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VOLUME 9 1979

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DU 547 A23n. s. MARC v.9 i I

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P -: h o t o b y T h o m a s B . M c Gr a th. s.J.


EDITOR ThomasB. McGrath,S.J.

ASSOCIATEEDITORS ErnilieG. Johnston MarjorieG. Driver

STA FF Dirk A. Ballendorf Elair-re P. Concepcion Joirn P. Sablan RositaD. Tosco A,lbertL. Williams

WRITE FOR THE RECORDER The Recorderwants articlesfrom you. Sendthem to:

THE GUAM RECORDER MicronesianArea ResearchCenter Universityof Guam P. O. Box EK Agana,Guam 96910

A ll phot ogr aphs a refro m th e MA R Cc o l l e c ti o n unles so th e rw i s ei n di c a te d .

Pu blishe dan nually t o pr ov ide s c ient if ic , cu ltura l a nd his t or ic al inf or m at ion co ncern ingG uam and M ic r ones ia.

F B ONT C OV E R : W halem an,s sketch of his vessel su rro u n d e d b y humpback whales in the pacific. C o u rte sy o f th e Kendall Whaling M useum , Shar on, Ma sse h u se tts.

GRACIAS! It is time to extend a word of gratitude to one of our AssociateEditors, Ms. Marjorie G. Driver. In addition to her own researchand translation work, some of which has appeared in the GUAM RECORDER, she has effectively led the Micronesian Area ResearchCenter through the period between its first and seconddirectors. Transition periods in any organ:ration are crucial. In the main they function to preservewhat is good in the past and to point the way to new growth. This interim administration was successfulin sustaining the servicesof MARC, developing research into the Spanish Era on Guam and initiating it into the American Era, while maintaining a modest acquisition and publishing program. Looking to the future this administration began the process of attracting and sustaining grants for its historical research,prepared the way for consultationson MARC's future development and took an active role in the formation of the Pacific Studies Program, guided MARC through the planning phaseof a new facility to be located on the campus,and as Guam has looked to Mexico over the years MARC was able to take a first step toward forging a new tie, this time with the Universidad Auto noma d e Guadalaiara. The interim administration has been able to hand on to the new director, Dr. Dirk A. Ballendorf, a MARC that is well establishedwith a solid potential for development in the future. Well done and muchasgracias,Marge.

Fr. ThomasB. McGrath,S.J. Editor, GUAM RECORDER


MAGAZINE OF GUAM AND MICRONESIA Publisltedby rhe MicronesianArea Research Center University of Guanr Agana.Guam





IN A WAKE OF FOAM AND BLOOD by FrancisX. Hezel,5.J.

w o MAN O F WTSDOM--FE LtCtA E . P LA ZA ,M.M . B . by M ar jor ie G . D ri v e r


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RESCUEAT SEA_'I909 by JamesA. McDonough,S.J.









SOME FRIENDSON TRUK Photosby ThomasB. McGrath,S.J



T he opinionsex p re s s eidn a rti c l e sp u b l i s h e di n t hi s magazi ne are the pri vateonesof the w ri tersand shoul dnot be const r ue. any wa y as r ef lec t ingt he v i e w so f th e Mi c ro n e s i aA n re a R esearch C enter,U ni versi tyof Guam,or the Government of G uam . Volur - = " of th e re v iv edG uam Re c o rd ecr o n s i s te od f o n l y o n e i s sue.V ol ume2 consi sted of threei ssues of w hi ch i ssues N umber2and3 wer ec, : ^ bin e d ,a n d V olum e3 c on s i s te d o f th re e i s s u e s .S u b s e quent vol umesw i l l coi nci dew i th the cal endaryear. W e reserve th e r ightt o acc: : . or re j e ctany m at er ials ubmi tte dfo r p u b l i c a ti o n .


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rrf 1 i; tl (-INDIIRSIGIEED,having entered ints a Co-partner-t- sh,p f,rr the purposeof carrylngon"theSIIIF CHASIILh;* I'lY nr-;${li OSS,under tns name and firrn of


,r'.1,iirjlsland *f Gnam, Ladronefslands,respectfullyann6one* ir) lnasierso{ rv}raleshiprand olhers,that s full asxo*nrentof X3'val S{orexand râ‚Źu'nits will tle kept constantlyon hand and tirrn ished Lrytttem on the nrost reasonahletorrns, - a,rrsm$noy d on whalerts billr on t he Un itett Stateg. adv;rnee


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J . S . VA N IN G E N, Srram, Ladrone Iel;rndr. SS*6rn




1849 run in f or t he land 10 am c om e t o a n ancho r in lApra ] bay in ls land of G uam . . . we f o u n d 10 wha le sh ips lyin g her e . . . we went up t o t he t o w n there are 7 or 8000 Inhabitants in the town there . . is a spa nish go ve r nor t he nat iv es s peak s panis h a n d are a ll ca tho lics th e hous es ar e built of bam bo o o r w oo d covere d with c oc oanut leav es t hey ar e r a i s e d abo ut 3 fee t fro m t he gr ound on pos t s t he c hur c h a n d govern men t bu ildi ngs ar e s t one whit ewas hed it w a s ver y sickly wh ile we wer e t her e ls aw 8 dead bo d i e s car ried in to the Hos pit al y ar d in 2 hour s t he Sup e r i n tend en t to ld me th er e was 100 bur ied in 3 day s . w e exch an ge d a man by t he nam e of J ohns on f or o n e E dwa rd an Eng lis hm an on boar d t he [ whales h i p ] N ile . we g ot 1 2 co r ds of wood her e but c ould ge t n o rec ruits. Jan 2 2 g ot under weigh and went down t o U m a tta a villa ge ab out 12 m iles dis t ant and anc ho r e d . there we g ot a bo ut 300 bbls of wat er on t he 24 g o t und er rveig h a ga in af t er r em aining 23 day s in t h i s mis era ble p lace fo r a c hr is t ian. we ar e bound f or t h e Japan Sea l

The Marianasteemed with whaleshipsin the midnineteenth century. F. Cady's rematks, quoted above, reveal the strain of that traffic on Guam, a strain emphasizedin this case by the fact that Guam's epidemic was blamed on a visiting whaleship's contamination.2 By the lB40s, dozensof sperm whalers called at Guam in winter or early spring before putting in a season on the rich Japan grounds. By 1850, their numbers were augmentedand supplantedby right and bowhead whalers,passingthrough the Marianachain, bound for the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. Traffic by whaleships remained heavy until the late nineteenth century, and involved substantialtrade at severalMariana islands. Some vesselsalso made a businessof whaling the Marianas'resident whale stocks. Manuscriptsat the Kendall Whaling Museum provide interestingdetails of these activities. Guam receivedmost of the Marianas'whaling traffic. Each year between January and April, British and American shipsdropped anchor at Apra disgorging countless whalemen: Micronesians, Polynesians, Londoners, American blacks and

whites, Portuguese,Cape Verdeans,West Indians, mostly young, who took liberty on and with the island.J Their effect on Agana was economically stimulating but socially disruptive. Their surviving descriptions of Guam are memorable, instructive and unflattering. Whalemen were easily pleased by aboriginal Pacific islands; but ports with a western veneer, however thin, brought out snide comparisonswith home. The seedyofficiousness of Guam's establishmentseemedto whalemen as ludicrous as the moral pretensions of Hawaii's missionaries. In addition, stories circulated for years in the fishery about a British whaling skipper's violent death in Agana,rumored to have been murder by the govemor'sorder.+ Wralemenoften took a contemptuous. boisterous attitude ashore with them at Guam. These sentimentswere not mellowed by the governor'seight o'clock curfew and requirement that each skipper lodge his crew in Agana boarding houses. The constabulary chargedwith enforcingthe curfew inevitably came in for pranks and ridicule. In 1853,when John D. Jones and his crewmembersof the Emily Morgan organizedan after-hoursdance,they were ordered by soldiers to desist. The dancersquickly passed out liquor. While most of the soldierswere changing their minds about the curfew, one whaleman "took their muskets,carriedthem to the river, and, wading to a considerabledepth, safely deposited the 'governmentarms,' and then returned to the house, where the dance was kept up without farther interruption."5 A few nights later, riotous whalemendrove the soldiersout of Santa Cruz at Apra and vandalizedthe premises.o Under such circumstances,the governor'scurfew is not hard to understand; and even Jones was prepared to be charitableabout Guam's defenders: Sun da y is th e gr and gala day of t he inhabit a n t s here . Amon g oth er t hings . we wit nes s eda par adea n d review of the armv stationed here by the governor, numb erin g o ffice rs , high pr iv at es and all, t went y - fi v e . T hey d o d uty a s polic em en as well as s oldier s . Th e y w ere n ot

a very f or m idable- look ing body of m e n ; som e were d resse d in whit e, and s om e in blue, w i t h fancifully-decorated cloth caps. A portion of them w ere arme d with m us k et s , t he r em ainder wit h s pe a r s . H owe ve r, the y pe r f or m ed t heir ev olut ions v er y w e l l , alth ou gh we do n ot believ e t heir c om m ander e v e r studied Scott's Tactics.T

Boarding house food did not draw much praise. Here is how one hungry whaleman'shopes were dashed: F rien d! Did yo u e v er t ak e a c old s hower . . . f or a n y chronic comp lain t? lf y ou hav e, y ou c an judge of t h e

d a m p e r w e e x p e r i e n c e d w h e n w e s u r v e y e dt h a t ta b : a t a b l e w h i c h w i l l n e v e r b e e f f a c e d f r o m m e m o r '' w h i l s t r e a s o n h o l d s h e r s w a y . I n t h e c e n tr e o f ti - : r o o m a f e w b o a r d s w e r e p l a c e d a c r o s ss o m e up r i g h ts... u p o n w h i c h w e r e l a i d a d o z e n p l a t e s o f a di n g y h u : w i t h h e r e a n d t h e r e a k n i f e a n d f o r k o f e v e ry va r i e tr s i z e a n d p a t t e r n . . . w h i c h h a d l a i n s u f f i c i e n tl y l o n : i n s a l t w a t e r t o g i v e i t a s o l i d c o a t o f r u s t . T h e n ca m 3 t h e d i n n e r , a h o g c u t u p i n s m a l l p i e c e s ,a l m o st b r i stl e s a n d a l l , a n d b o i l e d i n f r e s h w a t e r w i t h a f e w p o ta to e s. a n d a l i t t l e s a l t s p r i n k l e d o n e a c h m a n 's p la te , co m prisedthe sum total of that dinner.S

The writer of the above description,ashoredurirg the 1849 epidemic, noted that neither influenz. nor Sunday masses could prevent cock-fightin_: matches in Government Plaza. It should be added that howeverdisparagmg these descriptions may seem, many whalenten found Guam an irresistablealternativeto life on r whaleship at least for awhile. Aganathus became a labor pool of deserters,many of whom wor.tlc shortly ship on vesselsmore to their liking. Deserters and the pursuit thereof created additional tensions between officials and shorthandedskiprpers. In 1852, for example,the governorrefused to allow one Captain Nash to replace deserters with Marianos until all the whalers at Apra were fumigated to smoke out stowawuyr.9 tt-t. missing men were not found, and Nash accordingJr "shipped 5 Spanishmen and one American...."1U What did visitors like about Agana? Tuba. of colrrse. which Jone-s insisted was no more intoricating than "a glassof sodaor lem onade."lI (Othersfor-rndit truly potent.r r) Someremarked about the orderedneatnessof the streets,especial1v after LieutenantColonel Pablo Perezassumed 3 tie governorship.l The Marianos themselves pleasedvisitorsby their appearance and kind manner.r+ Their ever-present machetes and the languagebarrier probably did not encourageclose acquaintance by Yankees, however. And, aside from their attraction to cigarsand betel nut, local ladiesdrew praise. Jones'sexuberantstyle givesr-rs this rhapsody: fair-looking: of Guamare remarkably The females comkeenblackeyes,long,flowingblackhair,smooth plexion,and possessed of a robustandwell'rounded in andverygraceful form;theirsteplightandelastic, in beauties Oneof thesedark-eved theirmovements. clasped, beseechingly the attitudeof prayer,herhands her loose hair flowing luxuriantly around her wellr o u n d e d s h o u l d e r s , a n d h e r c o u n t e n a n c e e xp r e ssi ve o f m e e k n e s sa n d i n n o c e n c e , w o u l d f o r m a m o d e l fo r t h e c h i s e lo f a P o w e r s . 1 5

As Cady describes.vrsitirrgvesselstook otr water at Umatac. Cadl'''sship left Umatac at the height of the 1849 day beforeGuam sufferedanothercatastrophe: a destructiveearthquake. Captain Gilbert Pendleton spent that untorgettabledaY at Umatac:

W edne sd ay,Jan ua ry 24t h Comme nc es wit h light wind f r om t h e Eastward & good weather, at 7 AM I took a Boats at 2 PM I started to crew & startecj for Apra. C ome d own to th e s hip. af t er c om ing 2 m iles we h a d a hea vy sh ock of an Ear t hquak e &when I got t o t he s h i p I fo un d it h ad done c ons ider able dam age ons h o r e . T he frun t & p art o f t he s ide of t he lar ges t one Chu r c h lay in ru ins, a nd a lar ge s t one dwelling hous e t he h a r bor master live d i n was badly injur ed' Ther e w a s a numb er o f bo ats at t he wat er ing plac e get t ing w a t e r the la nd su nk ab out 12f eet at t he head of t he ba y & the wa ter wen t ou t leav ing s om e par t of t he ha r b o r dry . & whe n it h ad done Set t ling t he s ea r us he d i n w ith gre at force s weeping ev er y t hing t hat was in i t s w ay, Boa ts men & c as k & t hen r ec eded liv eing th e m hig h & dry far from t he wat er . No one got hur t . b u t a numb er o f ca sk w as los t & s om e boat s s t ov e. M a n y fish was h ove up & lef t on t he land. I n t he Night h a d 7 more shocks but not so heavy. The atmosphere w as qu ite cle ar b ut had a s t r ong s m ell of br im s to n e . T h e pe op le of the plac e s ay it is t he f ir s t t hat was e v e r known h ere . Wh en t he wat er f lowed in it t ook t h e ships in with g reat f or s e r unning t hem ov er t h e i r

heavy, especially when Gnam's periodi'- natural disastersproduced local shortages. In l8-19. lor example, the press of whaleshiptraffic stripped Rota of rrroduce.l8 H".. is Nash'sitrformative accountof tradingRota in better times: p u l l e d o n s h o a r w i t h o n e B o a t t o w i n o n e b o a t fo r sa i l . w h i c h I s o l d f o r s i x t y d o l l a r s . t a k i n g p a y i n tr a d e a s follows. fourteen Hogs. one dozen Fowls. four hundred cocoanuts. and Eleven hundred fifty pounds o{ yams. Traded for 18 more fowls 2 hogs. one hund r e d o r a n g e s . a n d s u m B a n a n n e r s . a n d a t 5 .3 0 p m returned on bord tuck up the boat and haled on the w i n d t o t h e s o u t h w a r d b o u n d t o G u a m . th e i sl a n d of Rota produces yams. Hogs. fowls. orange. &c. &c. and a plenty of Wood. there is a governor and f o u r h u n d r e d i n h a b i t a n c eo n t h e l s l a n d . . . . 1 9

A late whaling account by Captain R. D. Wicks oronouncesRota the "best Island of the lot and easy trade."2o Wick's recruits included "six doz Esgs three ducks shells and Bamboo for brooms pie]rtyof Corn...."21 Tinian's wild cattle were a source of beef supplied by convict labor, as Reuben Delano recalledin 1846: They have no horses. and the Spanish "lasso" was not in use among them. The musket is the weapon most in

Anchors, & when it recededthey went back & brought upwith a ve ry to ug ht s t r ain on t he Chains & t he S h i p K ee pe rstho ug ht we had par t ed. The wind was v e r y lig ht & th e sh ip he ld on] 6

About mid-cer"rtury,the whaling industry shifted its efforts somewhat.increasingits emphasis upon the right whale and its arctic relative. the bowhead. Tiris change reflected declining public demand for spenn u'hale prodttctsand an increaseduse of baleen.a flexrble.fringedmaterial through which most speciesof S:reatwhalesinciuding rights and bowheads.strain their food.l / Before the developmentof celluioid and spring steei, baleen had many commercialapplications. Its procurement continued to make long Pacific voyagesworthwhile long after the advent of whale oil substitutes; so the inevitable decline of this old-fangled fishery was slow, and Yankee whaleships remained regular annual fixtures in the Marianas. (After a summer'swhaling to the north, thesevesselsusua,llysailedeastwardand southward by prevailing winds and currents to reprovisionin Hawaii.) The Northern Marianas also provided supplies for the fishery. Volume of trade was

Captain R. D. Wicks of the San Francisco bark Coral, 1887. 1889. Courtesy of the Kendall Whaling Museum, Sharon, Massachusetts.

use for taking the m . Som et im es when wounded th e s e anima ls sh ow th e gr eat es tf er oc it y and r age,and of t e n tim e s tu rn u po n their pur s uer s . I n s uc h enc ount er st h e S pa nia rd thro ws do wn his gun, s eiz est he anim al by t h e horn an d ge ne rall yc as t s him down wit h as m uc h e a s e as we wo uld a co m m on s iz ed dog. The long k ni f e i s soon ap plie d to his t hr oat , and t he lif eblood f lows p r o fus ely. The h ide is t hen t ak en of f and t he beef c u t fro m the bo ne ; th is is c alled "jer k ed beef , " it is th e n packe d in hid e an d is r eady f or ex por t at ion. 22

Despitean ephemeralpopulation,Anatahan. Guguan and even J^agunplovided provisions for visiting whaleships./J In fact, the agentsfor trade thereabouts were often beachcomberswho had once been whalernen. The Nortliern Marianasmust have seemed ideal desertion sites, for they combined srniling abundanceand occasionalcontacts with vesselsfrom home. This was especiallytrue at mid-century,when the volume of whalerswas great, and lor a generationafterward. when there were at leasta few humpbackwhalersworking the Marianas. Beachcomberactivity must necessarily be illustratedthrough isolatedexamples.In 1841, the William and Eliza of New Bedford found two Englishmenat Guguan eagerto sell hogs. During the transaction, one of the crew deserted.:+ Desertionsremained a regular occurrencein the Marianas until at least the tum of the centurv. '









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and a few unusuallv delinotient whalemen were also left behind in local custody.25 The fate of such trren arouses and frustrates our curiosity, for beachcombingelsewherein Micronesia was a dying art by tlie l860s. Perhapstheir residence traditions include whalemenin their ancestry.26 Saipan transcended its role as a trading stop to become a whaling base. Beginningabout 1850. some Yankee vesselswould anchor on Saipan's lee side and spenda few weeks"between seasons"whaling humpbacks. There are several stocks of North Pacific humpbacks, the best known of which is the group which winters for calving and mating in Hawaii. Corresponding stocks winter in the Rvukvus. Bonins ar-rd Marianas.2T The Marianu, ,to.t is presumedto summer in Aleutian waters, where humpbacks wcre ieavily whaled in the early twentieth century.-6 Thc original and presentpopulation of these whalesis not known despite a recent survey attempt in Northern Marianas.29 What is certain is that they were systematicallytaken by Yankees in the nineteenth century. Whaling of humpbacks occurred throughout the Marianas.beginning in J anuary. peaking March, and subsiding al^in togetherby June.JU In late Springthe humpbacks apparently moved northwest, for March and April logbook entries place many in the Philippine Sea, well we-st of Agrighan, Maug or Farallon de Pajaros.JI

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R. W. Dexter in 1857. Courtesv of the Kendall Whaline Museum. Sharon. Massachusetts.

