CULTURAL & SILEBRÃ&#x2026;SION
ANITA A. SUKOLA
Director of Education Department of Education Government of Guam
BILL M. PAULINO
Administrator Chamorro Studies & Special Projects Division Department of Education
MARIA A.T. RIVERA
Project Director Bilingual-Bicultural Education Program Department of Education
1st Printing May 1991
Units compiled and written by
ELOISE SANCHEZ This book was made available through the State Educational Agency (SEA), Bilingual-Bicultural Education Program
Adapted by Guampedia.com in collaboration with Guam Department of Education
Additional artwork created by Guampedia and Ron J. Castroâ&#x20AC;© 1 of 1
Table of Contents General Concepts
Rationale Overall Objective
Hafa adai, Welcome to Guam!
Map of Guam
The Young Maidens That Saved Guam
The Legend of Sirena
Trip to Marine Lab
Weaving with ______________
Making Red Rice
Fruita yan Golai
Silebråsion gi Sakkan Siha
Guam History and Chamorro Heritage Day
Biba Ha’ånen Mannana!
Biba Ha’anen Manatata!
Biba Sånta Mårian Kåmålen
1 of 32
GENERAL CONCEPTS During the unit, these concepts will be emphasized: Guam’s physical features, homes of the ancients Chamorros, special dishes of the island, legends, wildlife: animals and plants, arts & crafts, and music.
Rationale A unit on the island of Guam is essential not only for the children of Guam but for the children who come from a different culture. Introducing this unit will enable the children who do live on Guam to look at how the ancient Chamorros lived. Teaching the children about the Chamorro language will enhance their ability to practice it while out of school. I feel that since children do learn at a very early age, introducing the Chamorro language will be a very comfortable concept to work with. I would like to see the children conversing in the Chamorro language throughout the week and even when the unit is completed. The children will be preparing and celebrating the variety of Chamorro foods famous on Guam, such as kelaguen and red rice. I also feel that the importance of the environment here on Guam should be known to the children. Presently, the Guam Division of Aquatic and Wildlife Agency is campaigning for the protection of several of our island birds going extinct. If we can start educating the children, maybe they can pass on the information to their parents and then something can be done. The environment or our island is a great way to gain new and exciting experiences! The children will be classifying shells, taking a look at the different uses of the coconut tree, and the different scenic places found on Guam. Therefore, a unit on Guam will help familiarize the children with the language, the Chamorro dishes, the plants, animals, and homes of Guam past and present.
Overall Objective To present lessons that will provide ample opportunities for students to gain understanding and appreciation of the Chamorro culture and language. Activities will include “hands-on” experiences and observations.
2 of 32
Sub Units Håyi na’ån-mu? Unit Topic: Chamorro Language Skills:
Listening skills Chamorro language development
Objectives: To teach the children how to say, “What’s your name” in Chamorro. To be able to respond to the question, “Håyi na’ån-mu?” To develop listening skills in listening to their name. Materials: None. Procedures: Teacher will say, “What’s your name?” in English. Have a couple of children respond. Then say, “This is how to say “What’s your name in Chamorro” - “Håyi na’ån-mu?” and the children will respond “Guahu si _______.”
Repeat this at least twice, then in a large group, call on each child and ask them the question and listen to their response.
Variation: Use a Sirena puppet for introducing the phrase.
3 of 32
Hafa adai, Welcome to Guam! Unit Topic: Language Arts Skills:
Manuscript writing Word recognition
Initial sounds Small muscle skills
Objectives: To be able to identify the word, “Guam”. To create a class book for visitors arriving on Guam. Materials: Construction paper, travel brochures about Guam, scissors, glue. Procedures: Say, “Hafa adai, Welcome to Guam!” Tell the children that’s what a lot of people say to visitors of Guam. Today, we are going to make a welcome brochure for visitors coming to Guam.
Tell the children that many people from other countries come to Guam to visit our beautiful island. For instance, we have many people who come from the country of Japan. These visitors from other countries are called “Tourist”. They learn about Guam through brochures written about our island.
Today, we are going to make that brochure, pass out the different brochures available and have the children cut out their favorite pictures. Have them tell why they cut out that certain picture. On the cover of the brochure, have each child write the word, “Guam”. After the pictures have been cut out have the children glue it to an 8” x 11” construction paper and staple it.
Variation: Some students may be able to write why they chose their picture.
