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Blood Child II


Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014


he door slowly swung open and the soldiers stood at attention, saluting their superior officer, the Major General, as she entered the room, a woman of pride and prestige, in the uniform of one of the highest ranks in the military, a woman wielding infinite power. The family stared at her with absolute shock and awe, their own little girl. How do they now pay for the injustices against her? No one said a word, the mother cried quietly, uncontrollably as the Major General stared at them, her eyes emitting cold fury. She had lived for this day, to see them suffer, cry and beg for forgiveness a she had cried and cried when she was thrusted into strange hands that stormy night as the ship sailed away to an unknown place. She sat down and spoke in a deep South American accent. Her voice was low but had a sharp edge as the storm outside continued to rage. “Betrayal, lies, scorn and rejection, stories of your lives! You continued to live and make your name in society because there was nothing and no one that would bring shame to the family, she was gone.” She looked at the distressed mother: “I don’t know where the divine help came from, because many bad things could have happened to that child, but the traders, merciless business men, felt pity for her and sold her to a wealthy childless couple, kind people who gave her a very good life.” “God answered my prayers,” the mother sobbed, “I begged him every day to take care of you.” Major General Morales looked at the mother, unmoved by that heart wrenching display of emotion, and turned her attention to the father. “She was dead to you, wasn’t she? You couldn’t even say she was your child, such scorn and hate for your own. What did she do so wrong? She was only six, innocent to the world.” He couldn’t answer.The enormity of the wrongs done by his hands against his own child was cutting into him like a sharp sword. “I can kill you now,” she said, the anger in her darker than the stormy night. “But that’s too easy for a heartless father like you.” She sat back in the chair, taking her time, having this weight on her mind for 22 years. Stones would bleed to dissipate that weight after she was done here tonight. “A brother protects his sister. Doesn’t he?” she asked of the brother. “That’s the culture, a significance of the sacred thread she ties on his wrist. She called for you.She screamed for you, but you never came.But when you saw what had happened to her, you cursed her, hit her and lied, so shame was cast on her. What happened to a brother’s love?” The brother broke down crying. “I’m so sorry, I can’t tell you how sorry I am. Please forgive me.” A small, cynical smile played at the corner of her mouth, “You, as the son, was like a trophy engraved with gold in the

family, celebrating birthdays, getting married and having children, never spearing a thought for your little sister. And now you want forgiveness?” He bent his head, too ashamed of himself to look at her. The sword of guilt cut in even deeper in his flesh, drawing droplets of blood. “Ahana!” She turned as the mother called her name, a name she hadn’t heard for so many years, the name of the little girl the mother loved so dearly. “You loved me so much.Why did you let him take me away that night?” she asked. The cold fury slowly ebbed from her eyes. “I cried for you until I couldn’t cry anymore.” The mother’s lips quivered. “I tried but I lost because I couldn’t win against him with his brutal fist and threats. All I could do was pray for you.” Her voice broke as she looked at her daughter. “I prayed every day for 22 years; and in my mind I walked with you every step so no harm could come to you.” The General said nothing for a long while, knowing what her mother said was true because, throughout the years, she had felt there was something divine in her life. She had to know who or where it came from, and who else but her own mother, a simple farming woman. She stood up, her face impassive, seemingly unmoved by the mother’s words and tears, but underneath the soldier’s uniform was a woman whose heart beat with love and compassion, who could cry and laugh. She nodded to a soldier to untie the mother’s hands. “Take her to the guest house and have her refreshed and relaxed, I will talk to her later.” She turned to the father and brother, the cold fury back in her eyes. “It’s too late for apologies, I just wanted to make sure you suffer for what you did to me, and I don’t want to see you ever again.” She directed an order to her soldiers, “Take them back to their home, I’m done here.” They will lead each day of their lives with guilt, regrets and shame a slow death. Her revenge was a mission accomplished. She left the army base for the guest house on a beautiful resort where her mother awaited her. So much time lost, dreams and hopes scattered in the wind, but it could be gathered again like the flowers

and fruits she used to gather in her little basket. General Gabriella Morales changed from her uniform to a floral dress, letting her hair down, a soft look in her eyes, a little smile on her lips, the woman she was, just Gabriella. As she entered the room, her mother rose from the sofa, her face lighting up with a smile, odd at this complete transformation. “You’re as beautiful as I always imagined you would be.” For the first time that night, she saw her daughter smile a smile that drew tears to her eyes, happy tears. “Whoever you are now, you’ll still be my sweet little Ahana.” “I wouldn’t want anything else,” Gabriella said, embracing her mother. It is such a long time to be held by those loving arms again, to hear that affectionate voice. They sat together talking over cups of coffee as the sun rose sleep a far distant from their minds. “There’s only one regret,” the mother said. “What?” “I can’t have the special wedding celebration I wanted for you.” Gabriella smiled, “Maybe you can.” She said something in Spanish to the waiter serving breakfast, and a few moments later, a most handsome man entered the room. He was dressed casually, the soldier who had been asking the questions in the interrogation room. Gabriella rose and he embraced her, kissing her lightly on the cheek. “Mom, this is my fiancé, Javier.” The mother smiled happily. “Dear Lord, thank you.It gets better.” Javier was not a soldier although he had served in the military. He was a director in his family’s oil company, he was just accompanying her on this trip to help her find the closure that had been like a great burden on her mind. Now she was free like a beautiful butterfly. “Now I can have my celebrations,” her mother said as they ate breakfast together. “What celebrations?” Javier asked. “You’ll have to ask her.” Gabriella said with an innocent smile. At the end of the day, as dusk settled in, she sent her mother back home, for she would be leaving early in the morning. “This is not goodbye,” she said as she hugged her. “Don’t cry, I will stay in touch with you, and soon you will come to stay with me for however long you want.” “Remember we have to discuss the wedding celebrations.” Javier said, making mother and daughter smile through their tears. A special celebration as hopes and dreams for a Blood Child, scattered in the wind, gathering to fill the little basket.

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Lynette Carter: Country girl comes to town and excels

“You had to learn the job in the GPF from scratch because country girl come to town, you don’t know Georgetown and you have no relatives here so I had to live in the Bark Room which was near to where I worked.” By Telesha Ramnarine EACH and every one of the ten children was given a small bag with rice to distribute to the needy following the reaping of the ‘big’ crop in September and perhaps this act of kindness is responsible for the job that Lynette Carter eventually took up in her life. After retiring from the Guyana Police Force (GPF) with 36 years of service, she finally found what it was that she really wanted to do LYNETTE with her time. She is currently the CARTER Administrative Officer of the Guyana Relief Council (GRC). She sent out several applications as a youth, but only the GPF would respond to her and so she took what came her way. Not to say that she regrets her years in the Force, but now she is doing something that brings meaning to her life each day. Ms. Carter, 67, grew up on the Island of Leguan in the Essequibo River but moved to Georgetown to attend secondary school at the Guyana Oriental College. Before moving to Georgetown, she attended what is now the Success Primary School in Leguan, formerly known as the Canadian Mission (CM) School. After successfully completing her secondary school studies, she returned home and wrote several


applications for work to agencies in Georgetown as Leguan, being primarily a farming community, did not have the opportunities. She was accepted in the GPF in 1966 and worked there until 2002. “You had to learn the job in the GPF from scratch because country girl come to town, you don’t know Georgetown and you have no relatives here so I had to live in the Bark Room which was near to where I worked,” she recalled. She was promoted until she reached the rank of sergeant. But things did not go too well in the Force at this time, she said, and so she had to remain a sergeant for quite some time. After being there for so long and not being promoted, she decided to pursue Industrial and Social Studies at the Critchlow Labour College which subsequently allowed her to gain entry into the University of Guyana (UG). “I did a degree in management and I can safely say that I was the first police woman to get a degree in those days because the opportunities were there but you had to go out and take them.” To facilitate the studies at UG, she recalled that a Government of Guyana Scholarship aided her so that she was able to attend the university fulltime. “Fortunately for me, I did not have to do national service so I finished the degree in four years. I went back to the Force and was given accelerated promotion from a sergeant to an Assistant

Please turn to page XXXVII


Raleigh and Guiana

The enticement of this golden bait”



ir Walter Raleigh, soldier, sea-captain, courtier and poet, was not alone in his dreams of El Dorado, for the idea of the Americas gripped the Elizabethan imaginary. At the zenith of his colonial endeavours (the planting of the Roanoke colony in Virginia in the mid-1580s) Raleigh gathered around him an extraordinary constellation of the leading intellectuals of his day (the so-called 'School of Atheism'): the mathematician Thomas Hariot, who worked with Raleigh's Native American translators to create an alphabet and dictionary of the Algonkian language; the playwright Christopher Marlowe, who was stabbed in the eye in a Deptford tavern brawl while under investigation for his role in the affairs at Durham House, Raleigh's centre of operations; the chronicler Richard Hakluyt, who propagandised for Raleigh on the productivity and profitability of the early American colonies. Sir Philip Sidney and Sir Fulke Greville (accomplished poets both) rode to Plymouth to take up places on Francis Drake's relief mission to Roanoke in 1585, and were only recalled at the last moment by Queen Elizabeth to fight in Holland (where Sidney was killed); Sidney had petitioned Elizabeth to give Raleigh the patent to plant Virginia in 1584, having already purchased three million acres of land from Raleigh's half-brother, Sir Humfrey Gilbert. John Donne, who sailed with Raleigh and Essex to attack Cadiz in 1596, sought a secretaryship with the Virginia Company in 1609. At its most elevated, this mode of thought — the intellectual as explorer — was apotheosised in Shakespeare's late play The Tempest (1611), in which the Virginia Company's 'Bermuda Pamphlets' are refined into the delicate details of the island landscape from which Ariel and Caliban have been usurped by Prospero. It echoes through much other literature of the period: George Chapman's "Guiana, whose rich feet are mines of golde, / Whose forehead knocks against the roof of Starres",1 for example; Donne's "That unripe side of earth, that heavy clime / That gives us man up now, as Adam was / Before he ate";2- and ' 'De Guiana, Carmen Epicum', prefixed to Lawrence Keymis' Relation of the Second Voyage to Guiana in 1596. 2 'To the Countess of Huntingdon' around 1603. Somewhat later, Andrew Marvell's "He hangs in shades the orange bright / Like golden lamps in a green night".3 These literary sources are the tip of an iceberg whose submerged mass was the popular imagination of the period — and the public fascination with Guiana in particular was due to the lure of its largely imaginary gold. As the American philosopher Henry David Thoreau would later put it: The few travellers who had penetrated into the country of Guiana, whither Raleigh was bound, brought back accounts of noble streams flowing through majestic forests, and a depth and luxuriance of soil which made England seem a barren waste in comparison. Its mineral wealth was reported to be as inexhaustible as the cupidity of its discoverers was unbounded. The very surface of the ground was said to be resplendent with gold, and the men went covered with gold-dust, as Hottentots with grease. "Reported" is the key word here, and this introduction will focus on some of the problems of reportage that exist in Raleigh's text. Given the weirdly literary mindset of the Elizabethan period, we need to be aware, when reading the 1595 Discovery of Guiana, of its own literary strategies; it is not just the functional military document which the opening Epistle professes it to be, but a fiction, the aim being to persuade the English people to go forth and colonise this new land — and the abundant gold, Raleigh almost mocks, will not be easy to obtain. Contemporary ideas of the relationship between the true, the discovered and the imaginary are at play. Sidney's influential tract An Apology for Poetry (which prescribes "the sweet delights of Poetry" as an effective method, among other uses, for softening and sharpening the "hard dull wits" of illiterate American Indians) represents the poet as one whose reports are preferable to the banalities of the real world: Only the Poet, disdaining to be tied to any such subjection, lifted up with the vigour of his own invention, doth grow in effect into another nature, in making things either better than Nature bringeth forth, or, quite anew, forms such as never were in Nature, as the Heroes, Demigods, Cyclops, Chimeras, Furies, and such like... not induced within the narrow warrant of her guilt, but freely ranging only within the Zodiack of 3 'Bermudas' around 1650. 'Sir Walter Raleigh'.

His own wit, nature never set forth the earth in so rich tapestry, as divers Poets have done, neither with so pleasant rivers, fruitful trees, sweet smelling flowers, nor whatsoever els may make the too much loved earth more lovely. Her world is brazen. 5 The fruits of the creative impulse, though inventions, are argued to be more desirable than the merely factual — an ideology of writing whose flexibility with regard to 'truth' and 'fiction' could be advantageous in an age of imperial expansion, when the edges of the known world were literally being redrawn with every voyage. It may seem far-fetched to apply such theories to the realpolitik-fuelled engine of colonial exploration, but, as William West has noted with regard to Raleigh's Discovery, in the emerging capitalist economy of the period, the gold standard was becoming more intangible than previously, with bills of exchange increasingly standing in for the prior economic fact of gold as the material basis for valuation; Raleigh's document acts, similarly and audaciously, as a credit note, replacing yet also signifying the very existence of Guiana's precious metals by turning them into metaphors of thernselves.6 Even Elizabeth played along with this trope. Anecdotally the flamboyant Ralegh, who had taken up the habit of pipe-smoking from the Virginians in order to promote tobacco, his new cash-crop, at court, offered to weigh his smoke for the queen (Hariot had proposed "uppowac" as a wonder-drug that could dry out rheums caused by the English dimate and purge the melancholy humours 7 ). By subtracting the weight of a pile of ash from that of an unsmoked pipe of tobacco, Raleigh won the response from Elizabeth that, though she had seen many men turn gold into smoke, he was the first she knew to turn smoke into gold: the insubstantiality of his colonial projects was thereby vindicated.8 Sidney goes on to make a further point about the potential of his contrived realities, which are to be accessed through literary form: Neither let this be jestingly conceived, because the works of the one be essential, the other, in imitation or fiction: for any understanding knoweth that the skill of the Artificer standeth in that Idea or fore-conceit of the work, and not in the work it self. And that the Poet hath that Idea, is manifest, by delivering them forth in such excellencie as hee hath them. Which delivering forth also, is not wholie imaginative, as we are wont to say by them that build Castles in the ayre: but so farre substantially it worketh, not only to make a Cyrus, which had been but a particular excellence as Nature might have done, but to bestow a Cyrus upon the world, to make many Cyrus's, if they will learn alright why and how that Maker made him. 9 The aim is not just fanciful, but moral, in that the reader should follow and learn from the creative rationale: in Sidney's model, Ralegh becomes the emblematic Renaissance man, since he was busily engaged in alchemising the imaginary into the real and valuable. Although it could not be openly talked about for reasons of diplomacy, the most plentiful gold during Elizabeth's reign was to be

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014 had by attacking Spanish treasure ships — the "journeys of picorie" to which Raleigh alludes at the start of his narrative, which enticed gentlemen adventurers to join his captains' numerous transatlantic voyages of exploration. Reality is thereby encoded in that glittering symbol of the golden city, which in the visionary writings of the Spanish doradistas, had appeared always as a day's march away, in a territory recently evacuated by Indian informers, just around the next bend of the river: not so much a phenomenon as an idea flaming, Charles Nicholl points out, "in people's minds... a vividly specified desire... a projection... this mingling of the psychological and the geographical" 1°: the fifth province, the pot of gold hidden at the rainbow's foot. The Elizabethan poet-courtier in Ralegh negotiates this subtle line between the brasen and the golden throughout the Discovery. If we follow the curious insinuations of the word "gold" through the text, often appearing as if to signal a change of scene, like a beacon flashed to maintain the reader's attention, we find Raleigh to be every inch the poet: flaunting and displaying its gleam, he speaks directly to men's hearts of the finding of gold, utilising the strategies of classical myth (Midas, the Argonauts) and chivalric po-

etry (Spenser's dark briarful forest, into which the knight-errant must go blindly on behalf of some bizarrely named queen"). For West, 9 Apologie for Poesie, p.9, referring to Cyrus the Great of Persia, whose exploits had been popularised by contemporary translators. . " For the dose relationship between the two poets, see HM's biographical. "The gap between language and the thing it describes is for Raleigh a space in which to play and to draw out hopes and desires into narratives... the space that lets him write".12 In the inflated register of Elizabethan courtly poetry — which could name an entire continent after the 'Virgin Queen' — the contested nature of Guiana's riches (inscribed in the very language: "El madre del oro, as the Spaniards term them, which is the mother of gold, or as it is said by others the scum of gold," or so Raleigh identifies the gleaming rocks of the Guianese landscape) was

