5th Marianas History Conference Day 7 - 10

Page 47

Panel: Musical Traditions

Long Term Effects of Colonization on Music

Transformation and Adaptation

By Lynne Jessup Michael

CNMI Public School System

Abstract: As with other aspects of culture, music of the Chamorro people has been transformed by colonial influences. Vestiges of influences can still be found in the vocal music of Chamorros, although even the traditional vocal music is disappearing. Using old written documents and recordings, evidence of specific musical elements is still apparent. Scale structure, vocal ornamentation, song forms and even lyrics all provide evidence of connections to the main colonial occupations. Children’s games dating back to the Spanish era, the pentatonic scale structure used in Japanese music, the American pop melodies and lyrics of the 1950’s, all have left their imprint on the vocal music of the Chamorro culture.

Acculturation and adaptation began for the Chamorro culture with the Spanish. The first Europeans who sailed to the Mariana Islands made no mention of the music. As Dr. Taitano pointed out in her presentation on Tuesday, the historical narratives of that period constitute “archival silence” meaning that the lack of documentation of this important aspect of culture has been erased or silenced.

The first mention of Chamorro music was made by Father Peter Coomans 1 who described feasts where the Chamorros danced and sang, with accompanying gestures and a type of castanets. Coomans also mentioned poetic songs that told of fables or myths, and funeral songs sung during a seven-day period of mourning.

When the Catholic missionaries arrived, they discouraged what they thought of as pagan music. Father Diego de Luis de Sanvitores in his account Mission in the Marianas.2 also documented the music. He described “twelve or thirteen women forming a circle and singing in verses their histories and antiquities, with point and harmony of three voices, sopranos, contraltos, and falsettos, with the tenor taken by one of the men.” He was critical of their


Coomans, Fr. Peter History of the Mission in the Mariana Islands: 1667 – 1673 Translated and Edited by Rodrigue Levesque, Occasional Papers Series No. 4 Division of Historic Preservation Saipan 1997 p. 4, 16


Barret, Ward, translator. Mission in the Marianas: An Account of Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores and his Companions 1669-1670 Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press 1975.

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Articles inside

Ginen I Gualo’

pages 273-285

Gendered Households and Ceramic Assemblage

pages 141-164

The Matua’s Song

page 55

Burego’ Joyful Christmas Celebration

pages 9-15

A History and Archaeology of the Pre-war Tuna Fishing Industry in Micronesia

pages 225-240

Fishing Weirs at the Edge of the Parian

pages 201-224

Matter of Time

pages 135-140

I Hinanao-ta

pages 243-272

Tådong Marianas

pages 287-290

Guam 1668-1769

pages 175-184

Origins of the People of the Mariana Islands

pages 165-174

Japanese Archival Records

pages 185-199

From Tourists to Asylees

pages 1, 123-132

Camp Chulu

pages 61-84

Celebrating 340 Years

pages 17-44

Colonial Narratives

pages 1, 85-103

Operation New Life

pages 105-122

Long Term Effects of Colonization on Music

pages 47-54

Slinging Stones And Fanoghe Chamoru

pages 45-46

Refaluwasch and Chamorro Children’s Songs

pages 57-58
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