4 of 32
Guamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Flag a coconut tree
a Chamorro boat 5 of 32
Penta i seyon Guam sigun i kulot ni’ sinangångåni hao pot numeru. 1 2 3 4
5 - åsut 6 - gof muetto na åsut 7 - betde, kulot chukulati, mesklao 8 - å’paka’
agaga’ muetto na kulot åpu muetto na kulot chukulåti betde (betde i hagon) 6 of 32
Map of Guam Unit Topic: Geography Skills:
Locating villages Visual perception
Objectives: To To To To
Fine motor skills Directionality
develop an awareness of the usage of a map. create a project that will show the shape of Guam. develop fine motor skills as the children make their map. introduce a Guam legend about why Guam is narrow in the middle.
Materials: Green clay, a map of Guam, blue paint, 8” x 11” tagboard with the outline of Guam, song “Legends of Guam” by Johnny Sablan. Procedures: Show the children the map of Guam. What things do your see? Have the children identify all the things they see on the Guam map. (plane, fish, boats, flowers)
Point to the village of their school. This is the village that our school is located at. Is it at the Northern, Southern, Eastern, or Western part of Guam?
Today, we are going to look at the shape of Guam. Which part is the island? An island is a piece of land that is surrounded by water. Which part is the ocean? An ocean is a large body of water. A map tells us many things, for instance, it tells us where places are, how far away places are, how to find your way and not get lost.
Show the children the map of Guam. Tell them that there is legend about how come Guam is narrow in the middle. Play the song: “Legends of Guam” by Johnny Sablan. Ask, do you think that a giant fish really ate the middle of Guam. Tell the children that a legend is a story told from one generation to another generation.
Tell the children that they are going to map the shape of Guam using green clay and blue paint. The green clay will be put on the inside of the outline of Guam. This will stand for the land. then after they are done, they will paint the ocean blue. 7 of 32
1. Agana Heights (Tutuhan) 2. Agat (Hågat) 3. Asan (Assan) 4. Barrigada (Barigåda) 5. Chalan Pago (Chålan Pågu) 6. Dededo (Dededu) 7. Hagåtña 8. Harmon 9. Inarajan (Inalåhan) 10. Maite (Maite’) 11. Mangilao 12. Merizo (Malesso’)
13. Mongmong 14. Ordot (Otdot) 15. Piti 16. Santa Rita (Sånta Rita) 17. Sinajana (Sinahånña) 18. Talofofo (Talo’fo’fo) 19. Tamuning (Tamuneng) 20. Toto (To’to) 21. Tumon (Tomhom) 22. Umatac (Humåtak) 23. Yigo (Yigu) 24. Yona (Yo’ña) 8 of 32
The Young Maidens That Saved Guam
Illustration by BJ Bell Story and illustration provided by Guampedia Did you ever notice the odd shape of Guahan, the southernmost island of the Mariana Islands in Micronesia? It looks as though large bites were taken from either side. The island is fairly wide at both ends and narrow in the middle. The Chamorro people have a legend about how Guahan got its unusual shape. Åntes na tiempo (a long time ago), the ancestors of the modern day Chamorros came to the Marianas, a mighty race of people. They were called taotaomo’na which means “the people of before.” It is said that the taotaomo’na were giants, very clever and wise, and that they possessed magical powers. During that time a group of fishermen who fished in Hagåtña Bay noticed that the mouth of the bay was growing larger and larger quite quickly. They could not understand what was causing it to grow. Similarly, a group of fishermen from Pago noticed that Pago Bay was also growing larger and larger. It seemed that the center of the island was being eaten away on both sides. The people could no longer ignore what was happening. The land between Hagåtña and Pago Bay was becoming narrower each day. They realized that if this continued the island would soon become two separate islands. A meeting was called to bring together all the wise taotaomo’na. After comparing their observations everyone agreed that something had to be done – and quickly! They realized there must be an answer about what was causing the narrowing center of Guahan, but unfortunately, no one knew what it was. The group disbanded without knowing quite what to do.