Please see page V

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Raleigh and Guiana From page IV

precisely its political usefulness. The embers throw their shadow beyond regime-change, in the writings surrounding Raleigh's tragic second voyage to Guiana in 1617. Within months of James I ascending the throne in 1603, Raleigh was put on trial, charged in the most overwrought terminology with treason, sedition and plotting a "Romish" takeover: "This horrible and detestable Traytor, this maine Traytor, this instigator and seducer to treasons, he that hath a Spanish heart, you are an odious man, see with what a whorish forehead he defends his faults: this is he that would take away the King and his Cubbs, 0 abominable Traytor," and so forth.° The charges would not stick, and instead of the agreed punishment, a fate so horrible that it makes contemporary accounts of the atrocities of 'Canniballs' pale into insignificance," Raleigh was imprisoned for thirteen years in the Tower of London before James sent him on another transatlantic introduction to the Cassell edition of the Discovery, p.9: "In 1589 he [Raleigh] was in Ireland making the first plantation of potatoes about his house at Youghal, and in friendly intercourse with Spenser, whom he brought to court in 1590, to present to Fli7abeth the first three books of his Paine Queene, which were then published in London." 12 'Gold on Credit'. 13 The Arraignment and Conviction of Sir Walter Rawleigh, pp.5-6. The bureaucratic Sir Robert Cecil, latterly, like his father Lord Burleigh, Elizabeth's secretary of state, who connived with the other members of the Privy Council to deny Ralegh a fair hearing, was his erstwhile friend and a dedicatee of the present narrative. 14 "Sir Walter Raleigh, you are to be conveyed to the place from whence you came, and from thence to the place of execution, and there to be hanged until you are half dead, and your members to be cut off, your bowels to be taken out, and cast into the fire before your face (you being yet alive) your head to be cut off, your quarters to be divided into four parts, to be bestowed in several places, and so (said my Lord Chiefe Justice) Lord have mercy on your soul." — The Arraignment and Conviction, p.25. For the arguments that cannibalism was a cultural construct (as opposed to the practice of anthropophagy) made by Europe in her own image, see Barker, Hulme and Iversen, Cannibalism and the Colonial World mission. Again, no gold was found; instead, while Raleigh lay ill, anchored near Trinidad (pestilence having wiped out half his crew, including such useful characters as the surgeon, the sailmaker and the gold refiner's), an expedition inland broke James's express command not to jeopardise the entente with Spain and mounted an attack on the Spanish garrison at San Thome. Ralegh's 23-year old son, Wat, was killed, shot through the throat; his lieutenant of many years, and the leader and diarist of the second Guiana voyage in 1596, Lawrence Keymis, committed suicide after bringing the news back to Raleigh's ship. A tract published by James, presumably to quash popular outrage at Raleigh's fate, suggests awareness of Elizabethan sophistry: Hee fell upon an Enterprise of a golden Mine in Guiana. This proposition of his was presented and recommended to his Majestie... as a matter not in the Aire, or speculative, but reall, and of certainty, for that Sir Walter Raleigh had seene of the Oare of the Mine with his eyes, and tried the richnesse of it... In execution therefore of these his designs, Sir Walter Raleigh carrying the reputation of an active, witty, and valiant gentleman, and especially of a great Commander at sea, by the enticement of this golden bait of the mine, and the estimation of his own name, drew unto him many brave Captains, and other Knights and Gentlemen of great blood and worth, to hazard and adventure their lives, and the whole, or a great part of their estates and fortunes in this his Voyage: whole ruins and decays following, remain as sad and grievous relics and monuments of his unfortunate journey, and unfaithful proceedings. 16 Even James, or his speechwriter, cannot resist the quip that "this Mine was not only imaginary, but moveable."17 It is a cruel jibe, of the perennial type that the literal-minded make against 15Ralegh's journal records his affliction: "I took a violent cold which cast me into a burning fever, than which never man endured any more violent nor never man suffered a more furious heat and an unquenchable drought. For the first twenty days I never received any sustenance, but now and then a stewed prune, but drank every hour day and night, and sweat so strongly as I changed my shirts thrice every day and thrice every night" See also West's comment that "Raleigh tries to keep his works on Guiana within a purely discursive sphere, but he is tied to a referent, gold, that insistently comes back, or rather fails to come back, and so undermines his promises." Creative thinkers, and for his imaginative presumption, Raleigh was beheaded on 29th October 1618, aged 66. He chose to face west, towards the Americas, explaining "So the heart be right, it is not matter which way the head lieth."18 His dream of Guiana had come alive and consumed him. Postcolonial criticism of travel narratives, following the lead of scholars such as Michel Foucault, Edward Said, Mary Pratt and Peter Hulme, views the alien 'other' as an ideological construct of the dominant metropolitan gaze. Eldred Jones writes, discussing "the mixture of fact and fiction which contributed to the African image in sixteenth-century England", that there were "two sources of Englishmen's knowledge of Africa in the sixteenth century — the tales of the ancients as popularised by translations, and the contemporary accounts of sailors who had themselves seen Africa." One could add

that Ralegh's new world was scarcely better served, since even the contemporary accounts needed translating from the Spanish. The more extreme forms of exoticism which occur during the Discovery — Amazons, cannibals, men with no heads and their eyes growing from their chests, the Inca rituals where powdered gold is blown through pipes onto the Indians' lubricated bodies — are invariably drawn from secondary sources: they draw credit on Spanish or occasionally Indian travellers', accounts. Such licence with the truth was typical of travel writing in the period. Richard Eden's The Decades of the New World, for example,2° appended two African voyages (Thomas Windham's to Guinea in 1553 and John Lok's to Mina the following year) to the tale of Spanish conquests in "the west ocean"; Eden then included his own elaborations, the more fanciful parts drawn directly from Pliny's Latin and from the medieval forgery of Prester John. As Jones puts it: The description of this part of Africa, the first in the English language, is quite reasonable for the period. Lacking similar knowledge for the interior parts of Africa, however, Eden falls back on less authentic sources... The facility with which he lapses into older beliefs in the face of first-hand evidence shows the tenacity of the old fictions, even in the mind of a geographical writer. 21 The same could equally be said of Raleigh and Guiana. Thus Nicholl uses the conceit of a creature living in Raleigh's map; a creature which, though it does not look very much like the Orinoco River (for one major irony, in this mode, is that Ralegh scarcely enters present-day Guyana at all, except for its eastern highlands, remaining throughout the Discovery in what is now Venezuela), could be interpreted as a wriggling, many-legged animal (signifying the exotic, with hints of water-borne diseases), a root vegetable (for planting), a vagina (first penetration of the virgin rainforests), and doubtless other such imagery — the point being the slippery nature of the discourse, and not the contents of the map at all. When recent Guianese writers depict their country as being "shaped like a puppy lying on its left side, with the profile of a limp ear, and paws drawn to his body... Scamp, Benji's treasure and companion, long missing, presumed drowned or stolen by a passing vagrant for its value, having the most unusual emerald-green eyes... no other place names, just a smoothly crayoned spread of Scamp-eyed green, signifying jungle,"" or as "an eel and a frog-fish who lived together in a dark hole near the river-mouth"23, they are being true to Raleigh's poetics. Guianese literature came into existence through Raleigh, "his ardor and faith... hardly cooled by actual observation," as Thoreau has it, "[...] most fatally deceived... by the strength and candor no less than the weakness of his nature, for, generally speaking, such things are not to be disbelieved as task our imaginations to conceive of, but such rather as are too easily embraced by the understanding."24 For Nichol], Raleigh’s attitudes towards Amerindians are symptomatic of a rhetoric of exploitation; there are lacunae in the narrative, often at the moments where violence would normally be expected, such as the interrogation of Governor Berreo (figured here as a jovial dinner-date) and various moments of first contact with Indian tribes: "The harsher, more military aspects of Raleigh's intrusion are suppressed in favour of this more idealised exploration: one based on admiration and understanding, respect and restraint."25 At times the eye blinks, and we glimpse it to be blue — the courtship rituals of the Amazons, for example, are Englishfied into Valentine's Day revels (p.53 of this edition). Having said this, the information Ralegh gives about the range and alliances of different tribal groups in the Discovery is surprisingly detailed, and his code of conduct towards the Amerindians, I protest before the Majesty of the living God, that I neither know nor believe, that any of our company, one or other, did offer insult to any of their women... I suffered not any man to take from any of the nations so much as a pina or a potato root without giving them contentment, nor any man so much as to offer to touch any of their wives and daughters... I caused my Indian interpreter at every place when we departed, to know of the loss or wrong done, and if aught were stolen or taken by violence, either the same was restored, and the party punished in their sight, or else was paid for to their uttermost demand, is modelled in deliberate contrast to Spanish practices in the West Indies, as exposed in Bartolome de Las Casas' Brevisima Relacion de la Destruccion de las Indias.26 Although Nicholl disputes the sincerity ("Thus the chaste knight Sir Walter spreads the cult of the Virgin Queen among the 'borderers' of Guiana" 27), it is also possible that adherence to an entente cordiale with Guiana's tribes may indeed have been a tactical necessity in order to outwit the Spanish in the region. Readers may make their own minds up, but we must also mention Alden Vaughan's fascinating research into the twenty-odd American natives (around six from Roanoke and the Chesapeake and at least twelve from Guiana and Trinidad) "who crossed the Atlantic between 1584 and 1618 under the direct or indirect aegis of Sir Walter Ralegh."28 With regard to the Guianese, Vaughan Once the first garbled news has arrived of the San Thome fiasco, Raleigh's journal records his use of strong-arm tactics such as transporting Indians "fastened and well-bound" and threatening them with hanging ('Journal of the Second Voyage', reads the "swap" of Topiawari's son, Cayowaroco, with Francis Sparrow and Hugh Goodwin (p.94 of this edition) as an intercultural project, and points out that at least five other Indians travelled to England with Ralegh following the Discoverie: one, John Provost


of Trinidad, who returned to Guiana with Keymis in 1596, went on to cross the Atlantic four times, since he had lived with John Gilbert (Raleigh's nephew) for "many years" before greeting Robert Harcourt's 1609 Orinoco expedition;29 another, Anthony Canabre, lived in England for the entire fourteen-year period 30 Cayowaroco also returned to Guiana in 1596, following news of his father's death, probably alongside his countrymen "Henry our Indian interpreter" and the brothers William and Leonard Ragapo on Leonard Berry's ship (also funded by Ralegh)31. Keymis records that Provost persuaded more of his compatriots to travel to London in 1596; Charles Leigh, attempting to settle the first colony up the Orinoco in 1604-5, sent a further five Indians back to London (though some may have been returnees). One of these, returning with Harcourt, went under the name "Martyn"32 — likely the same "Martynes the Arwacan" who had acted as Raleigh's pilot in the present narrative. Raleigh, writes Vaughan, therefore "influenced, by his example and advice, their training and subsequent involvement in English colonisation. With essential aid from his ships' captains and especially from Hariot, Ralegh was primarily responsible for a generation of eastward migration and its considerable contribution to the transatlantic world."33 The consequences for theories of acculturation and hybridity have been little discussed, but Ralegh created a significant Guianese presence in London, complementing that of the more high-profile Indians from North America such as Manteo and Pocahontas; the later planting of colonies was made possible by these educated, transatlantic voyagers, Trinculo's comment that the English public would rather lay out ten doits to see a dead Indian than give one to a lame beggar being slightly wide of the mark.34 The process had been inspired by Hariot, who back in the days of settling Virginia had invented a new alphabet for the purpose of learning the local languages; in A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia he discussed in detail the social structures and religious beliefs of the tribes around Roanoke Island: These their opinions I have set down the more at large that it may appear unto you that there is good hope they may be brought through discreet dealing and government to the ernbracing of the truth, and consequently to honour, obey, fear and love us. The different pull of those verbs - "honour, obey, feare and love" - indisputably sets out the paradoxes in Ralegh's idiosyncratic brand of colonisation; yet it is also worth noting that "love" and "honour" seem to have outweighed the negatives. One Guianese Indian, Harry the Cazique of Caliana, lived for two years with Ralegh in the Tower;35 another, Christopher Guayacunda, rescued during the sack of San Thome, was among the crowd watching at his execution;36 and as Keymis and Young Walter prepared to storm San Thome in 1617, Raleigh lay in his ship being nursed back to health on cassava bread, roasted mullet and armadillo by Indians who remembered him from England nearly twenty years earlier: a surprising human detail to the story which suggests that, in Guiana at least, Raleigh erred less towards the ancestral murderer and more towards the poet. References 5 Sidney, Apology, p.5, p.8. 6 'Gold on Credit'. 7 Milton, Big Chief Elizabeth, pp.182-3. 8 Ibid, pp.185-7. 10 The Creature in the Map, pp.11-15 ('Journal of the Second Voyage, p.179). 16 A Declaration of the demeanor and carriage of Sir Walter Raleigh, p.3, p.27. 17 Ibid, p.35. 18 Milton, Big Chief Elizabeth, p.391. 19 Othello's Countrymen, p.1 24 His 1555 translation of Peter Martyr's De Orbo Novo Decades. 21 Othello's Countrymen, pp.9-11. pp.191-2). 261542, translated as The Spanishe Colonie,1583 (see Milton, pp.50-52). Ironically Las Casas, Bishop of Chiapas, a Dominican priest who in this and other works proposed 'liberating the Indians from slavery, advocated a corresponding increase in the African slave trade, to compensate for the loss of colonial labour. 27 The Creature in the Map, p.165. 28 'Sir Walter Ralegh's Indian Interpreters', p.341. The figure does not include the second wave of migrants, Princess Pocahontas being the most famous, which began when the Virginia Company founded Jamestown in 1607, but only those who travelled with Ralegh and his captains. 22 Dabydeen, Our Lady of Demerara. 23 Samaroo, 'Orinooko and Amazon'; see also Dabydeen, 'Samaroo's Tempus Est' for details of that writer's Surrealist re-creation of The Tempest, written in protest against Guianese deforestation in the 1920s. " Op. cit. 25 The Creature in the Map, p.181. It should also be noted that in the 1617 voyage, 29 Ibid, p.363. 3° Ibid, p.367. 31 Ibid, p.364. 32 Ibid, p.367. 33 Ibid, p.344. 34 In The Tempest, II:11. 33 Ralegh, 'Journal of the Second Voyage', pp.180-1. 36 Vaughan, p.368.


Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

(A look at some of the stories that made the news ‘back-in-the-day’ with CLIFFORD STANLEY)

DOROTHY BAYLEY IS DEAD (Guyana Chronicle January 3, 1979) Guyana’s first woman Lord Mayor Mrs. Dorothy Bayley M.B.E died at the Georgetown Hospital on Monday after a long illness. She was 65. Described as one of the pioneers of what is now known as the “Women’s Lib” movement, Mrs. Bayley entered the City Council in 1957 as a nominated member, and served as a Deputy Mayor in 1965 and 1966. She was elected Lord Mayor in 1967. Despite her charming personality, Mrs. Bayley was always able to stand up to her opponents at Council meetings, and was always able to hold her own ground with dignity. As a leading Councillor, social and church worker for many years, Mrs. Bayley served on the Perogative of Mercy Committee for some time, and held top posts in the Catholic Church. Mrs. Bayley led Guyana’s team at the inaugural flight between Guyana and Venezuela in 1967, and was awarded the “Freedom of Caracas.” Her death came a few months after that of her husband, the late Dr. R.T.Bayley.