"Humpbacking" was a side line in the Yankee whale fishery, although its volume has been underestimated. Humpbacksyield but lit[le baleen,are wary and hard to take by whaleboat.32 Many skippers left them alone, but others took them as targetsof opportunity, or, in the caseof the Marianasherd, a windfall between seasons. Rather than lower whaleboats from a cruisingmother ship, Yankeespreferred to anchor their vessels,then patrol the waters around Saipan in whaleboats. The following excerpts from the detailed logbook of the lYavy arc representative, and give an idea of the ups and downs of humpbacking. In 7862, the Navy spent ten weeks whaling the Marianas. At least six American vessels worked Saipan that season, killing at least sevenwhales: Jany23. . . . at 10ammadetheisland Thursday Bird or Fa rallo n De [ Pajar os Jat 12 Noon up w i t h l t run clo se to lt not hing on lt s o ends t he da y . . . . Frid ay Jan y 24 . . . . at 6 PM m ade t he ls land Sip a n a t 7. ff ed t oo of f N. End at day light r u n f o r

t h e l a n d a t 1 2 . n o o n C a s t a n c h o r a n d s e n t tw o .


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boatsafter humpbacks .Saturday Jany 25. . . . fair weather three boats a f t e r h u m p b a c k s s e e t h r e e w i t h o u t s u c c ess.Sh i p at anchor &c. . . " .Monday Jany 27. This day in chais of whales w i t h o u t S u c c e s sa t 3 . P . M . B a r k F a n n y o f N e w Bedford Came to anchor some two hundred yards South from us . We d n e s d a yJ a n y 2 9 . . . . a t a n c h o r e m p l o ye d i n wood m e n d i n g s a i l s &c. boating and f i n e F e b y w e a t h e r O n e w a tch o n 2. . . . .Sunday

liberty. . M o n d a y F e b y 3 . q u i t e f r e s h N . E . w i n ds l a tte r p a r t s I n c h a i s o f f H u r n p b a c k s w i t h o u t Su cce ss . . .Friday Feby 7.. . t w o b o a t s a f t e r w h a l e s w i th -


outSuccess.... Feby 8. Saturday. i n c h a i s o f w h a l e s w i th o u t success.. . . . .Monday Feby 10. a t 7 . a . m . S h i p Fl o r i d a y got struck and humpback a &c. T u e s d a y F e b y 1 1 . . . . b o a t s i n c h a i s o f f wh a l e s a t 1 2 n o o n C a m e o n b o a r d t w o b o a t s s t o ve i n ....


r ain s quall & boat s aft e r .Frida y Feb y 14. wha les p art the t im e Bar k Fanny got a 10 b b l wha le .. .Su nd ay Fe by 16 . at 2. P. M . St r uc k a hum pbac k b y the L[a rbo ard ] BI oat ] . t ur ned him up ei g h t .

F. Cady, Journal kept on board Ship ,lulian of New Bedford, 1847-7850 (Kendall Whaling Museum, Sharon, Massachusetts Ihereafter KWM] ) 1 January 1849 tf.

miles fro m Sho r e . . .Tu esda yFeb y 1 8. em ploy ed in boiling and Cha isin g finished boiling at 6. A. M . t ur ned u p

Father Aniceto lbanez del Carmen et al., Chronicle of the Mariana Islands (trans. and annotated by Marjorie G. Driver, 2nd printing, Agana; MicronesianArea ResearchCenter, 1976), p. 1.

ZE bb ls . . .Satu rda y March 1s t . . . . boat s in Chaisof f wha l e s without Successat dayl ight Lewis Baker Fra ncis Evin s & Sar aphem e Lem an wer e m is s i n g at 3 . p.m. fo und Lem an & Ev ins on boar d S h i p South Boston they reported that Baker had dro wnd ed In s wim m ing f r om O ne Ship t o t h e

In April 1843, a typical month, there were at least fourteen Yankee and four British whalers anchored at Apra (Journal kept on board Ship QfCSAgof May Fairhaven, 1842-1845 [KWM] , 1 April-l 1 8 4 3) .

Other &c. . . .WednesdayMarch 5. . . . boats after whales without successShip South Bostons boats struck and had a boat stove and second mate got foul in the line a nd dr ownded and los t t he wh a l e . . .Th ursda y Marc h 7. . . . at 4. TzP. M . lar boar d b o a t struck too k th e whale t o t he Ship 8 P. M . & a t daylight Commenced to Cut &c. .Su nd av Ma rch 9. . . . f inis hed boiling 11. P . M . turn ed up 8 0 bbls on dec k ' . . ' T u esda y Ma rch 18 . . . at 7. A. M . W lais t l . B[ oa t ] . Struck a Ca lf L. B. B[ ow] . B. St r uc k Cow Ca p t . go t Cap sized and a s m all hole k noc k ed ln t h e boat. f ir s t par t s in Chais o f . .Su nd ay March 23. wha les witho ut s uc c es s& at 6. hov e s hor t at 7 . mad e Sail too k anc hor t o t he nor t h wit h f i n e weather So ends.33

Narural Historv of Thomas Beale, Surgeon, -Ihe is added. a Sketch to which . . . the Sperm Whale of a South-sea Whaling Voyage; etc. (London, J o h n V a n V o o r s t , 1 8 3 9 ) , p p . 3 3 5 - 3 3 9; [Jo h n D . Jonesl , Life and Adventure in the South Pacific. By a Roving Printer (New York: Harper & Rrot h e r s , P u b l i s h e r s ,1 8 6 1 ) , p . 2 2 7 .


The Narly'screw was experienced,but a look at her catch effort proves that abundant whaleswere no guarantee of good fortune. In thirty-three encounters, the Navy's boats struck four whalesand killed only three, results which typify the toil of humpbacking. Humpbacks are now a protected species. Their original numbers and habits are of major cetologicalinterest. An extensivelogbook survey of Mariana contacts would vield instructive data for biologistsas well ashistorians.34 Yankee whaling humpbacks may have peaked during the American Civil War, when shortagesdrove up whale oil pricesdramatically. But as Yankee whaling declined in postwar years, so did the traffic in the Marianas. There were still several diehard Yankee whaleshipsputting into Guam in the 1890s, however 35, overage San Francisco square-riggerswhich were cheaper to keep at sea than at home. These last few anachronismsgleaned the westernPacific for many species,and could still be seen around tlie Marianas in the early twentieth century, anchored at Apra while their threadbare crewmen caroused on shore; or lowering their outmoded whaleboatsnear greenlandfalls which, to the end, seemedso enticing.36


J o n e s ,p . 2 3 8 .


The Fort "entirely surrounded by water" (Jones p. 238) is Fort Santa Cruz. Confer Yolanda Forts of Guam Delgadillo et al. T!glg""! (Agana: Micronesian Area Research Center, 1979),p.34.


rbid. p. 236. "Whaleman's Friend" (ShiP Braganza) to Samuel C . D a m o n , H o n o l u l u , 9 O c t o b e r 1 8 4 9 , p u b l i sh e d i n T h e F r i e n d ( H o n o l u l u ) , 1 5 O c t o b er 1 8 4 9 .


Captain Nash, Journal kept on board Bark Prud e n t o f S t o n i n g t o n , 1 8 5 0 - 1 8 5 3 ( K WM) , 8 M a r ch 7852.


Ibid., 12 March 1852.


J o n e s ,p . 2 2 9 .


Reuben Delano. The Wanderings and Adventures

of Reuben Delano, being a Nar-lativeof Twelve Years'Life in a WhaleShip (New York: H. Long & Brother; and Worcester:J. Grout, Jr., 1846), p. 37. t3.

L.A.B., "A Sketch of Guam,one of the Ladrone Islands,"The Friend (Honolulu),I January1849; Jones,p.229.

r a.

John F. Akin, Journalkept on boardShipUryjlfg of New Bedford, 1843-1847(KWM), April 1846; "Guam", T_S--E!."d (Honolulu), 14 November 1855;B eal e,p. 335.


EDITOR'S IlOTE: This article is reprinted with the permission of American Neptune, the Peabody Museum. and the author. Further researchrtn the part of the author has revealed new informatic:n. He has instructed the editor to prepare two addenda reflecting this. The author has recently retired from his post at the Smithsonian Institution.

put forward. In the PeabodyMuseum of Salemis the journal of the ship Britannia, Captain W. Raven, on her voyage from England to port Jackson,in the yearsI 192 to I 795. The author of this manuscript is R. Murray. By Murray's Britannia found herselfon ChristmasDay, 1793,at what is now known as Ngatik, not far from ponape in the Carolines;this atoll was taken to be a ner,,, discoveryand was given the name Raven,sIslands. after the captain a name by which it was long known thereafter. (Actually Ngatik had been discovered in June 1773, by Don Felipe Tompson. in the Spanish vesselXluestraSenora de la Consolacion. on his journey from Manila to California. but this wasunknown to Raven.)Threedayslater. on 28 December,Raven saw another of the Carolines in latitude 5014'N, longitude 154oE. There is no description beyond these scant facts, but the island must have been one of the Mortlocks. most probably Satawan. Satawanlies at 50l7-30'N. I 53o28-45'tl. Raven'sobservations are consistent: his slight error here is of about the samemagnitude as the emor in his observationsthree days earlier at Ngatik, where he was only 0o3/out in latitude and 0o58'out in longitude. Captain Raven therefore precededCaptain Mortlock by two years and the honor of tnii Ois_ covery rightly belongsto him. ). EAURIPIK. To the west of the N4ortlocks in the Carolinesis the atoll of Eauripik, lying at 6041-41N. t4:o0GO5'E. Sharp(pp. 21i-18) and other authorities give the discovereras the Russian explorer, Fedor Lutke, commander of Senyavin. Lutke sighted Eauripik on l2 Aprii 1828, as he passedthrough the Carolineson an east to west course; he did not land, but the expedition reports contain a chart of the atoll. This has been the only original discovery attributed to the Russianexpedition (although Lutke consideredPonapeto be a new find), but eventhis honor must now be taken from him. Almost exactly thirty-two years earlier than Senyavin, the ship Abigail seemsalso to have visited Eauripik. The journal of Abigail's voyage from Port Jackson to Canton is kept at the John Hay Library, Brown University, in Providence. The captain'sname is not evident. To quote from the journal:

In the past severalyears, in the courseof gathering ethnohistoricalmaterialson Micronesia from manuscript sources in various repositories, I have noted several instancesof discoveriesof earlier date and by different voyagersthan those given in that valuable compilation by Andrew Sharp, The Discovery of the PaciJ-ic Islands.l In correspondencewith Mr. Sharp, he has suggestedthat I place these instanceson record, the conclusiveones along with the tentative ones! so that they might be available to other scholars. All of the discoveriesgiven here are in Micronesia; one of them (Fanning's discovery of Kapingamarangi) is in published form but it is included here becauseit is omitted by Sharp; the othersare all from manuscriptjournals. I, THE MORTLOCK ISLANDS. ThiS group, in the central Caroline Islands,consistsof three atolls: Etal, Lukunor, and Satawan. Tire three are located, respectivelv. at: 5034-37'N. E: 50294( N. -153o4.r-s0,E ; a'd 153032-35' ' *--1 :, ":50 | 7-30' l\, I 53028-45'b (all posirionshere and in what follows being taken from Bryan's Guide).2 Sharp (p. 177), in agreement with many other authorities, attributes the discovery of the goup to Captain Mortlock of the British vessel Young llilliam in 1795. The actual date was 27 November. In commemoration of the event the group has long been known as both Young William Islands and Mortlock Islands, as well as Nomoi and other names. (There is another Mortlock, properly Tauu, in the Solomons.) The islands seen by Saavedrain 1528, supposedly lying in 7oN, and inhabited by bearded, light-skinned people (Burney I:152)J may have been these same Mortlock Islands, as various authorities have suggested,but as Sharp says, they may equally well have been Namoluk, Losap-Nama, Ngatik, Pingelap,or Mokil; Sharp, therefore, attributes to Captain Mortlock the first firm report the group named after him. But another claimant to the honor can be

R emarkson boardFri day, A pri l 22, 1796... . At g A. Nl. di scovered tw o smal l i sl andbeari nqsouthw es% t westand


we allow a once greater extent and adinit some exaggeration in Abigail's estimate, the discrepancy can be reconciled. In any case,there is no other candidate to put forward as Solomon's Island in this matter of size; there is not a single island in the Carolinesbetween Truk and Yap that is asmuch as two miies in length. position given in Finally. there is -the Abigail's account. 6045'N is virtually identical with Eauripik's actual latitude of 6o41-43'N. Brt l45o 25' E i, ,oo.. than two desrees -The east of the actual longitude, 143o 00-05'E. only other possible identifications on the basis of longitude are Ifaluk, Olimarao, Elato, and Lamotrek, all somewhat closer to the supposed longitude. But theseatolls do not agreewith Abigail's account in the particulars already noted, and all of them lie too far north. E,rrorsin longitude at this time (1196) are more easily excused than errors in latitude. so we may indeed accept Solomon's Islandas Eauripik. 3. PULUWAT. About 150 miies west of Truk lies the atoll of Puluwat. at 7o21-22'N and 149olG12"E, most often consideredas first seen by European eyes on 7 April 1801, by frigate lieutenant Don Juan lbargoitia, sailing east from the Philippines(Sharp,p. 183; Kramer, pp. 12930; Damm, p 2).8 Sharp(p. 177),like someother authorities, also refers to the possibility that Puluwat may have been seenby Captain Mortlock in 1195 but says that Ibargoitia gives the first firm record of the place. Among the East India Company logbooks at the India Office Library in London is that of Young William, Captain J. Mortlock, mentioned earlier in connection with the Mortlock Islands. The entry of 27 November 1795 describesand gives a rough sketch of what is evidently Satawan, in the Mortlocks. Two days later, on 29 November 7J95, the entry reads'at 6.30 Saw a low Island which is covered with Trees Distance 8 or 9 miles. The Lat. 7.21 N, Long. 148.53"E.' Thus the possibility that Sharprefersto aboveis actuality, and CaptainMortlock, whom we have rejected as the discovererof the islandsthat still bear his name,is the real discovererof Puluwat. There is a record of another visit to Puluwat, also befor'eIbargoitia. In the San Francisco Maritime Museum is the journal of a passagefrom Providenceto Canton of the ship Resource. The captain's name is not evident. The relevant portions are quoted: Remarks on MondayOcIr.21st1799.. . . aI 7 AM Saw4 at 7 h about5leagues. NWdistance lslands aheadBearing of the O & ) in Longitude 42 m 22 S got an observation theobserved remarks fromthese East.Iseparately 150o59. N.l at B wereunderthe Lee&nearlatitudeis givenas-/o42 two Canoes ly abreastof the 9 discovered aback us. at 9%AM hovetheTopsail cominqoff towards

w est a nd west sou thwes t , dis t anc e4 leagues . As app r o a c h ed nea r we co uld se e br eak er sex t endi, ngnor t her ly dir e c t i o n from the sou the rn is land at leas t t wo leagues ,whic h i s t h e distan ce b etwe en the t wo is land. The f ir s t is land a p p e a r s to be ab ou t 3 o r 4 m iles in lengt h, is low and c ov er e d w i t h large sing le tre es a nd look ed t o be in s om e s t at e of c u l t i v a tion. We were no t n ear enough t o s eeany inhabit an t s . T h e ot her islan d is sma llerand c ov er ed wit h t r ees . Thes e i s l a n d s is not laid do wn in a ny c har t t hat we k now of and pr o b a b l e never we re disco ve red bef or e. Ther ef or e we s hall c a l l t h e m S olomon s lsla nd as M r . Solom on Thor nt on, our f ir s t m a t e , f irst saw the m. Win ds f r om eas t by nor t h t o eas t - no r t h e a s t , course n orth a nd e as t , dis t anc e 122 m iles . Lat it ude i n b y observatio n 60 45 'no r t h; Longit ude in by c al 14502 {e a s t . Longitu de in by ca lc ulat ed f r om c eles t ialobs er v at io na t 1 2 merid ian . The first is land out of s ight , t he s ec on d b e a r s southe astb y e as1. di s t anc e41, leagues .