9 of 32
A few days later a fisherman from Pago was out early in the morning doing his day’s work when he spotted a giant fish! The fisherman, curious to find out more about the large creature, tried to approach it. As he neared, he saw that it was eating big chunks of land! But when he came even closer the giant fish saw him and quickly swam away. The fisherman ran to tell everyone about the giant fish that he had seen chewing away at the land in Pago Bay. When they heard his account, the people were outraged and vowed to fend off the giant fish. Early the next morning all the strong men of Guahan gathered with their weapons and started out on their mission. They were going to stop the giant fish from chewing through the island! Hagåtña and Pago Bays were filled with canoes of fishermen and others who wanted to help. The men paddled into the bay looking for the terrible fish. Some searched along the coral reef while others looked in the deep ocean outside the reef. The men searched for hours, but no giant fish was seen. As nightfall came everyone returned home filled with disappointment. The search for the giant island-eating fish continued for many days. Enthusiasm to find it lasted a long time. But no matter how hard the men searched, the fish eluded them. The news of the failure to find and destroy the giant fish spread from village to village. Some of the young maidens heard the news and were fascinated by the efforts to catch the fish. The young women talked about the giant fish whenever they gathered to wash their hair and rinse it with fresh water scented with lemons. Their favorite spot to gather for this task was at the Hagåtña Springs. When they finished, the pool would be covered with lemon peels. One day a young maiden in Pago noticed these same peels floating in Pago Bay. She was puzzled by their appearance. After some thought, she realized that the giant fish must have eaten a hole all the way under the island from Pago Bay to Hagåtña Springs! She told the other maidens, that must be where the giant fish was hiding. The next day the maidens gathered at the Hagåtña Springs. They were amused the brave, strong men were unable to capture the giant fish. The maidens then decided they would catch the fish themselves. Cutting off their dark tresses, they wove a net with their long black hair. Because their hair had magical powers, they knew their net would have magical powers, too. While they wove they began to sing. They sang for hours, and as they continued to sing, the net grew larger and larger. Even the giant fish could hear their singing from underwater. Enchanted by the sound of their beautiful voices, the fish swam out from its hiding place to listen to the singing maidens. As the fish approached the mouth of the spring, the maidens drew closer to the fish, still singing and carrying their net of hair. Suddenly they spread their magic net over the spring and dived into the pool, surrounding the fish. The giant fish was trapped and could not escape! In triumph, the maidens then summoned some of the men to help dispose of the giant fish. With their wisdom, magic and beautiful singing, the young maidens had saved Guahan!
10 of 32
Chamorro Huts Unit:
Color recognition Shape recognition
Vocabulary development Fine motor skills
Materials: Pattern (half circle, triangle, rectangle), Pattern (latte), small green cutouts, pictures of Chamorro hut, glue Procedures: Show the children a picture of a Chamorro hut used by the ancient Chamorros. Ask, does this house look like your house? How is it the same? How is it different. The ancient Chamorros used latte, bamboo, and coconut or nipa leaves to make their homes. Are these the materials that we use to make our homes today?
Tell the children that they are going to make an ancient Chamorro village. They are going to make Chamorro huts. Ask the children to give their village a name. Show the children the materials that they are going to use. Hold up the different shapes and ask the children to name the shapes (half circle, triangle, rectangle). This part will be the hut itself. The latte were used to hold up the huts. Tell the children that they are going to trace the pattern, cut it out and then use the small green square cutouts as leaves. When they are done, they will cut out the latte pattern and put it under the hut.
Children will use a bulletin board to put up their huts for the Chamorro village.
Variation: Children can use clay for the latte.â&#x20AC;Š
11 of 32
12 of 32
Sirena Unit Topic: Language Arts Skills:
Auditory perception Creative arts
Objectives: To introduce a Chamorro legend to children. To be able to create a mural of their Sirena story. To be able to retell the story to a friend. Materials: Flannel pieces of Sirena (a lille girl), Sirena (half girl, half fish), the Mother, the Matlina (Godmother), pattern of Sirenaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tail, story of Sirena Procedures: This is a story of a little girl. This is a Chamorro legend that is told from one generation to another generation.
Have the children sit at a place where they can see, put up the flannel board on a table for better view. Tell the children the story of Sirena using the flannel pieces. After the story, ask the children what part did they enjoy the most. What part did they like the least. Ask: Do you think Sirena is still out in the ocean? Why do you think her Nina wanted her not to turn into a fish. Do you think that her Mother really wanted her to turn into a fish?
Tell the children that they are going to make a mural of the ocean and have all the different Sirenas swimming in the ocean. Provide the children with the pattern. Let them draw the top part of Sirena and they can glue Sirenaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tail to the bottom part of Sirena.