TAILOR’S BODY FREED OF NEEDLE AFTER FIVE YEARS (Guyana Chronicle January 23, 1979) Thirty-one-year old tailor Balram Ramnarine walked into the Chronicle Editorial Offices last week and said: ”Thank God the needle is out . I am happy and relieved.” In his hand was a sewing needle without the eye. It was darkish in colour and had been in his body for five years, paining him, causing him downright misery, then “giving me an ease” as he put it ”only to stab me with pain afterwards. Balram, who resides at Angoy’s Avenue New Amsterdam, eventually went to the New Amsterdam Hospital for help.. X-Rays were taken and showed the needle was lodged in his body far away from where it went in his mouth. Dr. Trilokie Seth, resident surgeon, performed an operation and extracted the needle. Balram, rated as a good tailor by his customers, was sewing a pair of trousers with a needle in his mouth as tailors do when “basing garments.” The needle slipped down his throat while he was gaffing with friends. “Sometimes I could not work,” he related. “You talk about pain?”


(Guyana Chronicle January 6th 1979)

The Guyana Metrication Board (GMB) is to publicise the birth weights and other relevant statistics of the first male and female babies on New Year’s Day at four hospitals in the country. The GMB, in collaboration with the International Year of the Child Commission (IYCC) Research Committee, has decided as part of its public awareness programme to make public these information of children born at public hospitals in Georgetown, Linden, New Amsterdam and Suddie. The GMB, as a continuing exercise will continue to monitor and publish, every six months, the growth and development of these infants. It is hoped that this exercise would closely assist in promoting metrication within the hospitals and maternity and child welfare clinics, and at national levels.

The Penthouse presents, for your entertainment, the sounds of the INNER CIRCLE. Skyline Disco is air cooled with comfortable seating accommodation. Elevator service is available for your comfort. Dancing is on two floors. It is nice to be at Skyline Disco.

BEGGAR JAILED FOR A MONTH (Guyana Chronicle January 13, 1979)

A 50-year-old man who was caught by a member of the City Constabulary begging for alms in a public place was sentenced to a month’s imprisonment by City Magistrate Haroon Bacchus. The Court was told that Kunjan of Annandale Squatting area , at about 8 a.m on July 25, was seen sitting on the northern pavement of Church Street in front of Guyana Stores Ltd. with an infant child in his arms begging members of the public for money. The man was warned to remove from the pavement but when the Constable returned about half an hour later, he found him still sitting there begging. He was arrested and charged with placing himself in a public way to solicit alms.

GUYANA GETS FIIRST FOLKLORE MANUAL (Guyana Chronicle January 3, 1979)

Guyana’s first folklore manual, “Oooiy”, has just had its initial printing run and went on sale last weekend to a public long starved for such reading materials. Called Oooiy after the popular creolese salutation, the manual is a small but attractive affair designed by folklorist Wordsworth McAndrew and backed by the Chase Manhattan Bank. As with the programme “What Else”, in which the Bank and McAndrew teamed up to give radio listeners an enjoyable yet informative folklore package every Wednesday night , Oooiy aims at increasing knowledge and love of things Guyanese, including our native language, creolese. Striking pictures of Kali Mai Puja rituals adorn the front and inside pages, and there are articles on Kali Mai, Typee ( a special Guyanese form of lovesickness) and the creolese word “Oooiy” from which the manual takes its name. Also included is an illustrated Guyanese proverb done in pen and ink by artist Stanley Greaves, who also designed the manual’s unusual name plate. Because it aims mainly at folk reading, “Oooiy” will be sold at such grassroots places as Big Market in Georgetown and cake-shops in New Amsterdam, but would-be readers in the country can order post-paid copies by writing to the editor and enclosing a postal order. Clifford Stanley can be reached to discuss any of the foregoing articles at or cell phone # 657 2043.

DESERTED JONESTOWN BLESSED (Guyana Chronicle January 15, 1979)

Just 50 days after the tragedy which claimed the lives of 911 members of the People’s Temple, including 284 children, the lands and deserted buildings at Jonestown were blessed by Roman Catholic Priest Fr. Alan Fortune. Fr. Fortune was accompanied at the blessing ceremony by Cadet Officer Rampersaud and Sergeant Hercules of the Guyana Police Force, and representatives of the Port Kaituma and Matthews Ridge communities. Prayers were offered at the newly established Jonestown Police Station for the members of the Force now entrusted with the security of the site. Earlier the same day, a simple blessing ceremony was also conducted at the Port Kaituma airstrip, where the incident involving US Congressman Leo Ryan took place.

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Convicted murderer Zaman freed


- because pathologist’s certificate was not admissible until 1972

CONSEQUENT to an appeal, murder accused Mohamed Zaman, who pleaded not guilty to murder but guilty to manslaughter, had his appeal allowed and prison sentence quashed. The appellant was charged with murder, but as there was no medical evidence before the magistrate at the preliminary enquiry as to the cause of death of the deceased, the magistrate committed Zaman for felonious wounding. The Director of Public Prosecution indicted Zaman for murder, and on being arraigned for that offence, he pleaded guilty to manslaughter and was sentenced for the latter offence. Zaman then appealed to the Court of Appeal, urging that based on the evidence disclosed in the depositions, the Director of Public Prosecution could not properly indict him for murder. He contended that the indictment and the ensuing evidence were bad in law. The Court of Appeal which was constituted by Justices Guya Persaud, P.A. Cummings and Victor Crane, held that: (1)in view of the provisions of Section 113 (2) of the Criminal Law (Procedure) Ordinance Chapter 11 (G), and having regard to the fact that, as the law then stood, the Pathologist’s certificate was inadmissible, the indictment was bad, and also the conviction for manslaughter. Consequently, the conviction and sentence were quashed. Subsequently, an Editor’s note stated: The pathologist’s certificate as to the cause of death is now admissible in evidence by virtue of the Law Revision Act, 1972 (No.11) enacted on July 21, 1972 Mr. J. O. F. Haynes, S.C., represented the appellant, and Mr. Godfrey Persaud, Senior State Counsel, appeared for the State. Justice Persaud delivered the judgment. According to him, the case against the appellant in this matter, as disclosed in the depositions taken by the magistrate, was that he and the deceased had an altercation in a house on Saturday, April 29, 1972, about 7 p.m when the appellant, armed with a knife, stabbed the deceased in the region of the abdomen and the deceased was injured. He was taken to the hospital, where the doctor examined him and found he suffered the following wounds: (1) 2 cm laceration on both sides of neck (2) 4 cm laceration on the left arm (3) 2 cm laceration on left hand; and there was a stab wound with evisceration in the anterior auxiliary line of the abdomen. The doctor expressed the view that the injuries could have been fatal, and admitted the deceased as a patient at the hospital, where he died on May 6, some seven days later. On April 29, 1972 the deceased had been examined by another doctor at the hospital who confirmed the previous findings, except that he found another 2 cm wound on the left wrist, and he described the wound to the abdomen as being located over the left eighth intercostal space, anterior auxiliary line. The doctor expressed the view that the injuries were dangerous to life, and that an X-ray of the chest showed pneumo thorax on the left side, but there was no further explanation as to what this meant. On these facts, the appellant was charged with murder. But no evidence as to the cause of death was given before the magistrate, who thereupon committed the appellant for the offence of felonious wounding. At the preliminary enquiry, the counsel appearing for the State attempted to put in evidence the pathologist’s report on the post-mortem examination, which sought to indicate the cause of death. The document was then, having regard to the state of the law, clearly inadmissible, as even though sub-section 4 of Section 43 of the Evidence Ordinance, Chapter 25 was amended by the Miscellaneous Enactments (Amendment) Ordinance, 1961 (No. 29) to include the Government Bacteriologist and Pathologist, it was still the case that the pathologist’s certificate was inadmissible in cases involving homicide. This situation has since been remedied by the Law Revision Act, 1972 (No. 4), enacted on the July 21, 1972, so that such a document would now be admissible in evidence to prove the cause of death. The defence counsel did not impeach the order of committal. He submitted, however, that the indictment is bad with regard to Section 113 (12) of Chapter 11, as amended by the Criminal Law ( Procedure) (Amendment) Ordinance, 1961 (No. 22), which reads as follows: “(2) The indictment against the accused person may include, either in substitution for or in addition to counts charging the offence for which he was committed, any counts founded on facts or

evidence disclosed in any examination or deposition taken before a magistrate in his presence, being counts which may lawfully be joined in the same indictment.” The state counsel conceded that if the indictment was bad, the trial was a nullity; and he accepted that, notwithstanding the accused pleaded guilty to manslaughter, the subsequent conviction and By George Barclay sentence would in the circumstances, be invalid. “In our view, this case is not to be equated with the case of R. v- Thomas, (1948) 32 Cr. App, R. 50, where all that was necessary was the formal production of the relevant Statutory Rule and Order in order to complete the case against the appellant; as apart from such Statutory Rule and Order, the offence had been sufficiently disclosed on the face of the depositions. The question before us is, as it was in the case of R v. Chairman, London Quarter Sessions, Ex parte Downes, (1953) 2 All E. R. 750, whether the depositions or examination taken before the magistrate in the presence of the accused disclosed the offence of murder. This is to say whether it has been disclosed from the evidence that the deceased died from the wound or wounds inflicted upon him by the appellant. In our view, the evidence on the depositions does not disclose from what cause the deceased died. In all probability he did die from the wounds he received, but in a criminal trial, probability is not, in our view, the same as a prima facie case. Because of the factual aspects of the case, we must, with some regret, accede to the submission made by the counsel for the appellant, and hold that the indictment was bad, which fact rendered all subsequent proceedings null and void. The appeal is therefore allowed and the conviction and sentence set aside. The other judges concurred. ,


Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Passive smoking and tooth decay in children

In Plain Sight


y wife and I have been married 20 years, and I am a successful businessman. Recently, I had to take away all her credit cards, as she was spending $4,000 a month on clothes and shoes. In the past, she has taken sleeping pills and pills for depression. Last year I was taking pain pills after surgery for an old football injury. I mistakenly gave her a couple of pills, only to have her steal them from me even after I begged her to stop. Once, after she got home from getting my prescription filled, I counted pills and came up 14 short. I did this because the previous fill ran out early. I am meticulous about taking only the advised number of pills each day, and it was easy to calculate when I would run out. Now she is dishonest in other ways. She went out and got her own credit card, then stole my credit card out of my wallet. She gets a $2,500 allowance for her own spending money but still seems to have to steal from me. She recently got a prescription for pain pills from another doctor, because our family doctor would not refill her. She did this without my knowledge, and the new doctor’s office charged my credit card. But since I have to pay for everything, I find out anyway. Sometimes she lays around all morning sleeping, not even getting up to fix anyone breakfast but herself, then stays up late watching TV. She has become so lazy she put a cereal box container next to the breadbox for old plastic and cans. When I asked why, she said she’s tired of walking 10 steps

to the garage door and placing recyclables in the bin outside the garage. This also has affected our love life. We barely make love once a month. All of this is causing me to become frustrated with my wife that I love, and the lazy person who does not want to keep a clean house, help our kids with studies, or be a caring wife to her husband. I long for the love and structure we used to have. CLARK   Clark, most of us don’t have the experience or training to deal with a schizophrenic or sociopath. As airport screeners, we would do a cavity search on the innocent, and smile at the fanatic and wave him through. We are out of our venue, unqualified to deal with the task at hand. That’s what we thought when we read your letter. If addiction has not been in your world, you don’t know how to recognize it. You gave us the portrait of a junkie. Because you tie much of her behavior to a relatively recent event—your surgery—you may have overlooked past signs. We suspect her behavior has been out of control for longer than you realize. Would you know $4,000 worth of clothes if you saw them? Could she be returning some clothes for cash or selling them at high-end resale shops? How many other doctors might she have gotten prescriptions from? A non-addicted person can’t imagine the thought process of an addict. Without training or past experience, you have zero ability to deal with their deceit.   On the path to recovery, it would be wonderful if you could work together with your wife. But she has something to hide, and she will resist all attempts to shine a light on her secrets.  There is a chain of help which probably starts with your family doctor and extends to those experienced with chemical dependency.  If you trust the family doc and he or she does consultation, that’s a place to look for a referral. Otherwise, check out treatment centers and those familiar with addiction, and decide who you want to work with. Don’t include your wife yet. Work out a strategy first, then confront her.   WAYNE & TAMARA  


henever parents or guardians bring kids to my clinic and I see that most of their teeth are very decayed, I ask if anyone who lives in their home smokes, because young children exposed to second-hand smoke appear to have a greater risk of developing tooth decay. They (parents or guardians) are usually surprised at the question. Researchers of Rochester and now the founder of Pediathink, a research consulting firm in Rochester, New York, examined the connection between second-hand smoke and oral health problems among children, and confirmed what they always suspected. Cigarette smoke can result in children teeth becoming rotten. The team used data collected from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention’s Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was collected from 2005 to 2012. Information on 3,531 children age 4 to 11 were analysed, including blood level measurements of cot i ni ne, a by-product of nicotine that serves as a marker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure. As reported in an issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association, study results showed 25 percent of the children had at least one unfilled decayed tooth surface or cavity, and 33 percent of the kids had at least one tooth filling, indicating a prior history of cavities. Researchers found more than half the study group, that is 53 percent, had cotinine levels indicating second-hand exposure. They reported, however, the association between cotinine levels and cavities was not as statistically significant in children’s permanent teeth. Passive smoking is known to cause many health problems in kids, and some are related to cavities. It is probably not that cotinine in and of itself in your blood is causing cavities. Instead, second-hand smoke might cause children to breathe through their mouths more, creating dry mouth.

Saliva protects the teeth from decay, so dry mouth could increase the risk of cavities. Second-hand smoke exposure also might suppress children’s immune systems, making them more vulnerable to illness, even oral health illness. Although the study looked at blood levels of cotinine, the measurements did not indicate how often household members surrounding the child were smoking. It is difficult to connect that to how many cigarettes mom is smoking. However, this is one more piece of evidence that passive smoking harms children. Smoking is likely concentrated in people of less education and less affluence. The second-hand smoke-link to children’s cavities often reflect the association of poverty to children’s oral health problems, although obviously wealth is not necessarily directly connected to oral health. This is another nail in the coffin for people not to smoke around children. But strangely, you would think that adult smokers would have more cavities than non-smokers, but the statistics show that they do not. Tooth decay is the most common childhood disease in Guyana, running up annual treatment costs of about US$4M. While this disease has declined dramatically over the last 20 years, it still remains a major public health problem for children, especially from low-income families. Nonetheless, parents who smoke must realise that it has been proven that their habit can contribute to their child’s dental problem.

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014





By Neil Primus

he debate was on. I thought it was dangerous to go while the others figured we should ignore all the ghost stories and go get the fruits. Usually, nobody ever ventured into that place. Five of us stood on the side of a large trench and eyed the beautiful and lush fruits growing in the great expanse of land beyond the stretch of water. Our teenage bellies demanded satisfaction but our feet kept us firmly beyond the trench. Every one of us was afraid to venture into the La Repentir Cemetery. I grew up close to this huge burial ground and saw numerous

funerals taking place there. It therefore had great potential for jumbies, zombies and ghosts. This cemetery occupied an enormous area in central Georgetown. It is approximately two miles by half mile with a major roadway – aptly named Cemetery Road- dividing it. The ground was neatly laid out into blocks with each religious denomination having their respective burial area. The place where the fruits were growing in abundance was obliquely opposite North East La Penitence. It was thick with vegetation and it was known that that block was the burial site for those who received the death penalty. Fruits here grew ripe and full falling in heaps for all to see. But nobody dared getting them, except these teenaged boys.