There are some difficulties about identifying this Solomon's Island as Eauripik Atoll. For one thing there are actually five islets (a sixth is awashat higli tide), not two. But all but two (Oao and Eauripik Islands) are so tiny that tliey could not be seenfrom a distanceof four leagues,or less. Six years after the voyage of Abigail. on 3 April 1802, three East India Company ships. Canada, Nile, and Minorca, sailing in company from Port Jackson to Canton, saw Eauripik, also from four leaguesoff.4 Each reported only two small islands. Lutke and his lieutenant. von Kittlitz. who sailed as closeto thg atoll as one mile, botll speakof only two islands.5 Likewise Cheyne,6 who visited Eauripik n 1844, mentions but two islands. All but Oao and Eauripik are on the southern rim of the atoll, whlle Abigail's track (and Senyavin's) was north of the atoll; hence it is easy to understand why only two islandswere seen. The reference to breakers extending northerly from the southern island can be explained if 'northerly' is understoon as any deviation northward from an east-westline. Oao (the 'other, second smaller'island in Abigail's description)lies at 2900 from Eauripik Island (the 'first, southern' island). The description of 'the first island' (Eauripik Island) as three or four miles in length is more difficult. In reality it is less than half a mile long, and although it is the largestislet of the atoll it comprisesonly .04 squaremiles. Perhaps from four leagues'distance the reef running west from it, along the southern rim of the atoll, with its tiny islets, was dimly seen and thought to be part of Eauripik Island. Or il may actually have been larger once. Canada, above mentioned, in 1802 describes Oao and Eauripik Islands as of three miles circumference each. Hambruch/ refers to a typhoon of 1907 which tore away the easternpart of the island, and to another similar storm sixty years earlier; while Cheyne, who visited Eauripik in September 1844, sayseach of the two islands he saw was about a mile long. If


2l April 1800. The journal, which was kept by Benjamin Carter, belongs to the Rhode Island Historical Society. Ann & Hope passedthrough the Fijis early in December 1799 and on through the Gilberts; on 2J December the journal entry reads: At % past7 AM . as I wasstanding on thequarter deck

l,;hovetoo . the Can oe ss oon c ar ne along s ide &wit hout h e s i tat ion to ok ho ld of the Roaps we t hr ew t hem &m ade f a s t under th e Stern . Lo wer ed down our Sm all boat under t h e S t ern. Mr. He lde n ou r f ir s t of f ic er &M r . G if f or d wit h t h r e e hands wen t in h er& tra ded wit h t he nat iv es f or t heir C l o t h S necklesse sin ba rter for J ac k Kniv es & lr on hoops . t h e latter the y ga ve mu ch t he pr ef f er enc e t o, but a hat c h e t t , w hich th ey Ca ll L oo Lo o, I t hink by what lCould obs e r v e they ho ld in h igh Esteem . we gav e t hem one, whic h t h e y appear e din rap ture d with. t hey ar e of a Swar t hy Com p l e x ion, lon g h air, well Sh aped & of a m idling St at ur e, f i n e Sharpe Eyes but bad teeth. Saw no weapons of war amongst the m, & | be liev e t hey ar e a happy Rac e am o n g s t themselves,as n on e of t hem had any Sc ar s about t h e m , & t hey a pp ea red to b e a m ild pac if ic people. Ev er y o n e T raded fo r himself & all appear ed t o G it wat t hey Co u l d for t hier Tra de o f Curio s it ies . Two of our Sailor sSwam o f f onboard of o ne o f the ir Canoes& in G it t ing int o her t h e y unluckily Su nk he r. th e Nat iv es onboar d her appear edb u t Little or an y Co ncern ed about it . our Boat went & t o w e d her to th e Ship which t hey m ade f as t t oo, & as Soon a s w e bore away to lea ve the m , t hey all J um ped ov er boar d o u t of t he Can oe & ba iled her out , wit h as lit t le Conc er n a s i f it had Never h ap pe nd . t heir was f iv e Canoes in all onbo a r d of which was twenty Six or Seven natives.their Canoesare about 16 or '18 fee t L ong, about 16 I nc heswhide, wit h o n e S ail, w hich the y h an dl e v er y dex t er ious ly , t o Keepe t h e m from Over Se tting to pr ev ent t heir m ak ing m uc h Lee w a y . they have two out Riggersathwart the Canoe about 6 feet distance from it. at th e Ends of whic h in aline wit h t h e C anoe is a lon g pie ce of wood in t he m init ur e of t he Ca n o e , lying in th e wa ter, th is Keeps t hem St eady , t hey als o h a v e paddles. at 1 1 1/zAM. Bor e away & lef t t hem . at M er e d i a n the Middle lsla nd bo re E . b N. t o E. S. E.3 leagues .

The only other possible identification of the islands seen by Resource, besides Puluwat, would be the atoll of Pulap. The latter lies iust north of Puluwat,at 10 33-3gd and 1490 23-26/E This is slightly closer to the coordinatesgiven in Resource'sjournal than are the true coordinatesof Puluwat. On the other hand, Pulap atoll contains only three islands, not four. Puluwat has five, but if Resource lay under the lee of the islands, as the journal tells, To Island, which is only .037 square miles in area, would have been hidden by much larger Allei (erroneously spelled Alet on most maps), which contains .664 squaremiles. In fact To cannot be seenat all except from the north side of the atoll or from deep within the lagoon,to neither of which placesResource went. The desffiption of the atoll as having four islands is thereforeunderstandable. 4. EBON. In the Ralik, or eastemchain of the Mars1141ls, the sout[ernmost atoll is Ebon, 40 34-4(N, l680 38-46'8. Its discovery,according to Sharp (pp. 207-08), was made on 25 May 1824, by the American whaler Boston, Captain GeorgeJoy. The atoll was named after the vesselone of the severalnamesit received. But there is a record of an earlierdiscovery. It is in the journal of Ann & Hope, CaptainChristopher Bentley, of a voyagefrom Providenceround Australia to Canton and return. 9 Auzust 1799 to

w i th the chi ef mate Mr W arnersaw t he land conversi ng beari ngfrom N W to W bS by compass.l The cour seat t he ti me w as N N W .] l t w asa mostfortunateeventf or us t hat we backedship last night, otherwisethe coursewe steered w oul d havepreci pi tatedus on the l sl andw her we should probably have been devouredby savages or drowned.. . . the di st. from the nearestshorew e j udgedto b e about 3 l ea.maki ngl ow and l eveli n 5 separate i sl ands. B y 9 AM we coul ddi sti ngui sh' 11 or ' 12 separate i sl ands, 3 backor W of the former. One appearl ngabout 5 mi l es i n l engt h& do about 3, the otherssmal land al l appeared to be c onnect ed by reefsas breakers are seenthe w hol e l engthof t he land and about 1 mi l e N of the l and.S awsmokeon one island. Thi s l and i s very l ow but thi ckl y coveredw i th high t r ees, appear throughsomeof w hi ch you can see,w hi ch spaces to the naked eye l i ke w hi ti sh sandyspotsat 3 lea. dist . W e saw al so fl oati ng al ong an ol d tree ful l of bar nacles supposedto have beena l ong ti me at sea. Our char t lays dow n no l and w i thi n 2 or 300 mi l es of thi s, a cir cum stancew hi ch convi ncesus of the realnecessi ty of seeking our w ay throughtheseLats.and keepi nga good look out , w hi ch i ndeedw e i ntend.. . . W e stood N by compassunt il ' 11 A N / at w hi ch ti me the N orthernnrost l and bo r eWbS % S & w e j udgedthe l and to tend N N W & S S E .i n lengt h12 or 16 mi l esbut w e know not how far W .w ard.W eplacet his

landin Long.168u45E by our run from Hoopers lsland andby 169oE. Lar.4o2O N. The description given by Carter and the coordinatesgiven leave no alternativefor identifi cation except Ebon, and Captain Bentley must be regarded as the true discoverer,twenty-four years before Joy. NAMA, LOSAP, NOMWIN, ANd 5. MURILO. Saavedra, in 1528,may haveseenNama and Losap,about fifty miles southeastof Truk, but the description he gives is very equivocal. Most authorities agree with Sharp (p. 203), who attributes the first firm record of these islands to Louis Isidor Duperrey, commander of the French vessel Coquille, on 23 June 1824. Actually, Duperrey seemsto have seenonly Nama, which he named after his second-in-command,d'Urville. Although Sharp refers to Nama and Losap as'two almost conjoined atolls' Nama is not an atoll but a singleisland,and that is apparentlyall that is described in the expedition reports. Duperrey does not seem to have seenLosap atoll, which lies some ten miles further southeast,and the discovery of which was later claimed by Captain Benjamin Morrell of Antarctic, who came upon it on 23 February 1830, and named it Westervelt'sgroup.g Conversely,Morrell evidently did nor see Nama. '


^ ^ ^ 4 "-

But the actual discoveryof both Nama and Losap seemsto have been made by the East India Company vessel Coromandel (logbook at India

As the fleet of four ships watched the mounridges of Mexico sink below the horizon,Miguel tain Lopez de Legazpi ripped open the sealedpacket of instructions from the Spanish court and read his secret orders. He was to make for the Philippines and find out which of the islandsgrew spices;those lands he was to colonize, sendingback to Mexico samplesof the "spices and other riches" that might be found there. But it was not to. be as easyas all thatl Just ten days out of port, Legazpiwas dismayedto find that one of his ships,the San Lucas under the comrnand of A1onsode Arellano, had separatedfrom the rest of the fleet and was nowhere to be seen. The San Lucas was easily the fastest sailer of the four ships and had pulled well ahead of the other ships on previousdays, almost out of their sight. Legazpi had taken the pilot, Lope Martin, to task for this on more than one occasion,and could only conclude after he had lost the San Lucas that its maneuver was intentional. It probably was! Martin, it seems, had concocted a sinister schemewith a few of liis shipmatesto gain control of the SartLucas after he had shaken off the other ships in the flcet. Thel planned to turn it into a pirate vessel.ei'idettt1l hoping to steer for the waters around the soLtthern Philippines where they could make raids on the richlyJaden merchart ships returning from the Moluccas. Until the opportunity came for the mutineersto make their move, however,they would have had to keep well out of the way of passing ships and, above all, prevent the San Lttcas frotn accidentallybeing discoveredby the rest of the fleet. With this in mind, Lope M:rtin brought the San Lucas down a few degreesfrom the usual track that Spanishships followed to bring them directly to the Ladrones. Its new coursehe brought the small ship to a number of hitherto undiscoveredislatrdsin the Caroline and Marshall groups on a voyage that was the most eventfulone vet made throueh thesewaters.






\ l i g u e l L o p e z d e L e g a z pr .

appearedin the distance.the Spaniardsmade for it and found a canoe manned by two natives and a boy. When invited aboard ship, the native clambered up with no hesitationand receivedsome small presents for their efforts. The Spaniardsthen followed them ashoreto have a look around and. as it turned out, to meet their wivesand children. Theseislands of Dos Vecinos (Two Neighbors) may have been Kwajalein. On the following day the San Lucas came to still another island-this smaller than the others and lying at about 8 degreesand 30 minutes nortlr latitude,possiblyLib, an islandtwenty milessouth of Kwajalein. As they made for it, the natives swam out in greatnumberstowardsthe ship. One'sight of the armed throng on the beach,however,wasenough to dissuadeArellano from putting ashore. The natives swarmed all over the shore brandisiringspears tipped with the tails of the stingrays.wooden clubs, and slingshotswhich they used with deadly accuracy' Sincea force of only twenty men wasaboardthe ship' Arellano thought it better to leavethe dispositionof the peopleuntestedand hoist sail urimediately.Putting behind him the liadadores (the swimmers),as he calledtl-rislast island.he left the Marshallsto continue his westward course through the Carolines.

THE MARSHALLS The San Lucas was sailingbefore a stiff breeze one evening, a month after it had parted company with the rest of the fleet. when shoals showed up dead ahead. Martin dashedto the prow of the ship to size up the situation, and was almost swept overboard by a breaker. The ship, meanwhile, was brought hard around by the helmsmanand managed to barely clear some vicious-lookingrocks. The ,Sail Lucas stood well off until morning when the Spaniards discovered that they had almost run aground on a group of low islandswhich were very 1ike11' those of Likiep Atoll in the Marshalls. On the :r:rt day. January7, l565,the SanLucascameupon atoll where they found anchorage. A sail ":rother

CAROLINES:TRUK ATOLL On January 17, lard agair appearedoff the port borv this time a high island rather than the


low coral atolls that the San Lucas had just passed in the Marshalls. As the ship. drew nearer, Lope Martin saw that it was in fact severalhigh islands ringed by an enormous coral reef. The San Lucas had come upon the Truk lagoon. Hardly had tire Spaniards worked their way through the reef's northeast pass when a large canoe drew up to the ship, the four natives from the canoe who boarded the San Lucas presentingthe Spanish with the customary gifts: fish and a "dough-like food so foulsmelling that not a man aboard the ship could stay downwind of it" very likely preservedbreadfuit. The natives made signs to the Spanish inviting them to put in alongsidetheir island. When Arellano showed his willingnessto comply with their requests,one of them remained aboard the ship to help pilot it through the shallowsto the lee side of Toloas Island, one of the larger islands within the lagoon. The San Lucas had not quite made the anchoragewhen the Spaniardsnoticed witl-ralarm hundredsof canoes from the surroundingislandsfull of men armed with lances, clubs and slings, rapidly bearing down on them. The Europeanscould surmisethat the host of shouting nativesmaking for them were angry that the Toloas people had beaten them to the punch and were themselvesintent upon takine the ship as a pize.

time at the ominous fire that blazed on the beaches of distant islands and listen for the sound of the strangenativechants. The night passed without incident. At daybreak the ship hoisted sail and made for the passon the westem side of the lagoon. To the surpriseand delight of the entire ship's company there were no native canoesto be seen-at least not until the San Lucas was passingTo1,the westernmostof the islands in the lagoon. The ship was pointing toward the pass when about a dozen canoescame off the island,their occupantssignallingthe ship to turn about and put in for food and water. The weapons that the natives carried in their canoes were poorly concealed,however, and Arellano gavethe order to load one of the ship's culverinswith a stone chargeand fire it at the lead canoe. The gunner scoreda direct hit, at which the other canoes reversed direction immediately, leaving the San Lucas an unimpeded passagethrough the reef and away tr: the west. TO THE WESTERNCAROLINES The Spanishship was not long in making land again. The morning after it left Truk, it came upon three tiny islets arrangedin a triangularshapearound a lagoon: the atoll of Pulap. By this time the San Lucas was badly in need of wood and water, not to mention food;so the ship hauled in under the lee of the island and preparedto senda boat ashore. Again the Spanishsaw what looked like the entire population throng to the shore with their weaponsin hand. Any fears that the Spaniardsmay havehad, however, dispelledwhen two of the native chiefscameaboard ship, offered the assistanceof their people in helping them take on wood and water, and willingly remained on the ship as hostageswhile a young seamanwent ashore with three canoesof natives to fetch water. When the lad returned. he was so enthusiasticabout

The San Lucas beat a hasty retreat through the shallow waters off Toloas, with one of the friendly natives who remained aboard taking the helm from time to time. When at last the ship had put a safe distancebetween itself and the pursuing canoes,the few Toloas men who had stayedaboardhelped themselvesto spoons and whatever other pieces of iron they could find and leapt into the sea close by the barrier reef. But the worst was not over yet. Dusk was quickly falling and the San Lucas still had to pick its way through the reef-studdedlagoon. With sail shortenednow, the hostile canoes,which had by no means given up the chase, were closing in on the Spanishship. The fastestof the canoeshad already drawn up alongsidethe launch and the nativeswere busy trying to cut it loose, when Arellano ordered one of his men into the launch to drive them off. While the beleagueredsezunanwas defendinghimself from the blows of their clubs, the others in the canoeslet loose with a volley of spears. Somehow they fell harmlesslyto the deck without injuring any of the Spanish,and one of Arellano's men emptied his musket at the canoes. In the turmoil and shouting that ensued,Arellano ordered the rest of the sail raised and the San Lucas slipped away into the gatheringgloom. No one aboardship slept that night. As the San Lucas crept through the dangerouswaters, always within earshot of the thundering surf on the reef, the sailors would peer uneasily from time to

Galleonsin the harbor at Acapulco


the beauty of the island and the friendlinessof the people that the ship's launch set out for shorewith a party of ten men. The two chiefsin native canoesled the way, and when they had beachedtheir canoes they made impatient signs to the Spaniardsto land at the same spot. The officers hesitatedwhen they came to a reef that they judged risky to crosswith a fully loaded boat. A moment later their hesitation turned to apprehension when they watched the nativessplit into small groups and take cover behind trees with spearsin hand. They could only suspect the worst and brought the launch about to return to the ship. It was not long before a number of natives came out to the ship to inquire why the Spaniards had not come ashore. They insistedthat they carry the water jugs to the island in their canoesso that they could fill them for the Spanish-but wanted a few of the Spanish to come with them. When they agreedto leave a couple of nativesaboard the ship as hostages,three of the Spaniardsjumped into the canoes and headed for the shore with the natives. Two of the Spaniardsin the lead canoe had already reached the island and gone ashore as the canoe carrying the third sailor was just approaching the opening in the reef. The seamanin it suddenly saw his two crewmates dash out of the woods to the water's edge witir a number of natives in close pursuit. He watched in horror as they were clubbed to death in the shallow water and their bodies dragged back ashore. Panic stricken, he seizeda paddle and began swinging wildly at the natives in his canoe. yelling at them to tum the canoe around and make for the ship. When they came at him with clubs, he pulled a daggerfrom his belt and killed two of them. The others leapt out of the canoeand swam for their lives. The sailor turned the canoe around and made for the ship amid a hail of stones hurled by the nativesin nearby canoes.

and so returned to the ship. Their memory was honored in the name that would appear on future charts, Los Martires (the Martyrs). Arellano had no recourse but to weigh anchor and sail ofl, leavinghis two dead crewmenunavenged. Some measureof vengeancewas soon granted the Spanish,as it appeared. When they sightedthe small island of Sorol three days later, they were greeted by the usual sight of armed men along the beach. By this time, though, they were wary enough of islandersto avoid the main island, and instead made for a tiny uninhabited islet closeby. Although they had understandably developed a distrust of crowded beaches,they still were sorely in need of water and wood to continue their voyage. As they anchored, two canoes approached the ship from a distance, the occupants armed in tl-re usual way. Even when Arellano signalledthern that he wanted to take on water, the natives continued to shout and brandish their weapons. By this time the patience of the Spaniards was wearing rather thin. But the ever resourceful Lope Martin, who was never without a ready stratagem for just such occasions, leapt to the poop deck, dropped a red jacket in the water and bade the natives to come pick it up. As one of the canoespulled up alongside the ship to do so, a crewman reached out and yanked up a young native by the hair. Almost simultaneously the muskets were fired at pointblank range at the canoe near the ship, while the culverin was emptied at the other canoe. The discharges did great damage, Arellano tells us, but "not as much as the natives deservedfor their evil designs." The islanders,some of them seriously wounded, abandoned their canoes and swam for shore. The Spanish seized the canoesand the weapons in them for firewood, which was still in short supply aboard the San Lucas. As for the captured young man, his hair was cut, he was given the Christian name Vincent and a pair of pants to make him decent.

