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VAUGHAN CL ASSROOM I ngl ésI nt ens i vopar ael Ver ano I nt er medi o


Contents PAGE 02

Translation Booklet 2

PAGE 18

Vocabulary Booklet 2

PAGE 46

Presentations and Public Speaking

PAGE 63

Cloverdale’s Characters

PAGE 68

Sudoku Inglés

PAGE 73

Most Common Irregular Verbs

PAGE 74

Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs

PAGE 75

Common Errors by Spanish Speakers


Translation Booklet

2


Vaughan

LIST 1 - There + to be

S Y S T E M S

1.

Hay un problema con el sistema nuevo.

There’s a problem with the new system.

2.

Hay varios asuntos que atender.

There are several matters to take care of.

3.

Había mucha gente aquí cuando llegué.

There were a lot of people here when I arrived.

4.

Hubo una explosión en la fábrica anoche.

There was an explosion in the factory last night.

5.

Había varios faxes aquí esta mañana.

There were several faxes here this morning.

6.

Habrá una fiesta esta noche si no llueve.

There will be a party tonight if it doesn’t rain.

7.

Va a haber una reunión esta tarde.

There’s going to be a meeting this afternoon.

8.

Va a haber muchos problemas con esto.

There are going to be a lot of problems with this.

9.

Ha habido un malentendido.

There’s been a misunderstanding.

10.

Ha habido varios casos.

There have been several cases.

11.

Habría menos casos si hubiera una vacuna.

There would be fewer cases if there were a vaccine.

12.

Debe de haber una solución.

There must be a solution.

13.

Tiene que haber una forma de resolverlo.

There has to be a way to solve it.

14.

Tiene que haber al menos tres.

There have to be at least three.

15.

Debería haber más sillas.

There should be more chairs.

16.

Podría haber más de lo que piensas.

There could be more than you think.

17.

Me dijeron el otro día que había habido problemas con el sistema nuevo.

They told me the other day that there had been problems with the new system.

18.

Siempre ha habido problemas con el sistema.

There have always been problems with the system.

19.

No parece haber una solución.

There doesn’t seem to be a solution.

20.

Habría habido más problemas si no hubiéramos visto el error a tiempo.

There would’ve been more problems if we hadn’t seen the mistake in time.

21.

Antes había mucha gente aquí.

There used to be a lot of people here.

22.

No hay tantos como antes había.

There aren’t as many as there used to be.

23.

No tiene que haber una solución necesariamente.

There doesn’t necessarily have to be a solution.

24.

No puede haber tanta gente

There can’t be that many people. (So many)

25.

Puede que haya una solución.

There may be a solution.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

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LIST 2 - Direct & indirect imperatives

Vaughan

1.

Que lo haga así.

Have her do it this way.

2.

Quieren que lo hagas así.

They want you to do it this way.

3.

Yo quisiera que lo hicieras así.

I’d like you to do it this way.

4.

Te dije que lo hicieras así.

I told you to do it this way.

5.

No lo hagas por favor.

Don’t do it please.

6.

Diles que no me molesten.

Tell them not to bother me.

7.

Te dije que les dijeras que no me molestaran.

I told you to tell them not to bother me.

8.

No le molestéis.

Don’t bother him.

9.

No quiero que le molestéis.

I don’t want you to bother him.

10.

¿Os importaría no molestarle?

Would you mind not bothering him?

11.

Pídeles que no me molesten.

Ask them not to bother me.

12.

Ya les he dicho que no te molesten.

I’ve already told them not to bother you.

13.

Enséñamelo.

Show it to me.

14.

No me lo enseñes.

Don’t show it to me.

15.

Dile que me lo enseñe.

Tell him to show it to me.

16.

Dile que no me lo enseñe.

Tell him not to show it to me.

17.

Quiero que me lo enseñes.

I want you to show it to me.

18.

Que me llamen.

Have them call me.

19.

Que nos guarden una copia.

Have them keep a copy for us.

20.

Que lo hagan de nuevo.

Have them do it again.

21.

Que lo comprueben.

Have them check it.

22.

Que se haga.

Have it done.

23.

Que se pinte.

Have it painted.

24.

Que se mande a esta dirección.

Have it sent to this address.

25.

Que se imprima.

Have it printed.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

S Y S T E M S

PAGE 4


Vaughan

LIST 3 - The accusative

S Y S T E M S

1.