We argued for and against the idea of picking fruits in that creepy place. Mark and Tony were in favour of the venture and began taunting us about being chicken and cowards. I bristled at this but nothing could persuade me to go. Eventually they were able to sway Collen and the three started out on their long walk around the wide trench to the fruit trees. Swimming across was out of the question. The trench was infested with Caymans and crocodiles. We waited impatiently for them to reappear in the cemetery hoping that some of the fruity plunder would be thrown across to willing hands and hungry bellies. Half an hour later, we heard voices and saw them in the distance making their way through the thick vegetation. The weeds were so tall that they were often completely obscured from our vision. Looking nervous and a bit uneasy, they headed for a cluster some distance away. They had to skirt a few fresh mounds of dirt to get there and this gave fresh fuel to their imagination of who was buried there and what crime they had been executed for. They passed these unmarked graves, climbed the tree and began to feast. Standing at some distance on the other side we shouted to them requesting a taste of their booty. Jeers and laughter were the only things that came our way. “ Chickens! Weak hearts! Cowards! Ha! Ha! Ha!” We looked longingly at the forbidden fruits and wished we had gone with them. They moved from psydium to guava to plum and now to jamoon, eating as they went. The leaves were so thick that we could hardly see them. We relied on the sounds of delight coming from their fruity adventure. Suddenly there was a painful yelp, then silence. We froze but stared intently at the tree they had last climbed. Images of the ghosts of dead convicts attacking and savaging my friends in revenge for their untimely demise danced in my head. There was a howl followed by other sharp exclamations of pain and terror. We shouted enquiries at them trying to ensure that they were safe. They however, were busy dealing with the problem they had encountered. Loud screams rang out. Someone jumped from the higher branches and tumbled over-got up and raced away howling. Expecting at any moment to see graves erupting and belching out grotesque zombies and corpses, I shouted to my friends telling them to forget the fruits and beat it out of there. They needed no encouragement from me. With cries of Ow! Ah! O God! Ouch! Ringing in the air, the last two harvesters tumbled out of the tree and fled for safety trashing the air around them and smacking themselves repeatedly. The tall bushes swallowed them up. Fifteen minutes later they came tearing up the dam that ran adjacent to the trench. We raced towards them eager to find out what kind of creature had assailed them. It was not what we expected. You see, they had stumbled unwittingly onto a large wasp nest disturbing the insects and paying the price for their transgression. This particular species was known to us as ‘Follow Me.’ The name told the story of the nature of these fierce creatures. Once disturbed, they would pursue their antagonist to great distance delivering many painful stings. These cause large and very painful swellings to the infected areas. The only thing that could save you from this vicious attack was a large body of water nearby where you could hurriedly submerge yourself. The trench on this occasion held a much greater peril. Our pals had already begun to show signs of swelling to the face, neck and arms. They scampered home to get the local remedies for such ailments. It was only after their departure that the humour of the situation hit us. We roared with laughter and teased them mercilessly for the next few days. No longer were we sulking because of not getting any fruits. We were very appreciative of having missed the ‘dessert.’ The next day we gathered at our usual liming spot. Our three adventurers were slightly puffed and quite sore. The fruits were forgotten for the while. Two weeks later another party headed into the forbidden zone. There was no debate, no argument or taunting. This time I went along. I was sure they would want someone on the ground to catch the fruits.


Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Guyanese Women in History:

Claudette Izel Humphrey – first Female Olympian from Guyana Researched by Michelle Gonsalves

Claudette Izel Humphrey (nee Masdammer) first Female Olympian from British Guiana (Guyana)


laudette who was born on March 30, 1936 attended the St. Georges Anglican School and subsequently entered Tutorial High School on an athletic scholarship. In 1956 Tutorial High School was located at 52, 5th Street, Alberttown, Georgetown. Her athletic ability was recognised by founders of Tutorial High school, the Castello Brothers, during the annual public schools’ sports meeting. On account of her sprinting prowess, Claudette represented British Guiana at the 1956 Olympic Summer Games held in Melbourne, Australia while still a student at Tutorial High School. The students were promised a day off based on Claudette`s performance.  Unfortunately, Claudette failed to qualify for the finals. The Tutorial student population, though disappointed that they did not receive a day off, was nevertheless proud of their colleague. At the 1956 Games no other female West Indian athlete attended/qualified for the premium sprinting events. She competed in the 100 metres heats and finished 5th  with a time of 12.87 seconds in the face of such records from other competitors as Germany (11.7

seconds); Great Britain (11.9 seconds), New Zealand (12 .3 seconds) and South Africa (12.5 seconds). The countries competing in the 100 metres were: Australia, Great Britain, Germany, Soviet Union, Italy, USA, France, South Africa, Poland, Canada, Malaysia, Singapore and British Guiana. The standing Olympic record at the games was 11.5 seconds. (USA). Claudette attended the 1958 Commonwealth Federation Games and participated in the 100 and 200 metres races. She was eliminated in the heats with personal bests of 11.8 seconds in the 100 meters, and 24.0 seconds in the 200 metres . At the British West Indian Championship held in Guyana in 1959, Claudette was awarded a Bronze Medal in the 100 metres and Silver in the long jump. In 1960, Claudette became a Student Nurse at the Georgetown Hospital. She spent approximately one year nursing before migrating to England in 1961 to further her studies in Nursing at Central Middlesex Hospital in London. There Claudette met and married Winston Humphrey, a fellow Guyanese, and Naval soldier in the British Navy in Southampton England. From that union they bore three children. Abigail Sharon was born in Southampton, England in 1966, then Karen Allison was born in Singapore in 1967 and Ian Spencer was born in Hong Kong in 1973. During her stay abroad Claudette did a minimal amount of nursing while taking care of her family. In 1975, Claudette returned from Hong Kong to Portsmouth, England with her family and continued her nursing career at Southampton General Hospital. Claudette wanted to pursue her nursing skills in becoming a midwife. She joined the St Mary’s clinic in Portsmouth based on the advice of her Ward Sister.  Her training, before she could take her finals in midwifery, required the delivery of 50 babies. Claudette filled these and other requirements and passed her Finals in 1979 as a midwife at Hyde General Hospital. Claudette became the Sister in Charge of the Maternity Unit at Hyde General Hospital in Southampton and delivered hundreds of babies up until her retirement in 2002.  The former sprinter and midwife passed away on November 13, 2013 at the age of 74 after bravely fighting a long illness. (Source:

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014


2. Scuff marks caused by shoes on vinyl floors, which usually take hard scrubbing to get off, can be easily removed by wiping with a small quantity of eucalyptus oil on a paper towel.


7. For beautiful, shiny clean jewellery, use a soft toothbrush and toothpaste. Rub lightly, rinse and polish with a towel.  Diamonds and gold will simply glow.

3. To re-use an old paint roller tray or to keep a new one clean, simply place the tray into a plastic supermarket bag or small garbage bin liner. Pour in the paint and the bag will sink into the shape of the tray.  When you’ve finished, take off the bag and dispose of it, leaving your tray ready to use next time, without cleaning.

By Rebecca Ganesh – Ally

1. Place an empty paper bag over an electric light globe before removing it from its socket. If the globe should shatter, the bag will hold the pieces and avoid what could be a nasty accident.

4. If your child has trouble holding a glass, slip several rubber bands around the glass at regular intervals. The glass will be much easier to grip. 5. Stop the tears flowing when peeling onions, especially with large quantities for pickles etc.  Peel and cut onions in half, place in a plastic bag in a single layer and put in the freezer.  When frozen (usually a few hours, depending on quantity), remove from freezer, leave for a short time so they are not too hard, then chop or slice with a sharp knife.

8. Stitch on the lowest button of button-through dresses or uniforms using fine shirring elastic instead of cotton. This allows plenty of give and prevents the button from tearing the material under stress. 9. Hot glue the bottom of little girl dress up shoes to prevent slipping

6. GROW AN ALOE VERA PLANT in a pot near the kitchen door. Break off a leaf and apply the juice for the best-ever relief from burns or insect bites. The plant will grow and proliferate with little care apart from some occasional watering.  It’s a natural remedy, virtually free, and unequalled for burns from stove or iron.

Essential BBQ Cleaning Tips The key to mastering the art of cleaning is to treat your BBQ as you would your body: every time you use it, you should clean it! Additionally, it’s also a good idea to schedule a thorough deep-clean (ie Detox!) every 12 months, to make sure all the parts are free of grime and residue and are in good working order. Taking good care of your BBQ is not only good for your health, it helps maintain the quality and taste of the food you cook. 1. Clean While Warm It’s always easier if you clean grill plates and grates while they’re still warm, so when you’ve finished eating and you’re ready to start cleaning, fire up the BBQ again. The heat will help loosen any food or grime remaining on your grilling surface and make light work of the cleaning process. 2. Use Foil For charcoal grills, lay aluminium foil under the grill, so when you’ve finished cooking you can simply fold up the ash and remaining coals (once cold!) in the foil and remove them in one easy step. 3. Apply Oil If you have cast iron grates, it’s ideal to clean them and then brush or spray on some food oil. This will help maintain them and prevent rust from forming. 4. Yearly Overhaul Give the BBQ a once-a-yar overhaul - use some detergent and a high pressure cleaner to get grease and grime from all of those hard to reach places. 6. Soak and Scrub  If your BBQ is really bad, let grill grates and the grease tray soak in soapy water, and then scrub them

with your Man Law BBQ Giant Grill Brush. Make sure you clean the grates thoroughly, as a build-up of grime can seriously deteriorate the finish and condition of the grates. A high pressure cleaner can make light work of this dirty job. 7. Cover Up Finally, make sure you keep your BBQ covered when you’re not using it. his will stop dust and dirt from building up and will also prevent bugs from creeping in and calling your BBQ home.


Preity Zinta clarifies about her finances and legal cases The media circuit is abuzz with reports regarding Preity Zinta‘s financial troubles. Some rumours suggested that the actor has gone bankrupt and that she is planning to lease out her apartment in Mumbai’s Khar area. However, the  Koi Mil Gaya actor has released a press statement rubbishing all the rumours and reports that have been doing the rounds. “This statement is in reference to the recent news reports in the media speculating about my finances and legal cases. These reports are completely false and there are no facts to support such baseless claims. As an actor and entrepreneur, these reports are damaging not only towards my reputation but also harm my business interests. I have been a resident of Quantum Park, Union Park, Khar in Mumbai for almost a decade and have no plans of moving out of this apartment. I am currently busy planning the upcoming season with my IPL (Indian Premier League) team and looking forward to several other ventures which will be announced soon. In the event of any rumours or reports being published, I further request the media fraternity to verify the news with my PR firm,” Preity‘s statement read.

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Priyanka buys a bungalow? According to sources she has bought a bungalow at Bandstand So Priyanka Chopra’s dream of buying a bungalow has finally come true. Sources close to the actress tell us that after months of searching, PC recently bought a posh bungalow at Bandstand in Mumbai. The sea-facing bungalow is said to be one of the most expensive properties of the area. Well, we aren’t surprised. PC is one actress who sure knows how to live it up!

What is keeping Aishwarya Rai Bachchan busy these days?

The Bachchan bahu is very busy these days. Is she planning to sign a film soon? Looks like Aishwarya Rai Bachchan is still not ready to make a comeback to the silver screen. Why do we say so, you ask? Well, the story goes something like this. We hear that Aaradhya Bachchan, daughter of Abhishek Bachchan and Aishwarya has started going to the play school and reportedly, Aishwarya accompanies the little angel to school every day and stays close to her all through. “Aaradhya is a very friendly child and has taken to her school environment very easily. She’s also making friends with the other kids very very fast. But Aishwarya insists on remaining close-by for as long as Aaradhya is in school,” Amitabh Bachchan was quoted by a portal. Apart from that, Aish has been busy attending a few events. Recently she was seen in the BITS Pilani campus in Goa for an event.

Madhuri and Juhi on Filmfare cover We pinch ourselves each time we see our cover photograph. Madhuri Dixit-Juhi Chawla posing together makes for a milestone moment alright. We couldn’t get them to jointly grace our cover in their heyday but the Gods seem to have smiled on us in current times and made our deep-rooted wish come true. It was a fun shoot to say the least. The duo got involved in it every step of the way, brimming with ideas like two teenagers dressing up for their debut ball. They chirped happily during the shoot, complimenting each other at every click and shrieking with delight when they checked out the frames on the photographer’s Mac. Madhuri and Juhi are coming together in a film that takes up the cause of women empowerment, something they can readily relate to. It so happens that every story needs a hero and a villain and in Gulaab Gang the leading ladies are just that - it doesn’t matter who is what because both are actors of repute and known for bringing to life the characters they portray. Presenting excerpts from interviews with the two beautiful and bold women of substance.

Is Deepika Padukone paying a price for being successful? She is undoubtedly the reigning queen of Bollywood and every filmmaker wants to work with the talented actor. But looks like Deepika’s growing popularity and success hasn’t gone too well with her contemporaries Last year, Deepika Padukone had a dream run at the box office. The dusky beauty delivered four back-to-back blockbusters in 2013 that entered the Rs 100 crore club.  In fact, her romantic comedy  Chennai Express  co-starring Shahrukh Khan went on to break many box office records and raked in more than Rs 200 crore, making it one of the biggest grossers of all time. The Cocktail babe has managed to achieve a feat which is not easy to surpass we think. Looking at her success rate in 2013, it would be safe to say that Ms Padukone even left behind the three ruling Khans of Bollywood in the rate race – Shahrukh, Salman and Aamir, hai na? So it’s not surprising that Dippy has swept away all the awards this year. But it seems DP is slowly paying the price for being at the top of the success ladder. Haven’t you heard the phrase ‘When you’re on top, you’re alone. Well, that’s the case with  Ranveer Singh’s  alleged girlfriend. We hear few B-town beauties (read: rivals) have decided not to share their designer with the Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela actor. While talking to a tabloid, a source said, “They don’t acknowledge

her anymore. Some have even told their dress designers to stop designing for her.” Though Deepika said on Koffee with Karan 4  that she is friends with her contemporaries Anushka Sharma and Katrina Kaif, we are glad that her close pal  Priyanka Chopra  was there to burst her bubble. But we wonder if PeeCee is also one of the heroines who is against sharing her designer? After all, everything is possible in love, war and Bollywood, no? In fact, Anushka, Kat, Sonam Kapoor and Kareena Kapoor Khan are also Dippy’s contemporaries so it could be anyone or all of them, we dunno. But one thing is for sure–nobody can take away Deepika’s talent and she is here to stay

Did Juhi Chawla make Shahrukh Khan a superstar?

The chirpy actor said-albeit humorously-what she wanted to say for a very long time In an industry where a shelf life of a female star is almost onefourth of her contemporary male superstar, the might of woman-power needed to be reinstated and reaffirmed in no uncertain terms. And the one to stand for it and say things as they are is Juhi Chawla. The chirpy actress chose a perfect timing and a hint of humor to drive home the point when she appeared on Karan Johar’s Koffee with Karan with Madhuri Dixit Nene recently. On being asked who her favourite Khan is, Juhi shot back. “Mera kya, poore India ke wahi teen favourite Khans (Aamir, Salman, Shahrukh) hain.” And she further adds, albeit in jokingly, “But the Khans should thank Madhuri and me. We have made them superstars. They did all the training with us and then became the stars that the country knows.”

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Omotola’s Daughter Deletes Controversial ‘Sexy’ Pictures

Meraiah, daughter of Nollywood star, Omotola Jolade-Ekeinde, has finally removed the controversial photographs posted on her Instagram page some days ago. Recall that the actress went hard on bloggers for describing her daughter as ‘sexy’ and ‘hot’. (Read it here) But days after her outburst on Facebook, the pictures were never deleted until a journalist lashed out at Omotola for still allowing the controversial photographs on the 14-year-old’s social media account. However, the pictures have now been deleted from Meraiah’s Instagram page.