Meanwhile,the two nativeswho had beenkept on the San Lucas, only too well aware of what was happening,jumped overboard and swam desoerately for shore. A few of the Spaniardsbounded into the ship's boat to pursue the swimmers. When they saw that there was no hope of overtaking them before they reachedshore, a marine took aim with his musket and shot sendinga ball through the head of one of them, killine him instantly. Then they picked up the injured sailor, still paddling furiously for the ship, more dead than alive. Feeling ran intense among the Spaniardsat the loss of their shipmates and Arellano called on a landing party to go ashore with him to avenge their deaths. The ship's boat pr.rt out and skirted the reef looking for a passage to shore, but the party soon concluded that the boat could not get to shore without running the risk of having its bottom ripped out on the rocks,

LEGASPISAILS ON While the San Lucas was dodging shoals and native islandersin one harrowing escapadeafter another on its voyage through the heart of the Caroline and Marshall Islands, Legazpi was leading the other three ships of the fleet on a less troubled passage west. Just four days after Arellano's first landfall in the Marshalls,Legazpi'sfleet came upon an island at which most of the men went ashore-much to the terror of the native population who fled in panic at their landing. Not long after, however,the natives returned to receive. presentsfrom the hand of the Spanishcommander and to cary on trade with the 19

In early March Arellano brought the ship northward through the Philippines on a fruitless searchfor the rest of the fleet. Finally, on April 21, the SanLucas cleared the Philippines altogetherand steeredto the northeast to find a sailingroute back to New Spain. Within a short time they had been driven by heavl' winds as high as 40o north latitude where the crude charts they carried showed them to be somewhere in the interior of China! Arellano turned the ship eastwardand sailedeasily across'thePacific,with the Twelve steaclywesterly of those latitudes astern' weeks after they had departed the Philippines,the crew of the San Lucas sighted the coast of North America. The ship had become the first European vessel to make the return crossing of the Pacific. arriving just two months ahead of Legazpi'sflagship SazzPedro, which the Augustinianfriar-navigator Urdaneta had successfullyguided along the same route under orders from his commander. The San Lucas and San Pedro had demonstratedthe practicability of return voyagesbetween the Philippinesand America, and for two and a half centuriesthereafter Spanishgalleonswould sail in tl-retrack laid down by tiresetwo ships.

ship. Entirely unknown to the islanders,Legazpi's grandson, Felipe de Salcedo, and the Augustinian Friar Urdaneta were ashoretaking formal possession of the island in the narneof the King of Spain. When they retumed to the ship later in the day, they carried with them branchesof treesand somevegetation that they had cut in token of the occupationof this Isla de los Barbudos (The Island of the Bearded days Legazpidiscoveredfour People). On successive more island groups, all of them seeminglyuninhabited, and passedon without incident. His shipsthen climbed to the latitude of the Ladrones, making Guam on January 22 where Legazpi himself went ashore to take fonnal possessionof the island on behalf of the Spanish crown and to attend a Mass celebrated by Urdaneta to solemnize the event. The nativesof Guam unfortunately,could not persuaded to bchave like loyal Spanish subjects. be In the days that followcd they persistedin filching nails and whatever else on the ship might happen to catch their fancy, thus living up to the reputation as Ladrones, which they had earned some time before. Each day the uneasinessof tl-re Spaniardsgrew, the more so as their landing partiesreturned with regular reports that they had been stonedwhile looking for water. Finally a young seamanwho had been accidentally left ashore by a landing party was found murdered the next morning, his body pierced witl-r spearsand his tongue ripped out. Vengeancewas swift and brutal. With a party of a hundred armed men, Legazpi put the torch to all the palm-tl-ratched huts and outrigger canoesthat he saw and summarily hangedthe four nativeswho were unlucky enoughto be caught by his party. On this unhappy note, the visit in the Spanishcommanderendedhis eleven-day islandsthat he l-iadjust claimed for his Sovereignand then departedfor the Philippines. Arriving at Samar in the easternPhilippineson February 73, Legazpi spent the next two months scurrying about in search of food, inquiring where valuable spices were produced. making diplomatic overtures to petty chiefs, and deciding where he should establish the command post for the new colony that he was to found. In late April his fleet reachedthe coast of Cebu where he was met by two thousand armed warriors. A display of l"risartillery quickly dispersed the force that had gathered to opposehim, and Legazpilandedwithout opposition to take possessionof the archipelagoin the name of Philip II of Spain, thus beginning a colonial rule that was to endure for more than three centuries. Arellano and the San Lucas never did fall in with the rest of the expedition. The San Lucas had arrived in the southern Philippines just two weeks before Legazpi'sships, but had run down the coast of Mindanao to seek anchoragein tlie Davao Gulf where they lay waiting over a month for the fleet.

BACK ACROSSTHE PACIFIC But the sagaof the Legazpiexpedition was not yet over. Soon after the return of the San Pedro, authorities in New Spain decidedto dispatchanother ship to bring Legazpi supplies, ammunition and military reinforcements for his campaign in the Philippines. The San Jeronimo was gotten out of drydock and sent off for this purposeunder the command of Pedro SanchezPericon. CaptainPericonwas a forbidding soul: "a miserablemelancholicenemy of kindnesswho delighted in solitude," in the words of one of the men who servedunder him. Even worse, he was thoroughly without good judgment and a poor leader of men. To serveunder him as his pilot was chosenthe wily Lope Martin, not so much for his proven ability as a navigator as to provide a convenient excuse to get him back to the Philippines where he would have to answer to Legazpi for the separation of the Ssn Lucas the year before' This mismatch of the ship's officers was patent. It must have been with some forebodingof what was to come that the San Jeronimo's company of I'70 left Acapulcoon May 1, 1566. Within just a few days of the ship's departure, Pericon had managedto alienate almost every man on board. His heavy-handedtreatment of soldiers and crewmen alike did little to win their respect for him and his 25-year old son who sailed with him. The only apparent object of his affections was a horse that he had stabledin the bow of the ship and which 20

the mutineers and mistrust grew daily. One day two of the company who were out of favor with the mutineersduped some of the crew into taking them back to the ship on the launch. Once on board, they jcined forces with two of their supportersto retake the San Jeronimo. Within a matter of minutes they subdued the seamenwho had been left to guard the ship, had the mutineers in irons down in the ship's hold, and were opening up the arsenalto arm themselves. The ship was theirs, and they shouted out to shore their intentions to leavethe mutineersstranded on the island. During the next four days those who had taken the ship carried on negotiationswith those ashore as to who would be permitted to leave with the ship. Food supplieswere left on the island, in exchangefor which the marooned mutineershanded over the ship's instruments and charts. Martin was helpless; there was nothing that he could do to persuadethose aboard to change their minds. With sinking heartshe and twenty-six otherswatched from the shore as the San Jeronimo crawled out of the Ujelang lagoonon the morning of July 21, and slowly droppedover the westernhorizon.

his men grumbled,receivedbetter treatment than any of the ship's company. None of the men undcr him could have wept inconsolably,then, when they were told on the moming of June 4 that the captain and his son had been killed in their sleepthe night before. Behind the deed was Lope Martin, as given to intrigue as ever, and two fellow conspirators. At their invitation, the soldiers chose their Chief Sergeantas the new captain of the ship, but his command was destined to be even briefer than Pericon's. Not three weeks after the mutiny, the newly appointed captatn was clapped into chains while drinking in his quarters one evening, marched to the yardarm and hanged, and in a needlessdisplay of cruelty cut down while still alive and thrown overboard. Lope Martin now became the self-appointedcaptain of the vesseland there was nothing to prevent him from carrying out his long-cherishedplan of bringing the ship down to the trade lanes near the Moluccas and preying off Portugueseshipping for a livelihood. Martin kept the San Jeronimo on a westward course and soon found himself in the Marshall Islands, as he had the year before with Arellano. First he sighteda small chain of uninhabitedislands, then anotller group of islandsfrom which a canoeof natives carne to gaze at the ship while keeping a respectful distance. Two days later he found a third group at which he anchored to get water and food and receivedthe same kind of warm welcome, with singingand dancing, that Saavedrahad been given at his los Jardines(the Gardens).That sameeveningthe company returned to the ship and Martin pressedon towardsGuam. It was towards dusk on July 6 when the San Jeronimo lurched suddenly towards some barely visible reefs off its port bow. Martin took the wheel from the helmsman and swung the vesselhard over, steering through a narrow passageinto the Ujelang lagoon. The next moming the ship'scompany found themselvesin the midst of calm waters surroundedby islands and reefs. The ship came to anchor off a particularly attractive little island where the men found desertedhuts, a sourceof fresh water and all the coconuts that they could have wanted. Martin decidedthat this idyllic spot was a perfect placeto rest for a few days before resuminghis voyage. All that the Spaniardsneededto round out this pleasant existencewere a few natives to do their fishing for them and a handful of women to servetheir pleasure in other ways. WheneverMartin or any of the men made for one of the native canoesthat they occasionally spotted, however,the frightened islanderswould sail off in greathaste. The company of the San Jeronilno passed severalleisurely days on their islandparadise,soon to L,ecomefor many of them a prison. As might be expected in these circumstances,quarrelsaroseamong

ia'):ii' ;rrili:

.{ugustinian F riar Urcianeta ZI

WOMAN OF WISDOM FeliciaE. Plaza,


by MarjorieG. Driver Sister Felicia E. Plaza,M. M. 8., discussesFather San Vitores with the experts.

period of Sister Felicia'stenure, to include many thousands of varied material hoidings. The special area she chose to pursue was the SpanishColonial Period in Micronesia and its Christian Missions. MARC's present pricelessand unique collectionsin tirese areas are unquestionably tl-reresult of Sister Felicia'squick and vibrant intelligence,her intense her skill as a warm and interest, her tenaciousness, her undeterredwillingness correspondent, relentless in search of pertinent necessary wherever to travel underlying committment her relentless nraterials,and people Micronesia. Marianas and of the to serve the personal by were supplemented characteristics These attributes valuable background unusually other two which servedto sustain her endeavoursand ensured high degreeof success: her Spanishbackgroundand her chosencareeras a Catholicmissionary. It was perhaps fortuitous for MARC that Typhoon Jean struck Saipanon Easter 1968. The storm wracked such destruction at Mount Carmel High School in Chalan Kanoa that its principal, Sister Felicia Plaza,and the other.sisterswere unable to continue the program and were forced to closethe school. A friend on Guam, Dr. Larry Kasperbauer, was awareof the embryonic MARC and of its mission to return to Guam the documents which would retell the history of Spain in Micronesia. Sister Felicia had been authorizedby her Order to return to Spain for a visit after an absenceof twenty years when Dr. Kasperbauersought an appointment for

At its May 31, 1979 rneeting,the Board of Regents conferred upo11 Sister Felicia E. Plaza, M.M.B., the degree of ProfessorEmeritus of the University of Guam. Having met the criteria as establishedfor the award. this tirne-honoredacknowand sustained ledgementof meritoriousachievemettt dedicatedservice,places the honoree among a uniquely endowed and select group of individualswho have achieved unttsual acadenlic successand who have contributed significantly to the growth and prestigeof the institutionthey haveserved.

A NEW CHALLENGE At the time of her empioyment at the College of Griam in September 1968, Public Law 9-106 which establishecl the Micronesian Area ResearchCenter had been in effect just over a year, having been approved by the Governor of Guam on August 23, 1967. From its inception, sustained efforts of the Center's miniscule staff were devoted to the establishment of a collection wherein all documents, findings, and publications pertaining to Guam and Micronesia were to be centrally located so as to enhance the understanding and preservation of the Chamoro and Micronesian cultural heritage. From a nucleus of a hundred items, MARC's Pacific Collections grew during tl-re ZZ

Sister Felicia with MARC's then director, Paul Carano. It was this set of unusualcircumstances that propelled Sister Felicia into her first secularcareer.

Pacific Arca. The staff first identified archrveswith potential Micronesianholdings, followed up bibliographical information located in footnotes or bibliographic listings, and then initiated correspondence which often led to either unanswered letters or to a situation in an archive where the only means of retrievingcopies of identified documents was by personal research and retrieval. Searchesled to materials in Spain, Mexico, the Philippines,Italy, the United States,Japan,Australia and Germany. In 1970, Sister Felicia conducted three months of researchin Mexico, Spain,Italy and the United States. There she thumbed through bundles of materials called legajos,often tied with string and untouchedfor decades,if not hundredsof years. This was especially true in Sevilla at the Archives of the Indies where Marianasand Carolines rnaterials are included in the Philippineslegajosfor the 16th and l7tli centuries. There are no bibliographic cards,the researchermust hunt pageby page for an indication of Micronesianmaterials. Once Sister Felicia had identified the materials,MARC arrauge d for personnelat the variousarchivesto make \ero\. nicroillrr or t1'pescriptcopies of selected docurne nts. Additiona1l1,'. copiesof maps. pictures, books. records.clippingsand diariesrelating to the Spanish period in the Mariana and Caroline islands were retumed to MARC as a result of SisterFelicia's work.