Quiero que me lo den en mano.

I want them to give it to me in hand.

2.

Quisiera que organizaran una reunión.

I’d like them to set up a meeting.

3.

Necesito que ellos me ayuden con esto.

I need them to help me with this.

4.

Quiero que seamos amigos.

I want us to be friends.

5.

¿Qué quieren ellos que hagamos?

What do they want us to do?

6.

¿Qué esperan que yo haga?

What do they expect me to do?

7.

¿Cuándo esperan que lo terminemos?

When do they expect us to finish it?

8.

¿Por qué necesitan que les ayudemos?

Why do they need us to help them?

9.

Quiero que lo busques.

I want you to look for it.

10.

Él quiere que yo lo busque.

He wants me to look for it.

11.

Quiero que el resto de la gente sepa la verdad.

I want the rest of the people to know the truth.

12.

Quiero que todos vayáis juntos.

I want all of you to go together.

13.

No quieren que mezclemos más de tres colores.

They don’t want us to mix more than three colors.

14.

No quiero que lo tomes así.

I don’t want you to take it that way.

15.

Quiero que mis hijos sean felices.

I want my children to be happy. (Kids)

16.

Queremos que llueva.

We want it to rain.

17.

Quiero que se haga realidad.

I want it to come true.

18.

Quiero que ocurra pronto.

I want it to happen soon.

19.

Quiero que dure.

I want it to last.

20.

Quiero que se programe para mañana.

I want it to be scheduled for tomorrow.

21.

Quiero que esta sea la última vez.

I want this to be the last time.

22.

Quiero que esté listo para mañana.

I want it to be ready for tomorrow.

23.

Quiero que el trabajo se haga.

I want the job to be done.

24.

Quiero que la reunión se posponga.

I want the meeting to be postponed.

25.

Quiero que se convoque para el próximo mes.

I want it to be called for next month.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 5


Vaughan

LIST 4 - To get

S Y S T E M S

1.

No dejes que ello te deprima.

Don’t let it get you down.

2.

Me pondré en contacto con él.

I’ll get in touch with him. (Get in contact with)

3.

Te acostumbrarás a mi estilo.

You’ll get used to my style.

4.

Me perdí.

I got lost.

5.

Larguémonos de aquí.

Let’s get out of here.

6.

Tardé dos meses en recuperarlo.

It took me two months to get it back.

7.

No estoy llegando a ninguna parte.

I’m not getting anywhere.

8.

Lo superé.

I got over it.

9.

Súbete al autobús.

Get on the bus.

10.

Bájate del autobús.

Get off the bus.

11.

Bájate del árbol.

Get down from the tree.

12.

Aléjate del humo.

Get away from the smoke.

13.

Él no sabe transmitir sus ideas.

He doesn’t know how to get his ideas across.

14.

Me las apaño.

I get by.

15.

Sal del coche.

Get out of the car.

16.

Métete en el coche.

Get into the car.

17.

Cuando llegues allí, llámame.

When you get there, call me.

18.

¿A qué hora llegaste a casa?

What time did you get home?

19.

Recibí más de 20 cartas ayer.

I got more than 20 letters yesterday.

20.

Él siempre se sale con la suya.

He always gets his way.

21.

Pongámonos en marcha.

Let’s get going.

22.

Vaya al grano.

Get to the point.

23.

Hay maneras de burlar la ley.

There are ways to get round the law.

24.

¡Quítate de en medio!

Get out of the way!

25.

No me malinterpretes.

Don’t get me wrong.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 6


Vaughan

LIST 5 - Used to / To be-get used to

S Y S T E M S

1.

Yo antes conocía a mucha gente importante.

I used to know a lot of important people.

2.

Yo antes tenía más tiempo libre.

I used to have more free time.

3.

Antes venían por aquí más a menudo.

They used to come (around) here more often.

4.

Antes había más días festivos.

There used to be more holidays.

5.

Él antes era cura.

He used to be a priest.

6.

Yo antes era oficial del ejército.

I used to be an army officer.

7.

Yo antes era feliz.

I used to be happy.

8.

Antes era fácil encontrar trabajo.

It used to be easy to find a job.

9.

Antes nevaba mucho aquí en invierno.

It used to snow a lot here in the winter.

10.

Antes llovía más también.

It used to rain more too.

11.

Estoy acostumbrado a ir al trabajo en coche.