Variation: The children can dramatize the story.â&#x20AC;Š
13 of 32
The Legend of Sirena A playful young woman named Sirena once lived near the Hagåtña River, right at the place where fresh spring waters dividing the city met the ocean at the river’s mouth. Sirena loved the water, swimming whenever she could steal a moment from her many chores. One day, Sirena’s nana (mother) sent her to gather coconut shells so she could make coal for the clothes iron. While gathering the shells Sirena couldn’t resist the refreshing river. There she swam for a long time, paying little attention to anything else while her nana called for her impatiently. Sirena’s matlina (godmother) happened to come by for a visit while Sirena’s nana waited for her daughter to return. Sirena’s nana began complaining about her daughter, becoming angrier the more she spoke. She knew Sirena was probably swimming in the river rather than completing her chores. In irritation, Sirena’s nana angrily cursed her daughter with the words, “Since Sirena loves the water more than anything, she should become a fish!” However, her matlina, realizing the harshness and power of the woman’s words, quickly interjected, “Leave the part of her that belongs to me as human.” Suddenly, Sirena, still swimming in the river, began to feel a change coming over her. To her surprise and dismay, the lower half of her body transformed into the tail of a fish! She had fins like a fish, and her skin was covered with scales! However, from the waist up, she remained a girl. She was transformed into a mermaid! In her new form, Sirena was unable to leave the water. Her nana soon saw what had happened to her daughter. Regretful of her curse, she tried to take back her harsh words, but she could not undo Sirena’s fate. So as not be seen or caught by any passerby Sirena gave a final farewell to her mother before she swam out to sea: “Oh Nana, do not worry about me, for I am a mistress of the sea, which I love so much. I would rather be back home with you. I know you were angry when you cursed me, but I wish you had punished me some other way. I would rather you had whipped me with your strap than to be the way I am now. Nana, take a good look at me, for this will be the last time we will see each other.” With these words, Sirena disappeared among the waves. Many stories have been told of sailors who have caught a glimpse of her at sea. According to legend, though, she can only be captured with a net of human hair.
14 of 32
15 of 32
Endangered Birds Unit Topic: Science Skills:
Auditory memory Fine motor skills
Objectives: To develop an awareness of Guam’s endangered and extinct birds. To dramatize flying birds with breadfruit leaves. To develop vocabulary skill as the children name the birds. Materials: Pattern breadfruit leaves, poster of endangered birds Procedures: Guam has many beautiful birds. But many of these are endangered or extinct. For example, there is the ko’ko’, or Guam Rail. Right now, it is becoming extinct. That means that there are fewer and fewer of them each day. Let’s look at the poster, name the birds listed: 1. Åga (Mariana Crow) 2. Chichirika (Rufous Fantail) 3. Egigi (Micronesian Honeyeater) 4. Ko’ko’ (Guam Rail) 5. Nosa (Bridled White-Eye) 6. Paluman åpaka (White Throated Ground Dove) 7. Såli (Micronesian Starling) 8. Sihek (Micronesian Kingfisher) 9. Totot (Mariana Fruit Dove) 10.Yayaguak (Island Swiftlet) What can you do to keep the birds from becoming extinct. Using a large sheet of paper, have the children brainstorm different ways of taking care of our birds on Guam. Pretend that you are a bird, (have children use cut out breadfruit pattern for wings) and you are the only one of your kind. How would you feel? Have the children put on their wings and fly around the room trying to find a place to stay. Variation: Children can produce a play about a ko’ko’ with no friends. 16 of 32
17 of 32
18 of 32
The Ko’ko’ The Guam Rail
Children! Be good and I’ll tell you a Chamorro story.
The ko’ko, a bird that can’t fly, was once seen all over Guam. The ko’ko eats bugs and seeds but they never get fat. Ko’ko’ can run very fast.
19 of 32
Trip to Marine Lab Unit Topic: Science Skills:
Objectives: To develop an awareness of the different animals and plants found in the ocean. To gain first-hand experience in visiting a marine lab. Materials: Field trip forms, name tags, and packed lunch Procedures: Prepare the children for the field trip by telling them what to expect when they go to Marine Lab. Go over the rules you want them to follow. Tell them that they are going to see different types of marine life for example: sharks, starfish, coral, etc. Show them pictures of these types of marine life. While at Marine Lab, tell the children that this is a place where students go to study all about sea creatures and how they live. The students use boats and diving gear to study the different animals and plants that live in the ocean. Here at Marine Lab, there are many different departments. Each department has a special study. There are many different kinds of species that live in the ocean. Some from the same family but they look different. The tour guide will provide the children the opportunity to feel most of the sea creatures. They will warn the children if any of the creatures are dangerous. After, the field trip, the children may have lunch at the University of Guam campus area. Special Notes:
Marine Labâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Contact page.