SAIPAN DAYS She was born to Basque parents in Elko, Nevada where her father was a rancher and storekeeper. After finishing elementary school there, her parents sent her back to their native Spain for further education at the Colegio de Berriz in Spain. Tlrere she finished the bachillerato,a degree equivalentto two years of college,and at 19, she joined the sisterswl-rohad taught her, the Mercedarian Missionariesof Berriz. She was later sent to Kansas City to earn her bachelor's degree at the College of St. Teresa (now Avila College), then to St. Louis University for a master'sin mathematics. She had startedher doctoral studiesthere. when in August 1957 she was posted to Saipanas principal of Mount CarmelSchool. During the nearly twelve years in Saipan.her dedicationof serviceto the people of the Marianas and Micronesiawas evidencedin the superiorquality education her school offered its graduates,many of whom went on to advancededucation in the United States and were to become responsibleleaders in their islands. Even after her employment as a staff researcherat MARC her interest in teaching continued-especially as that teaching might benefit island studentswho neededspecialhelp in mathematics or other subjects. She found time to teach occasionaluniversity classesin Spanishand math and was always availablefor specialhelp and tutoring in those areas. Her office was open to students who sought recommendations of varying kinds, who needed to be counselled as they encountered problems in Guam which they had not learned to cope with on their home islands strange customs and strangepeople presentedsituationswhere a kind and understanding counselorwasneeded

ln addition to catalogue findings in the many institutions visited, Sister Felicia was rnost fortunate in arranging to meet with renowned scholars of Micronesia, who because of their own studies, could direct her to valuable and often little-known sources. At St. Louis University in Kansas City, Missouri, she met Fr. Ernest Burrus, S.J., who has written authoritative studies on Diego Luis de Sanvitores. From him she leamed in detail where to searcl-r in Mexico City. Once there. shefound the archives untouched by war, fire or typhoon and a volume of materials of interest to N{ARC which would demand the work of many scholars over a periodof many years. In Madrid, the venerable historian, Fr. FranciscoMateos,S.J., an authoritl' on the history of the viceroyalty of Mexico (u,hich ruled the Philippines and Micronesia). directed her to specific documents and materials il various archives tl'rroughoutSpain. He introducedher to Fr. Manuel ignacio Perez Alonso. S.J.. archivist of the Jesuits irr Mexico City. a contact rvhiclt led to additional clocumentationconcentltg the Sanvitores'period. Sister Felicia four-rdthat at least once, her acquisitionssLlrveyrvorked in reverse. While searcl-ring in Spain for additional material concerningFray

TO THE ARCHIVES Her work on behalf of MARC actually began before her official employment at the College. During hbr summer visit to Spain in 1968, she conducted an initial survey of the archivesin Madrid and took prodigious notes which would serveher later .rs the basis for further bibliographical research. R:tuming in September,she joined Paul Carano, \lar_iorieDriver and Emilie Johnston in the huge task --.i rcquiring materials related to Guam and to the


and Micronesia,one must visit the Pacific Collections of the Micronesian Area Research Center and especiallyview the materials housed in the Spanish Colonial Period section. There, are to be found the hundreds of folders, innumerable volumes of collected documents, photographs, and maps which retell highpoints of Spain's three centuries in Micronesia. One finds that, indeed, there were forts long long forgotten, that early gobernodorcillos and travellerswho cameashoreto stay were the ancestorsof many of today's residents. In addition to Sister Felicia's acquisitions' efforts, either through correspondenceor on the spot search and surveys, are her published works ln Uottr Spanish and English: articles and book reviews; hundreds of index and catalog cards identifying materialsavailableat MARC, translations' typesciipti, Tablesof Contents and indeces' Blessed with a ready sense of humor and the ability to entertain, she has always been much in demand as in her field. While in Spain, she lectured un ""p.ri and at home in Guam about the Micronesia about SpanishColonial period. As was to be expected,she seruedthe Church limitlessly, among'other responsibilities, as its DiocesanArchivist and Librarian. In 1975, she was especiallycommended by Admiral Kent Carroll for her support on behalf of "Operation New Life." On many occasionsshe served as the Governor'sofficial Spanishtranslator. A fitting testimonial to Sister Felicia'swork at MARC is its most recently published booklet, The Spanish Forts of Guam. The editor, Thomas B. McGrath. S.J., states: "This publication beganwith the researchof Felicia Plazain the archivesof Spain. She advancedthe idea of a unique publication on the SpanishForts of Guam, which would be coinprehensive in its documentation and as complete visually as these documents and the present state of the 'remains' would allow. Once the written sources including maps and drawings were reviewed,she led the authors on a field expedition to the sites themselvesin order that they might be examined in the light of these documents. The documents servedas a guide to understandingeach of Guam's Spanish forts." Unfinished is a publication to be entitled Si Gueloniha yan Si Gueloko which concerns the ancestry of many of Guam's present day residents' With Sister's assistancevia correspondence,MARC will bring full circle Sister's contribution of long years dedicatedto the establishmentof a now widely recogrized collection of materials centrally located "so as to enhancethe understandingand preservation of the Chamorro and Micronesiancultural heritage." Sister Felicia, Professor Emeritus (Retired), now residesat Our Lady of Mercy Home, 918 East Ninth Street, KansasCity, Missouri 64106.

Aniceto Ibanez del Carmen, beloved Augustinian Recollect curate of Agana, she learned that there was no known copy in Spain of his oft' referred to, yet undiscovered,diary telling of events on Guam between l\4-l and 1899. Sister Felicia also made valuablecontact both in the official centers as well as in the Catholic orders which have sent missionariesto the Pacific Area. This researchturned up a wealth of materials' Other researchers,dedicated members of the staff of the Center, added to these findings so that, today MARC has literally tens of thousands of pages of authentic documents. In 1914 the Accreditation Report of the Westem Association of Schools and Coilegesreferred to MARC's multi-lingual documettt collection as "the world's most extensivecollection of materialson Guam and Micronesia'" In March lg'75, MARC Published the "sanvitores Bibliography." The bibliography was compiled by Sister Felicia Plaza, M'M'B', and Mr' Albert Williim: both members of MARC's research staff. In view of the possiblebeatification of the venerable Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores, S'J' ' the bibliography has served as a research tool of inestimable value for serious scholars presently engagedin studies that, iropefully, will lead to the inclusion of "the most inspiring and irnposing figure in all of Guam's recorded history" irl the Calendarof the Saints. One of Sister Felicia's most extensive and valuable acquisitionstrips was made in 1916. lnthat year, MARC was the recipient of a three-yeargrant irom the National Park Servicethe purposeof which was to find documentation pertinent to Spanish Historic Sites in Guam and Micronesia in order to substantiateknown historic sitesas well as to identify others long since fallen into oblivion. Accompanied by the late Dale S. Miyagi, of the MARC research staff, Sister travelled to the archives of Madrid, Barcelonaand Bilbao, once againlocatinglong-hidden materials. It was during the period of that trip tliat Bishop Felixberto C. Flores of Agana,was invited by the Instituto de Cultura Hispanica to receive a portrait of Father Sanvitoresand the machetewhich was the instrument of his martyrdom' Becauseof her "sanvitores Bibliography", Sister Felicia was invited to representMARC and the University at an audience with His Majesty Juan Carlos,King of Spain,at which time the Bishop acceptedthe gifts for the people of Guam. This was, indeed, a unique acknowledgement of Sister Felicia's valuable and scholarly research' A DECADE'S WORK To gain an appreciation of Sister Felicia's contribution to MARC, and by extention to the University of Guam and the people of the Marianas


ROOTS GUAM CCM'S ANDSPECULATION FOR T HE FUTURE by Dirk A. Ballendorf ln 1952 MITTS was relocatedat Truk by the director of education, Dr. Robert E. Gibson. The names was charged, appropriately, to PITTS-the Pacific Islands Teacher Training School-and the school was expandedto include a two-year courseof study. Later a third year was started, and programs in generaleducation,agricultureand technologywere added. There was still, during this early time, much contact which went on with Guam where supplies and equipment were procured.and from where many professionalscame. At the time the Trust Territory Headquarters waslocatedon Guam. In 1956 PITTS became the first senior high school ih Micronesia and since its curriculum was more diverse, its name was again changed: the Pacific Islands Central School-plCS. In lg5g, it was moved to new quartersat ponape. Although by the 1960sPICS,identity had be_ come more firmly Micronesian, Guam continued to play an informal associativerole. As pICS grew it continued to produce primary school teachers, but there was still a need for more highly trained teachers in the islands and demands mounted for the development of another specializedprogram beyond the PICSlevel. In 1963 the Micronesian Teacher Education Center-MTEC-was started in two classrooms at PICS on Ponape. The center was run on conrract by the University of Hawaii, and professor Mary Reddin of the School of Education was the first director. From these two classrooms-avery modest beginning-the present-day Community College of Micronesiagrew.

On 20 June, 1978 at the regularmeeting of the Commission on Community and Junior Collegesof the Western States Accrediting Commission in California, the Community College of Micronesiaat Ponape was granted ful1 accreditation. The action came after a careful considerationof the report and recommendationmade by the visiting team of educators from the Commissionwho had previously spent a week at the Ponape campus in March. It was a truly great stride forward for the college. Efforts directed at accreditation began n 191). The first evaluation visit was in 1913, and at that time a candidacy status was granted. A second visit was made in 7975, and the result was an unqualified reaffirmation of candidacy status. The final visit in March, 1978, came after the community college had been included under the new College of Micronesiasystem which takes in all post-secondary programs in the Trust Territory. All those involved had good reasonto be proud.

ROOTSOF CCM Although it is rarely mentioned, Guam has had a lot to do with the development of postsecondary education in the Trust Territory. The roots of the newly-accreditedCommunity College of Micronesia go back to Guam and the beginningsof the American presencein the islandsafter the war. With the cessationof hostilitiesand the need to rnove towards the normalization of society, a great need was seen for teachersin Micronesia. ln 1947, the MarianaIslandsTeacherTraining School (MITTS) rvas started on Guam. Using military facilities, equipment, and both American and Guamanianpersonnel, Micronesians teacher training programs began. came from all districts to study and learn for short periods of time and then return to their home islands to teach the primary grades. MITTS was the first post-iltermediate school for Micronesians, and because of its location, brought Guam into the socio-culturalschemeof the Trust Territory.

CCM: PONAPE MTEC remained an in-service teacher training institute, which awarded high school credits, until 1969 when it changedits emphasisfrom in-serviceto pre-service.On 1 June, 1970 MTEC was renamedthe Community College of Micronesia by High Commissioner Edward T. Johnston. Gradually the University of Hawaii phased itself out of the administration and the Trust Territory government took


nurses and trained government workers as well, and the extension centers-broadenedin scope-can help meet this need. CCM: SAIPAN l'he Nursing School is a part of the Community College although physically it is located at Saipan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas. It was orginally started in Truk in 1953. Along with teachers,nurseshave always been in demand in the territory. Subsequentlythe Nursing School went to Ponape,and then to Palau. In 1963 it was moved to Saipan, and in 1968 a permanent facility for the school was constructed adjacent to the Torres Hospital. During its early years the Nursing School was a part of the Trust Territory Public Health Department, but in 1975 it was transferred to the education department and made a part of the Community College. Students now attend a one year course in pre-nursing at the Ponape campus and then go to Saipan to complete their studies with clinical practice and also further classroom work. Over the years the Nursing School has had numerouscooperative teaching and practicum arrangementswith the University of Guam's School of Nursing. The Community College,in recent years, has been charged with most of the responsibility for meeting the postsecondaryeducationalneedswithin the territory. Although precise figures are not available, most Micronesian teachers and most Micronesians with degrees have attended the Community College and got their degreesthere. As it continues to carry out its mission, the collegemust addressitself to the main campusat Ponape-which is developingtowards a transferinstitution-and it must also addressitself to the needsin the other districts through the extension program. Curricula is being developed at the main campus in all programs with a view to diversifying the offerings at the extension centers. There is still the need for businessand liberal arts degree programs, and for practical arts and sciencecourses for the self-improvementof Micronesianswho care to enroll. It is expected that the Community College eventually adapt for the districts its present will on-campus businessand liberal arts programs. The ( 1) the introduction of specific objectives are: practical arts and sciencescourses into the extension programs, (2) the development of business curricula for the extension program-an adaption of the present main-campusprograms, (3) introduction of businesscurriculum to the extension centers, (4) the developmentof liberal arts curriculum for the extension centers-again,an adaption of the present on-campus program, (5) the introduction of the liberal arts program in the extension centers, and



increasing responsibility for the college. Over the years since 1970 there has been a gradualgrowth in physical plant, program responsibilities, and student enrollment. Currently the collegeoffers Associateof Sciencedegreesin four ateasand an Associateof Arts degree in liberal arts primarily for those students intending to transfer credits to other institutions outside the territory. Along with the development of on-campus programs the college has continued to provide opportunities for elementary school teachers to work towards their degreesthrough the extension program in elementary education offered in districts other than Ponape. There are now some 80 full-time students and 1200 patt-time students in the extension program throughout the islands. Since the population of the Trust Territory is still growing-from 89,000 n 1970 to 110,000 in 1977, and projected to 130,000 by 1982-there is no indication as yet to expect that in the years to come the size of the cohort entering college-as measured now-will do anything but get larger. Hence, steady growth in postsecondaryprograms is what the future now seems to hold. At the various extension centers in the districts there is also room for considerableexpansion. Not only are there teachers who need to complete their degrees, but even more new teachers will be needed. There also continues to be a sreat need for


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(6) training in administration and accountability for each of the six extension coordinators in the territory. The instructional staff at the communitl' collegeat Ponape in 1978 consistedof twenty,persons. Of these.elevenhold mastersdegreesand the others have bachelors degrees. Not surprisingly, one-third of the Micronesian faculty hold college degreesfrom Guam. The instructional staff is supported by five administratorsand twenty-one classified staff persons. The part-time instructional staff in the extension programshas averagedfifty people during 1978. They hold associate,bachelors, and in some cases, mastersdegrees.Again, many of thesefaculty people hold degreesfrom Guam. There are 160 full-time studentsat the Ponape campus. These together with the enrollment in the extensioncentets brings the FTE enrollment to four hundred. About 90 per cent of the studentsenrolled go on and earn their degreesat the college, and a goodly portion of the graduateswho pursue upper divisionstudiesdo so at Guam.

sioner. The Congressalso separatedthe administration of the college from the education department and placed it directly under the Board of Regents. The three Micronesian institutional entities rvere brought togetlier by this congressionalaction: (1) the MicronesianOccupationalCollegeat Koror, (2) the Community Collegeof Micronesiaat Ponape, and (3) the Nursing School at Saipan. Their unification under one administration formed, in effect, a collegesystemwhich could help servethe postsecondary education needsof the people of Micronesia,as well as those from other areas,who desireto attend. The Board of Regentsis undertaking the preparation of a long-rangedevelopment plan which includes a building program for the main campusat Ponape,and an accreditationbid for the Nursing School at Saipan. The plan is scheduledto be ready for implementation before the end of the Trusteeshipin 1981. The Board has also establishedan endowment fund, and contriblrtions are being solicited. The collegerelies now on funds appropriated by the Congressof the Federated States of Micronesia,the Trust Territory government,and various federalprogramsand grants. The accreditationof the Community Collegeof Nlicronesia,and a review here of its past development, brings us logically to questions of the future. CCM as a part of the College of Micronesia,takes its place now as the latest addition of higher education facility, and hence, opportunity, among the other colleges and universities in the Pacific. How would one predict the future for higher educationin Micronesia? Much of the answerlies outside of the educators'bailiwick. Essentiallvit will be the people in Micronesia who will decide the future. But some important issues,at least,can be identified. Enroliment is perhaps the central issue for hisher education in both Guam and Micronesia. Who

COLLEGE OF MICRONESIA The new College of Micronesia,under which the Community College operates, was founded in March, 1977, with the signing of House B11l729, Congressof Micronesia, by Acting High Commissioner J. Boyd Mackenzie. In doing this the Congress of Micronesia was consolidating all postsecondary educational programs in the Trust Territory, and placing them under a governing Board of Regents comprised of representativesfrom each Trust Territory district appointed by the district governors,and two at-largeappointeesnamed by the High Commis-


1981. So is the BEOG portion which at CCM comes to some thirty per cent of the total cost of operation at the main campus. At $35.00 per credit who will be able to afford collegein Micronesiawithout some form of continued assistance? It has been estimated that with presentlevels of assistancecut-off, a full three-quartersreduction in higher education attendance both within and outsideof the Trust Territory-will result. It seems most likely that in the future there wil1 be considerably more cooperation in higher education in the Micronesian areas than there has been in the past. The University of Guam, the Collegeof Micronesia,the Guam Community College, the University of Hawaii, Chaminade University, Western Michigan University, University of Southern California, and the Oregon Collegeof Education, are only a few of the collegeswhich have been serving the Micronesianarea in recent years. This is clearly too many to be a paying proposition for those institutions concemed. Instead of competing,they will have to cooperate,and at the rate governmentbudgets are declining, this will have to begin seriously soon. Yery soon. There is much good to be said about cooperation overall quality will improve becauseof it. The institutions which seruethe area all have their own special strong points and special capabilities. And they can do much more in the way of instructional cooperationthan they presentlydo. Crystal ball gazershad better be careful these days because these issues in higher education are many-faceted. Attempting to outline them is perhaps all one can do. However,as I iravetried to show here, Guam and Micronesiahave a rich cultural and educational past. Their future, through cooperation,can be equally-and more-rich and rewarding.

will the students be? Where will they come from? How will they be selected? And, perhapsstrangelysounding, how will they attend: full-time or parttime? College students in the islands are not only people who've recently graduated from high school. They are also adults in many stagesof personal and intellectual development,and of wide rangesin age. Much re-training and re-education is accomplished at the college level, and this will be a factor in enrollment questions. Competition will occur for scarce classes, and perhapsevenseats! LOOKING TO THE FUTURT Will the future college students in Guam and the Trust Territory come from only the area's familiar islands,or will they come also from the Gilberts, Nauru, Tuvalu and elsewhere? Sharingthe colleges' facilities can bring in more income and can enrich the student culture with people from other places. Can this be managed? And are people willing to see it done? The selection of students has always been a clifficult matter and in the future will be even more so. Higher education costs are rising. Should the collegeshave an open admissionspolicy-should anyone able to pay be allowed to attend? Or should only people who pass rigid test batteries be admitted? Some educatorscontend that collegeswhich are hard to get into are easyto get out of graduate,provided that all the requirementsare reasonablymet. On the other hand the same educatorswill say that those which are easy to get into-open admissions-should be difficult to get out of. They should be, they say, a severefiltration system,imparting solid skills along the way. Whether one attends full or part time is also an important issue these days. It has economic overtones. Full-time studentsntust forego income-stop or preclude work to attend college. Part-time students can do both. This may be an economic necessityin the islandsin the future. With the population in Micronesiagrowing, the policieson admissionsand enrollmentin collegeswill have to be answered-either carefully or haphazardly-in the near future. In the future where will the money come from to support colleges? At the present time the cost of the Community College of Micronesia is bourne by the Trust Territory government, Basic Educational Opportunity Grants-BEOGs-federal programs, the Congressof Micronesia,and some tuition. There are also some grants from private sources. Most of the cost is carried by the Trust Territory. But this is scheduled to change when the Trusteeshipends in

All photos for this article are courtesy of the South Pacific Commission Publications Bureau.


R , E SO I ] EA T S EA 1 9 09 By JamesA. McDonough,S.J.

bute to Yap, a practice which the Government had forbidden a long time past becauseof frequent loss o f l i f e . We c a n s e e h o w d e e p l y r o o t e d th e o l d cu st o m s a n d u s a g e sa r e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t o n a p r e vl o u s o c c a s i o n t h i s p i l o t h a d b e e n p u n i s h e d f o r d i so b e yi n g the prohibition.