I’m used to driving to work.

12.

Están acostumbrados a salirse con la suya.

They’re used to getting their way.

13.

No estaban acostumbrados a mi acento.

They weren’t used to my accent.

14.

Tardaron meses en acostumbrarse a ello.

It took them months to get used to it.

15.

Ya te acostumbrarás.

You’ll get used to it.

16.

Yo antes comía en buenos restaurantes.

I used to eat in good restaurants.

17.

No estoy acostumbrado a restaurantes baratos.

I’m not used to cheap restaurants.

18.

Pues más vale que te acostumbres a ello.

Well you’d better get used to it.

19.

Ahora que estoy en prisión, tengo que acostumbrarme a muchas cosas nuevas.

Now that I’m in prison, I have to get used to a lot of new things.

20.

No estoy acostumbrado a mi cama nueva.

I’m not used to my new bed.

21.

Antes dormía en una cama de matrimonio de tamaño especial.

I used to sleep in a king-size bed.

22.

Ahora tendré que acostumbrarme a esta.

Now I’ll have to get used to this one.

23.

No estoy acostumbrado a la comida de la prisión.

I’m not used to prison food.

24.

Antes comía como un rey.

I used to eat like a king.

25.

Tendré que acostumbrarme a una nueva dieta.

I’ll have to get used to a new diet.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 7


Vaughan

LIST 6 - Modals (defective verbs)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Puedo hacerlo.

I can do it.

2.

Le dije que podía hacerlo.

I told you I could do it.

3.

Puede que él lo haga.

He may do it.

4.

Te dije que él posiblemente lo haría.

I told you he might do it.

5.

Deberías hacerlo.

You should do it. (Ought to)

6.

Debes hacerlo. (Moralmente obligado)

You must do it.

7.

Tienes que hacerlo. (No hay más remedio.)

You have to do it.

8.

Más vale que lo hagas, porque si no…

You’d better do it, because otherwise…

9.

Más te vale.

You’d better.

10.

Deberías llamarla más a menudo.

You ought to call her more often. (Should)

11.

No deben de estar en casa.

They must not be at home. (Sin contracción)

12.

Ese señor debe de ser rico.

That man must be rich.

13.

Preferiría estar contigo que con ella.

I’d rather be with you than with her.

14.

¿Nos vamos?

Shall we go?

15.

¿Qué hacemos?

What shall we do?

16.

¿Abro la ventana?

Shall I open the window?

17.

No tienes que convencerme.

You don’t have to convince me.

18.

No debes tocar eso.

You mustn’t touch that.

19.

No deberías estar aquí.

You shouldn’t be here.

20.

Más vale que te vayas, porque si no…

You’d better leave, because otherwise…

21.

¿Qué puedo hacer con esto?

What can I do with this?

22.

Es posible que sea demasiado tarde.

It may be too late.

23.

Es posible que haya un malentendido.

There may be a misunderstanding.

24.

Es posible que haya habido un malentendido.

There may have been a misunderstanding.

25.

No podría ser de otro modo.

It couldn’t be any other way.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 8


Vaughan

LIST 7 - How long… take

S Y S T E M S

1.

Tardo media hora en preparar una lista.

It takes me half an hour to prepare a list.

2.

Estoy tardando mucho en preparar esta lista.

It’s taking me a long time to prepare this list.

3.

Tardé dos años en aprender español.

It took me two years to learn Spanish.

4.

Tardaré 20 minutos en terminar esta lista.

It’ll take me 20 minutes to finish this list.

5.

Tardaría más si hiciera un descanso para el café.

It would take me longer if I took a coffee break.

6.

He tardado tres días en llegar hasta esta lista.

It’s taken me three days to get to this list.

7.

Te dije ayer que había tardado tres días.

I told you yesterday it had taken me three days.

8.

Habría tardado más si hubiera habido problemas.

It would’ve taken me longer if there had been any problems.

9.

Antes tardaba menos en preparar una lista.

It used to take me less time to prepare a list.

10.

A veces puedo tardar más de una hora.

Sometimes it can take me more than an hour.

11.

Debería tardar menos de 15 minutos.

It should take me less than 15 minutes.

12.

Puede que tarde dos horas en preparar esta lista.

It may take me two hours to prepare this list.

13.

Se tarda cinco horas en ir a Sevilla.

It takes five hours to go to Seville.