‘I have Been Cleansed from Stealing’ – Yetunde Akilapa Story by Julia Blaise Nollywood actress Yetunde Akilapa, who allegedly got involved in stealing and was caught with bunch of keys which she used to enter into people’s homes, has returned from a spiritual home where she was said to have engaged in total cleansing. Recall that Yetunde claimed that her stealing habit is more than what meets the eyes, and that she needed cleansing to bounce back to her feet. Yetunde revealed that she is back from

cleansing and ready to continue with my acting career. Read it here “I am not quitting again. God has finally shamed my critics and enemies. It’s true I have not been around for two weeks. I was going through a kind of marathon fasting and prayer. First, I had to go to my hometown on my mother’s invitation. That was where I stayed for about two weeks for spiritual cleansing, and I thank God I have triumphed over my enemies. The devil has lost the battle. I am a conqueror forever.” Though, Yetunde explained that she went to different churches to get herself washed off of the spiritual attack on her person but said that she remains a member of the Redeemed Christian Church of God. “I am a member of The Redeemed Christian Church of God in Ikorodu, where I reside. But I only attend Christ Embassy Church, Agidingbi, Lagos, once in a while. Even, my friend also introduced me to a Christ Apostolic Church, in Ketu, Lagos, where I also attend deliverance services. I don’t discriminate so far it’s all for my benefit. Now, I am happy that the battle is over. As I speak to you, I am on a movie location with some of my colleagues. They are all happy that I am back. I pray that any weapon fashioned against me again shall never prosper.”

“Why I Left Acting To be a Pastor’s Wife” – Liz Benson Talks About Her New Life as a Pastor’s Wife!

She is one of the most talented and gracious actresses to have come out of the Nigerian movie industry. Liz Benson rode the movie industry from the 90s like a colossus. Having featured in countless of movies, the beautiful thespian and mother was one of those that made the Nollywood brand what it is today. Now a minister of God and married to Bishop Great Ameye of Freedom Family Assembly in 2009, Liz spoke to tribune on her new world of reaching souls for God, meeting her hubby and her new movie project.

How fulfilling are you now compared to your days as an actress? I can’t put it in a box. I can’t really describe how it feels now but it is one of the most fulfilling times of my life. Being available to God, to humanity and doing something that is touching lives. In one way or another, you are investing in the lives of people and seeing that effect on them is most fulfilling. Doing what pleases your maker is fulfilling both to you and God. You may not have the billions but God has his own reward system and it surpasses the way of the world. God is most gracious and most sufficient.

How is Liz Benson-Ameye doing? To God be the Glory. My husband has made the home comfortable for me. But the joy of people coming to you and saying pastor this is what is going on, this is what is happening and I counsel them with the word of God and they put it to practise. Oh my God, it gives me joy! And I tell them when you are doing well, when you are prospering, when you have answers to questions, I’m filled with joy. I’m fulfilled serving people and changing lives. Apart from these when you are filled with God and God is working in your life and you are in total obedience to God your maker, the assurance in heaven is something you can’t quantify. For me, I’m very comfortable with it.

Did you ever see yourself different from being a star actress? Let me put it this way, a lot see the other side of me as a celebrity, star actress but two people that I call friends knew that I was always close to God. They knew Liz Benson as that kind of a person. In all the parties, I always go out and excuse myself to pray. We

Did you ever imagine being a pastor’s wife? I tell you what? No one knows what tomorrow holds for him or her. I carried the heart of someone that wants to serve God but I never thought it will turn out this way. In 2001, I was in a thanksgiving service at Faith Foundation Church, made a testimony and I left although I had the mind of a minister of the gospel then. Bishop Sam Amaga and his wife came to my house one day and said, ‘Do you know there is a call of God in your life?’ I looked at them and responded, ‘God has made those he wants to use and I don’t think I’m part of them.’ I found out later that many of the servants of God that God wants to use never said I want to be this, I want to be that. But they just find out that the more you love God, the more you get closer to him, God will want to use you and qualify you for his work. And for someone like me, you just find out that God moves you from place to place. I was just preaching in places like Allen Avenue back then. Two ladies saw me then and bore witness of my early days preaching around the place. One of them who acted in Twinkle sometime ago reminded me when she saw me at the airport some time ago. She said she remembered that I came to her shop at Emporium Plaza at Allen, Ikeja to preach to her customers. So I used to do that a lot in those days when God started with me. So how did you meet your husband, Bishop Ameye? God did it. It was by divine arrangement. God was speaking through many people just like he used the donkey in the Bible. God used different witnesses to guide me. I was there waiting and he was there also waiting. I never expected such. And even after we met and he proposed, I still was running (She laughs). I still was running and where I was running to, a woman of God stopped me and asked me where I was running to. ‘You are running from your husband?’ The things of God eh, they are such that if you run from it, it doesn’t make it go away. When God takes a hold of you and you run away from it a million times, he will still ask you to do the assignment. The calling of God is such that you will have to surrender and all that.

gather here, I live whatever we are doing to pray. So, it’s been like that for me. I know it couldn’t go on for a very long time. I had to do things my own way not conforming to their standards. I think that was why my friends saw me a bit strange because I couldn't do certain things and fit into some area of our activities. And there are so many of us like that. There are a lot of people who are hiding under the cover of activities, showbiz and all that but they know that they have a personal relationship with God and are hiding this. But I know God will catch up with them the way He did to me. Between yesterday’s Nollywood and today’s Nollywood, how will you rate it? We now have the wherewithal, the financial wherewithal; some of the equipment we have now we never had before. When I look at the directing, even the editing, I feel that a thorough job is done. The directors are doing well. In terms of movie production, there is still a lot of infrastructure that we don’t have yet. What attracted you to be part of the Living Funeral movie? The movie is about breast cancer and it is a disease that its awareness has not reached home yet. I have been in a situation where the people are very religious and they talk about which side of the

bed they slept last night. And I called someone, ‘let them check her blood pressure. It was 200 over! I told her, mama what you need is rest.’ Another woman came to me and she had pain in her breast. Immediately, I swung into action and this was before I became involved in this project. I took her to the teaching hospital so that they could find out what was wrong with her. I told her not to deceive them and tell them exactly what was wrong with her. And they operated on her and now she is living well. She came in about three years ago to thank me. ‘Mama I thank God for you oh. Ignorance fit kill me person oh.’ If not that I was involved in her life, maybe we will be saying something else. So it’s not just preaching the word, preaching the word, preaching the word. But being able to reach out to people and save lives. And things like this movie project, Living Funeral, are also a means by which I can reach people and impact lives. So I’ve not gone out of acting completely. It’s just that when you have a ministry, we are all gifted in different ways and when things like this come. It is something that makes me to do a lot of good to my fellow brethren and women especially. So when situations like this happen it is not only the patient or victim of cancer that suffers it but the whole family, the whole community. So, I’m here to promote a worthy cause. If I say something here, I mean it and when my assistance is needed to propagate a just cause, I will gladly do. When it comes to your movies what are your fond memories? I always have the movies that I fancy based on experience but it is the viewer that can judge that because they all have their favourite. But for me, every production brings its own challenges that come with it. I deal with them in their own way. I can’t place a hand. But if I want to take into account, Living Funeral is it because I’m doing something as a minister of the gospel that projects my faith and tells a good moral story. I was moved and shaken by the movie. Some of the lines of the scripts are killing. I can’t even place what it is about the movie but the story line is touching and the movie has fetched us eight nominations in Africa Magic Video Choice Awards AMVCA including Liz Benson-Ameye being nominated for Best Supporting Actress in a Drama. I just thank God for giving me the grace to act in such movies. Life itself has its challenges. Even if there are some hurdles there, you will always survive them. I have so much work to do in God’s vineyard. To God be the glory, Now I can only appear in movies that have to do with humanity and preach good tidings. For me, the moral standard is what I deal in right now. The best, depth and height of every human being and endeavor are all in the Bible. Even the most spoken words in history are taken from the Word of God. For me it is God because movie roles, boyfriend, girlfriend, romance and all that are no longer for me. The most recent one that we are projecting is in the bible. That’s why I’m saying that it just have to be God standard or nothing. What are the things people don’t know about Liz Ameye? I don’t know, it is for the people to say not me. I think one of the issues is being able to deal with issue the way it comes and allow God to have control of your life.


Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014



The Smartphone that tests your heart rate

he Samsung Galaxy S4 is old news. Sure, it's a great smartphone, but now all eyes are firmly locked on the Samsung Galaxy S5. While it was never in doubt that the tech giant would deviate from the highly lucrative Galaxy S prefix, given what happened with the Samsung Gear – anything could have happened. All the big smartphone manufacturers are relatively entrenched in annual product-cycles now, which means we can usually predict when they will launch their headlining products. Early rumours did peg Samsung as bringing the Galaxy S5 launch forward to February after the S4 failed to sell as many as predicted. SAMSUNG GALAXY S5 DESIGN There was talk of a whole new design language for the Galaxy S5, with some hoping that Samsung would break away from the similar styling of the Galaxy S3 and S4. This hasn't happened as such. Design wise, well, you can't call the Samsung Galaxy S5 ugly, because Samsung does know how to put a phone together well. But, at the same time, it's the same tired story on the design front: taking some elements from the predecessor, adding in some bits from the current Note, and calling it all new. No more shiny plastic or laughable attempts to make it look like a leather notebook. While it is still plastic, it's a lot more gripable, and feels a whole, lot nicer in the hand. Samsung didn't need revolutionary features to make its latest flagship a worthy choice for enterprise customers, road warriors and anyone who wants a device that will last a few years. Here are 10 reasons to consider the S5. Advanced sensors: Samsung includes a fingerprint sensor and heart rate monitor in the Galaxy S5. I like that the fingerprint sensor can be used for device security (I find this very handy on the iPhone 5s) as well as for mobile payments - with potential for even more functionality in the future. As a fitness fan, I appreciate how the heart rate monitor can help improve my health. Dust and water resistance: Made to last longer and strongerWith an IP67 certification, Galaxy S5 is resistant to sweat, rain, liquids, sand and dust, so your phone is protected for any activity and situation.

Samsung Knox 2.0: Samsung's Knox technology offers advanced security features that help make the S5 more attractive to businesses. Removable battery: I have to admit I was afraid that Samsung was going the route of everyone else with an integrated battery, so I was relieved to see they still offer a removable version. It has a bit more capacity than the S4, and road lovers will love the ability to swap them out when away from a plug. MICROSD card slot: Like the battery, I thought we might see this go away on the S5. The microSD slot is not very useful for apps, but allows you to store media, and easily show files directly with a PC connection. Gear 2 and Fit connectivity: Samsung updated its Samsung Galaxy smartwatch offerings, and I think these look great for the business user who needs to triage incoming notifications without having to focus on the phone. The Gear 2 and Fit are functional extensions of the Samsung experience and look to be quality pieces of gear. Latest mobile processor: Samsung includes the Snapdragon 801 processor in the S5, so you won't have to wait for things to happen on your phone. Demo and hands-on videos show people flying around the device and no one wants to be waiting for things to happen on their phones today. Advanced camera software: Samsung's 16 megapixel camera has an enhanced user interface and new functions such as advanced HDR, Selective Focus, and more. FOR BRIGHTER & VIVID CAPTURES For both photos and videos, turn on the HDR when there is a strong counterlight or when the subject is shaded. Preview in real time natural light and colour being reproduced vividly and clearly while you take your shot. Large display, yet pocket-able form factor: Samsung increased the display just a bit to 5.1 inches with a slight size and weight increase over the S4. It is still more pocket-able than the Note 3, and I understand the display is gorgeous, as expected from Samsung. A large display is handy for messaging and viewing documents on the go. Improved UX: Samsung's TouchWIZ is pretty overwhelming and sometimes frustrating, but the new interface looks to be more efficient and useful. Business users will still have plenty of customization available, but shouldn't feel as frustrated by the experience. Samsung will sell millions of the S5 devices, and I think it is pretty clear that it is a worthy smartphone to consider for road warriors, photographers, media junkies, and those who want a phone that lasts at least a couple years. It may not have any significant revolutionary features, or be able to blow away everyone, but there are some unique features, and existing functionality has been improved. For about US$ 650, I won't judge the Galaxy S5 until I get a chance to test one out. As the old saying goes: seeing is believing; but for the Galaxy S5, using, feeling and experiencing would be believing!

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014



Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014



Father of theoretical and applied cosmonautics

Father of Rocketry Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky (Image Credit:Â K.E.Tsiolkovsky Museum, Kaluga, Russia)


onstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky was born September 17, 1857 in Izhevskoye, Russia. He was the son of a Polish deportee to Siberia. At age ten he nearly became deaf from scarlet fever and had to quit school. He refused to be handicapped by his deafness and continued his education on his own at home. His family recognised his thirst for knowledge and sent him to Moscow to attend college. He was accomplished in both science and mathematics and became a teacher at Kaluga, Russia. Even as a teacher, Tsiolkovsky found time to learn. He read Jules Verne's stories of space travel and began to write science fiction stories himself. He introduced elements of science and technology into his stories, such as the problem of controlling a rocket as it moved between gravitational fields. Gradually Tsiolkovsky moved from writing science fiction to writing theoretical papers on topics such as gyroscopes, escape velocities, the principle of action and reaction, and the use of liquid propellant rockets. In 1894 Tsiolkovsky designed a monoplane that was not flown until 1915. He built the first Russian wind tunnel in 1897. He also was an insightful visionary who thought a great deal about the uses of his beloved rockets to explore and master space. He was the author of Investigations of Outer Space by Rocket Devices (1911) and Aims of Astronauts (1914). Although rockets had been in use since their invention in twelfth-century China as weapons that evolved from fireworks, it was Tsiolkovsky who used mathematics and physics to study and model the manner in which they operated, called rocket dynamics. In 1903 he published the rocket equation in a Russian aviation magazine. Called the Tsiolkovsky formula, it established the relationships among rocket speed, the speed of the gas at exit, and the mass of the rocket and its propellant. This equation is the basis of much of the spacecraft engineering done today. In 1929 he published his theory of multistage rockets, based on his knowledge of propulsion dynamics. Tsiolkovsky is remembered for believing in the dominance of humanity throughout space, also known as anthropocosmism. Please turn to page XVIII



He had grand ideas about space industrialisation and the exploitation of its resources. Tsiolkovsky has been honored since his death in 1935. A far side moon crater is named in his honor. In 1989 he was invested in the International Aerospace Hall of Fame. The Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga, Russia, keeps the importance of his theoretical work before the public. In Russia, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky is called "the father of theoretical and applied cosmonautics." Although the Romanian Oberth and the American Goddard conducted similar research and arrived at comparable conclusions, there is no evidence that each knew details of the other's work. Therefore, all three of these scientists share the title of Father of Rocketry.

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014


Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

An alluring island with a rich camaraderie and agricultural enterprise

President Donald Ramotar greets Leguan residents during the recent Leguan Nite festivities.