EDITOR'S NOTE. The author has done research in the archivesof the HamburgischesMuseum fur Volkerkunde,and in the National Archivesin Boon.

" T h e y v a l u e d t h e r e s c u e o f t h e i r b o a t a l m o st a s m u c h a s t h a t o f t h e i r p e r s o n s . T h e i r j o y a n d g r a ti t u d e m a d e i t e a s y f o r t h e m t o g i v e u s so m e o f th e d i s p e n s a b l e a r t i c l e s f r o m t h e c a n o e , s u ch a s r o p e , y e l l o w d y e a n d m a t s , a s a r e t u r n f o r b e i ng ta ke n o n b o a r d . T o K r a m e r 's s p e c i a ld e l i g h t , w e w e r e a b l e to s e c u r e a m a g i c s a i l i n g i m a g e , w h i c h f o r s om e ti m e h e h a d b e e n t r y i n g t o o b t a i n w i t h o u t s u c c ess. l t w a s a d a g g e r - l i k ei n s t r u m e n t a r m e d w i t h t h e b a rb o f a sti n g r a y , i t s u p p e r e n d s h o w i n g a J a n u s - l i k efa ce . Th e c a n o e p i l o t u s e d t h e s a c r e do b j e c t t o c h a r m th e sp i r i ts of seaand storm.

Dr. Augustin Kramer of the Hamburg South on a SeaE,xpeditionhad been trying to get his l-rands sea god, or at any rate on a certairr magic image which was said to control the spirits of the sea and its storms. Since 1908 Kramer had collected an enorrnous amount of tools, textiles, utensils and other artifacts in Micronesia,but no one would give him the sacredobject. Finally in 1909 he did acquire a magic image, and this is the story of how it happened. The quotations are from the diary of the expeditionby F. E. Hellwig.l

" F u r t h e r i n q u i r y b y H a m b r u c h [ a n e th n o l o g i s t o n b o a r d l r e v e a l e dt h a t P o l l , t h e l ea d e r o f th e t h r e e t r i b u t e s h i p s . h a d l a s t s i g h t o f t h e tw o o th e r c a n o e s d u r i n g a s t o r m y n i g h t a f t e r t h e y h a d l e ft Ya p . ( T h e s e t w o c a n o e s f o r t u n a t e l y r e a c h e d Pa l a u ,w h e r e w e h a d s e e n t h e m u p o n t h e i r a r r i v q l . ) As w e m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , I P o l l 's J c a n o e w a s d r i v e n to th e P h i l i p p i n e s ,a n d t h e r e t h e y l i v e d f o r t h r e e m o n th s i n a h o u s e w h i c h t h e y b u i l t t h e m s e l v e s ,w el co m e d a n d a s s i s t e d b v t h e n a t i v e s i n r e t u r n f o r t h e f i sh w h i ch they caught.

"August25, 1909. tln the Palaudistrict.l Moderately rough sea. At 9 a.m. we [the officers of the Pe iho , th e ex pedit ion' s s hipl s ight ed a s a i l i n g ca no e an d h ea de d f or it , s inc e it was s howing dis t r e s s sig na ls. At 9:4 0 a. m . we hov e t o and hailed t h e canoe. The exhaustion of those on board was so man ifest tha t we f elt obliged t o t ak e t hem and th e i r canoe on board without delay. To affect this we had to disman tle the c anoe' s olat f or m and it s s t r uct u r a l ele men ts as well as t he out r igger , all of whic h w e sto wed on de ck. I n an hour ' s t im e we had ev er y o n e and everythin g on boar d and had s er v ed f ood a n d dr in k to the pe ople. They wer e s ev en m en, t w o wome n, a nd a b oy , all f r om t he is land of M og m o g ls icl . "Th ey ha d been r et ur ning t o t heir hom e f r o m Yap , wh en the y wer e dr iv en by Beng I ngwer , t h e cu rren t a nd a str ong nor t heas t wind f or f iv e d a y s as far as th e isla nd of Hilaban in Sam ar , t he Ph i l i p pin es. Fro m th er e t hey had t r ied in v ain t o s a i l dire ctly to the P alau gr oup. Thes e people had b e e n enro ute fo r f ive and a half m ont hs , t he las t t hi r t y six da ys witho ut s ight ing land. By t his t im e th e i r foo d su pp lies ha d s hr unk t o t hr ee c oc onut s an d a box of mea t, an d wit h t heir inc r eas ingweak nesst h e end wa s in sig ht. W illiam I G ibbon] , our int er pr e t e r , lea rne d from Poll, t he c anoe pilot , t hat he w i t h two oth er ca no es had br ouEht M ogom og [ s ic ] t r i -

" F i n a l l y t h e w e s t w i n d s b e g a n bl o w i n g a n o t h e y a g a i n d a r e d a v o y a g e h o m e . I n t h e Ph i l i p p i n e s P o l l t o o k o n a s f o o d s u p p l i e s 8 0 0 c o c o n u ts, a h a l f sack of rice, and two jars of meat, for which he had b a r t e r e d M o g o m o g m a t s , e t c . M o r e o v e r , i n d i vi d u a l s o n b o a r d a p p a r e n t l y b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m sm a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f f o o d . T h e w e a t h e r r e m a i n e d dr y, n o r a i n f e l l a n d t h e i r t w o j a r s o f w a t e r w e r e so o n e m p ty. For twenty days they fought off th irst with sea . w a t e r , u n t i l t h e f i r s t r a i n f e l l l a s t n i g h t . Il n a fo o tn o t e t h e a u t h o r s a y s t h a t t h i s s h o u l d p r ove th a t yo u c a n d r i n k s e a - w a t e r ,b u t t h a t s o m e w i l l d o u b t i t a n d s a y t h a t c o c o n u t w a t e r p r o b a b l y s a v e dt h e m .l Th i s m o r n i n g t h e y h a d r e a c h e d t h e e x t r e me o f e a ti n g c o o k e d R e n g , t h e y e l l o w d y e m a d e o f g i n g e r r o o ts, w h i c h w a s k e p t i n t h e b o a t f o r t h e c u s t om a r y b o d y p a i n t i n g , t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e p i l o t . Po l l h a d o r i -



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Batavia. There two more died of malaria. Finally a German ship took them to Yap, whence the five survivorstravelledby canoeto Mogmog. These men were great navigators,brave and skillful sailors, but the dangers and hardshipsthey endured were as extraordinary as their seamanship.

gin ally in ten de d to head f or t he Palau gr oup, and i n fact he was on the right course."

The diary continues with a story by Poll's assistant.Refell. to the effect that six or sevenyears previously, his canoe with forty other canoes was hit by a typhoon enroute from Mogmog to Uegei (Feis). Only Poll and he and twelve other men survived. They met a Spanish (?) warship which took them to Manila. Sevenof the fourteen died enroute. A German ship took them to Singaporeand then to



F. E. Hellwig, "Tagebuch der Expedition" in G. Thilenius, Ergebnisee der Sudsee-Expedition,Hamb u r g , 1 9 2 7, v o l . 1 , p . 1 9 5 - 1 9 6 .



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to all the continents of the world. In somecountries organizationsfor the protection of animalshave been able to ban it. There are two kinds of fiehting cocks, the Bankiva and the Sonneratti. Both of these ori. ginate in the cold mountainous regions of Media in ancient Babylonia. The sport had spread to Mesopotamia and as far as Egypt during the reign of the Pharoahs. By 1400 A.D. they had reachedChina, in all probability ancient Persia was the source for these birds throughout most of the Asian continent. Greece showed the greatest interest in and enthusiasm for these fighting cocks as the sport crossedover to Europe. The bravery of the roosters from Tanagra and Rhodes spread abroad, and the Greeks coined a new word to describe their passion for the sport, alectriomachia. Greeks of all agesand from all walks of life raised and trained these birds, feeding them with garlic and onions to increase their aggressiveness. The types of birds raised at Melos and Calcis began to rise in prominence. At Athens there was a law st4ting that cock fights were to be held yearly and paid for from the Public

EDITOR'S NOTE: This article provides some background to the sport of cockfighting in other parts of the world. The translation was prepared by Mrs. Marjorie G. Driver irom the originai Spanish.

Cockfighting is more than the word "fight" in the title would indicate. It closely approachesthe proportions of a gladiatorial struggle in which the conquering rooster leaves his opponent in a badly battered state. The weapons in this contest are the steel spurs and the sharp beak. The fighting rooster is an indomitable bird who permits no rivals in his domain. This bird requires specializedtraining from the moment he is born, in time he will develop his body musculature and his innate gifts of daring, strength, and agility. The sport of cockfighting began about 3000 B.C. and continuesto the present day. It has spread


THE BET AND THE ROOSTER The rooster full of spirit and the pocket full of money ciune on the scene at the same moment wageringwas born. The sport soon becamean obsession. In England and France the devotees of the sport formed important associationsfor the purpose of wageringvast amountsof money. The associations were constantly at odds with the organizations for the protection of animals,who inflicted penaltieson them. The most renouned place of all for betting on cockfights was the Royal Cockpit of London,located on Tufton Street in Westminsterdistrict, where the hetting sometimes reached nearly one thousand pounds sterling. Wageringand cockfighting also took place in the wood near Boulogre, France, and in many other cities of Italy and Spain. In Asia, China, Manila (one of the cities where it is most popular), and in other places such as Sumatra and Java large amounts of money change l-randsover these fights. In the United States, interest was centered primarily in the Southern Stateswhere the colonizers owned valuable cockpits and the black slaveswere skilled in breeding the birds for the art of cock fighting. The sport was popular both before and after the Civil War, but today it is outlawed. Some clandestine cockfights are held illegally in some places today. Tlie sport hasreally taken root with a frenzy in the countries of Hispanic America. Some twenty nations there have cockfights. In Venezuelacockfighting is a National Sport (FiestaNational\.

Pre-warGuam, Nick Gumataotao and his wife and daughter

Treasury. This was done to commemorate the discourseof Themistoclesprior to the battle of Salamis, who enkindled the fire of valor in the hearts of the Greek people when he spoke of the courage the fighting cocks in the arena. The tetragrans or coins of the ancient Greek empire had a fighting cock with a palm branch impressedon them. Rome took the nod from Athens and adopted the sport. Spain, France, England, and Belgium followed the lead of Rome. After the conquestof the Americas by Spain enthusiasm for cockfighting spreadfrom Canadato the very tip of South America. The love for this sport was carried in the hearts of the Spaniardswho went to the Philippines although it was supposedthat the Filipinos were alreadyfamiliar with thesefights through their many commercial contacts with China and the continent of Asia. The Philippines exported their enthusiasmfor their fights to a large number of the Pacific Islands,the Marianas among them, where they becamevery popular with the islanders. This enthusiasmreceived added impetus during the Spanish Colonial Administration from the Viceroyalty of Mexico, a country whose fondness for cockfighting is surpassedonly by the eleganceof its style.

<r#Y Illustrations by the author. Jd

THE ROOSTERIN ART The rooster is a bird fround in the Bible and in the field of Archeology. It is a popular figure in CirrrstianArt. At times it has been depictedbetween St. Peter and Christ, and other times carved on iunerary monuments of the early Church as a symbol of resurrection. It is a sign of vigilance,of attention to the moment, of one standing watch. Down in the catacombsthere are drawingsof children urging two roosters to fight, depicting the struggleof Christians to achievevictory over evil. A feature of European architecture was pinacles to which weathervanes adorned with roosters were attached. Roosters appearedin belfreys,on the atms of crucifixes,and in the towers of cathedrals. It was the custom in the X century to expressthe biblical injunction "watch and pray" through the symbol of the rooster. It has been immortalized in art also as a symbol of pride, daring, and fertility, and closely associated with the European nobles of the Middle Ages who founded Orders of Chivalry by taking omens with roosters. The rooster was ellgravedon their shields of gold and silver and his figr"rrervasstrr-tckon prizes. trophies, medals, and coins. The image of a rooster was found in an ancient Greek bas-reliefon the helmet on Minerva, as she stood between Mars and Mercury. Cockfights were discovered in frecos found amid the ruins of Pompey and presewedtoday in the Museum of Naples. A stone carving in the Stosch Collection shows the God of Love presidingover one of these fights. Cock fights have been painted on sacredvases. Genard, the famous art historian, sees these strugglesas allegoriesof athletic contests. The Louvre has several chalices with this kind of image.

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Among the modern painters, Frans Snyders from Flanders, has depicted the cockfight in canvas quite often. There are two of these fine paintings in Madrid's Prado Museum, one in a Berlin Museum and another in a GenevaMuseum. The Prado has several cockfighting paintings, one by Juan Fyt entitled "A Cockfight!" Houde Koter's works on this same theme are found in the Turin Museum, the Venice Academy of Fine Arts, and his most famouspainting on the subjectin the Munich Museum. THE TRAINING OF A ROOSTER The rooster egg has an incubation period of twenty one days. After emerging from the shell, the chicken is left with its mother until it is two months old. This is the period of time in which the characteristics of a good rooster are developed. Once emancipated from its mother, he is put into a cage called machero (from the word macho) where an adult rooster,el padrote (the big father), acts as chief' He does not allow them to fight among themselves, and he keeps them apart lest they fight accidentally or becanseol jealousy. He keepsa closewatch on all of the roostersin the cage. After six months they are placed into individual cagesor galleria,the real place for observationand training. During this period of time they are fed well, and innoculated against Newcastledisease,chickenpox, typhus, diptheria and other maladies. Betweentheseinnoculationsthey are shaved or decrested,a term used to denote the removal of their combs, beardsand sideburns. Manes are trimmed, while they are shaved,groomed and prepared for the fight. Today, Spain ranks as the world's leading nation in the breeding of these birds. This activity

In Spain this ability to breed roostersis traced of the Celtic and Iberian spirit, which mixture to a time of Christ, gaverise to gamesand the long before bulls for the amusementof all' wild between races fact bullfighters and former bullof matter a As fighters comprise the highest number of breedersin Spain. Their zeal approachesaddiction. The provincesof Cadiz and Valenciahavethe finest cockpits, and these are found in many places. Manuel Atienza, a famous picador of the caudrilla of the matador Angel Teruel, is the owner of a cockpit. So is the former matador Baldomero Ortega. There are two dozen other owners who selectand cultivateroosters of the purest Jerezanabreed. Among these are Don Manuel Barea Figueroa, who won six titles in the Campeonato de Espana (Spanish Championship), Don Antonio Moreno Becerra,world famous for his chico moreno and Don Jose Garcia de la Flor, who died in an air crash while returning from a match involvinghis own birds in Columbia.


has reached the proportions of an industry, where they cultivate two pure breeds: la Inglesia (English), which originated in that country, and the Jerezana, from Jerez de la Frontera in Cadiz, Spain. The Jerezanaroosters possessextraordinary strength and bravery along with elegance and unttsual beauty. Some say that enthusiasm for the fight has diminished in Spain somewhat, but the desire to purify the breed of the rooster continues to grow. ln 1979 more than two thousand roosters were exported to Hispanic America and by 1980 it is expected that this number will reach three thousand.

Cockfighting as a commercial venture and its related industry is regulatedby laws promulgated in the Boletin Oficial del Estado (Official Government BLrlletin)for the years 1940. 1956,1970, and 1979. The principal importing countries are: Venezuela, Puerto Rico, the French Antilles, Mexico, Columbia, Panama,the Dutch Antilles, the Dominican Republic, and CostaRica. One curious detail is that about ninety percent of the birds trained to fight, strike more often with their left spur than their right spur. There is a predominance of left footed birds in the cockfighting profession.


SpanishBullfightersare enthusiasticfollowers of this sport. Among them are Litri, Miguel Mateio, Antonio Jose Galan, as well as the famous breederof fighting bulls, Perez Tabererno. There is a whole dynasty of bullfighters who call themselvesEl Gallo (the rooster): Fernando G. Ortega,and his first son Rafael, El Galto. iun. (the son of the rooster), who has shown himself one of the bravestin the history of bullfighting. His secondson, Josewas the famous Gallito (the little rooster), ot Joselito, who was killed at the peak of his careerby a bull.

The nt of breeding roosters for fighting requires innate talents and is difficult to learn from technical books. Generally the breeder emerges becauseof his temperamentand life-long attachment to the sport. Not everyone can do it. The breeder will vary depending on the region of his origin. English, Spanish, and Filipino breeders are not all the same, nor do they use the sametechniques. One thing they share in common is their skill in handling the birds, which appear to be very bright. There is a close interaction between the bird and the trainer. He carefully trims the feathers in the proper way to insure a better chance to win, stays close to the bird while in the ring, watches the course of the fighting, and judges the precise moment when to withdraw his bird before any wounds received might prove fatal.

Today the sport of cockfighting continues to enjoy prominencein the islandsof the Pacificdespite waning interest in Spain. We know that Asia and Spain met in the Philippines. Perhapsin the future the history of the game of cockfighting will be written and the question of origins and influences will be made more clear. Viva El Gallo!