14.

Se tarda mucho tiempo en aprender un idioma.

It takes a long time to learn a language.

15.

Se tarda bastante tiempo.

It takes quite a long time.

16.

No se tarda mucho.

It doesn’t take long.

17.

¿Cuánto se tarda en aprender este programa?

How long does it take to learn this program?

18.

¿Cuánto se tarda en volar a Nueva York?

How long does it take to fly to New York?

19.

¿Cuánto se tarda en aprender a conducir?

How long does it take to learn how to drive?

20.

Tardé mucho.

It took me a long time.

21.

Tardaste mucho.

It took you a long time.

22.

Él tardó mucho.

It took him a long time.

23.

Ella tardó mucho.

It took her a long time.

24.

Tardamos mucho.

It took us a long time.

25.

Tardasteis mucho.

It took you a long time.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 9


Vaughan

LIST 8 - Negative questions

S Y S T E M S

1.

¿Por qué no funcionaba?

Why didn’t it work?

2.

¿Por qué no lo has hecho todavía?

Why haven’t you done it yet?

3.

¿Por qué no ha ocurrido todavía?

Why hasn’t it happened yet?

4.

¿Por qué no nos han llamado aún?

Why haven’t they called us yet?

5.

¿Por qué no estarás allí?

Why won’t you be there?

6.

¿Por qué no estará listo?

Why won’t it be ready?

7.

¿Por qué no les gustará?

Why won’t they like it?

8.

¿Por qué no sería aconsejable?

Why wouldn’t it be advisable?

9.

¿Por qué no querrías algo así?

Why wouldn’t you want something like that?

10.

¿Por qué no pudiste ir?

Why couldn’t you go?

11.

¿Por qué no se ha hecho?

Why hasn’t it been done?

12.

¿Por qué no se hará?

Why won’t it be done?

13.

¿Por qué no se está haciendo?

Why isn’t it being done?

14.

¿Por qué no se hace nunca?

Why isn’t it ever done?

15.

¿Por qué no se hizo?

Why wasn’t it done?

16.

¿Por qué no nos invitan nunca?

Why don’t they ever invite us?

17.

¿Por qué no deberíamos hacerlo?

Why shouldn’t we do it?

18.

¿Por qué no ha sido confirmado?

Why hasn’t it been confirmed?

19.

¿Por qué no lo habrías hecho?

Why wouldn’t you have done it?

20.

¿Por qué no tiene nadie secretaria aquí?

Why doesn’t anyone have a secretary here?

21.

¿Por qué no vas allí con ellos?

Why don’t you go there with them?

22.

¿Por qué no lo pruebas?

Why don’t you try it?

23.

¿Por qué no cae él bien a nadie?

Why doesn’t anyone like him?

24.

¿Por qué no sería correcto?

Why wouldn’t it be correct?

25.

¿Por qué no pasamos a otra lista?

Why don’t we go on to another list?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 10


LIST 9 - Still / Yet / Already / Anymore

Vaughan

1.

No hemos empezado todavía.

We haven’t started yet. (Begun)

2.

Todavía estamos esperando.

We’re still waiting.

3.

¿Has comido ya?

Have you eaten yet?

4.

Ya he comido.

I’ve already eaten.

5.

No he comido todavía.

I haven’t eaten yet.

6.

¿Has terminado el informe ya?

Have you finished the report yet?

7.

No lo he terminado todavía.

I haven’t finished it yet.

8.

Ya lo he terminado.

I’ve already finished it.

9.

Todavía estoy trabajando en ello.

I’m still working on it.

10.

Ya no estoy trabajando en ello.

I’m not working on it anymore.

11.

¿Sigues saliendo con ella?

Are you still going out with her?

12.

Todavía salgo con ella.

I’m still going out with her.

13.

Ya no salgo con ella.

I’m not going out with her anymore.

14.

Ya la he dejado.

I’ve already left her.

15.

No la he dejado todavía.

I haven’t left her yet.

16.

¿Ha llegado ya el tren?

Has the train arrived yet?

17.

No ha llegado todavía.

It hasn’t arrived yet.

18.

Todavía está en camino.

It’s still on the way.

19.

Ya ha llegado.

It’s already arrived.

20.

Ya no está en camino.

It’s not on the way anymore.

21.

¿Todavía me quieres?

Do you still love me?

22.

Todavía te quiero.

