the Company Chairman, Clifford Reis made in his 2017 Annual Report, that he was observing more young people becoming interested in buying shares in the company. Since the present generation is benefitting from the wise decisions of the previous generations in buying Banks DIH Shares, a decision was made some years ago to mount a bust of the late Company Chairman, Peter D’Aguiar, in the forecourt of the Thirst Park Gardens. That, in a way, can inspire younger staffers and employees of the company, to work even harder toward a public company which is growing from strength to strength. So, with the above history of sugar production here in Guyana, I guess it is safe to say that the current sugar workers who have been retrenched, will not suffer and die, but rather find new, and possibly, less strenuous and even more lucrative means of livelihood.


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Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

Seven years later

12 killed in Berbice road accident, no justice By Tracey Khan IT WAS seven years ago that 12 persons died in one of the most horrific accidents in recent memory to occur in Berbice. For the first time, relatives are speaking out about the damaging effects that the tragic day of October 29, 2010, still has on their lives and their continued appeal for justice. It was a rainy Friday afternoon when the minibus was approaching Suzanne Village, Corentyne, with 17 persons aboard when suddenly, a truck overtook another vehicle and came straight into the path of the minibus. What many would witness next was a scene similar to that of a grisly horror movie: there were mangled and decapitated bodies, severed limbs and blood everywhere. For 45-year-old Bibi Sookram, life has been a constant struggle for her and her five children. The accident took from them, her husband and their father, Chetram Ramphal. “When we use to live, he never made us short of anything because he use to find it and bring it. Now it’s like we’re starving...me never work anyway and since my husband died, me at everybody door looking for work,” Sookram said. On the day of the accident, Chetram, who was a fisherman, was on his way to visit his sick son at the children’s ward of the New Amsterdam Hospital, but

Marques Ault

Josiah Khan

Talita Mendoca Chetram Ramphal

instead ended up in the mortuary. His son was six years old at the time, he waited but his father never came. “The same day he died none of them didn’t know and [I dreamt that he] tell me he died,” the young child recalls. The lad who is now 13, recalled the incident which Tanisha is still fresh in his mind. He is named after his father, Chetram, and spoke with passion and admiration for the man he loves and respects even in death. Chetram Jr. is a smart and hardworking teen who wants more in life than to be a fisherman. Eager to attain an education to better himself and lift his family out of poverty, he cried uncontrollably as he related how his heart breaks seeing his peers afforded

Cindy Jaggernauth

the chance at an education; an opportunity he can now only dream of and one he would give anything to have. “I want to be a doctor or work in a Minister’s office,” he said. “When I was in Grade Five, I was bright but since my daddy left us and since we don’t have the money [for me] to go back to school I turn to nothing. Now I am fishing and don’t have anything in my brain. Sometimes I use to drink only tea and go to school all day.” His mother explained that “When the day up you nah get the money to send him to school. You got to wait until them go fishing and come back then to send him to school. It’s very hard.” WORLD SHATTERED Joel Khan suffered a double blow that day when he lost his two-month-old son and girlfriend; a loss that shattered Turn to page VII ►►►


Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018 By Abdool A. Aziz

CRICKET IGNORAMUS

OVERNIGHT STAR UMPIRE IN 1965, he found himself as the secretary of the Guyana Teachers’ Association, Wakenaam Branch. This island and the Cinderella county were organising the inter-district cricket tournament and umpires were needed. The branch unanimously appointed him their umpire. He vehemently objected to their choice as he had no knowledge of cricket, not knowing a ‘no ball’ from an L.B.W. In the whole of Guyana, perhaps he was the only one ignorant of this popular game. His father was an enthusiast but he never listened to the commentary and hated the rambled voices emanating from these transistors. He never watched a game. He simply hated cricket. To get him upset, all you had to do was ask him the score. NO BACKING DOWN But there was no rescinding of the de◄◄◄ From page VI

his world. This was the biggest blow he suffered in life and was on a downward spiral for years, feeling lost and hopeless.

cision despite his complaints. He was compelled to execute this dignified job. An ignoramus turn umpire, how absurd. But there was no backing down. He was no coward, and his colleagues had confidence in him. So he borrowed a bicycle and rode around the island seeking all the knowledge of the white man's game. He found Red Fox, an octogenarian and former batsman for the Ridge Cricket Club. That's when he hit jackpot. He learned all about the player and the field and fielders. He even did a sketch of the field and word by word, the rules and the decisions. He loved to rule and be in command. He was a former army officer with a powerful ego. THE ‘PROFESSIONAL’ The next day he bought a white shirt jack, a pair of white 'yachting' boots and borrowed

daughter and when I took him to mental, me last me remembrance and them had to treat both of us.” TAKING UP THE MANTLE Cindy’s daughter, Shalini, is now a high school teen who was forced to grow up and be a mother to her younger brother. She recently got married but was saddened by the absence of her mother at such an important time in her life. “Life without a mother is not the same. This is the time we need her the most and she’s not there,” the weeping woman said. Royston Ault is another father who is suffering after losing his son who was 13 years old. At the time, Royston was a taxi driver on his way to New Amsterdam, so he was close to

“Well, it affects my life a lot because from then to know I still can’t catch myself although I have children I still can’t catch myself, especially to know that we still don’t have justice,” Khan said. Fortunately, he is slowly picking up the pieces of his life and is working to get back fully on track. He is now a father of three beautiful chilJoel with his son, Josiah dren, but he lives in constant Khan in happier times fear of losing them, given what happened that day. Talita Mendonca was the scene when he received the news. When he holding her youngest child in her arms as arrived, he was confronted with the gruesome they travelled that day filled with many sight of his son’s lifeless body hanging out of dreams and aspirations, which will never be the minibus. Even though he was devastated and realised. She was a woman who truly loved knew his son was dead he ran with his body to her children and did everything possible to the hospital. make them happy. Her mother, Derice, was Two years prior, he had lost his wife, so his unable to say much as she spoke about her three children were already motherless and his eldest daughter automatically took on that motherly loving daughter. She was 21 years old and resided at Kil- role for her younger brothers. Unable to cope with another loss and in such donan Village with her two children. They a tragic manner, Royston was forced to uproot his still ask when is mommy coming home. “Well her eldest daughter would normally children from Rose Hall Town in search of peace. “I don’t know if this is a strategy for them ask for her and when people ask her where is her mother she doesn’t answer. It still to feel that people will forget and people’s hurt hard seven years later,” the grieving mother will disappear and they will just drop everything. People are still hurting, nobody never follow up to explained. The grief of the parents of Cindy Jaggern- counsel the people them,” he said. Marques Ault would have been 22 years old auth was so unbearable that they gave up and could no longer cope with the reality that she this year. His father said he was an average student so he decided to enroll him in extra lessons was gone forever. “After meh daughter dead, meh husband to boost his grades. The former Lower Corentyne take stress and trouble with he nerves and Secondary student was heading to his extra lessons start run off, so I had to take him to a mental when he died. In our next edition, you will more [hospital],” Jaggernauth said. “He [spent heart-breaking stories as families recall the all his energy] fighting for justice for his painful memories of losing their loved ones.

a white flop hat and cleaned his sunglasses. Being tall and slim, he looked great in this immaculate garb - the professional umpire.

GETTING THE JOB DONE He had a prestigious job to do and he was going to do it the best way. He would face this challenge and deliver; it was his day. As he and his buddy walked on to the field, the home team rose in jubilation. He was taller than the other umpire and he stood out. The home team won the toss to bat. He was placed at the square leg and the game began. Then the uproar, there appeared to be an L.B.W. The guests demanded the call. He just didn’t respond. They pelted missiles and stormed the field but he remained adamant. He saw

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no L.B.W and his decision stood. Anyone in command must make decisions, whether popular or controversial. He was a fake but acted professionally. Later, when a ball was caught, the spectators shouted “OUT!” he didn’t see it that way. Now it was a riot. The police had to restore order. The mob shouted "Get rid of that crooked Umpy, he’s biased! That was a fair catch! Move off the field, he is no good!” Again, the film showed his decision was just. He called it as he saw it. He was a sports judge and dispensed justice without fear or favour. He had to be escorted by the police to his home at the end of the match because the guest team won. The home team felt he was a letdown. He just executed his job well. Later, he was deemed a start umpire. But that was his last game. To this day, he still hates cricket.


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Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018


Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

Adventurers

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Travelling tourists marvel at Guyana’s hospitality THEY may be of different nationalities, but they have at least one thing in common: a yearning for adventure. Luca Diana, 25, is from Milan, Italy and Romina Villaverde, 30, is from Buenos Aires, Argentina and they arrived here from Brazil, French Guiana and Suriname shortly before Christmas as part of a South American tour. Luca is a barber by profession, and Romina is a computer programmer, a photographer and a musician – a trombonist, to be specific. She has been travelling through South America for about one year now starting January, 2017, when a band in which she played toured Uruguay, where she spent two months. “This tour,” she said, “Left me in no doubt that travelling is what I really wanted to do.” Her appetite, therefore, whetted for further travel, she journeyed to Brazil where she spent nine months and where she met like-minded people, including Luca, whom she met in Rio de Janeiro. Apart from Uruguay and Brazil and before embarking on this tour, she had already visited Bolivia, Colombia, several Central American countries, as well as Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Luca, on the other hand, has not travelled as extensively, but lived in the UK for several years before setting out to explore the South American continent. In halting English, Luca said: “I have always been fascinated by South America’s cultural diversity and physical beauty. I’m particularly interested in visiting Ushuaia, in Argentina.” Ushuaia is a resort town

located on the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, the southernmost their stay was marred by a very unfortunate incident when tip of South America, nicknamed the “End of the World.” The Romina was attacked one evening and robbed of her Ipod, windswept town, perched on a steep hill, is surrounded by the G$700.00 and her national identification card. The attack Martial Mountains and the Beagle Channel. It is the gateway to occurred under cover of near darkness on a street in New Antarctica cruises and tours to nearby Isla Yecapasela, known Haven, Bel Air. Undaunted by the incident, however, they have vowed to return and see much more of Guyana and to as “Penguin Island” for its penguin colonies (Google). Both travellers have admitted that they knew little or visit the majestic Kaieteur Falls. nothing about Guyana before their arrival, but now that they are here, they have been overwhelmed –as most visitors are – by the warmth and hospitality of Guyanese. They are especially grateful to former Minister of Public Works, Robeson Benn, who was very helpful to them and also to a couple, Raj and Rosh, of New Haven, Bel Air, who accommodated them for two weeks. They are fascinated by Guyana’s ethno-cultural diversity and the harmonious relations that seem to exist among people of different ethnicities and religions. “With so many ethnic conflicts in other parts of the world, we find it truly amazing that people of Romina (left) and Luca do a gig different ethnic backgrounds and of different religions at the busy intersection of the can live in peace and harmony,” Luca said. Railway Embankment and Sheriff They, however, regret that they were unable Street (Photo by Anthony Layne) to venture beyond Georgetown and the fact that