20 of 32
Crown-of-Thorns Starfish This crown-of-thorns starfish is hurting Guamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coral reef. Many starfish like this are eating the small sea animals that keep the coral reef from breaking up.
21 of 32
Weaving with ______________ Unit Topic: Social Studies Skills:
Observation Language development
Materials: Ready made hats, coconut leaves, special guest Procedures: Tell the children that a long time ago on Guam the Chamorros couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t buy hats when the sun would beam down on them. They had to make their own hats using coconut leaves. There are some people who still remember how to make hats from coconut leaves. There is a special person here today that will show us what to do. Introduce this person.
Explain to the children that the special guest will be weaving a hat. As he/she weaves, the children can sing a Chamorro song for him/her. Ask the children to explain what the guest is doing with the coconut leaves. What color are the leaves? How long do you think it takes to make a hat from coconut leaves?
After the guest is done, ask the children if they have any questions.
Variation: While the guest is weaving, the children can say â&#x20AC;&#x153;over, underâ&#x20AC;?.
22 of 32
Making Red Rice Unit Topic: Social Studies/Science Skills:
Observation Sequence Color recognition
Auditory memory Vocabulary Word recognition
Objectives: To develop vocabulary skills as the children try to describe the texture, color, shape of the åchote’. To introduce a special dish found on fiesta tables. Materials: Åchote’ plant, åchote’, rice, rice cooker, onions, butter/oil, and water. Procedures: On Guam red rice is a dish that everyone enjoys. Have you ever eaten red rice when you go to fiestas? Today, we have a guest who will show us how to make red rice. (The guest could be a parent who knows how to make red rice). Introduce this person. (Guest’s name) is going to show us what ingredients we will need to make the red rice.
The guest will show the children the åchote’. Åchote’ is grown here on Guam. Let the children will the texture of the åchote’ plant. Let them take out the seeds that is needed for red rice. How does the outside of the åchote’ feel? The outside of the åchote’ will probably poke the children’s fingers. Warn them to be careful as they explore the plant.
Our guest will gather all her materials together. The guest will show the children what they are (2 cups rice, åchote’ soaked in water, butter/oil, chopped onions). The guest will squeeze the åchote’ and soon the water will appear to be red. Ask them what do you think happened?
As the guest continues, ask the children what the guest is doing. Ask, “Have you ever seen your mother or father make red rice at home?” Have each child squeeze the åchote’ with their hands. Ask them what happens to their hands (it will turn red, which can be washed away if throughly scrubbed with soap and water).
Tell the children that the red rice will be used for their fiesta.
23 of 32
Chicken Kelaguen Unit Topic: Math/Language Arts Skills:
Sequence Vocabulary Directionality Small muscle skills
Word recognition Sound/Letter association Ordinal Counting
Objectives: To introduce a Chamorro dish, kelaguen. To develop language skills (word recognition, sound/letter association) To develop ordinal counting as the children identify which is first, second and third in the recipe. Materials: Cooked chicken, grated coconut, lemon juice, salt, poster of the recipe. Procedures: Have the children look at the recipe chart. Ask the children to name the ingredients that they are going to use today. What are we going to do in step 1? (add the dash of salt) What are we going to do in step 2? (with the knife, cut the chicken in small pieces, another word is to chop the chicken in small pieces) What about step 3? (put lemon juice into the bowl) What about step 4? (put the chopped chicken and the lemon juice in another bowl and mix well with a spoon) What about in step 5? (add the grated coconut and mix)
Pass out a small napkin to each child. Then pass out a small amount of chicken. Ask the children to describe what they taste, the colors they see, and what it feels like. Then pass out the coconut. (ask the same questions)
Pass out the plastic knives and the bowls to the children. Follow the five steps above. Have children eat the kelaguen for snack.
24 of 32
Fruita yan Golai Unit Topic: Health/Art Skills:
Creative arts Visual discrimination
Objectives: To introduce the different fruits and vegetables found on Guam. To develop an awareness of the fruit and vegetable group. To develop comparison of properties between the different fruits and vegetables. Materials: Papaya, cucumber, guava and eggplant, knife, butcher paper, tempera paint. Procedures: Bring out the papaya, cucumber, guava, and eggplant. These are fruits and vegetables that are grown on Guam. Ask the children to name each one. Then ask the following questions about each one: 1. What color is it? 2. What shape is it? 3. Is it a fruit or vegetable? 4. How does it taste? Have the children sample all the fruits and vegetables, except for the eggplant (it has a bitter taste uncooked).