I still love you.

23.

Ya no te quiero.

I don’t love you anymore.

24.

Ya he encontrado a otra mujer.

I’ve already found another woman.

25.

¿Le has visto ya?

Have you seen him yet?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

S Y S T E M S

PAGE 11


Vaughan

LIST 10 - Future or first conditional

S Y S T E M S

1.

Lo haré si me ayudas.

I’ll do it if you help me.

2.

Vendrán si les llamas.

They’ll come if you call them.

3.

Saldremos si no llueve.

We’ll go out if it doesn’t rain.

4.

Saldré en cuanto deje de llover.

I’ll go out as soon as it stops raining.

5.

Si me abandonas, lloraré.

If you leave me, I’ll cry.

6.

¿Qué pasará si te cogen?

What’ll happen if they catch you?

7.

¿Qué harás si eso no ocurre?

What’ll you do if that doesn’t happen?

8.

Te lo mandaré tan pronto como lo tenga.

I’ll send it to you as soon as I have it.

9.

No lo harán a no ser que les pagues mucho.

They won’t do it unless you pay them a lot.

10.

Iré en cuanto termine esta carta.

I’ll go as soon as I finish this letter.

11.

No trabajaré con ellos si no me ofrecen coche.

I won’t work with them if they don’t offer me a car.

12.

No aprenderás si no estudias.

You won’t learn if you don’t study.

13.

Se hará si hay suficiente dinero.

It will be done if there’s enough money.

14.

Comenzarán en cuanto termine la clase.

They’ll start as soon as the class is over.

15.

Te lo haré si eso es lo que quieres.

I’ll do it for you if that’s what you want.

16.

No lo gastaré a menos que me vea obligado.

I won’t spend it unless I’m forced to.

17.

No pasará nada si nadie dice nada.

Nothing will happen if nobody says anything.

18.

Todo el mundo se enfadará si lo pospones.

Everybody will get angry if you postpone it.

19.

¿Cómo irás si no te llevo?

How will you go if I don’t take you?

20.

No diré nada hasta que no me digan algo.

I won’t say anything until they tell me something.

21.

No haré nada hasta que no aprueben el plan.

I won’t do anything until they approve the plan.

22.

Nadie te apoyará si te portas así.

No one will support you if you behave like that.

23.

Lo compraré cuando tenga dinero.

I’ll buy it when I have some money.

24.

Lo haré cuando pueda.

I’ll do it when I can.

25.

No lo haré a menos que me apoyes.

I won’t do it unless you support me.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 12


LIST 11 - Present or second conditional

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Lo haría si pudiera.

I’d do it if I could.

2.

Te ayudaría si tuviera suficiente dinero.

I’d help you if I had enough money.

3.

Ganaría más dinero si supiera inglés.

I’d earn more money if I knew English.

4.

Dejaría la compañía si me bajaran el sueldo.

I’d leave the company if they cut my salary.

5.

¿Qué harías si eso pasara?

What would you do if that happened?

6.

Saldríamos si no estuviera lloviendo.

We’d go out if it weren’t raining.

7.

Yo que tú no lo haría.

If I were you, I wouldn’t do it.

8.

Si le conocieras, entenderías mi punto de vista.

If you knew him, you’d understand my point of view.

9.

Si fuera verdad, no sé lo que haría.

If it were true, I don’t know what I’d do.

10.

Si no fueras tan cabezota, venderías más.

If you weren’t so hard-headed, you’d sell more.

11.

Si no estuviera lloviendo, comeríamos fuera.

If it weren’t raining, we’d eat outside.

12.

Si supieran lo que yo sé, nos apoyarían.

If they knew what I know, they’d support us.

13.

Si pudieras estar a las tres, te lo agradecería.

If you could be here at three, I’d appreciate it.

14.

¿Dónde vivirías si no pudieras vivir aquí?

Where would you live if you couldn’t live here?

15.

Si esta casa fuera mía, la ampliaría.

If this house were mine, I’d enlarge it.

16.

Si fuera tuya, la destrozarías.

If it were yours, you’d destroy it.

17.

Si hubiera más gente aquí, terminaríamos antes.

If there were more people here, we’d finish sooner.

18.

Si no necesitaran dinero, no estarían aquí.

If they didn’t need money, they wouldn’t be here.

19.

Si no me molestaras tanto, podría terminarlo.