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Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

The fight to protect women’s sexual reproductive health

– sensitising through health centres, churches, youth groups and public forums By M. Margaret Burke FORMED just over a year ago, Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) Adventures is an initiative that seeks to raise awareness on sexual reproductive health and rights with a special focus on family planning/ contraception in Guyana. This initiative was conceived by Dr. Patricee Douglas whose interest was spawned by her love for women’s and girls’ health and rights and her numerous encounters with individuals from Guyana who were unaware of how to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. Since the establishment of this NGO, SRHR Adventures facilitated countless sessions on family planning, abortion, and adolescent pregnancy among other SRHR topics at local health centres, churches and youth groups predominantly in Region Four, with the aim of increasing public awareness, while focusing more on the health of women and making every effort to dismantle many taboos relating to women’s health and rights. #COMFORTWITHEVERYDROP Additionally, SRHS launched their quarterly sanitary pad project entitled #comfortwitheverydrop on February 3, at the Giftland Mall where sanitary napkins were collected and monetary donations. As part of this project, provision was made for sanitary pads to be given to women who cannot afford to purchase same. Moreover, an awareness booth titled ‘Leh we gyaff bout periods’ was set up and the

public was engaged in conversations about menstruation, menstrual hygiene and myths about periods. In the month of March, they will donate the sanitary napkins to the young ladies of the St. Ann’s Orphanage, Women Across Differences and the cancer patients at the Beacon Foundation. In addition to their sanitary napkins distribution, they will facilitate health talks on menstruation, menstrual hygiene, and cervical cancer. They are soliciting the public to continue to contribute towards the #ComfortWithEveryDrop sanitary napkin drive. The public can leave sanitary napkin donations in their box which is in front of Sports Maxx at the Giftland Mall or message them on their Facebook page; SRHR Adventures with Dr. Pat. Dr Watson told the Pepperpot Magazine that many women and girls in poverty across the world are not able to access clean and safe sanitary products because they are unaffordable or unavailable. This has a huge impact on the

lives of women and girls, from preventing them from going to school to an increase in the likelihood of infections, which exacerbate cycles of poverty and inequality. If girls don’t have access to sanitary towels or to private toilets at school, they can be forced to skip school during their periods. When girls miss several days of school a month, they are more likely to drop out altogether. That’s why SRHR Adventures recognises that sanitary products are not a ‘nice-to-have’ – they are essential in helping women and girls break out of poverty and take control of their own lives. Hence, they have embarked on a quarterly sanitary napkin project captioned #comfortwitheverydrop in which they will be gathering sanitary pads for girls and women who can’t afford. MENSTRUAL CYCLE AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Every month the uterus lining gets thicker to prepare for a fertilised egg. If the egg doesn’t get fertilised, that lining is released from the body as blood through the vagina. This monthly process is called menstruation or a period. Women have an estimated 450 periods during their lifetime, which is what would be expected in a natural biological process of every girl and woman and for which the survival and propagation of the human species depend on, Dr Faqueeda Wilson explained. She said that menstruation is a taboo topic in many societies and is shrouded in secrecy and shame. “There’s a long history of menstrual taboos across nearly all cultures, and these con-

tinue to manifest in subtle and complex ways, Jane Ussher, professor of Women’s Health Psychology at Western Sydney University, said: ‘Periods [have long] been associated with dirt, and disgust, and shame, and some might say fear.’ However, SRHR Adventures (Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights) wishes to change that narrative and shatter all taboos surrounding periods, by spreading the message that menstruation matters in the month of February,” she exclaimed. WOMEN’S AND GIRLS’ HEALTH It was disclosed that SRHR was birthed from the founder’s love for women’s and girls’ health and rights; a close friend’s encouragement and her countless encounters with women and girls who had no clue of how to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. Ever since the establishment of the group, they have facilitated a number of awareness sessions on family planning, adolescent pregnancy, abortion and other SRHR topics at local health centres, churches, the Giftland Mall & youth groups predominantly in Region Four. SELF-DEFENCE CLASSES The group collaborated late last year with the Korean International Martial Arts Guyana to offer self-defence classes to females to equip them with the necessary skills to protect themselves. In addition, they have used social media to get their message out on the importance of the HPV vaccine, cervical cancer screening and engaging men and boys in the family planning process by undertaking social media campaigns: #VaccinateDon’tProcrastinate, #ProtectYuhCervix and #ControlYuhSeeds respectively. (mercilinburke2017@gmail.com)


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#SupportCreativity

By Subraj Singh

Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s Padmaavat THIS week I write about Padmaavat again simply because I cannot get it out of my mind. I have always been a fan of Bhansali’s work and while Padmaavat is not a perfect film (with the outrage against the regressive depiction of women, in particular, being mostly justified), there is enough to hold our interest in the way it shamelessly flaunts its excessive visual beauty, its solid performances, and its entrancing music. The film starts off with the beautiful Princess Padmavati (Deepika Padukone) hunting in the forests of Singhal, where she accidentally shoots the noble Rajput king, Maharwal Ratan Singh (Shahid Kapoor) of Chittor, who later becomes her husband. In these opening scenes “Padmaavat, 2017 (Bhansali Productions) alone, Bhansali reminds us that he has (Image via: Deccan Chronicle)

an extremely aesthetic directing style and a flair for things visual. The forest is haunting, with giant trees and vines, and an atmosphere within it that it almost seems alien, surreal, too mythic to be a forest on earth – as if it could be the perfect setting for the home of the demons who lived in the stories of the gods that we know from Hindu myths. It is a strange and beautiful thing – this forest – and I spend all of this time talking about it because the forest, richly rendered and layered in mystery and life, was the first sign that, for someone who is moved by aesthetics and imagery, this was going to be a pretty good film. If Bollywood ever does a movie based on the Ramayana (and they should), Bhansali’s vision of the forest would be perfect to represent the haunted, demon-filled jungles that

Rama, Sita, and Lakshman spend their exile in. While on the story of Rama, it is worth mentioning that Bhansali’s film draws an interesting parallel with the holy text in terms of plot: Rama’s wife is abducted by the demon-king, Raavan; while in the movie, the villain, Alauddin Khilji (Ranveer Singh), a Muslim ruler from another kingdom, driven by an insatiable appetite for power and convinced that Padmavati, as the most beautiful woman, belongs to him, lays siege to Chittor and sets about trying to conquer the kingdom so he can get to Padmavati. It is an epic tale, told in blood and fire, matched only in tone and spirit by the performances of the actors who are all in fine form, contributing to the splendor and general air of doomed sumptuousness that pervades the film, as if they themselves, like the sands in the deserts outside Chittor, or like the era in which the film itself is set, will blow away in the blink of an eye, carrying with them their teary-eyes, their broken hearts, their dreams, and the beautiful story Turn to page XX ►►►

Please see my colour By Clinton Duncan “WE’VE already got a black girl”, “It’s not our creative vision”, “Our customers aren’t ready for that as yet”, “I need a more luxurious personality.” [Insert teardrop emoji] These are the excuses we hear time and time again to explain the lack of models of colour in the fashion industry. With the amazing invention called “the internet”- particularly social media- providing a dais for experts and laypersons on basically anything, accusations of racism have been intensified in recent years. From all-white catwalks to makeup artists not being prepared to work with black models, to cultural symbols being appropriated and sold to the masses… we are [or rather should be] more aware than ever of how our complacent behaviour may offend others. Our tendency to pigeonhole black models into certain niches – such as “urban” or “exotic” – has left them underrepresented and underpaid in comparison to their white counterparts. Terms like “tribal” and “ethnic” have been used to the point of plateau in fashion often without creative teams crediting a specific tribe that inspired their “tribal” collection or a media outlet exploring the origin of these motifs with any real symbolic depth. As a Researcher Fellow in the Sociology of Fashion, Anna-Mari Almila sees this as a consequence of broader issues in the world and explained why it’s unacceptable for the West to do this. “When someone who has more power – socially, economically, politically – takes something from a community [with less power], then it’s a problem,” she stated. Almila believes the fashion industry’s race problem goes deeper than the catwalk, “It’s impossible not to connect this with the fact that women of colour around the globe are making our clothes very cheaply in poor conditions. There is a dreadfully unacknowledged global inequality in all areas of the way the fashion industry works.” Looking at the rundown of the just-concluded London Fashion Week , out of the 226 designers showcasing their work there were only four of African descent which works out to be less than five per cent. The problem is not a lack of British Black designers (because there are many) but the fact is black designers do not get the support or funding it takes to show their designs in such prestigious events. Those who do make a name for themselves are often shunned by the industry or are [again] pigeon-holed into niche markets like “urban wear” or “African print fashion”. Although more and more people are taking a stand against the obvious racism in fashion, it seems that this deep-rooted issue is not going anywhere anytime soon and our black models and designers will suffer on a long road trying to become accepted in a predominantly white world. All we can do as a community is to support those models making waves such as Jourdan Dunn, Malika Firth and Alisha White and continue the fight against this endemic in the fashion industry. And no, it’s not okay to use the few popular black icons like Naomi Campbell or Tyra