Governor Seaton Sehroeder

Gorringe and Schroeder looked over the monument, an obelisk, and made the decision to remove it in its entirety, pedestaland foundation stones as well. This would mark the first time lhat a complete obelisk had ever been removed from Egypt. During the summer of 1880 the delicate work of removal, transporting, and re-setting the obelisk took place. Today it rests serenely in New York City's Central Park. Another talent showed itself a decade later, while he prepared the Vesuvius in the Philadelphia yards for its sea trials, he worked tirelessly on the invention of a rapid fire gun with William Driggs. Schroeder managed the details of construction and ballistics, while Driggs attended to the breech mechanism. The weapon became known as the DriggsSchroeder Gun and took first place in several competitions. Eventually quite a number were built but by this time he was back into the routine of sea and shore assignqents. By the end of the Spanish American War naval officials began to look for a replacement for the first naval Governor on Guam, Captain Richard Leary.

by ThomasB. McGrath,S-J. EDITOR'S NOTE. The documentationon Guam's American Naval Period ( 1B9B-1950) at the Micronesian Area Research Center is the result of researchsupported by a grant from the National Park Service. The future second naval Governor of Guam and later Admiral, Seaton Schroeder,was born in Washington,D.C. toward the middle of the last century to a family in the diplomatic service of the tlnited States. His early yearsl were spent in Europe, where he learned to speak French, a language which became an integral force in his life. Much of his schooling took place at home under the direction of tutors. When President Lincoln appointed him to the Naval Academy at Newport, Rhode Island, his previousstudieswere sufficient to place him in second year rather than the first year. Though deemed ready for the advancedwork, he acceded to the advice of his family and friends to do the full four year program. Once there the faculty substituted a second modern language, Spanish, in his program, since he already had fluency in French. the usual languagetaught to Midshipmen. This proved to be a remote preparation for his eventual post as an early Govemor of Guam, where for over two centuries Spanish was the government and instruction, language of commerce. EARLY NAVAL YEARS

ON TO GUAM He received his appointment to Guam in April of 1900. The final leg of the journey from Manila to Guam was made aboard the YosemiteDuring the journey Schroeder became ill with a fever and went to sick bay at the direction of the medical officer. While below deck he noticed a strange motion of the ship and asked for weather From all the signs available, the information. vessel was heading right into the teeth of a typhoon. He continued to navigate the ship around the edge of the typhoon from his bunk until the Yosemite reached Guam safely. Some additional days of rest were required before he could relieve the Governor. The Governors of Guam in the American Naval Administration had the same powers as in the SpanishAdministration'z their predecessors Their jurisdiction extended to both civilian and military matters. Captain Leary with the aid of his able assistant Lt. Safford ruled the island during these first days through a seriesof General Orders concerning many areas of life includin-g land transfe13, title4 to and useS of land, taxes6, marciageT , public education8, literacy9, public I 0, legal tenderI I , public celebrations conduct

As a young naval officer he participated in a scientific expedition to the Chatam Islandsto mark the Solar eclipse of Venus during 1874. The Swatara was specially fitted out for the task and Schroeder gladly accepted an invitation to serve on board her. In due course the Swatara dropped anchor at Whangora Bay on Whairikauri Island to begin her phase of the mission. The ship and crew left the area quite pleased with the results of their work. After a short stay in New Zealand the vesseldeparted for home waters. Some six years later Schroeder took leave from the Naval Service to participate in a unique opportunity offered at the time. The Egyptian government had presented a monument to the City of New York but the task of transporting it remained a formidable obstacle. Captain Gorringe, who took charge of the project, secured the services of the steamer Dessoug and made preparationsfor the passageover the ocean.


of fiestas in honor of village patron saintsl2, and the exportation of food.l3 Two orders in this series were directed to navall4 personnel only. GOVERNOR OF GUAM For a period of nearly three weeks the new Governor, his predecessorand aidel5, along with local officials conferred on matters of state.l6 Once he felt like himself again,he made preparations to bring his family to Guam. From the outset he indicated his intention to consider himself first as the Governor17 of the island and secondly as the Commanding Officer of the Naval Station. Quickly Schroeder moved to create an atmosphere of cooperation with the populace through adjustments in the tax proceeduresl8 and by initiating a more enlightened nolicy l9 toward the celebration of villagepatronal feasts. Before the end of the year the Governor had decided to handle all naval matters througih his office as the CommanderJO of the Naval Station. FIis first official action was to appoint the Commanding Officer of the Marines as the Public Works Officer, since a large portion of the members of the force would be Marines. One of the first projects completed was the Ice Plant2l in Agana. Lt. Moritz supen'ised the work for the Navy. SOME PROBLET'/S At the start of the next year Schroeder faced a difficult problem wit the CarolineIslanders who formed a small community on the island. The population had declined sharply from the original 700 in 1866, the year of their arrival, to lessthan 100 at the turn of the century. Tourists from the passing ships were quick to photograph these islanders,who retained the style of clothing worn by their ancestors. After reviewing the situation about requiringmore conventionalstylesof clothing for these islanders than those popular in Guam,.some thought this would add to the difficultiesL/ with consumption and pneumonia already prevalent in !\e community. So a decision was made to deport/r them to Saipan,where the German Administration welcomed them into the work force. A second problem of a different nature involving some men from the Naval Station came to his attention. He decided24 to take a hard line in solving it. Members of the civilian community did not feel safe in their homes because which prevailed on the of a spirit of lawlessness, island. To meet the situation Governor Schroeder issuedNaval Station Order No. 4 which had some

repercussions25both on the island and in the mainland. He revoked all liberty and considered none innocent until the culprits were caught. Those in authority considered the times exceptional requiring exceptional measures.26 The new Governor tcok under advisement problems relating to health, the law, and public education during his first year. Free medical care2] was assuredat the facilities in Agat and Sumay, while Agana residents could see Naval Medical Officers on the same basis. Interest developed in a civilian hospital2S and by April of 1901 some funds were raised locally and a matching amount was donated by the Public Treasury.29 Eventually this building would be named in honor of the wife of the Governor, Maria Schroeder, in recog:rition for her efforts to bring it into being. It would take some time before matter concerning the law could be resolved. Spanishlaw and its aftermath weighed heavily on the administration in the early years' So the Governor appointed Ensign Pressy -a,s the Judge of the Court of the First Instance30 the power to convene a while he sought Martial in Military Matters. Courts General the Governor because This request was denied qualify one as this convene not to of Guam did of President, the Secretary the was reserved to Fleet.3l of a the Navy and the Commander His concern for public education expressed itself in making amangementsfor a qualified32 teacher to take up residenceon the island, as the head of the schools. Funds ran out a year later and private assistancepromised to keep the system going for a while. Official Business33interrupted his tenure as Governor of the island and Schroederwent off to Washington,D.C. in August of 1901, He tookhis family to Yokohama34 where they remaineduntil he returned35 in November of the same year. Commander Swift served as the interim Governor.36 He directed his attention to the Naval Station being careful to include the main road between Sumay and Agana within its limits.37 A new department of equipment38 was establishedby Schroederafter his return and a new numbering system39 devised for all government buildings. NATURAL DISASTERS Natural disasters in the form of typhoons and earthquakes have struck the island for centuries. Shortly after assuminghis duties as Govemor a typhoon ripped across the island in November of 1900 causingextensivecrop damage. Provisions40were made availableto all from the Public Treasury. The typhoon put a halt to a plan to build a new dam4l for Agana to alleviate a

Earthquake and typhoon destruction during Schroeder'sadministration.

Aguaon Quintanilla and then sentencedto death. The Supreme Court of Guam upheld the convicwhat appeals were still available and tion but where to file them remained in doubt. The Judge Advocate's Office53 recommended that the Governor exercise his power to commute the sentence. Governor Sewell in March of 1903 commuted54 the sentence to life imprisonment acting in his capacity as the Judge of the Supreme Court of Guam. Lepers left the Pago Bay settlementduring the period of the interregnum to return to their homes. Governor Schroeder arranged for the of a LeperColony at Tumon Bay. establishmentS5 This flourished for several years until all made the journey by ship to a new Leper settlement in the Philippines. Schroederleft the island with a long list of accomplishmentsand with a senseof good feeling both from and toward the peopleof Guam. Within a few short years a mountain)o in southern Guam bore his name as a constant reminder of this fine man. who served as Guam's second Naval Goventor.

chronic water shortage there. High winds and \\'avesdrove the Yosemite over the reef, where its cable parted.42 Later all hands were rescued by the Justin before she was abandonedto sink beneath the waves. Two years later an earthqr:akerocked the islandin September,1902. The sliocks lasted from two to three minutes. No damage was done to the exterior walls of the Palace, but the interircr walls did crumble in some places. The estimates43for the replacement or repair of bridges and public buildings was in excessof $50,000 to say nothing of the damage to private44 property. As a gestureof good will and concern the Collier Justin steamed off to Saipan with a medical officer aboard to see if assistance was needed after the earthquake. Fortunately there were no casualtieson Saipan but the Justin met a becalmed schooner with the Gennan Governor45 of the Marianas on board. The Collier took Mr. Fritz aboard and brought him to Guam.

PRISONERSAND COURTS The island served as a temporary penal colony for both Spanish National and Filipinos in past years. The rebellion led by Aguinaldo in the Philippines againstthe American Administration prodr"rcedanother group of prisonersfor the island. They were housed in the Presidio46 at Asan in 1901 under the commandof Major Orwig, U.S.V. and later under Marine supervision. The leaderof this group was A. Mabini.a man who was suffering from a malady and found it diflicult to walk. They experienced no irardships during their stay except the fate of all exiles-not being able to experience and enjoy the company of their friends and the familiar sites of home. In appreciation for her solicitude the prisonersgave Mrs. Schroeder a present47, as a remembrance. One prisoner, Pio Barrio48 did succomb to the effects of a heart ailment during his tmprisonment. In July of 1902 President Tireodore Roosevelt grant a complete pardon49 and amnesty to all who participated in the rebellion but required that an oath of allegiancebe taken b-v all. Schroeder reported in late August of tlte same year that Mabini and Ricate refused5O to take the oath prescribed in the amnesty. Eventually they did return to the Philippines u'ith Mabini taking the oath5l before disembarkingfrom the ship in Manila.

N OTE S S chroeder,A H al f of C enturyof N avalSer vice 9922> servesas the main sourceof information on the yearsbefore assumi ngthe Gover nor ship of Guam. Most Governorshad the tl tl e P ol i ti co- M ilit ar and i t extendedto al l the Mari anas.They wer em ainly men on acti veduty w i th the mi l i tar y whoser esponsi bi l i ti esi ncl udedboth mi l i tary a nd civilian concerns.A numberl eft ' thepost i n Guamt o be promotedto the rank of Generali n the cour seof ti me.

A further question on prisonerslingeredon irom the previous administration. Juan de la Cruz Perezhad been convictedof the murder of Vicente



The pri nci palreference i n thi s paperi s t he Unit ed S tatesN ati onalA rchi ves,R ecordGro up 80, no. 9351-39to no.9351-49. H ereafterall suchr ef er encesw i l l be i ndi catedby the numb eronly. I n Generalorder N o. 3 (9351-39-49)co nsentf r om the governmentwas requiredbeforea transferor sale could be effected and a specialnotice of June 23, 1900 abrogatedS pani shP ro per t ylaws.


N o. 9351-39-39,GeneralOrder N o. 15 r equir ed w i th th e Regist r ar that l and had to be regi stered type of use w a s t o be r eand that the of Land portedfor tax purposes.


Loc. ci t., GeneralOrder N o.7 cover sm at t er s rel ati ngto l and grantsand the pl acingof t hese l andsi nto producti on,etc.


Loc c it . , G e n e ra lO rd e r N o . 1 O a b o l i s hedthe S panis hS y s te mo f ta x a ti o n o n R e a l E s tateand es t ablis he sde v e ra n s r ta x p u rposes: l e w c l a s s efo Clas s I lan d w i th i n to w n s a n d v i l l a g e(4 s pesos per hec t are ),C l a s sl l -l o w l a n d s s u i ta b l efor crops ( 30 c ent s p e r h e c ta re,) C l a s s l l l -v i rg i n forest land s uit a b l e fo r a g ri c u l tu reo r p a s tu rage(30 c ent s per h e c ta re ),C l a s s l V-me s a o r upl ands suitable for agriculture ( 5 cents per hectare), Clas sV - m a rs h l a n d s(1O c e n tsp e r h e c ta re),and Clas sV l- s a v a n n a hl a n d (5 c e n ts p e r h ectare). G ener alO r d e r N o . 1 6 e s ta b l i s h ead c o rveefor wor k on hi g h w a y sa n c ib ri d g e s .Mo n e yw oul d be ac c ept edin p l a c e o f l a b o r, b u t l a b o r w as preferred.



Loc. ci t., GeneralOrder N o. 11 i s dir ect edat several assaulcases t upon Guamani ans and G ener al Order N o. l 4 establ i shed a peri odo{ quar ant ine f or men away without leave f rom the Navar S tati on. S chroeder w oul d l ater i ssueot her dir ecti ves under the ti tl e of N aval S tation O r der s.


The S afford P apersat MA R C cont ain a let t er si gnedby severall eadi ngci ti zensof G uam and del i veredto S affordon the day of h is depar t ur e ng w i shthat he becom e Qul y 23, 1900)expressithe the next Governorof Guamor at l ea str em ainin present capaci ty. They, too, exp r essedt heir resi gnati on to the fact that a new Gover norwas al readyon the i sl and. In a l etter S af f or dwr ot e to hi s mother (D ecember10, i 899) he indicat ed that Learyw oul d w ri te to the N avy Depar t m ent that when he (Leary) was transferredSafford shoul dnot be di sturbedbecause of the excellent j ob he w asdoi ng.


The fi nal di scussi on on the purcha seof Cabr as l sl andtook i . l acedui -i ngthi s i ntervalwit h Lear y, P eci roD uarte,S chroeder, and the ownerAnt onio t\' l arti nezy P angel i nan.


S chroeder (gZZ.ZqS ) expl ai nshi s m ind t hat mi l i tary authori ty i s ul ti matel y under civilian aLrthoflty.


H e modi fi ed the l and taxes (GeneralO r derNo. 10) In 9351 39-49,establ i shed by hi s pr edecessor throuqh hi s ow n GeneralOrder No. 23, but requi red permi ssi on be obtai nedprior t o occupyi nggovernment l and.


H e fel l short of maki ng i t a publ i c holiday as Leary had done before hi m w i th Gener alO r der N o 26 i ! 935' l -39-49.


N o. 9351 39-49, N aval S tati on Or der No. 1.


N o.9351-126.




N l o.935i -163.


N o. 9351-39-49,N aval S tati on Ord er s Nos. 4, 5, and6.

l e rN o . 5 i s s u e do n September Loc c it . , G e n e raOrd 15, 1899f o rb a d ec o n c u b i n a gaen d re q u i redal l i n t his s t at usto b e m a rri e di n a c i v i l c e re m o nyor i n a c hur c h b y N o v e mb e r3 , 1 8 9 9 , o r s u ffer fi ne, im pr is onme notr b o th .




l rd e r N o . 1 2 p l a c e dp u b l i ceduLoc . c it . , G e n e raO c at ion in g o v e rn m e n th a n d s , e s ta b l i shedthat children between B and 'l4 years of age must at t end s c h o o l ,a n d th a t E n g l i s hw o u l d be the language of i n s tru c ti o n . l t a l s ofo rb a d er el i gi ous ins t r uc t io ni n th e s c h o o l s . Loc . c it . , Ge n e ra lOrd e r N o . 1 3 e n a c t edon J anuar y23 , 1 9 0 0 g a v ea l l a d u l tss i x m o n t hsunti l J uly 1, t o l e a rnh o w to w ri te th e i r n a m e s.They were further encouraged to learnhow to readand s peakE ngl i s h . l rd e rsN o . 1 , N o .2 , a n d N o.8 Loc . c it . , G e n e raO deal wit h th e s a l eo f l i q u o r to n o n -re s i d ents and t he needf o r a l i c e n s eto i mp o rti t. G e n e ralOrder No. 17 r eq u i re dth a t th e g o v e rn m e nbt e n oti fi ed of any dea th sa n d b u ri a l s . G e n e raOrd l e r N o. 18 f or bade oe o n a o e G e n e raOrd l e rN o . 1 9 i ncl uded a pr ov is io na g a i n s tg a mb l i n ga n d Ge n e ralOrder No. 21 P r o h i b i te dc o c k fi g h ti n g a n d e nacteda dr es sc odefo r C a ro l i n i a me n n.


Mexi l rd e rN o . IB e s ta b l i s hed Loc . c it . , Ge n e raO can Currencyas legaltender.


Loc . c it . , Ge n e ra lO rd e r N o .4 fo rb a d epubl i c c elebr at io nfo s r th e p a tro n s i a n tso f th e vi l l ages. Holiday sw e re re s tri c te dto S u n d a y sa nd l egal holiday s . T h i s a c ti o n c a u s e da s ti r o u tsi dethe is land. H i s s u c c e s s o Sc r, h ro e d e r,mo d i f i ed thi s s om ewhatb y G e n e raOrd l e r N o . 2 6 , w h i c hal l ow ed publicc e l e b ra ti ow n i th a s p e c i apl e rmi t ,though t his per m i t d i d n o t ma k e i t a p u b l i c hol i day.


Loc. ci t., GeneralOrder N o. 6 prohibit ed t he exportati onof meat or vegetabl es b ut allowed the sal eof sameto vi si ti ngshi psw it h a per m it but onl y enoughto reachthe next por t .