If you didn’t bother me so much, I could finish it.

20.

Si el mío fuera como el tuyo, todo sería distinto.

If mine were like yours, everything would be different.

21.

Si supieras tanto como yo, serías un genio.

If you knew as much as I do, you’d be a genius.

22.

¿Qué pasaría si no hiciéramos nada?

What would happen if we didn’t do anything?

23.

Si todo estuviera listo, podríamos empezar ya.

If everything were ready, we could begin right away.

24.

¿Qué harías tú si estuvieras en mi lugar?

What would you do if you were in my shoes?

25.

Si no me ayudaran, no podría hacerlo.

If they didn’t help me, I wouldn’t be able to do it.

c

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PAGE 13


LIST 12 - Past or third conditional

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Si le hubieras visto, te habrías dado cuenta.

If you’d seen him, you would’ve realized.

2.

Si me lo hubieran enviado, lo habría corregido.

If they’d sent it to me, I would’ve corrected it.

3.

Si hubiera habido fiesta, ellos no habrían ido.

If there had been a party, they wouldn’t have gone.

4.

Si me hubiera tocado la lotería, me habría jubilado.

If I’d won the lottery, I would’ve retired.

5.

Si hubieran perdido, no habrían avanzado.

If they’d lost, they wouldn’t have advanced.

6.

Si hubiera habido un acuerdo, me lo habrían dicho.

If there’d been an agreement, they would’ve told me.

7.

Si no hubiera sido por ti, habríamos perdido todo.

If it hadn’t been for you, we would’ve lost everything.

8.

Habría sido tuyo si me lo hubieras pedido.

It would’ve been yours if you’d asked me for it.

9.

Si me hubieras llamado ayer, podría haberlo resuelto.

If you’d called me yesterday, I could’ve solved it.

10.

Si hubiera habido tormenta, no habrías asistido.

If there had been a storm, you wouldn’t have attended.

11.

Si hubieras ofrecido más dinero, habría aceptado.

If you’d offered more money, I would’ve accepted.

12.

Si Hitler no hubiera invadido Rusia, quizá hubiera ganado la guerra.

If Hitler hadn’t invaded Russia, he might’ve won the war.

13.

Si mi padre hubiera estado enfermo, yo no habría venido a España.

If my father had been ill, I wouldn’t have come to Spain.

14.

Si hubiera tenido un buen empleo en mi país, no habría venido aquí.

If I’d had a good job in my country, I wouldn’t have come here.

15.

De saber que estabas enfermo, no habría llamado.

If I’d known that you were ill, I wouldn’t have called.

16.

Si Noé no hubiera construido el arca, habría muerto.

If Noah hadn’t built the ark, he would’ve died.

17.

Si Morgan hubiera jugado, el equipo habría ganado.

If Morgan had played, the team would’ve won.

18.

Si me hubieran avisado con mayor antelación, podría haber resuelto el problema.

If they’d notified me sooner, I could have solved the problem.

19.

Si yo hubiera tenido que hacerlo, no lo habría hecho.

If I’d had to do it, I wouldn’t have done it.

20.

Si pudiera haberlo evitado, lo habría evitado.

If I could’ve avoided it, I would’ve avoided it.

21.

¿Qué habrías hecho si yo no me hubiera presentado?

What would you have done if I hadn’t shown up?

22.

¿Cómo habrías ido si no hubieras tenido coche?

How would you have gone if you hadn’t had a car?

23.

No habría sido aceptado si no hubiera sido firmado.

It wouldn’t have been accepted if it hadn’t been signed.

24.

Si yo no hubiera querido hacerlo, no lo habría hecho.

If I hadn’t wanted to do it, I wouldn’t have done it.

25.

Si yo hubiera sabido que ibas, habría ido también.

If I’d known you were going, I would’ve gone too.

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Vaughan

LIST 13 - Make / Do

S Y S T E M S

1.

Haz algo.

Do something.

2.

Hazme una oferta.

Make me an offer.

3.

Haz el trabajo.

Do the job.

4.

Haz lo que quieras.

Do whatever you want.

5.

Hazme una promesa.

Make me a promise.

6.

Haz el crucigrama.

Do the crossword puzzle.

7.

Hazme un favor.

Do me a favor.

8.

Haz la cama.

Make the bed.

9.

Haz una presentación.

Make a presentation.

10.

Hazlo lo mejor que puedas.