Banks as your exemption to the rule. Five per cent is simply not enough in the market of clothing, which is fundamentally utilised by almost 100 per cent of the global population, save the three per cent of ethnic groups who still prefer to make their own garments or wear no garments at all. By now most of you have probably heard about H&M’s latest scandal. The fallout for H&M seems to have been quick and has resulted in the termination of at least two celebrity partnerships and the closing of multiple flagship stores around the world. A commensurate apology and deletion of the offending image followed soon after. Moments like these serve as an important contextual background for the rise of black and non-black designers, editors, writers, and models currently being lauded by members of the fashion literati. The recent focus and success of people of colour in the industry is significant, but in order to fully appreciate the gap between where the industry is at and where it needs to be when it comes to issues of race and diversity, one must see these repeated racial insensitivities as part and parcel of a culture that up until very recently, publicly abjured notions of diversity. How do you create an industry with a huge blind spot when it comes to issues of race? You exclude people of color from positions of power and agency. In this way, H&M (and the fashion industry as a whole) can’t see these things coming because they don’t know what to look for. Concentrating on H&M, in particular, may be demonstrative, but addressing the issue of race ad hoc is not a sustainable reaction or a lucid response to a systemic problem. Two other examples, taken from Jason Dike’s excellent piece “Classism & Appropriation in Fashion,” are Yves Saint Laurent’s famous muse, Lou Lou De La Falaise, referring to Andre Leon Talley with the “N” word; and Olympia Le-Tan proclaiming that a quality she looks for in a man is the inner fortitude to tell racist jokes. In his piece, Dike points out fashion’s reluctance to actually engage in discussions of race and racism: “Our main issue with these statements is twofold: firstly, the statements themselves and then, the sheer lack of response to them. In the Leon Talley article, the writer noted that everyone in the room laughed at Falaise’s “nigger dandy” statement. In Olympia Le-Tan’s interview, Zahm [the interviewer] didn’t even question why she found telling racist jokes such a desirable quality.” Do we still live in the age of “I don’t see colour”? Maybe that should be interpreted to mean “I don’t see [people] of colour”, because that’s how I feel every time I hear that term flung about in the fashion industry. It’s as if people of colour don’t exist, or their existence simply isn’t acknowledged. It is only when visibility becomes equal to all genders, and all races, and all skin tones that the fashion industry can be said to be truly “diverse”, but until then we will continue to turn up to castings that already booked a black girl, we will continue to turn up to bookings for companies whose customers aren’t ready for a Chinese brand ambassador, and we will continue to use every social media outlet available to us as megaphones of hope to shout: PLEASE SEE MY COLOUR!' "


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Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

“Guyanese poet, educator and activist”


Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

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Healthy Coping AS we move further and further into the New Year, I would like to talk about how we can continue to better cope with the stress in our lives- as no one is immune to this. Avoiding stress is futile because not only negative situations cause stress; for example, being promoted or having a baby also results in stress. This means that the key to living a good life is not avoiding stress but rather how to healthily deal with it. First, let’s talk about what stress is. I feel it’s a word that many people use every day but would have a hard time defining it. Stress is any mental or physical strain. Unfortunately, it can come from any angle – family, work, school, relationships, and financial state – just to name a few. The strategies we use to deal with our stress are called coping skills. It’s what we choose to do when we are stressed, angry, sad etc. and these are very individualistic. Guyana is flooded with unhealthy coping skills such as consuming alcohol, smoking cigarettes/ marijuana or abusive behaviour. Well, what if I told you there were healthy and productive ways to deal with this large amount of stress? It is not difficult to change unhealthy coping skills to healthy ones – it’s just simply tedious. Studies show that it takes the average person 60 days to develop a new habit. So if you are used to calling someone for a drink when you’ve had a bad day, it would take 60 days of forced behaviour for it to become natural for you to call them for a workout instead. People usually give up before the 60 days. Stress in itself severely impacts both our mental and physical health so we are only increasing our distress if we unhealthily deal with it- ultimately just adding additional issues in the long run. On the other hand, heathy coping allows us to overcome obstacles, accept and deal with setbacks, be adaptive to any changes around us and be generally happier. We cannot always control what other people say/do to upset us or what general situations arise. However, we do have complete control over its effects on us and how we deal with it. Developing coping mechanisms is quite difficult as emotions that arise when we are upset are very powerful. They tend to cloud our judgement, decision making and even creative abilities- all very much needed to handle a stressful situation. While of course, it is better to start developing healthy coping strategies early, it is never too late to learn them. There are two major types of coping strategies – whichever one is used depends on the individual. The first is a

problem focused strategy where the individual focuses on the problem itself that may cause stress. For example, if a husband has to relocate (when he does not want to) as his wife received a promotion, he will focus on the problem itself- moving and how to cope with that. He will analyse the situation, what exactly he does not like about it and work on it. If he does not like that he has to leave his hobbies behind, he will try to find similar ones in his new location. The second is an emotion-focused strategy where the individual focuses on their emotions that the problem/stress has elicited. For example, if the aforementioned husband is sad, angry and resentful for this relocation, he will focus on strategies that handle his feelings of distress. He won’t avoid or deny his feelings, he will choose to do relaxation/breathing exercises; he will do the things that make him happy; he will

talk to his wife or a professional. I have always been partial to the emotion-focused strategy as I am an emotional person. This means that at times, I let my emotions guide me and get the better of me. I am also a firm believer in the saying “Life is 90 percent what happens to us and 10 percent how we react to it.” So, what are some examples of good coping skills? These of course depend on the individual. What relaxes, calms or excites you may not work for many others. If you have never thought about things that may work for you, here is a list. Try one or try them all! -Exercise-any form-dancing, team sports, punching bags, bicycles. This is not about weight loss but rather releasing positive endorphins. - Keep a feelings journal. Writing is so therapeutic. - Educate yourself- read about everything! For fun, even.

- Become artistic – draw, paint, colour, create or simply listen to music. -Watch light-hearted movies/ T.V shows- we get enough drama from real life. - Be social with the right people. Keep good and positive people around. - Spend quality time with yourself. Really get to know and love who you are! - Practice good self-care. This means taking the time to do things that make you feel good about yourself. This can be anything from reading to doing your nails/hair. When we are confident and feel good on the outside- we tend to also internalise these feelings. - Try breathing techniques - Try delegating – you don’t have to (and shouldn’t) do everything - Create and stick to a budget every day. Monetary issues cause a lot of stress. - Build confidence, gratitude, positivity /optimism. - Set new and realistic goals for yourself. - Volunteer! Gain a sense of purpose and satisfaction by helping others. - Practice forgiveness. This is for you- not anyone else. - Focus on your religious/spirituality practices (if you have any) - Learn to walk away. When you are overly stressed or angry – take some personal space. Unfortunately for us, problems do not just disappear. They will be there for us to tackle when we are ready to do so. - Find someone you can trust and confide in them. It is okay if you feel you cannot cope on your own. Seeking professional help also counts as healthy coping. This helps you to become stronger (not weaker) when dealing with future stressors and challenging situations. For whichever one you decide to try, make a note of whether it worked for you or it did not. If it didn’t, that’s okay- just try something else. If it does work, remember that it takes much practice to make it a regular exercise- don’t give up! Thanking you for reading. Please keep sending any topics you’d like to talk about to caitlinvieira@gmail.com Or come in to see me at: Georgetown Public Hospital: Psychiatric Department: Monday- Friday – 08:00 hrs-12:00hrs Suicide Prevention Helpline numbers: 223-0001, 2230009, 623-4444, 600-7896 Say Yes to Life and No to Drugs! Always


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Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

Producing Quinoa in Guyana FOOD security is a growing issue internationally. Research is being done to introduce crops that are stress-tolerant, highly nutritional, and cost-effective owing to climate change. One such crop is Quinoa, which has both nutritional benefits and agricultural versatility. Quinoa maintains productivity on rather poor soils and under conditions of water shortage and high salinity. The grain is rich in minerals, vitamin B2, and high in fibre and complete protein. The grain could be prepared for consumption in a variety of ways including salads, porridge, and even baked in bread. Locally, the National Agricultural Research and Extension Institute (NAREI) has been partnering with Felix Quinoa Farming Industry (FQFI), and the Food and Agriculture Organisation to introduce quinoa to Guyana. Last year, NAREI conducted successful trials at its Mon Repos location. Seeds obtained from its partners were set in seed trays and transplanted in the open field. The crop took three months to mature. The institute will be conducting further research this year. The production of eight varieties of quinoa is a crucial part of the agency’s 2018 Work Programme. Trials on the crop will continue at Mon Repos, East Coast Demerara and Kairuni, Soesdyke, Linden Highway. While quinoa is not a popular product in Guyana, it is internationally. The crop’s exceptional nutritional qualities have contributed to its high demand. Since 1980, there has been an increase in world demand for quinoa, as in both world prices and exports. According to research, producers of quinoa are hoping that the grain becomes a more affordable common household grain. This optimistic outlook is premised on the falling price and increased demand for the commodity since

2013. During that period, markets were paying up to $ AU358 per 48.5 kg for quinoa coming out of the two major producing countries- Bolivia and Peru. A market for quinoa in Guyana is non-existent simply because the commodity is not available in supermarkets countrywide. Currently, high-quality quinoa is sold in North American, European, and Asian markets at relatively

high prices. Local consumers need to be aware of the importance of quinoa not only as a superfood but as a commodity with economic benefits for all stakeholders. Venturing into this crop would only add to the long line of products produced locally with export potential. As a net exporter of agricultural products, Guyana has generated foreign currency income by the commercialisation of traditional products such as sugar, rice and other crops. The culture of entrepreneurship must prevail in all farmers, looking for new ways of doing business with the other crops. To this end, quinoa represents an opportunity to expand production and highlight the interest of farmers who, as a family, manage to harvest different varieties of crops. Quinoa’s exceptional tolerance to hostile environments makes it a good candidate crop offering food security in the face of these challenges. Due to the harsh impact of climate change growing crops have become extremely difficult. However, growing quinoa would surely mitigate these challenges and provide economic stability and food security for many persons in the country.


Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

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FILES E S A C COURT

Serious misdirection by trial judge led to conviction & freedom APPELLANT Lochan Arjune was convicted on two counts of falsification of accounts as a result of an error by a trial judge. But on appeal the Appellate Court allowed the appeal on the basis of the judge’s directions to the jury in his summing up. According to that court, the trial judge did not analyse the information in the statement of the accused for the benefit of the jury, or draw their attention to some matters and there was serious misdirection. It was Held: In relation to some of the charges, the trial judge read over to the jury what the appellant said in his statement and did not analyse it for their benefit. He also did not deal adequately with the defence – some matters ought to have been specifically drawn to the attention of the jury so that they could decide whether, having regard to all the circumstances, the Appellant was exercising his discretion properly in paying one person loss of earnings for 22 instead of 12 days . In addition, there was a serious misdirection by the trial judge which was most damaging to the Appellant. Appeal allowed, Convictions quashed and sentences set aside. Twelve cases were referred to. S.D.S. Hardyal, SC. for the Appellant. Ian Chang, Deputy DPP (Ag.) for the State. The Court of Appeal was constituted by Chancellor Keith Massiah and Justices of Appeal Charles Fung-a-Fat and Cecil Kennard. Justice Kennard delivered the judgement. Chancellor Massiah said about the judgment: For the reasons given by my learned brother Kennard, J. A., I too would allow the appeal, quash convictions and set aside the sentence, I add a few words of my own only by way of general comment. The case for the State was structured largely on the evidence of accomplices, one of whom, a man called Latchman, proved to be wholly discreditable. In my opinion, in relation to the first count, the learned trial judge ought to have directed the jury to treat Latchman’s evidence as worthless and disregard it, in which case no question of corroboration could arise. See the speech of Lord Hailsham in Director of Public Prosecutions v. Kilbourne [1973] 1All E.R. 440, at p. 452, and that of Lord Morris of Borth-Y-Gest, previously expressed in Director of Public Prosecutions v. Hester, [1972] 3 WLR 910 at pp. 919- 920. But this, although important, was not the main problem .The most significant, if astonishing, aspect of the entire case was the fact that the learned trial judge misunderstood the case for the prosecution and also the case for the defence. The prosecution appeared to have been launched on a basis which their own witnesses destroyed. The true system of the payment of witnesses at criminal trials emerged only during the cross-examination of Hetram Maraj, Weeley Simons, Lennox Kit and Edward Gibson, all State witnesses. What they said differed fundamentally from the position conceived and argued for by the State Prosecutor. Those witnesses threw an entirely different light on the prosecution’s case. Their evidence was provocative and stimulated new perspectives.That the learned trial judge failed to appreciate this is evident upon his summation which covered nearly two days. There was also the same basic apprehension of

the nature of the defence resulting in its inadequate treatment and judicial disillumination. The trial judge did not appear to realise that there existed in favour of the appellant, the fact that the defence could have been fitted within the schematic framework evidentially adumbrated by Hetram Maraj and the other State witnesses to whom reference has been made. The jury ought to have been directed along those lines, but they were not. Those flaws contrived to deny the appellant a fair hearing of the case presented against him, and in themselves are sufficient to cause this court to allow the appeal in relation to the first count. With regard to the fifth count of the indictment there was the same judicial failure to understand the defence, and consequently it was not adequately treated. There can be no doubt that the question of a mistake on the appellant’s part properly arose from what he said in his statement from the dock and from a careful study of the payment voucher which he was alleged to have falsified. It was a very important question and was never dealt with, save that the trial judge merely repeated what the appellant had already said. The question of a retrial exercised my mind, but only for a fleeting moment. The thought was banished by the circumstance that the appellant served 16 months of a five-year sentence before bail was granted to him on 3rd September,1979. There is to be considered also the fact that the trial took place seven years ago, and witnesses would now have to cast their minds back as far as 1973 and 1974, the years in which the respective offences were alleged to have occurred. In my opinion, this would be a daunting, if not superhuman, exercise and would hardly conduce to a proper hearing. Mr. Chang argued for the employment of the proviso in relation to one of the charges. Two reasons militate against the application. First, I am not sure that a jury properly directed would inevitably have returned the same verdict. On this question see the opinion of Haynes, J. A. (afterwards Chancellor) in The State v. Kowshall Persaud [1975] 27 W.I.R. 82 at pp. 95-98. The second reason is that there appears to be a notion of the common law that the proviso ought not to be applied where misdirections relate to the burden of proof and to the defence. See the judgment of Crane, J.A., as he then was, in Frank Sookram v.The State [1971] 18 WIR 195, at pp.95-98. The second reason is that there appears to be a notion of the common law that the proviso ought not to be applied where misdirections relate to the burden of proof and to the defence. See the judgment of Crane, J. A., as he then was, in Frank Sookram v. The State [1971] 18nWIR 195, at p. 211. See also Keith Kebba Badjan [1966] 50Cf.App. R 141, at p. 144. All of this must now be considered in the light of R v.Edwards[1983] CLR 474 and of Melvyn Thomas Whitfield [1976]63 Cr.App. R. 39. There are opposing views on the question whether the proviso ought never to be applied where there are misdirections relating to the burden of proof or the defence. Some see it as illogical that there should be degrees of misdirection, some misdirections being regarded as more crucial than others and rendering the case insusceptible of the employment of the proviso. Others see nothing illogical in that approach and consider it to be sensible and prac-

tical as a matter of policy. My own tentative view is that the door to the use of the proviso should not be shut fast, but should remain open for entrance wherever the circumstances of the case permit.

By George Barclay

The circumstances in the matter under instant consideration forbid such entrance. In the result the appeal must be determined as already stated. Justice of Appeal Fung-A-Fat : I concur.


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Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

Mouth Cancer How can it be prevented?

VERY time I attend to a patient at my clinic and I observe a lesion which I know will most probably end the life of that person, I am prompted to write an article such as this one. The patient was already in the advanced stage (Stage 4) of the disease. Luckily, it happens on rare occasions. It is estimated that every day more than 125,000 persons die

of cancer all over the world. Of those who succumb to cancer, 16 per cent exhibit the disease in the head and neck region and alert dentists are frequently the first to detect the condition. But this should not be the case. The victims themselves should be the first to note an incipient tumour. Therefore, it is best that the patient themselves know about the physical characteristics of the condition. One needs to know certain important points about cancer in general and oral cancer in particular. This is especially so since despite there not being a cure for it, prevention is obviously desirable. In addition, appropriate measures taken when a tumour is being ensconced will go a far way in mitigating the result. The following notes epitomise the disease. Cancer usually attacks persons above 40 years old. Almost every cancer that affects the mouth begins as a surface lesion. In other words, you can generally see cancer when it starts to develop in the mouth. Twice as many men as women get cancer. It takes about five years for cancer to develop to the killing stage. At

that point in time, around half the victims die. However, with the right treatment for most cancers, the patient usually survives for an additional five years. Unfortunately, the great majority of cancer patients who consult the Guyana Cancer Society do so when they are in Stages 3 and 4. The treatment there is as good as is possible in the circumstances. The two most common areas of the mouth that acquire cancer are the sides and the upper surface of the tongue. My patient was a 64-year-old male with an advanced case of cancer

of the left side of the tongue. For some reason, the gums are never attacked by cancer and I believe research should be done to know exactly why this is so. Three broad groups of agents believed to cause cancer, namely physical, chemical and viral. But exposure to these agents (called carcinogens) does not necessarily result in the development of a tumour because a number of familial, dietary, hormonal, and sex-related factors are known to modulate the process. Although the exact cause of oral cancer remains unknown, tobacco and alcohol have been proven to be the most important contributing factors. Over 30 carcinogens (cancer-causing agents) exist in cigarette and marijuana smoke. In one study 97 per cent of the victims with oral cancer smoked. The risk is reduced when the cigarette carries a filter. But it increases greatly with alcohol abuse. In other words, the combined habits of smoking and drinking alcohol increase the cancer risk dramatically. Chronic mechanical irritation to the oral tissues resulting from sharp parts of dentures, irregular or sharp teeth or fillings, food burns (hot coffee), spicy food, poor oral hygiene, and a large number of other physical agents have been implicated as possible factors in the development of oral cancer. About 25 signs and symptoms indicate the beginning of a cancerous lesion. In general, any change in appearance or sensation not previously detected should be seriously examined. Symptoms include swellings, bleeding, a crust on the lip, a rough spot pain, taste changes, numbness, chronic cough and dry mouth. Signs include a red patch, a white patch swollen and bleeding gums (leukaemia), ulcers, and bluish/brownish- black lesion. You are strongly advised to have your dentist check out any such condition as early as possible. A mouth rinse of toluidine blue will highlight hard-to-see cancers. It is better to suspect any abnormality than not to. Persons should get in the habit of checking out their mouth often in front of a mirror. Only then can anything be noted.


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PRESERVATION OF INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES

IN THE 19th Century and until about the mid-20th Century, Guyana was still a multi-lingual country. The Portuguese language was still heard and at the turn

of the 19th Century, Portuguese language newspapers were published in Guyana. Hindi-Urdu was heard all over the Coastlands and was the language of the temples

and mosques. And remnants of the Yoruba language survived in certain pockets. The Indigenous (Amerindian) languages were spoken all over the interior. From about the 1950s, Hindi-Urdu and Portuguese began to be fast displaced by English and its Creolese version. There are many reasons for this trend, but the most important was the heavy emigration from

among the Portuguese and Indian communities, the spread of secondary education which was done through the medium of English and the economic imperative that one had to speak and write good English before being employed in the Public Service and in business. These same trends affected the Turn to page XXI ►►►


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were very hospitable. The team on arrival was greeted with lively Tassa drumming and fresh rose garlands. Telangana which is one of the largest states in south India is also known for its hospitality and multicultural and pluralistic society. Hyderabad, the capital city is the fifth largest city in India. Some of the wonders include Char Minar, Faluknama Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Qutub Shahi Tomb, Golconda Fort, Warangal Fort and Thousand Pillar Temple. Excluding all the major differences, India was an exciting place, from the phenomenal buildings and history to the spicy and delicious

Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

foods, such as Garlic Naan, Mutton Biryani, Channa Daal, Butter Chicken, Tandoori Chicken, Chaat Patri, Chicken Tikka, Dhokla, Kheema and Keer. India is indeed a beautiful land and is rightly called a paradise given its lush green scenic landscapes in various states, and crystal-clear beaches that will leave you awestruck. Blessed with natural beauty and ecological diversity, India as a country has a lot to offer to tourists, travellers and even students. I am particularly happy that Guyana and India have recently developed some closer ties and as such Guyanese of Indian descent can no longer see themselves as strangers to their foreparents' land.