By Alex Wayne

was certainly tingling with excitement and there was good reason for this. You see folks I had always dreamed of exploring the intriguing islands of Guyana, but really had never gotten the opportunity to do so. So naturally when my boss suggested the island of Leguan as my next stop in our Village Focus treks, I jumped and whelped with joy at a level that was allowed in the office. I know you folks must be certainly wondering just where this island is located and I would do my best to pinpoint its location. Leguan is an island situated in the delta of the Essequibo River. The island is shaped like a gull wing and is nine miles (14 km) long and 2 miles (3.2 km) wide at its widest making it 18 square miles in area. This island at one time had an estimated population of 4,200 living in 27 demarcated villages. But due to migration of many residents for various reasons, this has now dwindled to just less than 3,000 according to reliable sources there. The population has declined fairly rapidly during the past decade as residents leave to settle in more urban parts of Guyana or migrate, often to the United States, Canada the United Kingdom or to various Caribbean islands. Leguan is primarily a rice farming and cattle rearing community. Other occupations on the island include government administration, teaching, health care and policing. Leguan consists of roughly 82% East Indian ancestry and 17% African ancestry. The remaining

Please turn to centre pages




Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

From page XIX

approximately 1% of the population are foreign born Chinese, Canadian, American and English, most of whom are involved in community development work with religious or state organisations. The majority of Leguan residents are Hindu, while the rest are followers of Islam, Christianity and the Rastafari movement. Leguan is situated next to another island named Wakenaam in the Essequibo River. There are five rice factories located on the island; the largest one being L.P.Doobay& Sons Rice Mill. The primary means of transportation in Leguan is by bicycle. Many people also have motorbikes. A small group of people also have cars. In terms of public transportation, Leguan has a handful of taxis, buses and seemingly an abundance of horse carts. The community of Amsterdam, which lies on the eastern tip of Leguan, is predominantly a farming area, with several rice and cashcrop farms situated in its environs. INFRASTRUCTURE The island is home to the regional government office for the Essequibo Islands. The regional office serves the other populated islands of the Essequibo River delta, Wakenaam and Hogg Island. Leguan has five elementary schools and one secondary school. The secondary school currently serves about 300 students in grades seven through eleven or forms one through five. The island is divided into several quiet and comfortable villages like Enterprise, La Bagatelle, Belfeild, Waterloo, Melville, Success, Anna Maria, Bunduri Park, and many other locations. The demure island is served by the Transport and Harbours Department (T&HD) with two daily trips to and from Parika with large engine vessels. Many Leguan residents travel to shop at the Thursday and Sunday open-air markets in Parika. Privately owned speed boats also service the island regularly from the Parika Stelling. Leguan only received electricity services from Guyana Power & Light company in 1997 and telephone services, both land-line and cellular, from Guyana Telephone & Telegraph in 1999. The island has three main paved roads, two running along the northern and southern routes and a road that bisects the island connecting these routes. The Government of Guyana built a new stelling on the island in 2005. Leguan, one of the few inhabited islands in the Essequibo River, sits squarely in the mouth of the river, a relatively short speedboat ride from Parika. While the population of the villages on the island has decreased in recent times, the people who remain have been making the best of what life has to offer there. Easy-going, independent and hospitable are only some of the words used by Leguan residents to describe themselves. While rice farming is considered the main economic activity in Leguan, cattle-rearing is beginning to take “centre-stage.” According to residents Leguan is the island that supplies fresh cow’s milk to other islands, many locations in Essequibo and to other parts of Guyana. Each year at Easter time and on Emancipation Day, many persons, most of them non-islanders flock to the area. Residents feel that with improved infrastructure, many persons would visit places around the island “just to enjoy the scenes.” Apart from the very hospitable people and tasty foods, Leguan will always remain popular for its breathtaking beach. In times gone by, there were two private hotels on Leguan, but one of the businesses closed its doors, owing to a lack of customers.

At the same time, several persons who migrated from Leguan to live overseas have returned spend their “golden years” there. THE JOURNEY Well there I was in a Parika bound minibus smiling dreamily at the possible exciting prospects my visit will unfold, not for once reflecting that my means of transport to this location from Parika, would be by speedboat. Well I am not ashamed to admit that even though I am an excellent swimmer I am strangely terrified of wide expanses of water and rolling, crashing waves. And this was just the spectacle that greeted me when I arrived at the Parika Boat Stelling and began to make enquiries about locating the correct transport to this island. A smiling boat captain with a twinkle in his eyes noticed my apparent bewilderment and approaching enquired of my destination. When I told him of my direction and reason for travelling, he took one look at my media identification card and became more polite and endearing than a yesteryear knight with shining armour. Honestly, his demeanour did lift my spirits and so I followed him briskly as he led the way to his boat moored alongside the stelling. Then it was time to enter the boat and I did so gingerly, almost falling over the side as the waves rocked the vessel to and fro even though it was almost filled with passengers. So there I was my eyes bulging with fright, as I buckled up my life jacket with trembling fingers. I looked around and almost every passenger seemed to be enjoying the ride, except me who was almost flung several times from the vessel as it soared above very high waves to come crashing down in the deep valleys and watery caverns created by the forceful wind pattern. Despite my fears I arrived safely in Leguan. Walking along the stelling on wobbly legs I gulped in huge breaths of fresh air as I struggled to settle my nerves and regain my composure. Not knowing where to turn I headed for the NeighbourhoodDemocratic Council’s (NDC) Office to chat with administrative staff there. I spoke with the Chairman who was actually going on an errand and promised to be back in a few minutes. Strangely he did not return an hour or more after, so I began my interviews with a few staff members there and folks I bumped into along the way. CHATTING WITH RESIDENTS Miguel Jacobs, 48, a security guard at the NDC Office was eager to talk and revealed that he has been residing in Leguan for over 20 years and has been a security guard for about five years. Miguel revealed that while he was much younger he was a pork-knocker in the interior regions of Guyana, but had declined from that practice as he aged. He expressed great pleasure about residing in the island, indicating that it is a ‘nice’ and quiet’ location,which is slowly developing. “When I was much younger I was caught up in the gold rush and spent many years in the interior. Yes I was making ‘big money’ and enjoying life, but even that job too has its dangers with pits falling in and all of that. As I grew older, I decided to take up a much softer profession and that is how I ended up being a security guard here. Life is good in Leguan and this island is the perfect place for a person who prefers a little peace and quiet. We are not fully there yet, but

Residents catch up on a little gossip and current affairs

This is just about one of the many places of worship t

the island is developing slowly”. The very jovial man noted that Leguan is a beautiful island with the perfect historical sightings and old world charm that would make good ‘eye teasers’ for tourists and even visiting Guyanese. However, this man is very much concerned about the drainage and irrigation system in the village which he claims is not perfect. “While this island has some very historical land sites and markings that would be of interest to tourists and even visiting Guyanese, something needs to be done to our drainage and irrigation system. Not so long ago a koker was built here and the contractor, I think, did not do a proper job. When the koker is closed lots of water still seep through from the bottom and sides, and this could eventually lead to flooding. There are still drains around the area that are not properly cleaned and this can put us at a disadvantage” ‘Little Stewart’ as he prefers to be called is an electrician who is quite contented with his existence and level of survival on the island. “I am a quiet and cool person and for me life on this island is not perfect but at least peaceful. We do not have the sophisticated infrastructure like many other locations around Guyana, but we are slowly developing and with the right minds and hands put to proper use, Leguan can become a major tourist attraction. For this to happen however we would have to get better playfields, maybe a proper fun park for families, and a variety of recreational facilities so as to ensure our youths can be engaged positively during their leisure time”. Cash crop farmer Tularam Singh touched on the issue of migration, noting that the driving factor behind such actions is because of the sea defence system in the area, which he claimed still cannot keep out towering waves during high tides and the rainy season. “Bass man this ah wan really nice place fuh live, but because of certain reasons people ah move out frumhea and ah look fuhbettament elsewhere. Me ah wan farmer for almost 15 years and me see many athafarmah move out tuh Georgetown and otha areas because ah dis flooding problem. Yuh see when we get wan real high tide the rivawata does over flow de bank, especially in dem lowland areas and flood out acres and acres ah provishan and vegetable. We does invest big time money in many cases in planting on a large scale and when this happen, it does get yuh real angry and break yuh spirit. Plenty farmah move out because ah dis problem”. Mr. Singh suggested that a fivefoot wall should be built around the entire village, alongside the river bank to keep out the high waves during the high tides. He feels that this would encourage villagers and other farmers to remain in the area and enjoy comfortable living. Food vendor, Sursattie Loknauth enjoys her trade, but is concerned about the state of the roads in some areas of the islands. “To be honest I enjoy living in Leguan, and of course I normally make a nice small piece as a food vendor in Enterprise village. Life here is beautiful, but what concerns me most is the state of the roads in Enterprise and a few other areas. Many side streets are not paved and The famous St. Peter’s Ang the three major roads that are paved

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

are very ‘broken up’ in some locations and filled with potholes. If this can be taken care of, it will add to the beauty of Leguan. Other than that, I must admit it’s a nice place to live. We enjoy proper drinking water and good electricity, and that makes life if not perfect, reasonably comfortable.” Allan Hussain would surely fill your life with laughter if you sit down a while to listen to him as expresses the joy and pride he enjoys while indulging in his profession as a joiner. With eyes twinkling like tropical candle flies he divulged the following: “Me happy wid me self and de life me ah live. Me a wan jinahfuhovah three years and me does tek pride and joy in meh jab. Me does really enjay when I finish me wuk and see demcustomah smile with satisfaction at de good wuk me put out. Me is a single man living alone suh de money me does mek does always duh fuh me. Me ah train wan young apprentice to fill in me space afta me gan and he learning quite fine and very quick. This really please me because I know de trade will continue. Dem a got a few mohjinahs here, but me is de village favorite . Me really like dis jab bad. And this place really nice, we could leave we doors open and sleep comfortable, day and night.” As regards to life on the island, house wife Theresa Small described the islanders as generally “relaxed people,” although sometimes residents would feel neglected by the authorities. She said that if more focus was placed on the creation of jobs, improved sea defences and better maintenance of roads, “a lot of people would come here just to tour the place.” Jairam Hanoman, a rice farmer was very saddened by the fact that although he had harvested his rice crop a long time ago, he is still waiting on payment from millers for his produce. He noted that this has certainly thrown a damper on things and is affecting his domestic finances. “Bai this thing really telling pon me nerves. Since Noah build he ark me done harvest me rice and sell it tuhdemmillashea and today I still waiting fuh meh money. Yuh see bass de rice market slow and suh it ah tekdemlangfuh sell affdem rice and pay we rice farmers. But how lang we guhwait? Me get several mouths fuh feed when de day come. Dat is why I had to tek up a side jab as a mechanic with de NDC in Leguanhea just fuhmek ends meet”.

that can be found on the island.

glican Church in Leguan


Security guard Miguel Jacobs enjoys life on Leguan Island.

Today Leguan has developed to a reasonable extent and there is a certain impending modern ambience that fuses nicely with the yesteryear charm that oozes from the location, made ready by the historical structures and land sites that still remain. To tell the story of its transformation was 77 year-old Winston


Lake who has been a resident for over 50 years. “What you see today is not the Leguan that was there in my time as a young boy. I can remember running around with my underwear in the scorching sun with mud all over my body as my mother would bellow at me from the open window of a small thatched roof cottage. There were hardly much houses around and those that were there were mostly small in size and far apart from each other. There were plenty of bushes and the few streets were unpaved.” “In those days everyone survived by agricultural means and a few by rearing a few pigs, cattle or sheep. I can remember rice farmers with their bulls and ploughs tilling the rice fields. When it was harvesting time the ladies and young men came out in their numbers and would trash the paddy by hand, using pitch forks to separate the grains from the stalks. In time the combine harvester came into play as more settlers came to live here bringing the evolvement of businesses, economic growth and modernization with them” Mr. Lake noted that many years ago most households would cook their meals on ‘firesides’ outside out of the home using wood and twigs to fuel their fires. He added that there was a lone cinema in the village during his teenaged years-the ‘Viola Cinema’ where villagers will congregate to watch movies since there was no televisions around at that time. Today that cinema has been remodeled and is now named the ‘Yuvindra Cinema’ which stands just beside the ‘KabhiKabhi XM Bar’ and the Sunjay Chinese Restaurant. All around there are food stalls with the Dassy’s Hot Spot being the most popular. Chand’s Rice Milling Enterprise helps farmers market their produce, and there are indeed several mandirs, mosques and churches since residents share different religious beliefs. ENTERTAINMENT AND LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES There is certainly no lack of entertainment opportunities in Leguan since residents are contented to sit around at a few small bars and ‘tek a tupps’ as they listen to pulsating music and their favourite sounds. On weekends youths customarily congregate at the Denison Ground Ball Field and engage in various games, such as cricket, football and rarely circle tennis. From time to time village teams would face off in fiery sporting clashes for trophies and cash prizes and this attracts villagers in large numbers at the venue. That aside, villagers are content to listen to music in their home, watch television or wait for the major events like Leguan Nite, and the famous Miss Leguan Beauty Pageant. They also look forward to holiday festivities and religious celebrations.

Please turn to page XXII

Everyone does a little farming in Leguan

Fattened iguana serves as a rare delicacy on the island



Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014 Cash crops cultivated on the island are sold at Parika and other areas.

From Centre

VILLAGE CAMARADERIE Taking a close look at my experiences in all the other locations visited, I would definitely have to agree that Leguan sports a very high degree of harmony, co-operation and camaraderie among residents. In this appealing island ‘everyone lives as one’, and there is certainly no evidence of ethnic divisions or differences. As I explored the island I was greeted with endearing smiles that certainly was reflected in the heart and eyes of those that looked my way and the warmth and love they showered on me during interviews was astounding. As I made my stops and interacted I was even hugged by many who were all ready to talk about their quiet existence and their hopes for the island to become the next big tourist attraction. Some housewives insisted I sampled their home made fruit juices or eat small samples of stewed vegetable from their very own farms and gardens. And many insisted that I took home juicy looking golden apples, ripe mangoes and in some cases sugary watermelons. At the street corners and food stalls it was an ‘ethnic mix’ as men played dominoes, cards or argued loudly on issues like politics, sports, and the positives the government has done on the island so far. This was truly the land of natural love and ‘wild ethnic abandon’ as villagers filled the air with raucous friendly conversation, peals of hearty laughter, or shout their ‘good day’ and ‘good mornings’ to each other with glee and mirth that was pleasing to the eye.

launched the Leguan Nite, to allow individuals to visit and explore the island and see what it has to offer. At the ceremony at the Tourism Ministry’s South Road Office, Director of the Guyana Tourism Authority (GTA), Indranauth Haralsingh had indicated that the event was expected to have a greater outcome than the Wakenaam Nite. The event attracts a large crowd, because it serves as an open exhibition to the island. It offered a tour of the island, along with a visit to the beach, which can be used as family time to relax or play a game of cricket or volleyball while allowing visitors to experience life on the island, which includes rice farming, cow milking and fishing, along with other daily routines. Overnight camping was also be facilitated at the community centre ground and in the schools’ compounds. The main attraction of the event, however, is the pageant which

consists of five segments and sees nine young women sponsored by residents or former residents of the island competing for the crown. The young women were at the launch of Leguan Nite and highlighted their platforms: pollution, peer pressure, domestic violence, teenage pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, women’s empowerment, rights of the child, child abuse and unemployment. Last year as the sun went down, the party vibes went up a few notches. Tempting music filled the cool air as dozens of visi-

TOURISM IMPACT Over the years, the Tourism Ministry has been placing a lot of emphasis on domestic tourism, and in this regard, it has implementedseveral initiatives such as the Wakenaam Nite, Essequibo Nite, and several expos. In expanding on the ‘Nite’ initiative, the Ministry on in 2013

Preparing the farm lands for agricultural prospects

Please turn to page XXVIII

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014


Steve Reeves:

Actor, bodybuilder with a herculean physique


hough he did not possess a Herculean acting talent by any stretch, handsome bodybuilder Steve Reeves certainly had an enviable Herculean physique, and made plenty good use of it in Europe during the late 1950s and early 1960s portraying some of filmdom’s most famous bronzed gods. Reeves was originally a Montana boy born on a cattle ranch in 1926. His destiny was revealed early in the game when, at the age of six months, he won his first fitness title as “Healthiest Baby of Valley County.” His father Lester died in a farming accident when Steve was just a boy, and his family moved to Oakland (California). He first developed an interest in bodybuilding while in high school. Steve joined the Army in his late teens where his job was loading boxcars and trucks. He also worked out loyally at the gym during his free time and the combination helped develop his body quite rapidly. Following Army service (he served for a time in the Pacific), he decided to pursue bodybuilding professionally. In 1946, at the age of 20, he won “Mr. Pacific Coast” in Oregon, which led to his titles of “Mr. Western America” (1947), Mr. America” (1947), “Mr. World” (1948) and, ultimately, “Mr. Universe” (1950). With all the body-worshiping publicity he garnered, he decided to travel to New York to study and pursue acting. He subsequently returned to California...and Hollywood. There were not huge opportunities for a muscleman in Tinseltown other than providing pectoral background. Steve was, however, considered for the lead role in Cecil B. DeMille’s biblical costumer Samson and Delilah (1949), but refused when told by the legendary director he would have to lose some of his musculature (about 15 lbs.). The part instead went to Victor Mature. Steve did manage to snag the role of a detective in infamous director Edward D. Wood Jr.’s Jail Bait (1954). Small parts on TV also came his way, but they too were mostly posing bits or walk-ons. To the Hollywood power players, Steve was just a body. Whether he could act or not was not a concern or selling point. Fans just wanted to see him take his shirt off. Down on his luck, Steve’s fortunes change when Italian film director Pietro Francisci saw him play Jane Powell’s boyfriend in the feature film Athena (1954) and persuaded him to go overseas to star in Hercules (1958) (US title: “Hercules”). Though critics dismissed the film as “muddled mythology” while denigrating its cheapjack production values (including a poorly-dubbed sound track), the public went crazy over the sword-and-sandal epic and, in particular, Steve’s marvelous beefcake heroics. He became an “overnight” star. Sequels followed-none any better or worse, with him going through the paces as a number absurdly-muscled biblical and mythological figures. An able horseman, he also performed many of his own stunts. Moreover, he paved the way for other pumped-up acting hopefuls (Ed Fury, Mark Forest, Reg Park) to seek their fame and fortune in Italy as a feature-length Samson, Ursus or Colossus. Nobody, however, came close to topping Steve in popularity. A shoulder injury forced Steve’s retirement, spending the remainder of his life promoting steroid-free bodybuilding while living on a ranch and breeding horses. The more recent bodybuilders of fame such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and Lou Ferrigno, both Hercules impersonators of yore, have given Steve significant credit for their respective acting successes. Married twice, Steve died in Southern California of lymphoma on May 1, 2000, at age 74. Steve Reeves is regarded by many as the greatest bodybuilder of all time for his legendary symmetrical physique, visionary bodybuilding techniques, dedication and love for the sport through which he won five bodybuilding titles between 1946 and 1950. His peak measurements were: 6’1” at 216 lbs. with 18½” arms, 52” chest, and a 29” waist, partly depicting his creation: “The Classic Physique.” Steve Reeves was born in Montana in 1926, yet by age 10 moved to Oakland, California where he first became captivated with the art of bodybuilding at age 16, placing pioneer John Grimek as his top role model. After two years of bodybuilding Steve’s body weight reached 203 lbs by high school graduation, but was he then inducted into the Army. He was assigned to Company A of the 25th Division and was sent to the front lines in the Philippines where he endured to continue his bodybuilding training, becoming known as “The Shape” among his fellow GIs. After WWII had ended he was part of the occupational forces sent to Japan and was stationed there from September 1945 to September 1946. After his service ended, he entered and won several bodybuilding championships becoming: “Mr. Pacific Coast” (1946), “Mr. Western America” (1947), “Mr. America” (1947), “Mr. World” (1948) and “Mr. Universe” (1950) announcing his retirement from bodybuilding competition that very night after he won. From that point onward Reeves set his sights on the silver screen as well as the small screen. He made several appearances on variety shows of the early-to-mid 1950s and non-starring roles

during 1954 in two films: Athena (1954) starring Debbie Reynolds and Ed Wood’s Jail Bait (1954). In 1957, he had been called to Italy to play the lead role Hercules in “Le Fatiche di Ercole” which was filmed during the summer and autumn of 1957 with a USA premiere in 1959. The tremendous worldwide success of “Hercules,” (the USA title), led to a sequel and many other Italian epic films many based on heroes played by Reeves. These roles included Romulus, Phillipides, Captain Henry Morgan, Glaucus, and Sandokan. With 20 film/TV acting credits to his name by 1968, Steve Reeves retired from film and returned to California to live on his ranch, remaining committed to his lifelong belief in natural, drug-free bodybuilding through his writings and personal appearances. Steve Reeves has served as a great inspiration to many bodybuilders such as Sylvester Stallone and Lou Ferrigno, and millions of others the world over for all that he was: a genuine hero, a true man, an authentic gentleman, the first (and to many fans the only true) Hercules, and nothing less than the greatest bodybuilder of all time. - IMDb Mini Biography By: CL Candela Spouse (2) Aline Czartjarwicz (24 June 1963 - 24 July 1989) (her death)

Sandra Smith (31 January 1955 - 4 September 1956) (divorced) Trivia (29) His wife, Aline, died of complications from a stroke in 1989. He wrote “Building the Classical Physique -- The Natural Way”. Through his Steve Reeves International Society Web site, he promoted supplements and powders with natural ingredients. He moved to Oakland with his family as a child and began lifting weights when he was 16 years old. Mr. Universe 1950 Mr. America 1947. Mentioned in the song “Sweet Transvestite” from the film The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975). At the peak of his bodybuilding career at age 23, he was 6’ 1”, 200 pounds, with a chest measuring 48 inches, a 29-inch waist, and had 17 1/2-inch biceps. Such bodybuilders such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lou Ferrigno and David Prowse have credited Reeves as a role model for the bodybuilding world. Often confused with, and is not related to, George Reeves, who Please see page XXIV


Steve Reeves: From page XXIII

played Superman on TV in the 1950s. While working on a studio next to the set where the Superman series was filmed, producers once threatened to fire George after an argument and replace him with Steve. In 1949 director Cecil B. DeMille considered (and came very close) casting Reeves as

Samson in Samson and Delilah (1949) after Burt Lancaster proved unavailable. Although DeMille liked Reeves and thought he was perfect for the role, a dispute between Reeves and the studio over his physique forced DeMille to recast the role of Samson with Victor Mature. After becoming popular in the late 1950s and 1960s, Reeves

turned down the roles of James Bond in Dr. No (1962) and the Man With No Name in A Fistful of Dollars (1964). He loved horses and was a great rider himself. Italian producers later found that to be an advantage, since Reeves usually did his own stunts in his films and they didn’t have to hire a horse riding double for him. Af-

ter retiring from films due to a shoulder injury, Reeves bought a ranch and took up breeding horses professionally. He was a friend of “Tarzan” actor Gordon Scott, and recommended him for the role of Remus in Duel of the Titans (1961). The producers originally wanted Reeves to play both Romulus and Remus through some doubling, but Reeves convinced them that it would be more effective to have another actor playing Remus. His voice was dubbed in his Italian epics. The only films where his real voice is heard are Jail Bait (1954) and Athena (1954). His entire bodybuilding career consisted of 8 contests. His mother was a nutritionist. He survived numerous life-threatening experiences as a child, including being hit by a car and dragged, being thrown from a horse and sleeping through an earthquake as a child in Montana. When he couldn’t be accounted for, family members found him sound asleep, his bedroom teetering on the brink of a three-story fall. It took him 4 weeks to get into contest shape for his Mr. America victory. Was of Welsh, Irish, English and German descent Served in the Philippines during WWII, contracted malaria, and served his remaining time under Gen. Douglas MacArthur during the occupation of Japan. Prior to its release, Ridley Scott’s Gladiator (2000) was being referred to by some writers as the first “Steve Reeves type” movie in decades. It had also been written that Scott was amiss in not getting Reeves to at least do a cameo. Sadly, Reeves died on the very day that “Gladiator” premiered..

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014 While filming The Last Days of Pompeii (1959) (a remake of The Last Days of Pompeii (1935)), the chariot he was driving struck a tree and he dislocated his shoulder. This put an end to his more intense exercise routines and caused problems in the following years. He was reportedly diagnosed with lymphoma only six weeks prior to this death. He was played by Michael J. Nelson in the episode of Mystery Science Theater 3000 (1988) that showed his film Hercules Unchained (1959). He often criticized the use of steroids in bodybuilding because he felt that it undermined the health value and the challenge of bodybuilding as a sport. He once remarked, “Body builders used to come in all shapes and sizes. Now they all look like Arnold [Schwarzenegger].” Almost par adoxically, Reeves’ impressive physique prompted filmmakers to put him into a variety of “bondage” situations. Two such situations are cited in the book: “Lash! The Hundred Greatest Scenes of Men Being Whipped in the Movies.” Ranking 7th is Reeves’ flogging in Duel of the Titans (1961) and ranking 24th is his flogging in The White Warrior (1959). Though proud of his work as Hercules, he was always disappointed that his other films did not receive much recognition. He once remarked “I only did two Hercules films, but everyone seems to think I did ten.” Took up power walking (which combined swinging hand held weights in both hands while walking) in order to compensate for the damage done to him by his shoulder injury. He was the undisputed king

of the European produced sword and sandal/mythological muscleman epics. Although he became an international sensation, the core of his film career lasted only 5 years (1958-1963)and a staggering 15 epic productions during that period. Afterward, he made another “Sandokan” feature and attempted a film in the next big Italian film craze, the spaghetti western, before retiring from the screen. Is credited by Sylvester STallone for inspiring Stallone to work out and build up his body and later became friends with Reeves after he became famous. Was offered a third Hercules film after “Hercules Unchained” but declined in favor of pursuing other roles. Summer 1948, at Cannes, France, won the title of “Le plus bel homme du monde”. This was documented in a French b&w short film with cinematography by Raymond Clunie and Georges Zaidler, with René Charrois as assistant camera operator and Jacques Verillon as technical consultant. Personal Quotes (1) Filmmaking in Europe was a little different from working in the United States. There’s a scene in ‘Hercules’ where I’m in chains -- they looked like steel, but they were actually made of wood -- and I had to swing these chains at my supposed enemies who were advancing towards me. Well, I didn’t want to really strike someone so I kind of held back with my motions. The director yelled, ‘Swing those chains! Swing them hard!’ I said, ‘I don’t want to hurt someone.’ And the director yelled back, ‘If they don’t get hurt, they don’t get paid!’

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014



Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014

In Tokyo, a bicycle is faster than a car for most trips of less than 50 minutes! The human body is creating and killing 15 million red blood cells per second! More germs are transferred by shaking hands than kissing. The fastest speed a falling raindrop can hit you is 18mph. Each rubber molecule is made of 65,000 individual atoms. One in every 2,000 babies is born with a tooth. Every Russian and American space voyage has included chocolate bars. The speed of light is generally rounded down to 186,000 miles per second. In exact terms it is 299,792,458 m/s (metres per second – that is equal to 186, 287.49 miles per second). It takes 8 minutes 17 seconds for light to travel from the Sun’s surface to the Earth. Every second around 100 lightning bolts strike the Earth. Every year lightning kills 1,000 people.

The currently accepted value is 299 792 km/s based on several measurements. The average person accidentally eats 430 bugs each year of their life A single rye plant can spread up to 400 miles of roots underground The temperature on the surface of Mercury exceeds 430 degrees C during the day, and, at night, plummets to minus 180 degrees centigrade The evaporation from a large oak or beech tree is from ten to twenty-five gallons in twenty-four hours Butterflies taste with their hind feet, and their taste sensation works on touch – this allows them to determine whether a leaf is edible




Chronicle Pepperpot March 2, 2014 Khaleel Mohamed is a famous writer that originated from Leguan Island

From Centre

tors and hundreds of islanders, adorned with their finest, flocked the streets of small Leguan as they proceeded to the venue. Some walked to the centre ground while others were transported by cars, buses, and even trucks, to the event which included the much anticipated Miss Leguan Pageant. This, the major highlight of the night, saw nine beautiful young ladies vying for the much coveted crown. After five segments, including a Talent piece, an Evening Gown, and the most important, Question and Answer Segment, 20-year-old Indranie Rampatie was named the queen of Leguan. The Queen was followed by first runner-up, Tejwantie Rampersaud, second runner-up Adeola Austin, third runner-up Tabitha

Persaud and fourth runner-up, SerikaParasram. The other contestants were TaramattieOudit, DevikaMahase, Natasha Sookraj, and Roxanne St. Hill. Special prizes were also awarded, with Adeola Austin copping those for Best Smile, Best Evening Gown, and Best Talent Piece. Miss Congeniality went to Taramattie Oudit, while the Best Introduction and Best Cultural Wear went to the newly crowned queen, Indranie Rampatie. As part of the night’s activities, there was also a mini-expo which showcased agricultural produce, clothing, as well as a variety of culinary delights, including the island’s famous iguana dish. Leguan Nite is the brainchild of acting Tourism Minister Irfaan

Ali, a native of Leguan, whose idea it was to build a unique tourism product, in an area that has made a significant contribution to Guyana’s economy in the productive sector. A committee was subsequently formed comprising various stakeholders and planning of the event got underway. It is an initiative the government continues to encourage in rural areas, particularly those with potential tourism hotspots, to adopt, given its appeal to nature lovers from abroad who have grown too accustomed to sand and sea. Under the stewardship of the People’s Progressive Party Civic (PPP/C) Leguan has been transformed from a community that used bottle lamps to one where there is now electricity in every household, potable water, a health centre, sea defence, schools and improved drainage facilities. The Leguan Secondary School made it in the category of top performing schools at the last Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) examination with Alana Babulall copping 11 subjects, 10 of which were distinctions. A PROMINENT LEGUAN FIGURE (KHALLEEL MOHAMED – WRITER) Khalleel Mohamed is the author of two books, “Terror Island” and “A Tapestry of Life”. He was in New York not so long ago to promote them and also to discuss his writings. Khalleel comes from Leguan, an area that is rich with the ebb and flow of Guyanese life. Leguan is a picture postcard of an island with its lovely churches and spirals, its stelling, cinema and schools and green fields. Leguan has produced many famous personalities over the years. David Karran, the former Registrar of the University of Guyana is a son of Leguan. Dr. Gary Girdhari, who was head of the Biology Department at the University of Guyana, is also from Leguan. Dr. Girdhari at present is editor of the Guyana Journal, a monthly publication that is based in New York. Khalleel grew up with the sights and sounds of Leguan throbbing in his ears. The water, sun and the myriad of personalities with their unique take on life have added a distinctive flavour to Khalleel’s writings. It has enabled him to write with a descriptive punch and with details that could only be culled from being close to his community. In ‘Terror Island’ for instance, he points out that “soon the water was a boil with action as the crocodiles snatched the meat from the air and fought over it.

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Joiner, Allan Hussain (left) and apprentice, Andrew Ragunandan hard at work as they make ready repaired and new furniture for their customers.

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Leguan: From page XXVIII

One very big crocodile saw a very large piece coming down and heaved its huge body out of the water. It came with a thunderous splash that rocked the boat violently, almost capsizing it. Everyone grabbed some part of the boat and held on for dear life.” This is not unusual in rural life. Khalleel Mohammad was born in Leguan to parents Nur

The Leguan Magistrate Court, Police Station and Post Office are quite close together forming a businesslike alcove.


Mohammad and Bibi Hassan Bano. He went to the Canadian Mission School and Maryville Primary School. One of his early influences was his Principal J.T. Yaw who was “an intelligent man” and who got on well with his students. In the 1960s there was no High School in Leguan and no electricity or running water but there was a love for learning. Khalleel became a teacher having passed his pupil teacher’s exam. The next step was to pass his GCE O-Levels and since there was no High School, Khalleel studied privately. It was Gary Girdhari who brought the application forms for Khalleel to sign up for his GCE O-levels. Khalleel passed his O-levels with flying colours. Gary Girdhari was again on hand with useful advice. This time he brought the forms for Khalleel to apply to the University of Guyana (UG). In 1967, Khalleel was accepted to read for his Bachelor’s Degree in History at UG. He described his stay at the University as a fantastic experience. It was at UG that Khalleel would meet a scholar who would have a tremendous impact on his life. This person was the famous Guyanese historian Dr. Robert Moore. Khalleel found Dr. Moore to be a walking encyclopedia when it came to understanding and interpreting Guyanese history. Khalleel says that “Dr. Moore was a great teacher. I was in a new world listening to him. He inspired and motivated me.” Khalleel remembers very well his last day on the Bachelor’s programme.