Do the best you can.

11.

Hago negocios con ellos.

I do business with them.

12.

Vamos a hacer unos cambios.

We’re going to make some changes.

13.

¿Tengo que hacer un discurso?

Do I have to make a speech? (También “give”)

14.

¿Quién va a hacer la compra?

Who’s going to do the shopping?

15.

¿Cómo te ganas la vida?

How do you make a living?

16.

Haz una lista de lo que tienes que hacer.

Make a list of what you have to do.

17.

Tengo que hacer una llamada.

I have to make a phone call.

18.

No cometo errores.

I don’t make mistakes.

19.

Haz un esfuerzo.

Make an effort.

20.

No crees problemas.

Don’t make problems.

21.

Haces mal uso de tu tiempo.

You make poor use of your time.

22.

¿Quién va a hacer la cena?

Who’s going to make dinner?

23.

Asegúrate de que están comiendo.

Make sure they’re eating.

24.

Tienes que causar una buena impresión.

You have to make a good impression.

25.

¿Puedo hacer una petición?

Can I make a request?

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Vaughan

LIST 14 - Say & tell

S Y S T E M S

1.

Nos dijeron que nos diéramos prisa.

They told us to hurry up.

2.

Saluda a tu primo.

Say hello to your cousin.

3.

Dile tu nombre.

Tell him your name.

4.

¿¡Pero qué dices!?

But what are you saying?

5.

Yo sabía que iba a pasar.Ya te lo dije.

I knew it was going to happen. I told you so.

6.

¿No podemos ir? ¿Quién lo dice?

Can’t we go? Who says so?

7.

¿Qué dijeron cuando te levantaste para irte?

What did they say when you got up to leave?

8.

¿Estás diciendo que no debemos hacerlo?

Are you saying we shouldn’t do it?

9.

Os estoy diciendo que no lo hagáis.

I’m telling you not to do it.

10.

Siempre rezo una oración antes de cenar.

I always say a prayer before having dinner.

11.

Él contó una historia acerca de su antiguo jefe.

He told a story about his old boss.

12.

Dímelo.

Tell me.

13.

Di lo que estás pensando.

Say what’s on your mind.

14.

Les dije que me esperaran.

I told them to wait for me.

15.

Pide perdón.

Say you’re sorry. (Apologize.)

16.

Di lo que dijiste anoche.

Say what you said last night.

17.

Diles lo que me dijiste anoche.

Tell them what you told me last night.

18.

Nos dijeron que no dijéramos nada.

They told us not to say anything.

19.

Ella ni siquiera me saludó.

She didn’t even say hello to me.

20.

Salúdales. (Por la mañana)

Say good morning to them.

21.

Salúdales. (A primera hora de la tarde)

Say good afternoon to them.

22.

Salúdales. (A última hora de la tarde)

Say good evening to them.

23.

Despídete de ellos. (Por la noche)

Say good night to them.

24.

Despídete de ellos. (En general)

Say goodbye to them.

25.

Salúdales. (En general)

Say hello to them.

c

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PAGE 16


LIST 15 - Other / Another / The other / etc.

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Dame otro.

Give me another (one).

2.

Dame otro libro.

Give me another book.

3.

No quiero este… quiero otro.

I don’t want this one… I want another (one).

4.

No quiero este… quiero el otro.

I don’t want this one… I want the other (one).

5.

Dame el otro que tienes.

Give me the other one you have.

6.

Tiene que haber otra forma.

There must be another way.

7.

Debes hacerlo de la otra forma.

You should do it the other way.

8.

No quiero otro cualquiera… quiero el otro que me enseñaste ayer.

I don’t want just any other one… I want the other one you showed me yesterday.

9.

Otra gente vendrá mañana.

Other people will come tomorrow.

10.

La otra gente vendrá mañana.

The other people will come tomorrow.

11.

Enséñame otro modelo.

Show me another model.

12.

Enséñame el otro modelo.

Show me the other model.

13.

Enséñame otros modelos.

Show me some other models.

14.

Enséñame los otros modelos.

Show me the other models.

15.

Esto es para ti y esto es para los demás.

This is for you and this is for the others.

16.

Hay otras muchas maneras de convencerle.

There are many other ways to convince him.

17.

No te deprimas… habrá otras mujeres.

Don’t get depressed… there will be other women.

18.