Tell the children that they are going to use the fruits and vegetables for â&#x20AC;&#x153;art printingâ&#x20AC;?. The children will cut the different fruits and vegetables and use them for decorating and designing a sheet of paper. The children can make different patterns with the cut up fruits and vegetables.
Pass out all the materials needed (paints in small containers, paper, and aprons). Have the children design different kinds of pictures. have the children talk about their pictures.
Variations: The children can prepare a dish using the vegetables.
25 of 32
26 of 32
Silebråsion gi Sakkan Siha Biba Komple’åños Sinilebran Komple’åños Bunitutu i ha’åni Freskoko i manglo’ Mamaopapao i flores Ya betdede i ekso’. Un dångkolon isa Kumurorona i langet Kulan mohon ma tungo’ I minagof-hu magehet... Sa’ hu nånå’i hao guinaiya Ginen i fondon kurason-hu, Yan espesiåt na BIBA KOMPLE’ÅÑOS para hågu! -ANN RIVERA-
27 of 32
Guam History and Chamorro Heritage Day â&#x20AC;©
28 of 32
Biba Ha’ånen Mannana! “Para Si Nana” Hagu ham famañagu, Guini gi hilo’ tano’, Hagu ham lokkue’ fuma’ña’gue, ni’ lina’la’ tano’. I na’an-mu fihu in agang, Parehu ha’ gi minagof pat triniste, I kurason-mami fihu manmahalang, Ya hami fihu un bendesi. –Terry Sala–
“I Na’an Nana” Maseha in a’agang hao Mama, Nana, Mom, Mother pat Na... Achok lokkue’ in kaririñu hao Nang, Nanan Biha, Momsi, pat Mommy... I na’an-mu mas mames Mas hihot para hami. I na’an-mu fine’nana na palabra sinangan-mami I na’an-mu lokkue’ in a’agang gi uttemon hinahgong-mami. –Ann Rivera–
29 of 32
Biba Haâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;anen Manatata!
Hu gauiya hao. I patgon-mu as,
30 of 32
Biba Sånta Mårian Kåmålen Patron Saint of Guam Sånta Mårian Kåmålen, also known as Our Lady of Camarin, is the patron saint of Guam. The 300-year-old Sånta Mårian Kåmålen statue is a revered icon, and although its origins are unknown, they are explained through oral tradition. Every year on December 8, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception is celebrated, and Guam Catholics turn out by the thousands in Hagåtña to honor Sånta Mårian Kåmålen in a procession around the island’s capital. The statue of Sånta Mårian Kåmålen is 28 3/4 inches tall and weighs 48 1/2 pounds. It is made of wood, except for the ivory face and folded hands. She is painted with a regal pink and blue gown and sits high in the Dulce Nombre de Maria CathedralBasilica in Hagåtña in a niche in the sanctuary wall behind the altar. Sånta Mårian Kåmålen’s origins are shrouded in legend and she was the subject of front-page headlines when she was stolen from her home in the cathedral on three separate occasions in the last few decades. She is one of the most important icons in Guam’s history, religious or otherwise. A longtime effort to place a replica of the statue in the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington D.C. was realized in 2006.
31 of 32
Bibliography Horn, Dorothy. Real Guamanian Recipes. P.O. Box 554, Agana, Guam: 1982 Thacker, Marie. Now What? Development Tam for FLASH Project, DOE, Government of Guam, Agana: 1974. Thacker, Marie. Whats Next? Government of Guam. DOE, Agana: 1974. Cruz, Rita. Can You Hear Guam? Government of Guam. DOE, Agana: 1974. Aguigui, Delfina. Hayi Ham (Who Are We?) Development Team for FLASH Project, DOE, Government of Guam, Agana: 1974. Naputi, Joaquin N. Island of Guam and Northern Marinas Coloring Book Agana, Guam: 1978. LEGENDS OF GUAM Collected by: Carlos P. Taitano, Remedios L.G. Perez, Rosario T. Sablan, Menna U. Cespedes. Fino’ Chamorro Column Written by: Ann Rivera, Benit Dungca, Terry Salas. Fino’ Chamorro Column Illustrated by: James Enaligo, Robert Benavente, Frank Perez, Tom Taitano, Ivan Reyes.
Resources The Marine LAB Center, University of Guam. The Guam Division of Aquatic and Wildlife Agency. Guampedia, guampedia.com.
32 of 32