W hile on te m p o ra rya s s i g n m e nitn Wa shi ngton, D. C.he r e s p o n d eto d c ri ti c i s ma b o u th i s tr eatment of t he m e n i n G u a m. S c h ro e d edr ra fte da repl y @ssl-zza) for the Secretaryof the Navv(w. W. Hec k pt t \t n P F S h e ei n w h i c h h e s ta te dthat the M ar inesdi d n o t w o rk b e tw e e nth e h o u rsof 9:30 a. m . and 2 :0 0 p .m. a n d o u ts i d eth e s eh oursthey did light p o l i c ew o rk . D i g g i n gd i tc h e sw as done by hir ed l a b o re rs . T h e o n l y d e a th a mong the M ar inesw a s d u e to d e l e ri u mtre me n s. Li nter, who made the chargesin the press,which caused t he wr it in g o f th i s l e tte rfo r th e S e c re tary of the Nav y , was a w a i ti n gtri a l i n c i v i l c o u rt a t t he ti me on G uam . H e w a s e v e n tu a l l yc o n v i c t edbut a strong recommendationwas made that he and t he ot her sfo u n d g u i l ty fi n i s h th e i r s e n t ences off t he is land . No. 9351-1 9 4s h o w sth a t n e a rl y7 0 M a rinesw ere br oughtb e fo reth e c o u rts . N o c o m p l a i ntscame f r om t he C o mma n d i n gO ffi c e r o f th e Mari ne B ar r ac k o s r a n y o th e rso n th e s ta ff,th o u ghnei ther A r m y nor N a v y m e n w e re i n v e s ti g a te dB . ut the O uar t er m a s te S r a rg e n t J o h n Ri o rd a n of the M ar inesd i d w ri te to th e C o mma n d a ntof the M ar ine Co rp s re q u e s ti n ga tra n s fe rto another s t at ion be c a u s eo f th e i mp l i c a ti o n sof N aval ) a t noneare S t at ionO r d e r N o . 4 l i n 9 3 5 1 -3 9 -4 9tn r nnoc ent . No. 9351 -3 9 4 9 , G e n e ra lOrd e r N o . 2 4 strongl y enc our ag em s i d -w i v e sto re c e i v ea d d i ti o naltrai nningat A g a n a . O v er 1, 00 0 p a ti e n tsw e re tre a te di n L eary' sadm inis t r ati o n . Mo re th a n h a l f o f th e s epati ents were seenfor a variety of reasons.For complete inf or m at i o n re fe r to th e B e p o rt o f S urgeon Leac ht o G o v e rn o ro f Gu a m(7A u g u s t1 8ggto 3j J ulv 1900 )i n9 3 5 1. No. 9351-1 BBme n ti o n sth a t a s u m o f 1 800pesos was raisedfrom thesepledgesand the samefrom the islandcoffers.


No. 9351-1 7 3 .


No. 9351-1 9 0 .


A si de from decl ari nghol i days Labor Day and H onors to P resi dentMcK i nl ey upon his deat h, he restrictedactivitiesin a 3 kilometer radious of GovernmentH ouse,i ncl udi ngthe saleof f ood from houseto house i n GeneralO r der No. 34, N o. 9351-39-49.


N o.9351-39-49, N aval S tati on Order No. 16.

38. t., N avalS tati onOrderN o. 7.


Loc. ci t., N aval S tati on Order N o. 7, and it s revi si oni n N avalS tati onOrderN o. 14.


N o. 9351-155i ndi cates that 100 tons wer edist r ibuted but more w assti l l neededas No. 9351- 152 cl earl yshow s.


N o.9351-152.




N o.9351-326.


Loc. ci t., about 100,000pesosi n g old f or nongovernment p ropertydamages.


he returnedaboa r dt he JapanN o. 9351-313-340, eseSchoonerChomeiMaru No. 1.


N o. 9351-39-49,N aval S tati on Or der No. 2.


(1522:253). Schroeder


N o.9351-212.


N o.9351A -10.


rbi d.


H e w rote a l ong defense of oathst o clar if y his posi ti onupon hi s rel urn.


N o. 9351-301.


N o. 935i -301, no. -7264-02. N o. 9351-301.


No. 9351- ' 1 8 c5o n ta i n sa l e tte ro f a p p o i n tment for M r . Hiat t , a s th e d i re c to r o f s c h o o l so n Guam, dat edJ uly 1 l , 1 9 a 1 .


No. 9351-3 9 -4 9Ge , n e raO l rd e rN o . 3 3 .




No. 9351-3 9 -4 9Ge , n e raOrd l e rN o . 3 5 .



N o. 9351-39-49 GeneralOrderN o. 43.


N o. 9351-594doesnot gi vethe exactdat ef or t he nami ngof Mt. S chroeder.B ut D . L. Dyer m entions it in his letter to the AssistantSecretaryof the N avyi n October19, 1905w hena sur veypar t y experi enced sometroubl ew i th compass var iat ions on the mountai n. Thi s i s merel ya lead t o t he sol uti onof the questi orr.P erhaps mor e inf or m ati on w i l l becomeavai l abl ehere i n t he f ut ur e.


lntroduction While the federal and local government agencieshave measuredthe island over the years, there is no difinitive source for the exact figures on land ownership as it appliesto both, Government of Guam (GovGuam)lands and Privatelands. The data sourcesvary; however, the estimatesin Table I are based upon both, the Bureau of Planning figures and the Department of Land Management figures gn the number of acresfor eachownership category and representthe best breakdown available. Discrepanciesexist becauseof inaccurateor incomplete land records. Moreover, 14 to l5 percent of the public domain lands have neither been surveyed nor registeredas of 30 September1978, and over half of the public domain landsthat have been surveyedas of the satnedate have not been registered.

Land ownership has a major influence on land-usepatterns, and these patterns can describe someof the qualitiesof a society. "The ways in whic h hum an beingsliv e on t h i s earth vary both acrosstime and according to culture and en viro nme nt. Som e m anage t o ex is t in f r oz e n regions,some have adapted to the rarif ied atmosphere of hig h a ltitud es. T her e ar e t hos e who liv e t heir liv e s in ur b an ize d, de nsely populat ed s et t ingswhile ot he r s inhabit co ral a tolls of f ewer t han one hundr ed pe r sons. Although for every place man lives there are a number of physical givens, such as climate, terrain, soil fertility, an d ele v at ion, eac h populat ion dev elo p s characteristicways of ut iliz ing t he land upon which they live. Some soc iet iesar e pr im ar ily agr ar ianan d devote the major portion of their land to farming; ot he rs a re hig hly indus t r ializ ed wit h m uc h lan d ut ilize d fo r urb an and t ec hnologic al us es ; and s ti l l ot he rs a re fish ing and hunt ing s oc iet ies in whic h most land may be left in its natural state" (JennisonN olan 19 76 : 1 ).

The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with land ownership as it currently pertains to the territory of Guam. The main emphasis;however,is placed on those lands which are currently owned by the U.S. FederalGovernment. Guam, which is the largestisland within the Marianas,is located in the western Pacific 1500 miles east of the Philippinesand almost 6000 miles from the United States. It's a tropical island with a high plateau in its northern section and mountains in its central and southernsections. Guam'slength is approxim ately 32 miles and its width varies from about 4 miles at its waist, to about 9 miles at its widest point, thus possessingan area of about 212 squaremiles or 135,680 acres.

HistoricalOverview(l 898.1962) When the United States seized Guam in 1898, the SpanishCrown lands, consistingof over 26 percenLof the island became the property of the American government. These were generally the poorer lands, the best being privately owned smallholdings(Souder1971:194). One of the first acts of the new administration was to forbid the saleor other transferof land ownership without the consent of the Governor. Nevertheless,Japanesemerchantsacquiredsome of the choicest garden lands during the American regime until 1909. when aliens were prohibited from acquiring any further interestsin private land for periods exeeding five years, and U. S. citizens could acquire only leases for up to fifty years and which are renewablefor a further fifty (Souder l97l 194). All agreementsrequired government approval. 42

Although the law prevented people from lieely disposing of their land, it did not prevent them from losing it. The ineffective Spanishland tar (whicir did not apply to personsof Chamorro ancestry) was abolishedand a new tax, varying with the type of land and its locaticii in relation to the capital of Agana, was imposed on all land regardlessof improvements. The tax was so heavy that some of the largest land-ownersturned their iand over to the government or sold portions of their holdings. The poorest families, lacking the resourcesor ingenuity to pay the land tax, gradually lost their land to more industriousrelatives or to the government in default of tax. Few Guamaniansaccumulatedland as it was likely to be a liability unlesseffectivelyused(Souderl97l:

estimated 25,000 acres of land owned by the Government of Guam, only approximately onehalf (10,200.94 acres) was registered as of 30 September 1978. (See Table 2). By comparing the percentage of lands owned by the federal governmentin1962, which was35 percent,and the current percentage of federally owned lands, which is 32.8 percent, it can be seen that federal land ownership has decreasedby approximately 2.2 percent. The federal government currently owns approximately 44,510 acres of land, which representsalmost one-third of the island. Of that land, the Department of Defense (DOD) owns almost 96 percent;with the Navy owning about 50 percent, and the Air Force owning about 46 percent. The remaining 4 percent of federal land is divided among those non-DOD activities which include the U. S. Coast Guard. the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), the Department of the Interior, and the General ServicesAdministration (GSA). (SeeTable 3 and Appendix A).


By 1937 the Naval Government of Guam owned over 5 percent of the island. This was acquired mainly through non-payment of taxes, but alsoby purchase.In addition,the U.S. Federal Governmentowned 30 percentof the island,mostly which was taken from the Spanish Crown. Occupied by the Japanesein 1941and reoccupied by U.S. forces in July 1944, Guam becamea major military baseand 58 percent of the island was used for military purposes,subject to future compensation (Souder l97l :195). Due to the destruction of records during the Japanese occupation and the fact that the local people seldom recorded land conveyances or encumbranches,it was difficult to determine whose land the military had taken. The size of military land requirementsremained high in the period of the middle and late 1940s.

Departmentof DefenseLand Use Plan for Guam

In 1950, the Government of Guam came into existenceand largeamountsof land previously controlled by the U.S. Navy becamepublic lands of the Territory. Various official estimatesconsideredbetween18 and 30 percentof the islandin the public domain(Karolle1978:68). R. K. Coote estimated that in 1950, 34 percent of the island belonged to the U.S. military while 2l percent belonged to the Government of Guam, with the remaining45 percent beingprivate lands. In November 1962, the military held 35 percent of the area,the Government of Guam 23 percent and private owners 42 percent (Souder l97l: 200). CurrentStatusof Land Ownership A current breakdown of Guam,s land by landowner is provided in Table l; however, it must be noted that due to incomplete cadastral surveys and registration, the figures indicating both Government of Guam acreageand private acreage can be used only as estimates. Of the


As previously indicated, the U. S. military has a historic interest in Guam. Prior to World War II, during the latter phasesof World War II and until 1950, when the U. S. Congresspassedthe "Organic Act" for Guam, thus establishinga Civic Government of Guam, the U. S. administered the island. Subsequentto that period of all encompassingmilitary land control, periodic release of military land and facilities to both GovGuam and private developmenthas resultedin the present patchwork pattem of residualownership. The Department of Defense remains a major landowner on Guam. The scarcity of land on Guam, the ever increasingpopulation growth, and the desire of Guam's people to becomemore self-reliant within the economic realm, make the continuing review of military landholdings a necessity. In Decemberl974, the Deputy Secretaryof Defenserequestedthat ajoint study be undertaken by the Navy and Air Force so as to develop a midrange Land Use Plan for Guam. A study group was formed and the planning effort beganin April 1975. The study consideredthe following aspects: (l) ProjectedForce levelsto be stationedon Guam under normal peacetime conditions; (2) Facility requirements to support those Force levels; (3) Current and future uses of all existing DOD controlled land; (4) Consolidation or joint-use of military facilities; and (5) Land needs of the Government of Guam (U. S. Navy 1977: A-3, The finished product from this study, which was publishedin December1977,is known as the Guam

Land AcquisitionPolicY

Land Use Plan. This DOD Plan covers an eight year time-frame from 1978 through 1985, and is subjectto updatingeverythreeyears. It should be emphasized however, that the Guam Land Use Plan is a planning tool and not an implementing document. Recommendations within the Plan are not directive in nature' but rather guidelinesto be consideredin managingthe real property assets of DOD' The decision on whether to implement the Plan'srecommendations lie with the commandingofficer of the activity and his major claimant. Such decisionswould be based upon the foreseeablemission requirementsof that activity. In addition to providing specific data pertaining to the actual utilization of DOD conGuam Land Use Plan also trolled lands, the identified parcels of DOD land which are labeled as "releasable"and parcels of land that the DOD would like to acquire from either private land(See Appendix B)' owners or GovGuam.

Certain land areas impacted by explosive safety areas,radio frequency intercircles, safety ference zones, and electromagnetic radiation zones (EMR) lie outside DOD activity boundaries. Acquisition of explosive safety impacted lands is not contemplated where the land is deemed unusable, and land impacted by EMR zones is not consideredto presentany significant hazard to the owners and will not be acquired (U. S. Navy 1971: 6). However, 900 acres of orivate and GovGuam land which lies witl"rinradio frequency interference zones and airfield clear zones has been identified as land being appropriate for DOD acquisition (See Table 5.). It is proposedthat acquisitionof these lands be made itirougtr exchangeof releasablelandsheld by DOD' In addition to the 900 acres,restrictiveeasements are requiredon an additional1.285acres' Conclusion Land is a limited commodity and is one of the major factors which has a direct influence over the future economic growth of Guam. As a major landowner and employer, the Department of Defenseplays a decisiverole in influencing this growtir and only through careful and continued of its real estaterequirementscan the assessment possibility exist whereby additional releasable landsmay be identified. Becauseof its impact on real estateownerGuam, it is important that GovGuam on ship r"ul"* the DOD Plan and develop future plans of its own. In order to provide for both, the continuing growth of Guam, and the public which it serves, it is imperativethat GovGuamidentify those DOD lands which it desiresto acquire, and that both GovGuam and DOD mutually support each other in the goal of creating a more self-reliantGuam.

PolicY Land Release The Guam Land Use Plan identifies5'180 acres of DOD land which are designatedas being releasable. Among these lands, 249 acres have been designatedas such, in responseto known GovGuam requirements and another 322 acres, which are currently out-leasedto GovGuam,have been recommended for release. In addition, the Plan recognizesthe eventualreleaseof the Tanguission Power Plant (8 acres) and the Piti Power Plant (20 acres);both of which would be released to the Guam Power Authority. If GovGuam's requirementsfor these 599 acresof releasableland fali within the purview of federal laws which authorize the disposalof surplus real property to local governments for such purposes as parks, recreation areas, schools, airports, and highways' they may be obtained by GovGuam at a reduced rate or possibly, free of charge. However, lands for other purposesnot covered by existing legislation can only be acquired by GovGuam on a value-for-valueland exchange or by payment of fair market value as determinedby appraisal' The remaining releasableland (approximately 4,581 acres) are to be used for exchangefor lands reOf those releasablelands, quired by DOD. only after certain released ),521 acres can be (See 4-). After Table conditions are met accomplished, have been authorized exchanges the balance of the releasablelands will be disposed of througJr General ServicesAdministration procedures(U. S. Navy 1977: E-3).


Literature Cited Carano,P., and P.C. Sanchez.1964. A completehistory of Guam. CharlesE. Tuttle Co. Tokyo. Coote,R.K. 1950.A report on the land useconditionsand land problemson Guam. Bureauof Land Management, D.C.: U.S. Departmentof the lnterior;Washington, typescript at the MicronesianArea ResearchCenter, Guam. Guam. Bureauof Planning.1911. A summary of major federal agencyland holdingsin the Territory of Guam. ln Guam; Coastalmanagementprogramtechnicalreports volume 1. Agana. Guam. Departmentof Land Management.1911. Island of Guam ownershipmap ( l "=4,000m.). Agana. Jennison-Nolan,J. l9'76. Land use on Guam. M.A. thesis. Universityof Guam. Karolle, B.G. 1978. Agriculture,population, and development in Guam: Someoptions for the future. Ph.D. dissertation.Michigan StateUniversity. Souder,P.B. 19'71.Land tenure in a fortress.In Crocombe, R. Land tenure in the Pacific.Oxford University Press,Melbourne. U.S. Departmentof the Navy. 1977. G:uamland use plan: A plan for Departmentof f)efensereal estateon Guam. Wastrington,D.C.



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Contributors MariaTeresaArrias,M.M.B. spent some years teachingin Japan, and now resides in Madrid, Spain, where she is a member of the Editorial Board of TercerMundo. Dirk A. Ballendorf is the Director of the Micronesian Area Research Center.

MarjorieG. Driver is a research specialist at the Micronesian Area Research Center and the Director of Translations. FrancisX. Hezel,S.J. is the author of Foreign Ships in Micronesia,and the Director of Xavier High School on Truk, Caroline Islands. KennethR. Martin is the Director of the Kendall Whaline Museum. JamesA. McDonough,S.J. is a professor of English at the University of Guam. ThomasB. McGrath,5.J. is the Editor of the Guam Recorder. Saul H. Riesenberg has recently retired from his post as Senior Ethnologrst at tlie Smithsonian Institution in Washinston. D.C.

MichaelV. Ziehman is an officer in the Marine Corps, who earned a degree at the University of Guam, during his tour of duty on the island.

SOME FRIENDS ON TRUK Photos by Thomas B. McGrath, S.J.

Children, Sopou Village, Uman Island, Truk State, F. S. M.

Nebubos Dock, Moen Island, Truk State, F. S. M.






All Children, Sopou Village, Uman Island, Truk State, F. S. M.

Two Children., Netutu Village, Tol Island, Truk State, F. S. M.

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BACK COV E R : T . M cGra th .

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Volume 9, 1979  
Volume 9, 1979  

The Guam Recorder is a magazine on Guam and Micronesia. Published by the Micronesian Area Research Center (MARC) of the University of Guam...