Myself and another Guyana participant, Dhanwantri

At the Polvaram project in Andhra Pradesh


folklore

Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

MIDNIGHT RENDEZVOUS CHARLIE Howard was a real-real "sweet man". He saw beauty in every woman he met and was usually not shy about showing it. He’d had many flings, countless affairs and a few near misses. Those had occurred when he had been confronted by an angry husband or disgruntled boyfriend. He was good-looking, of mixed race, quite muscular and full of confidence and charm. A mere smile from him would sometimes cause women to blush and look away. He was enjoying life and had a few women to help him do that. What more could he ask for? ( Maybe another woman!) Weekends were Charlie’s time to go after and catch new "prizes". He’d usually visit a popular bar in the next village and keep a sharp eye out for new prospects. This Saturday night was not going well. Of the few women that visited the bar, most he had “known” and wasn’t interested in. The others were older and bolder, something that Charlie never liked. By 23:30 hrs, Charlie was nearly drunk. He shrugged his shoulders and stood up. Maybe next time, he mused. As he walked home along the lonely sideline dam, Charlie noticed that it was lit up by moonlight. Though he was a bit drunk he could still appreciate the raw beauty of the countryside. Charlie sang as he walked feeling happy despite not catching a new girl. He saw someone ahead of him and ran to catch up. Probably a friend from the village, and good company home. As he neared the person he realised it was a woman. His mood got even better. Stopping alongside her, Charlie looked into the most beautiful face he had ever seen. His breath caught in his throat and for the first time that he could remember, he was a bit lost for words. Putting on his best smile and pouring all the charm he could muster he began to make his usual advances. “Good night, beautiful.” There was no reply only a slight smile that encouraged him and he continued. “Are you from around here?” A slight nod and a smile made Charlie’s heart skip and dance. “I’m Charlie, what’s your name?” No reply. Charlie pressed on. By this time they had approached and passed the dam leading to the small village of Ruby Gardens. Charlie wasn’t interested in going home, his focus was the enthralling beauty at his side. “At least tell me your name,” Charlie probed. Nothing. “Are you from GT?” Charlie searched his brain for some way to win this grand prize. He wasn’t going home until he’d at least gotten some response. This situation was so unusual. He never had any such difficulties with his past conquests. This was a big challenge that he just had to win. He was not one to offer gifts. In the past, he had been showered with them from his willing and generous girls. He would give her his chain. It was pure gold and very expensive but Charlie was willing to part with it in order to win this woman over. They were approaching the koker that regulated water flow from the sideline trench to the river. He glanced around him quickly. As far as he knew they were no houses in this area. He removed the chain from his neck and offered it to her. This was greeted with a beautiful smile and for the first time she turned and looked directly at him. Charlie’s world stood still. He was gazing into the most stunning eyes ever. He stepped nearer and reached for her hand. It felt cold and strangely clammy. Charlie was puzzled, but not for long. It was a cold night and her dress was of thin silky material. She ought to feel cold. As he held her hand he realised that she had an object in them. Looking down he saw a small shiny comb. Charlie tried to focus. Something here wasn’t adding up. He released her hand and watched in awe as she began slowly combing her hair. The moonlight glistened off her waist-long black hair and she smiled invitingly at the confused 'Lover Boy'. Somewhere in his foggy brain was a story with a few similar features. Try as he might he just couldn’t recall it. The woman beckoned Charlie and he advanced, disregarding all his doubts. All his efforts were about to pay off. As he neared her he reached for her waist but she deftly sidestepped and moved to stand on the koker. Charlie tried not to get irritated. He stepped closer and leaned in for his first kiss. A wisp of rank fishiness assaulted his nose and he jerked back. It was that movement that saved his life. In a flash, the beautiful face was transformed into an ugly, evil mask and she tried to grab Charlie’s hand. He stumbled backward landing on his butt and watched in horror as she dived overboard. Charlie ran up to the koker and looked over. There in the water was his beautiful companion with two noticeable differences. She was naked, and instead of legs, there was a huge scaly tail. Charlie gawked at this and then his brain kicked in. ‘Fair Maid!’ ‘ Water Muma!’ The creature gestured for Charlie to join her but by this time he was completely sober. Charlie made it home faster than Usain could say "Bolt."

By Neil Primus

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they are all a part of. Deepika Padukone in the lead role is astounding to behold. She emotes so much through her eyes and manages to fill the character of Padmavati with such wisdom, strength and strategy (Padmavati is the one who comes up with most the ideas that could have led to the defeat of Alauddin) that even when the character commits “jauhar” (mass self-immolation) along with the rest of the Rajput women at Chittor, one can’t help but fall apart at the loss of a soul as brave and intelligent and determined as Padmavati. It is quite easy for modern people to judge her actions and to label the choice of all of the women of the kingdom to kill themselves in a fire as representative of the patriarchal system under which they lived, and while patriarchy definitely existed and operated then as it does now, we must ask ourselves: what other choice did Padmavati and the women have? Perhaps they should have waited for death to come to them as their husbands, brothers, sons all died on the battlefield? Perhaps they should have awaited the arrival of Alauddin and his forces who would no doubt set about raping and enslaving the women and pillaging the city? Grief, in my opinion, and not so much honour, was the driving force behind Padmavati’s choice to kill herself. Today it might be justifiable to condemn a woman killing herself because of honour, as that definitely reeks of patriarchal ideals. However, my interpretation of Padmavati’s final act of courage and defiance is that she refused to succumb to rape, she refused to go without a fight, she refused to become a victim. Padmavati made her own choices and committed suicide not to save her honour, but to not live a life without her husband – note how she takes the scarf stained with his palm-prints with her into the fire – and that begs the question: who does not know of such heartache? Who does not know what it is like to lose someone that it hurts so much and in your heart you know you cannot continue with them? This is how I related to Padmavati, and while I absolutely do not condone “jauhar”, I do understand the psychological effect of losing someone you love, and the possible consequences of that. Shahid Kapoor as Padmavati’s husband is striking as a king and he wears the naïve nobility well. His scenes with Padukone are particularly sensitive and sensual. He really helps to convey the deep love the characters have for each other. Ranveer Singh is wild and ferocious in his role, bringing the required intensity, insanity and power that were necessary for his transformation into the delusional emperor. Kudos to him also for accepting a role that involved such a high level (for Bollywood) of homoeroticism alongside the servant (Jim Sarbh), in a relationship that had echoes of Alexander the Great (with whom Alauddin compares himself to) and his lover, Hephaestion. It is awful that the homosexual angle is played out among villains, but nevertheless, such visibility onscreen is new for Bollywood. (Side note: did anyone else see some phallic symbolism in the torch that the two men played around with?) The last performance that needs a special commendation is that of Aditi Rao Hydari as Mehrunisa, the wife of Alauddin who brings searing condemnation and terrible vulnerability to her performance. She plays the tragic character so well that even when Padmavati goes into the flames and the film is over, you come away and you sometimes still think of Mehrunisa. The final scenes leading up to the “jauhar” are among the most beautiful, best-directed scenes from a Bollywood film that I have seen in a long, long time. Bhansali uses the outrageously gorgeous costumes and jewellery that are littered throughout the film, as well as the sorrowful, majestic background score, to firmly place us at the scene of the “jauhar” where with a kind of precision and delicacy, complete with slow-motion shots, the angry faces of the women all clad in red and flinging embers at Alauddin, screaming as they hold their children and rush to the pyre, as radiant Padmavati leads them, as they shut the gates one final time against Alauddin and his men, there is a tension and grief that is palpable and alive – only succumbing as Padmavati steps into the flames and we see the look of horror and misery on Alauddin’s face when he realises that despite everything that he has done, everything that has happened so far, he has never – and will never – set eyes on the beautiful Padmavati. She steps into the flames, and he knows that everything he has done to get to her has been in vain. This irony is what sustains you, what keeps you whole and prevents you from falling apart, as the final credits of the film start rolling.


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small number of Chinese language speakers who even more quickly disappeared. The Indigenous languages were less affected in these years and continued to be the main local language in the interior of Guyana. By 2000, however, these languages were affected by the same trends which had earlier affected Hindi-Urdu, Portuguese and Chinese. The only difference was that the earlier emigration was to foreign countries while the Indigenous emigration was from the interior to the coast and especially to Georgetown and its environs. Today with cultural and economic relations with Brazil growing stronger, several thousands have been learning Portuguese as a second language. Hindi-Urdu has likewise had a similar revival with many people learning the language as a cultural imperative. This is supported by the popularity of Indian films, particularly the Indian soaps on television. Indian film music is also popular. On the local radio, only two languages are heard- English and Hindi-Urdu. The Indigenous languages have had no such revival as Portuguese and Hindi-Urdu. In fact, the numbers of speakers of Indigenous languages have had a steady decline. Urgent action needs to be taken to save these languages from disappearing from Guyana. Preserving the Indigenous languages is maintaining an essential aspect of the Guyanese identity, the existence of the Indigenous languages helps to define the Guyanese identity as against others and is an enrichment of the National Culture. Every language encapsulates a unique worldview and allows someone who learns the language to have an insight into a new cast of mind and new values. Learning a new language would help to make one's personality more rounded. Another national benefit the Indigenous languages have is they could form the basis of friendlier relations with the neighbouring countries who all have Indigenous populations which are contiguous with ours. The Government, the Ministry of Education, the Churches which operate in the Indigenous regions and the Ministry of Indigenous Peoples' Affairs must, with empathy and understanding, work to keep these languages alive and expanding. The University of Guyana used to have an Amerindian Research Centre which was not very well funded. When Dr. Desrey Fox was an Indigenous lecturer whose first language was from her native tribe, the Centre did show much activity, especially in the area of language. After Dr. Fox's tragic death in a traffic accident, the Centre became dormant. The University should again revive the Centre and develop strong and relevant links with foreign institutions which may have the talent to help to revive and maintain the Indigenous languages. Such specialist help is necessary to work in tandem with the Ministry of Education and the Indigenous Peoples' Ministry. The Ministry of Education has to take a policy decision to introduce the Indigenous languages in schools in those regions with large Indigenous populations. There are a number of Indigenous teachers who are capable of teaching the languages while others could be trained. Such teachers should enjoy higher pay to attract them to such jobs. Simultaneously with these efforts, a settled orthography has to be worked out, the most populous of the seven languages should be used as the lingua franca. Other such arrangements could be worked out with the help of the foreign specialists. The Regional Administrations should also begin to give preference to employing workers who speak the Indigenous languages or who may have some certification when the schools begin to teach the languages. The Government of Guyana through its Ministry of Indigenous Peoples' Affairs is committed to all policies which would preserve and expand these languages. In Minister Allicock's words : "If our Indigenous people do not know their language, they are not complete. Language is the identity. Language helps us to understand the Laws of Nature which allows us to have an environment test that has a healthy ecosystem."