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From page XXIX

Dr. Moore took him aside and told him to keep writing. “I didn’t know that I could write but I was a good storyteller,” Khalleel says. Another influence on this life at UG was Sister Noel Menezes, the former head of the History Department. Sister Noel was “Queen of the footnotes” and was a legend on campus for her meticulous checking and re-checking of quotes and footnotes. But apart from this Sister Noel was a distinguished scholar in her own right and is widely regarded as an authority on the Amerindians on Guyana. After leaving UG, Khalleel was employed at the National Archives of Guyana.

The horse drawn cart serves as a reliable means of transport on the island It was at this time that he thought of leaving Guyana and settling abroad. But such dreams were shortlived. Dr. Robert Moore intervened. He told Khalleel that “you are not going anywhere. We are planning to open a Master’s Degree programme in Guyanese History and you will be in the batch of students. The Master’s programme had an intake of six students and Khalleel was one of them. He was lucky to be at the National Archives as it enabled him to have access to primary source documents. In 1971, Khalleel went to work at the Ministry of Education. The minister at the time was Frank Campbell. The 1970s was also a time of great interest in the Guyana-Venezuela border dispute. Since Khalleel was researching this for his Master’s Degree he was asked to accompany the Minister to explain the border issue to various Caribbean Heads of State. This resulted in Khalleel travelling to Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis and Montserrat, among others. After a tour of duty at the Ministry of Education, Khalleel joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and worked under Minister Rudy Insanally. Khalleel migrated to Canada in 1982. The writing bug was still with him. He felt he had so many stories to tell and it would be good to put them on paper. Khalleel believes that a good storyteller should infuse morals and values in his work. He explains:“ I put a lot of morals in these stories. I would like children to read them because they should be taught the outcome of their lives.” In ‘Tapestry of Life’, Khalleel wanted to reach a wider audience so the stories were tailored for all readers. Khalleel was grateful to Dr. Robert Moore for his guidance and inspiration. Sister Noel Menezes remains a bright light for him and Khalleel’s sister, Nariman, was a useful sounding board for his ideas. Tommy Paine, the Archivist, was on hand to encourage Khalleel and would even provide him with time to do research work for his Degree. There is also Dr. Gary Girdhari who kept a watchful eye and did everything possible to help Khalleel realise his goals. As a parent Khalleel has advice for young people. He says: “Young people should search for who they really are. They should not try to be somebody else. They should create their own identity. They should develop positive thinking and people will respect them for it.” Khalleel Mohamed is a rich talent that will go on to write more books. HISTORICAL DUTCH CHURCH Leguan still features historical hand-blown wine bottles and decanters left by the early Dutch. The Dutch were in what’s now Guyana from 1595, and they remained in Suriname until 1975. A point worth noting is that many Dutch colonials never left the colonies, and are the ancestors of many Guyanese. Throughout the creeks there are flagons, demijohns, hand-blown wine bottles, decanters, crocks, pots and flasks. But mostly it’s gin. St. Peter’s Church with its artistic designs and leaning tower is as nearly inspiring as the famous leaning Tower of Pisa.” It was originally constructed on December 9, 1827. The building was, however, replaced on St. Peter’s Day, June 29, 1855. Prior to the erection of the first church, services were held under a clump of bamboo trees. On November 25, 1826, as recorded by the pencil minute of foolscap in the vestry book of the Parish, a meeting was held in the house of Captain Thierens of Plantation Vissilvalligheid. At this meeting, it was decided that a church and parsonage should be built. A site was chosen on the front lands of Plantation Enterprise, Leguan, where the church is still functioning today. While it stands as an important part of Guyana’s built heritage, representative of an integral chapter of our social and cultural development, sadly, it has fallen into a state of dilapidation, with a roof that is in dire need of repair among other areas. JUMBIE STORIES ‘Jumbie Stories’ still seem to have a hold on residents, and I am quite certain I saw elderly fish vendor Paula De Souza shudder as she prepared to tell me the most popular one on the island. Maybe my imagination was playing tricks on me, I will never know. She narrated a story about a young lad whose dad had a gruesome fright when he was just 17 years in Leguan. And here she went plunging into that crimson tale… “Let me tell you a little about Leguan, as it is very small island, and it is divided into two bits. Back part and front part. Front part iswhere the ferries and boats transfer people from Georgetown (capital city of Guyana) to Leguan. And back part is where all the farms are and a few houses. Then there is long road, which is, I must say, a VERY long road (hence the name, LOL!), with just

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Enjoying the crisp, refreshing Leguan winds

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Leguan: From page XXX

Childhood chums Bhola Ramoutar (left) and Winston Lake still continue to make ‘bush cooks’ in the real traditional fashion.

farms surrounding it. It is VERY scary at night! Anyway, let’s get back to the story. Late one Saturday night the boy’s dad and a group of his friends went to the cinema to watch a movie at front part, and his friends said that they would stay to watch another movie, but the dad had to go home and do some homework. So he hopped onto his bike, and long road was the only route he could take to get home the fastest. He never liked to go down long road during the night, but since it was moonlight and it was not pretty dark he didn’t mind. So he pedalled down the long road by himself, and since it was way past midnight there was nobody to be seen. As he was halfway across his journey he saw a farm where a young boy at the age of 10 died. He died because while his dad was in the barn he turned the tractor on, and it went down the hill so fast that it crushed the poor boy into pieces. It is said that the ghost of the little boy still roams Leguan as any little boy. It took about 20 minutes to get home and straight after he finished his homework, he went to bed in the front room. Just as he was about to shut his eyes he felt a very light weight sitting on

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Leguan: From page XXXI

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his bed, annoyed he got up to see if it was the cat...BUT... It was the little boy! He had on a short brown trousers and a white vest, and his hair was neatly gelled to the side. He stared at the man for a minute, but it seemed like forever the poor man. The man screamed, and his parents and

A school girl gingerly maneuvering her way in a section of a badly damaged road in Enterprise Village. all of his siblings ran into the room and he told them his story, but none of them believed his story apart from his sister who believed in the paranormal. So he slept in fear with his light on. The next day, his friend invited him to go to the cinema again, so before the man could think he said ‘yes’. After the movie (which again was way past midnight) his friend stayed behind to watch another movie, but the man had to go home as he was feeling very tired. So down the long road again, but it was moonlight so he was not that scared. He passed the home of the little ghost boy, and again he got this shiver down his spine. He felt as if he was being followed but every time he looked behind him, no-one was there. But eventually he got home, but this time he slept in the room at the back, as his brother was sleeping in the other bed. Just as he was about to sleep he felt a light weight on the bed as if someone or something was sitting there... He knew what it was, but he did not want to look, so he hid under the covers for about half an hour, and still feeling the weight at the end of his bed he decided to look. And there was the little boy sitting there, the same way he was the night before! But at that minute the boy just stared at him and disappeared into thin air! The man did not bother to scream as his family would not believe him. The next day at school he told his best mate, and his mate froze in terror... He said that he saw the very same boy playing outside his house but when he realised the dad’s mate was staring at him he disappeared into thin air. Many people in Leguanhave seen this boy at some point.The frightened man soon after went to visit the little boy’s parents straight after school and they showed him a picture of the little boy in his coffin, wearing the EXACT clothes the man saw him in that night! Of course he was scared but he felt very sorry for the little boy’s parents as he was their only son, who they loved and adored very much. He related to them the two experiences he had with the little boy and the parents said they had many experiences with him too. Some people here still fear to walk at nights because many have sighted the little boy at one location or another”. PRESIDENT LEADS GOV’T TEAM ON VISIT TO LEGUAN Leguan residents got an opportunity to raise their concerns with President Donald Ramotar recently when he led a team of government ministers on a visit to the island to share with them the government’s outlook for Guyana. The visiting team that included Minister of Public Works Robeson Benn, Minister Irfaan Ali, and Region 3 Chairman Julius Faerber An Information Communication Technology (ICT) centre installed with support from the Basic Needs Trust Fund (BNTC) is today providing ongoing computer training for the islanders and, there are also efforts to attain certificate recognition. Rice cultivation on the island has expanded by 50 percent since 1995 when only 1,500 acres of rice lands were under cultivation compared to 3,000 today CONCLUSION Come bob and be tossed about on the rollicking waves of the Essequibo River, enjoy boat rides that will test your adventurous side. Come mingle with hospitable people, and soak up their pleasant presence and charming smiles. Come taste of the cherry life in the tropics. Come live the Leguan experience and most definitely I would join you there. Ooooops! That is if I can avoid that hilarious boat ride, lol. See you around folks next Sunday as I EXPLORE ANOTHER INTERESTING Guyanese village.

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Lynette Carter ... From page III

Superintendent,” she said. This led to her working in different areas across the country. She was second in charge of the ‘E’ and ‘F’ Division (Interior), then she became Commander of the ‘G’ Division (Essequibo), and then Commander of ‘D’ Division (Leonora). When it was about time for her retirement, she came down to the Department of Development at the Force’s headquarters. Being the ambitious person she is, Ms Carter began pursuing law even before she left the Force. She managed to obtain a degree in 1997 but could not make it to Trinidad because of financial constraints. “So I have the first degree. I’m waiting until they get the law school here and then I might probably be the oldest one going to finish off law,” she said. Ms Carter said she appreciates mostly the discipline that comes from working in the Police Force; something that she said remained with her to this day. ‘YOU MUST GIVE BACK’ After her retirement, Ms Carter decided that she wanted a job that would allow her to contribute more of herself to society. She heard about an opening at the GRC and successfully went after it. “In life, you have to give back something to society; your time, your money, or your goods.” Being high in praise for the organisation, she said working at the GRC is not challenging but satisfying. “You feel comfortable that you are able to help persons in disasters and talk to them during this time. Sometimes they just want someone to talk to and knowing that you offered some comfort to someone allows you to sleep quite comfortably at night.” Ms Carter believes in honesty, respect and contentment and advises: “Whatever you earn let that be sufficient for you.” She is thankful for the spirit her now deceased parents instilled in her and her nine siblings; that of showing concern for the needy. “If you didn’t have this kind of background, you couldn’t do this job.” Ms Carter is the mother ofone son-Kevon.

XXXVII At work during an exhibition



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Green spaces in your yard: Shade Trees


By Clifford Stanley f you are the type of homeowner who likes the outdoors and appreciates the need for a shady retreat somewhere in your yard, then cultivating a shade tree can be a very beneficial act. The “Shade Tree" is one of those landscaping classifications that have to do with usage, rather than botany. This term usually applies to large trees with spreading canopies. Shade trees are used to accomplish just what their name suggests: they blot out some of the sun that would otherwise be pounding down on an area of your property. They can cool your home and/or a portion of your yard, and provide a peaceful outdoor retreat. Shade trees can enhance the privacy of a garden by obstructing the view. Things to look for when choosing a shade tree include the nature of the leaves coverage, longevity, and the ability of the roots to damage foundations. Quick maturation is generally considered a plus. Some of the most popular shade trees in temperate countries are

oaks, maples, ashes, lindens, and elms. In tropical countries, trees such as the African tulip tree, Hopea odorata and some Erythrina species are often planted as shade trees. In Guyana, the most popular shade tree in landscaping is the Indian almond tree a large tropical tree, in the lead wood tree family

combretaceae, scientifically known as Terminalia catappa. T. catappa is widely grown in tropical regions of the world as an ornamental tree, grown for the deep shade its large leaves provide The tree can be encouraged to spread laterally and provide a larger area of shade by cutting the apical bud at the top of the tree during the early stages of its growth. Fitz Ogle, Agronomic Engineer and principal of the Evergreen Nature Study School, explained that removal of the apical bud stimulates growth in the lateral direction. The lateral buds grow and produce new shoots, which compete to become the lead growth. Pruning makes use of this natural response to damage of the apical bud to direct plant growth and produce a desired shape, size, and/or productivity level for the plant. The principle of apical dominance and the response to damage, for example, is manipulated for hedge building. By careful pruning, it is possible to create a quite remarkably well spread Indian almond shade tree for a section of your yard as your personal outdoor retreat.

Robin Thicke, Paula Patton Split - Triggered By Antics with Miley

Robin Thicke’s marriage fell apart when he dry humped Miley Cyrus on stage before a national audience, humiliating his wife. Sources connected to the couple said Paula Patton felt “utterly disrespected” when Robin virtually simulated sex with Miley the night of the VMAs.  We’re told after the performance Paula got into a blow-out argument with Robin, telling him he insulted her before a huge national TV audience. What really pissed Paula off is that the performance was a total surprise.  Miley improvised the raunchy part without warning, but Robin played along and that enraged Paula. Sources say Paula went nuclear when she saw pictures surface of her hubby at one of the after- parties grabbing a woman’s ass virtually digging inside. We’re told things never got better after that.  They argued constantly and Paula was furious Robin continued to party at clubs with various women, pictured at times getting very cozy. It reached the point of no return last week -- at least for Paula.  As we reported ... Robin is pulling out all the stops to change her mind, but we’re told she wants out of the marriage.

Maksim Chmerkovskiy Is Returning to “Dancing with the Stars” Just when he thought he was out they pulled him back in! Maksim Chmerkovskiy will return to “Dancing with the Stars” for Season 18, it has been confirmed. And no, he’s not just stopping by to be a guest judge again. He’s coming back as a dance pro. S o u r c e s say he was seen leaving a meeting with executives for the show today and fans rejoice it’s a done deal.  Right now, it’s unclear if Maks will do any additional seasons after this one, but for now, we’ll take what we can get! As for his partner, we’re not sure who he’ll be paired with yet.  The celeb contestants will all be announced on Tuesday on “Good Morning America.”

Jada Pinkett Smith: One of the Best Role Models Today Jada Pinkett Smith is one bad-ass woman: she’s super talented in her own right, and her talent stands away from the glare of husband Will Smith’s spotlight, she has a pretty amazing band, she never lost her composure when it appeared that she was going through issues within her nearly 20-year-old marriage, she’s amazingly intelligent, and now we can add that she’s a positive body image champion to the ever-growing list of things we love about Jada P. Check out what she recently posted on Facebook:  “My girlfriend sent me this pic, and I could clearly see the weight I’ve gained which is about…8-10 pounds. I think I will keep it. I like being a lil…fuller. Let’s just hope it will fit in The Oscars dress.” Here’s to loving our bodies by our own standards :) Here’s to loving our bodies -oh, and yours for sure, Jada -- by our own standards, indeed. If more people were accepting of themselves, and of others, could you imagine how good everybody would feel deep inside?  Jada, you’re beautiful no matter what you look like on the outside, and it’s partially because you’re so lovely on the inside. But partially because you’re smoking hot, too. Love you, girl! 

Kim Kardashian Steps Out with North West

Miley Cyrus is Too Dumb to Put Her Money Where Her Coated Tongue Is

Oh Miley. Silly, “innovative,” Miley Cyrus is spitting in the very face of those she’s trying to encourage to be risqué you know, young children who might actually be into such déclassé things like the childish “Peter Pan,” because your silly girl just slammed reports that she’s absolutely ?not ?going to be playing the part of Tinker Bell in an on-stage production of “Peter Pan.” And not only did she slam them. She applied her scuzzy-looking little tongue to them and corroded them beyond recognition. Let your tongue take it away, Miles: That’s the update she posted to Twitter, along with the photo on the left up there, the one saying that Miley was being considered for the aforementioned Tinker Bell part.  Come to think of it, though, why haven’t you already realized that twerking your ass off in “Peter Pan” would open yourself up to a whole new, young generation of 3-year-olds who haven’t yet been exposed to suffocated vulvas and too-tight bodysuits? This has your tongue name all over it! 

Kim has spent a lot of time overseas recently, as she's planning a wedding with Kanye West in Paris for later this year. The reality TV star revealed the couple will have a "super, super small intimate" ceremony, a far cry from her televised nuptials to Kris Humphries. "As we are going along, we realize we want it to be smaller and more intimate than people are imagining and thinking," she told Ryan Seacrest on Tuesday. Do you think it'll actually be a tiny affair? And will North West be the flower girl? We can't wait to find out.

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