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The unapologetic ingenuity of Indigenous women

(In honour of International Day of Women and Girls in Science) LOOKING through the United Nations’ list of International Days, I saw that today was designated as the International Day of Women and Girls in Science and to tell you the truth, I wasn’t happy. Yes, it’s incredible that women have been making strides in the field- so much so that there is an entire day set aside to recognise them, but for me, this is an indication of something fundamentally wrong. Women should not be celebrated for being involved in something, it should just be normal. Don’t you think? On that note, let me tell you about my admiration for Indigenous women, in particular, and their involvement in science. The female gender has been undoubtedly subjected to aeons of entrenched inequalities and for me, the Indigenous women have been subjected to even further inequalities. In my history studies, the indigenous way of life has never been accepted as anything beyond ‘primitive’, largely because of the eurocentric subjections. Maybe even to this day, many would not recognise their way of life as anything beyond simplistic. Regardless of cultural imperialism (the European culture being deemed superior and imposed over that of the Indigenous people), their culture has been retained largely due to women. A recent study conducted by the Ministry of Indigenous Peoples Affairs and the United Nations Child Fund (UNICEF) in nine of the 10 administrative regions, in 12 communities, showed that while Indigenous

people are vulnerable, women and children are the most vulnerable groups. Zeroing in on women, the study showed that while men may leave the communities to seek employment in Georgetown, the women are left behind to provide for their family. This is where their own ‘science’ comes in handy because they have to rely on it to provide for themselves and thus allow cultural retention. Take cassareep for example. The gooey liquid is an indispensable ingredient in the Guyanese cuisine, especially at Christmas time for all your scrumptious pepperpots. But do you know how it’s made? Recently I learnt how cassareep was made from a Moruca supplier (a woman, of course) Magerine Rodriguez. Suffice to say, I was blown away. She explained that cassareep is made from the ‘juice’ extracted from the bitter cassava. You see this juice is toxic, but the indigenous women must be credited for crafting ways of using it in spite of that property.The juice is squeezed out when grated cassava is stored in a long, cylindrical nibbi extractor called the matapee. This liquid is boiled in a huge pot for several hours until it becomes viscous and appears dark brown, almost black. Throughout this process, the scum forming on the surface is continuously skimmed off. And finally, after this long process, the cassareep is eventually created. Could you imagine that it takes about 200 pounds (90.7 kilogrammes) of the cassava root to acquire just enough

‘juice’ to make enough cassareep to fill a 750 millilitre Banko wine bottle? Making cassareep can be easily overlooked as a simple tradition of the indigenous people, but really, it is an incredibly scientific process- using almost basic materials. What is perhaps more inspiring for me is that these women continue to make these and other products as they know, unapologetically. Yes, they have been labelled as primitive practices, but that doesn’t change their ingenuity and usefulness. The Oxford dictionary defines science as: “The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.” I see these practices as practical activities that require a systematic understanding of the physical and natural world. I mean, making cassareep is literally making something edible from a poisonous substance. Making cassareep is just one example of Indigenous women in science. A BBC article written in 2017, “100 Women: The scientists championing their Indigenous ancestors’ discoveries,” only affirms my contention of the underappreciated and overlooked role of Indigenous people. Personally, I believe the science behind the creations of Indigenous women has been wildly underappreciated. It’s not International Women’s Day but here’s to women everywhere- recognised and unrecognised. Keep shining!

Playing the strings of positivity

Rondell Glasgow

WHAT do you call someone who is a music teacher, a musical director, a studio and live performance musician, and a ‘med’ student? Well, he goes by the name Rondell Glasgow. Glasgow is 18 years old and juggles his love for music with his pursuits in science. By day he’s a student at the Greenheart Medical and at practically any other time, you’d find him "jammin’", “People always ask me how I manage it all but I love what I do and so it never really becomes a burden to me,” he said. “It's really about being able to discipline yourself physically

and mentally.” The genesis of his interest in music, however, dates back to 2012, when he had just joined Queen’s College. Musical theory was offered as a subject in school but the young man, so enthusiastic, joined “music lessons”. According to him, these lessons taught by his teacher, Leon McDonald provided him with his musical foundation. “Unlike most of the other subjects that I studied growing up, music never felt like one that was a burden or one that I was forced to do. Instead, it felt natural and almost like I was born to do it,” Glasgow said. Music, therefore, became an integral part of his life because whenever he found school or life, in general,

becoming overwhelming, it became “therapeutic”; it was his “retreat”. But perhaps by fate, at the lessons also, Rondell met two senior musicians: Christian and Jeremy Sobers, who assisted his learning process and exposed him to the guitar. Since then, music and Rondell have been inseparable. Later, Christian and Jeremy Sobers founded a Music School called Music Unlimited, and Rondell began his career as a part-time music teacher. He has also been involved in numerous live and studio events. One of his most memorable live performances was perhaps with his band at the ‘Hope is Rising’ concerts and as a studio musician. One of his better projects, he recalls, was working on Samuel Medas’s ‘Royalty’ album. For many, med school is already a gargantuan challenge, that coupled

with the demand of one’s talent is something else. And, sometimes, Glasgow finds himself amidst the clutter of school and work, where the workload might be overwhelming. In these times, he noted, “I sit quietly for a while and pray for guidance and understanding to manage the workload. I believe that God would never give me more than I can handle.” And even when both his school and work drop a “mountain of assignments” on him all at once, he posited that he always gets his work done efficiently and effectively. “My desire to help people is what sustains me on both my medical and musical path,” he said. According to him, he’s most passionate about helping people and

while he has a few more years before he can diagnose and treat, he uses his music as therapy. “Music has a very powerful impact and influence on people so I try my best to always play clean music (in most cases, gospel) as I find comfort in knowing that my talent is being used to influence and change the lives of people for the better,” the young musician said. Ultimately, he just wants to see the local music industry grow and for him, sharing his knowledge and encouraging more people to learn music is one way of getting that done. It doesn’t matter what it takes, he will be a positive force to be reckoned with.


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Zenith Drum corp relaxing after practice

ONE BAND ONE SOUND

The Victoria Zenith Drum Corps By Marinella Glasgow AT the historic village of Victoria on the East Coast Demerara there is a group of young energetic people who live their lives to promote talent and music. The Victoria Zenith Drum Corps as they are called is a small group of young people who wish to exhibit their talents of drumming. This group consists of 15 members. When asked about their purpose for the initiation of the Drum Corps, their leader Jeremy Waldron stated, “This Drum Corps has been in existence for the past four years even though the group wasn’t quite recognised. However, the official date of beginning was January 6, 2017. Thus, we have recently celebrated our first anniversary.” He continued, “We saw the need to have a drum corps. Our federation does not have a drum corps of our own and every time we have a parade we always have to bring a drum corps to play for us and this is often costly. Thus we thought to form ourselves into a drum corps so that we can supply our own service.” Despite the fact that they have just begun, this profound group has been very active. They recall, performing for the Pathfinder Parade in Mahaica and even for The Victoria Zenith Stephon Frank Pathfinder parades. The inaugural performance was at Victoria’s 178th Anniversary Celebration. Many members recall their enthusiasm to perform on this auspicious occasion. As many other marching bands and drum corps, this group idolises the AT&T Marching Band featured in the popular movie “Drumline.” Minh Tan skillfully penned the words, “A life without challenges, is a life wasted.” Despite the great times, the group recalls their past and even continuous challenges. Deputy

Some members on a parade

Director Marcus Caleb, explained, “Our greatest challenge as a group is finance. We have a lot of members but hardly any drums for them to play on.” In spite of the challenges, this group aspires to achieve many assets in the near and distant future. Waldron explained, “We plan to attend the Union Camporee this year so as to experience and see other drum corps and marching bands thus helping to develop our skills.” In addition, Caleb stated, “Our biggest goal is to get some more instruments for our band members. Thus we plan to have some fundraisers to acquire some funds for this cause.” He added, “We are also accepting any form of donation.” With regard to the norm of rivalry among drums corps and marching bands, the Zenith Drum Corps is confident that they will be capable of representing themselves at any forum. “We haven’t had anybody stepping to us as yet but if they ever do, we are ready to take on any drum corps or marching band and not only in Guyana but from anywhere else,” Caleb bravely declared. Besides practicing and performing, this group enjoys socialising with each other. They believe that having social activities as a group helps with their bonding. They recall their Saturday Night cookouts and movie nights where members learn about each other and freely express themselves. In addition, they host frequent drum offs for the snare players. At this event, the snare players present an original piece which is judged by the members of the drum corp. The reigning champion of that event is Ebitayo Pilgrim and the runner-up Kelita Murphy. It was also highlighted that the drum corps has a line of

hierarchy. There are four major positions: Director Jeremy Waldron, Deputy Director Marcus Caleb. The other positions of Treasurer and Secretary are held by the lone females Lashawn Haynes and Kelita Murphy, respectively. When asked about gaining membership, Waldron stated, “To become a member of the drum corps you must be an Adventist and a part of a uniformed club. You do not have to be from the UPEC Federation or from Victoria. You can be from anywhere in Guyana. You need a letter from the federation pastor, must be of a good moral standing and pay a registration fee of $2,500 which goes towards the purchasing of instruments.” In addition, he emphasises the pleasant personalities of the members and their willingness to accept new members. Subsequent to the meeting, a few members were asked about the Significance of the Drum Corps in their lives. Etiwoyo Pilgrim, the bass player explained, this group helps me to play and bring persons to know Christ. Lashawn Haynes, one of the two females stated, “I always wanted to be a part of a drum corps and now that Victoria has a drum corps, I can get to play and get to socialise with the members here and the members from other drum corps.” When asked if she finds it hard to be one of the two females of the group, she stated “Sometimes I find it hard because the boys learn faster than I do and so I feel bad sometimes. However, I catch up with them.” Marcus Caleb, Deputy Director and instructor explained, “This drum corps helps us in Evangelism. It also helps us with our discipline. Since the motto is “One Band One Sound” it reminds us that we have to play in sync with each member. In regards to my personal life, I wasn’t coming to church as often but now that I am a part of the drum corps I know that I must and should be present at church.” Wikendi Decamp emphasised that “This drum corps has helped me a lot with my discipline.” Ebitayo Pilgrim stated, “I love music and this is the place to be. I can express myself in music and bless others with my service.” The youngest member of the drum corps Stephon Frank stated: “I am 10 years old and this drum corps helps me in my spiritual and physical life.” Despite their challenges and setbacks, this group is determined to triumph every storm and prove that it can be victorious.


Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018

By Rawle Toney MARVEL’S Black Panther will hit theatres in the ‘Land of Many Waters’ on February 22, and the anticipation is high among Guyanese, not because they’re major fans of comic books/superhero movies, but because one of their own, 23-year-old Letitia Wright, will star alongside Chadwick Boseman in what is projected to be one of the best-selling movies for 2018. Migrating to London, England at age seven, Wright, 18 years later (2011), appeared in an episode of the British television series ‘Holby City’ and in the same year, starred as Nyla in the movie ‘Victim’, proving that she followed her childhood dreams of becoming an actress. But after several appearances on the big screen, including a cameo in ‘The Commuter’ with Liam Neilson, the Guyanese actress finally landed her first major role,

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in the Black Panther and garnering support from people in her home country, stated: “It makes me feel really proud that as a young Guyanese woman, people are being inspired and just for them to also know that I ‘rep’ Guyana wherever I go. “I’m really happy that people are supporting...I just hope that it continues to inspire people and it’s an honour to do that for my country,” Wright said. She further added “When I grew up in Guyana, we didn’t have an acting industry, but to be able to now do it, and for anybody back home that will say, ‘I’ve always wanted to be an actor, and Letitia did it’, just to know that they can do it too.” The movie will actually be out on February 16 in the USA, but good luck in trying to get a ticket. It was reported that in its first 24 hours alone, the film - directed by Ryan Coogler - overtook Captain America: Civil War, to sell more advance tickets than any other film released in the Marvel Cinematic

– Black Panther Star Letitia Wright happy to connect with Guyanese roots wick Boseman), the King and protector of the fictitious African nation. In the Black Panther, one of Marvel’s most popular comics, Wright will rub shoulders with Michael B. Jordan (Killmonger), Forest Whitaker (Zuri), Angela Basset (Ramonda), Daniel Kaluuya (W’Kabi), Lupita Nyong’o (Nakia), Danai Gurira (Okoye) and a host of other stars in the predominately black cast film. Since learning of Wright’s Guyanese roots, locally, the actress has been gaining popularity and the Black Panther has received resounding calls for support, simply because of the actress’ background; something she says is an overwhelming feeling. In a sit-down with Former Miss Jamaica Soyini Phillips, published on Tuesday (February 6) on her ‘Rolling Out’ YouTube channel, Wright, when asked about her role

starring as ‘Shuri’, the ‘Princess of Wakanda’ and will fight alongside her brother, The Black Panther (played by Chad-

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MY internal GPS told me that I am headed in the right direction and I am so appreciative of all the awesome things happening in my life and the people God has positioned in my path. My first official book launch will always be significant to me, that is why February 2 is a day I will never forget. Approximately 11:20hrs I presented Ms. Emily King, Chief Librarian for the National Library of Guyana with the copy of my first book LIVING WITH INTENTION. Ms. King ordered 15 copies to place a copy in each National Library across Guyana. I was walking to the beautiful staircase and was thinking: “My book will be in all the National Library Across Guyana”. It was not just the book but the LIVING WITH INTENTION Motivational Tour was also launched which added

Beyond the Runway

The day I will never forget

with Dr. Sonia Noel

... Inspiring lives through fashion more significance to this prestigious event. The tour will take me throughout Guyana, the Caribbean and parts of the USA, God’s willing. My hometown Bartica will be the first leg and I am looking forward to going to my old school, St John the Baptist and Bartica Secondary School. I can honestly say my faith is growing more because of the chances I am taking. This was planned hoping the books will get here before the event and I received them. Thanks to Richard Young, Shiv Dindyal, Apostle Claude

Brooks, Meleesa Payne, Corin Gibson, Mr Mohammed, Clemencio Goddete, Sean Duncan, Desiree De Florimonte, Keron Noble, Mike Myers, Blinds R us, Kathy Kidd and Kidd Marketing for your contribution to my first book. The launch was supported by Integrated Security Services, Diane Inniss, Party Castle & Supplies, Eclipse Digital Photo, Larry London, Danielle John, Alana DeSouza, Emily King, Diane Inniss, Integrated Security Services, Jada Consultancy, Les Romalho, Oasis Cafe, Donette Gibson, Eugene Gilbert, Rebekah Abdul, Bibi Hanifa Shaw, Jeanann Harry. Pertamber Persaud, Ayana Mc CAlman, John Gibbons, Merrano Isaacs and veteran Media personality Ron Robinson, made me emotional while they were reading the excerpts from my book. These are the sentences from the excerpts in order of names mentioned above Turn to page XXIX ►►►


Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018 ◄◄◄ From page XXVIII

Chapter Nine: “Faith”. All of the personal development books that I owned, I lent to persons. I called it the relay method of passing the books on. Chapter Four: “Bold”. The word bold is synonymous with my name and I can be convincing when I move into action mode especially when it involves doing things for others. Chapter One: “Grow ”. Determination, faith, focus, self-discipline and consistency can really make anything a reality. Motivation gets us going but discipline keeps us growing Chapter Eleven: “Conviction”. We have to master our mindset of positive outcomes and prepare the mood instead of repairing, after the fact. Chapter Seven: “Inspire”. Creating precious memories and maintaining lasting relationships are priceless episodes of life’s blessings. So it is our obligation to constantly

inspire. My friend Russel Lancaster and his eloquent voice as MC added a sophisticated touch to the evening. The reviews were awesome and this is one from the Hon. Minister Keith Scott “Sonia’s infectious passion to help others has made many realise their potential; her creative talent has permanently etched our Guyanese culture in fashion beyond our Caribbean shores to the fashion capitols of the world. Her book “Living with Intention” is an inspiring journey that will make the reader soar like an eagle and realise that all things are possible.” I interacted with the audience sharing personal stories which connected with them. Mr Seepersaud Maraj said “I have also admired the work you do but listening to you today I am inspired and I know thousands are too.” I will continue with the guidance of God to continue to add value to people and contribute to humanity.

XXIX I will share an excerpt from the last chapter below “Priceless”: They are many verses in the Bible that mentioned growth and even Jesus grew. One such is, “and Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man”Luke 2:52. Someone once said you don’t have to be great to start, but you have to start to be great. I have found a way of feeling comfortable while being uncomfortable and being able to stand firm on my shaky legs and you can too. I dare you to dig deeper and believe you are an original. I dare you to implement or accelerate that growth plan. I dare you to raise your standards. LIVING WITH INTENTION is available at Makin’ Style Boutique at the Courtyard Mall and New Era Book Store at the Cheddi Jagan International Airport. Send us a message to beyond the runway1@gmail.com and check our FB page beyond the runway as we continue this beautiful journey call life BEYOND THE RUNWAY.


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Dominica’s Quelonios Festival gave – Local rock musician, me innovative ideas Gavin Mendonca GUYANESE rock musician, `Gavin Aaron Mendonca has just returned from the Quelonios Festival in the Dominican Republic and is still reminiscing what he described as his “most enlightening, adventurous trip.” Speaking with the Pepperpot Magazine a

Gavin Mendonca performing recently at Dominica’s Quelonios Festival

few days ago at the Guyana Chronicle, Gavin recalled the beautiful, clear beach where the annual camping festival is usually held. The festival revolves around the creative arts; music, cultural exchange, the environment and protection of it, with a special awareness of protecting the giant leatherback

turtles. “The festival happens on a beach called ‘Playa en Valle’ in Samana to the north of DR. The beach is beautiful; just a clear beach, and there’s another strip where giant leatherback turtles nest every year,” Gavin said. While attending the CirulArts Festival in Columbia last year, Gavin met the director of Quelonios Festival, Alex Matas. “We were sharing ideas about our festivals. He mentioned the word Quelonios, so I did some

research and found out that the turtles he was talking about was in fact the giant leather back turtles. So I met with him the next day and told him we have something in common; Shell Beach, which is basically like the beach in DR.” Gavin fondly recalls meeting Rebel Layonn and his wife Ama Makeda from Haiti. “Although we are different people, we had Turn to page XXXIII ►►►


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New Programme Areas for EPA

THIS week we wish to bring to your attention the new Programme Areas at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is mandated by the Environmental Protection Act Cap. 20:05, Laws of Guyana to: “Take measures necessary for effective protection and management of the natural environment, coordination of conservation programmes, sustainable use of natural resources, assessment of the impact of development activities on the environment and the integration of appropriate environmental provisions into development planning”. Since its establishment in 1996, the Agency has made significant strides to fulfil its mandate. Further, in 2017, an internal restructuring was done with guidance from the Department of Environment, Ministry of the Presidency, to reposition the Agency to be an effective and influential regulator. The process also saw amongst others, heightened Technical Capacity with focus on specific environmental parameters corresponding with the Green State Development Framework. To this end, the new Programmatic Areas are as follow: ● Technical Secretariat (TS) – screens and manages the Authorisation process, as well as, fulfilling obligations under the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and the Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) to which the Agency is the Focal Point. ● Compliance and Enforcement (C&E) – ensures projects’ compliance with permit conditions and manages the complaints response process. ● Ecological and Human Health Risk (EHHR) – manages risks to ecosystems and human health and safety by identifying, assessing, monitoring and managing the adverse effects of contaminants and effluents on the health of ecosystems and human health in accordance with the Environmental Protection Act. ● Land Resources Management (LRM) – develops standards that seek to restore and reclaim mind out and other degraded lands, prevent release to land and to conserve and manage land- based resources. ● Biological Resources Management (BRM) – protection and conservation of Biological Resource; and promotes sustainable development in Guyana. ● Water Quality Management (WQM) – manages water pollution by developing and enforcing permit conditions in keeping with the Environmental Protection (Water Quality) Regulations, 2000. It defines the types and amounts of contaminants that fresh and coastal waters can experience without compromising value. ● Waste Management (WM) – develops guidelines and standards for the disposal of waste into the environment to manage pollution. ● Environmental Analytical Services (EAS) – oversees the development and operation of EPA’s first independent Environmental Analytical Laboratory. Provides science-based evidence in support of the Agency’s decision-making process. ● Air Quality and Noise Management (AQNM) – promotes a successful air quality regime through the development of standards, permitting facilities, monitoring and enforcement of the requisite legislation. ● Research and Development (RD) – provides sound scientific basis to inform decision making on the state of the environment. ● Legal Services (LS) – ensures compliance with the Environmental Protection Act and Environmental Protection Regulations. ● Environmental Communication, Education and Awareness Programme (ECEAP) – raises awareness about environmental issues and the work of the Agency to ensure public participation in environmental decision making. Turn to page XXXIV ►►►


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Gavin is sure about going again next year to represent Guyana

something in common: our love and consideration for the giant leatherback turtle. It was a great opportunity to network and I even invited some of those I met to next year’s Rupununi Festival. “This was my first experience of merging music and arts with not just the environment, but with biodiversity; with the fauna of two countries. The trip itself was an amazing adventure. I made a presentation on the turtles and even donated posters that I got from WWF.” Although the festival saw lots of rain, Gavin said this was no deterrent to those who attended. “It had a lot of rain and the main stage wasn’t completed but the people were there for the experience. The rain didn’t put a damper on their spirit. Part of the beach became a dance floor and maybe 200 people were there all night enjoying the rain and music.” Gavin said the festival has helped him develop a greater sense of appreciation for culture and has even given him ideas for local festivals. “I wasn’t just there to perform my music; I experienced the environment. It was an enlightening experience, probably my most adventurous trip. I have come back with a greater sense of appreciation for culture, networking, and for the human experience; and some ideas to enhance our Rupununi Festival.” Gavin’s trip was supported by the Rupununi Music and Arts Festival, RAMPS Logistics Guyana Inc., Bad Monkey Merch, Tropical Flora and Fauna, Music Unlimited, Jai Narine Singh, Deodat Persaud, Russel Lancaster and Rupa Singh.

The annual camping festival revolves around the creative arts ◄◄◄ From page XXVII

Universe. In fact, so hectic were the opening day sales that one of the film’s stars - 12 Years a Slave Oscar-winner Lupita Nyong’o - failed to acquire tickets. In Guyana, movie-loving fans can pre-order their tickets at Giftland’s Caribbean Cinemas from February 20, while the Princess Movie Theatres said the film should hit their cinemas on February 23. ‘Black Panther’ is ranked as the fifth best Marvel movie ever made (according to USA Today), coming in behind The Avengers, Captain America: Civil War, Guardians of the Galaxy and Captain America: Winter Soldier. The Rolling Stones Magazine describes The Black Panther as someone with the arrogance of Shaft, the coolness of Obama and the hot-headed impulsiveness of Kanye West. In the black communities, especially in the US, the Black Panther movie is seen as revolutionary, much like 1998’s Blade, which was the first in a series about a leather-clad, mixed breed vampire hunter played by Wesley Snipes.

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● Management Information Systems (MIS) – assists in environmental management by providing technical support to manage information systems. This reorganisation has seen the Agency being better aligned with Guyana’s green trajectory as it seeks to improve all facets of its operation. The Agency aims to enhance the effectiveness of its Regulatory Functions through a Risk Based Approach to compliance and enforcement. Additionally, it seeks to improve confidence in the EPA as the primary Environmental Regulator and improve service to and relationship with the public. Other notable Achievements in 2017 ● New Board of Directors and Environmental Assessment Board

● Decentralisation – commenced establishment of decentralised Offices in Lethem and Whim. ● Strategic Planning – commenced the preparation of a new strategic plan (2018-2022). ● Cost recovery – Developed cost recovery options to ensure financial self-sufficiency. ● Administration – The Agency has commenced construction of a new Office building and made numerous interventions for increasing capacity and performance. Moving forward in 2018 Despite the challenges over the past year, the EPA continues to grasp the opportunities to strengthen its efficiency and effectiveness. The Agency anticipates a very rewarding year ahead and looks forward to achieving some notable goals. ● Finalisation of its strategic plan

Chronicle Pepperpot February 11, 2018 ● Completion of the Offices in Region 6 and 9 ● Implement cost recovery mechanism ● Increase staff complement ● Strengthen environmental monitoring, compliance and enforcement ● Initiate the first phase of its laboratory development ● Enhance specialised capacity building for staff ● Reactivate its library services ● Embark on a rigorous public communication, education and awareness programme You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O ECEA Programme, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown, or email us at eit.epaguyana@ gmail.com or follow us on Facebook and Instagram.


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English THOUGHT FOR THE DAY

If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616) The Merchant of Venice, Act 3, Scene 1 STUDY SUCCESS Dear Student, In the early days of serious study you maybe have had the tendency to feel a cheat if you worked with others on the same question, especially for home assignments. But working with study partners is not new in study; it is an active strategy both of immense usefulness and profitability, especially during decisive periods. However, you make a mockery of working with others if you try to elevate your own self-confidence at their expense. Be regular at study times, and remain focused on your goals. Be wise. Love you. GRAMMAR a) Numbers Written in Figures Writing numbers in figures is generally preferred in business writing because figures are emphatic and specific. Here are the instances in which numbers should be written in figures. Numbers Higher than 10: Some time back, we looked at the standard practice that numbers from 1 through 10 are written in words. Numbers above 10 are written in figures. This morning 27 suppliers submitted bids to our comptroller. More than 10 employees are currently taking courses at the company’s expense. Sums of Money: Write sums of money in figures. The average unit cost for those manuals is $435.29. We expect to sell Model T20 for $599.00; Model T25, $700.00. (Note that the two zeros in

$599.00 and $700.00 are not needed. In legal documents, however, the two zeros are usually included, and sums may be written both in figures and in words.) Amounts smaller than $1 are expressed with the word cents. The cost of engraving each person’s initials on the pen is only 7 cents for each letter. Amounts in millions and billions are written in figures, with the word million or billion spelled out. According to newspaper reports, the estimated cost of manufacturing each small plane will exceed $55.5 million. (Also acceptable: $55.5 million dollars.) Age in Years, Months, and Days: General ages are expressed in words, significant ages, in numbers. Ages expressed in years, months, and days are obviously significant statistics and are therefore always expressed in numbers. At the time this policy was approved, Mr Danny’s age was precisely 29 years 6 months 10 days. (No commas – the age is considered a single unit.) House and Street Numbers: House numbers (except for the number one) are always written in figures. Note that the abbreviation No. or the sign # should not be used with house or box numbers. The new address is One Pointer Lane. Mail his correspondence to his home address: 1658 Each Street, Hamilton. (Spell out street names from 1 through 10. Use figures for numbered street names over 10. When figures are used, the ending st, rd, or th may be omitted if a word such as East or West separates the house number from the street number. If there is no such word between the house number and the street number, use the original ending to prevent misreading. 366 West 76 Avenue 427 3rd Street What to Do Check how well you understand the rules for writing numbers in figures. Correct any errors is. Write OK if there are no errors. 1. The huge property at 778 47 Street is still for sale, but the owners have lowered their asking price to $98 000.00. 2. The computer automatically “flags” an account when payment is 10 days past due. 3. Although we wanted to buy a condominium at 1 South Square, we found that the cost was too high at this prestigious address. b) Punctuation Punctuation at end of quotations There are no exceptions to the relevant rules pertaining to punctuation marks at end of quotations, whether they be in the following groups: 1) full stops and commas; 2) colons and semi-colons; or 3) question marks and exclamation points. (1) With full stops and commas: Always place them within the quotation marks. The commander said, “It is his land. He can do what he likes with it.” Barnwell said, “The old man is brave.” “Y-e-s, that could be it,” she said doubtfully. “A lamb takes after its mother,” Kamao cleverly said. (2) With colons and semi-colons: Always place them outside the last or closing quotation mark. Miss Simon said, “Note well these three chapters in “Weep Not Child”: Chapter 5, the opening section of Chapter 7, and Chapter thirteen.” (Note the colon outside the closing quotation mark.) “The Dark Listing”; Shirley took the DVD and left. (Note the semi-colon outside the closing quotation mark.) (3) With question marks and exclamation points: A) If the words within quotation marks make up a question or an exclamation, then the question mark or exclamation point belongs with those quoted words. “Have you taken the Oath?” “No!” “How many have you taken?” “I said none affendi!” B) i) If the sentence is a question and a quotation which is not a question is at the end of that sentence then the question mark appears after the closing lifted commas. How did you get into “A Reason for the Season Competition”? ii) The same reasoning is to be applied to the exclamation point. Listen everybody. “It is Samba’s land. He can do what he likes with it.”!


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Entertainment

Chris Brown Says He Wants to Tour With Rihanna, Beyoncé and Bruno Mars Chris Brown has an idea even he admits is a little crazy. The hip-hop music star took to Twitter on Friday with a pitch for his 26.7 million followers: a world tour with three of the biggest names in the industry. "Just thinking.... A CRAZY WORLD

TOUR would Beyoncé, Rihanna, Bruno Mars, CHRIS BROWN. '2 for 2'. And if y'all decide to do it without me... give me 10%," Chris tweeted. Given Brown's contentious criminal history with Rihanna, some Twitter users raised their eyebrows over the "Loyal" singer's

proposal to reunite with his ex on the road. Others pointed out that Mars is already signed on for a tour with Cardi B, and as for Queen Bey... well, she’s just busy being Queen Bey. Brown released his eighth studio album,

Heartbreak on a Full Moon, last October. It’s been three years since the controversial celebrity embarked on his Between the Sheets Tour with Trey Songz and Tyga, so it’s just about time Breezy returned to the stage.

Orange Bread Sarah Jessica Parker Thinks Fans Should Never Put Sex and the City 3 Hopes to Rest Never say never Sex and the City lovers! It's no secret that fans have been on a roller coaster when it comes to a possible third movie. But while visiting the Paley Center for Media in celebration of her HBO series Divorce, Sarah Jessica Parker couldn't help but address another series on the minds of many pop culture fans. "I feel like I've been saying the same thing for so long because we were going to do [Sex and the City 3] and then we didn't and that's perfectly alright," she told E! News. "And I have to say there has been no substantive conversation since it was determined that we didn't." Hold up, there's still hope! "But I also know [director and writer] Michael Patrick King and I know what a brilliant storyteller he is and magnificent, magical writer he is so I would never put it to rest because his brain works in wonderful, surprising ways," Sarah added. Ultimately, the actress who made Carrie

Bradshaw a household name is focused on her HBO series called Divorce. The comedy follows a couple going through a long, drawnout separation. It’s a role that doesn’t exactly match Sarah’s real-life longtime romance with Matthew Broderick who have been happily married for 20 years. When asked to share her secrets to a happy partnership, Sarah said privacy helps. “I don’t claim to have any secrets to making a marriage work but for the thing I always say is we just don’t talk about our marriage so that’s probably been beneficial to us,” she explained to us. “Strangely enough, I haven’t used the work to be a point of reference for us because my character was going through a divorce and is now a single woman. I mean, I guess in some case I could look at is as a cautionary tale.” Sarah continued, “I think we just go about our lives and take care of marriage and our family in the way we know best.”

Ingredients 1/2 oz yeast 3/4 pt lukewarm water 2 1/2 lb sifted flour 4 tbsp orange juice 2 tbsp grated orange rind 4 oz sugar 1 1/2 tsp salt 3 oz melted margarine 3 eggs, beaten melted butter to glaze Method 1 Soften yeast in 4 tablespoons lukewarm water. 2 Place 8 oz sifted flour in a bowl. 3 Add orange juice, grated orange rind, sugar, salt and melted margarine to the rest of the lukewarm water. 4 Add to the flour in the bowl. 5 Add the beaten egg and the yeast. 6 Beat thoroughly. 7 Add remaining flour to make a moderately soft dough. 8 Turn out on a lightly floured surface and knead until smooth (5-8 minutes). 9 Cover and let rise in a warm place until doubled in size. 10 Knock down, divide dough into equal portions and shape into loaves. 11 Place on greased pans and allow to rise again. 12 Bake in a moderate oven, 375 degrees, for about 45 minutes. When done, brush tops with melted butter. Serves 6-8

Pepperpot epaper 02 11 2018  
Pepperpot epaper 02 11 2018