Algunas veces lo hago solo y otras veces con mis amigos.

Sometimes I do it alone and other times with my friends.

19.

Esta vez trajeron el dinero, pero la otra vez no lo trajeron.

This time they brought the money, but the other time they didn’t bring it.

20.

Esta vez me llamaron, pero las otras veces no.

This time they called me, but the other times they didn’t.

21.

Me gusta esa chica, pero también me gustan otras.

I like that girl, but I also like others.

22.

¿Qué otra gente te conoce?

What other people know you?

23.

Hay otro problema también.

There’s another problem too.

24.

Estuve con él el otro día.

I was with him the other day.

25.

Hay otros asuntos que resolver también.

There are other matters to resolve too.

c

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PAGE 17


Vocabulary Booklet

2


Vaughan

LIST 16 - Phrasal verbs (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Pasaré por tu casa camino de la mía.

I’ll pass by your house on the way to mine. (Drop by)

2.

La buena señora falleció después de una larga enfermedad.

The good lady passed away after a long illness.

3.

Me quedé sin sentido.

I passed out.

4.

Primero tienes que atravesar un cruce.

First you have to pass through an intersection.

5.

No dejes pasar esta oportunidad.

Don’t pass up this opportunity.

6.

No te acerques a mi novia.

Stay away from my girlfriend.

7.

Dejé el colegio a los 15 años.

I dropped out of school when I was 15 years old.

8.

Nos quedamos levantados hasta las tantas.

We stayed up very late.

9.

Nos quedamos por ahí hasta las tantas.

We stayed out very late.

10.

Le gusta presumir.

He likes to show off.

11.

¿Cómo puedo transmitirles la importancia de esto?

How can I get across to them the importance of this?

12.

No sé cómo transmitírselo.

I don’t know how to get it across to them.

13.

Ella me habló hasta convencerme. (Me comió el coco)

She talked me into it.

14.

Me alegro de que me hayas hablado para convencerme de lo contrario.

I’m glad you talked me out of it.

15.

No me líes.

Don’t mix me up.

16.

No puedo captar lo que dicen.

I can’t make out what they’re saying.

17.

No te quedes atrás.

Don’t fall behind.

18.

No te enamores.

Don’t fall in love.

19.

No puedo seguir el ritmo.

I can’t keep up.

20.

Vas muy de prisa. No puedo seguir tu ritmo.

You’re going too fast. I can’t keep up with you.

21.

Si no les alcanzas, ganarán la carrera.

If you don’t catch up with them, they’ll win the race.

22.

Me caí al agua.

I fell into the water.

23.

El niño se cayó del árbol.

The little boy fell out of the tree.

24.

Ella entró en una depresión.

She fell into a depression.

25.

No te apoyes en la mesa.

Don’t lean on the table.

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Vaughan

LIST 17 - Phrasal verbs (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

No te apoyes en la pared.

Don’t lean against the wall.

2.

Apóyate en mí.

Lean on me.

3.

Tendrán que escucharme hasta el final.

They’ll have to hear me out.

4.

No tengo noticias de ella.

I haven’t heard from her.

5.

Nunca he oído hablar de Paco Morgan. ¿Quién es?

I’ve never heard of Paco Morgan. Who is he?

6.

No lo puedo remediar. (No lo puedo evitar)

I can’t help it.

7.

Déjame que te eche una mano.

Let me help you out.

8.

Habladlo antes de tomar una decisión.

Talk it over before making a decision.

9.

Ayúdale a levantarse.

Help him up.

10.

Espérate.

Hold on.

11.

Estás frenando al resto de la clase.

You’re holding back the rest of the class.

12.

¿Qué le está retrasando?

What’s holding him up?

13.

Mantenle alejado de ella.

Keep him away from her.

14.

El niño me tuvo en vela toda la noche.

The child kept me up all night.

15.

Tenemos que mantenernos con los tiempos actuales.

We have to keep up with the times.

16.

Él está continuamente preguntándome por ti.

He keeps on asking me about you.

17.

El comité está compuesto por siete miembros.

The committee is made up of seven members.

18.

Tenemos que recuperar el tiempo perdido.

We have made up for lost time.

19.

¿Cómo puedo compensar la pérdida?

How can I make up for the loss?

20.

Decídete.

Make up your mind.

21.

No creo que vayan a reconciliarse.

I don’t think they’re going to make up.

22.

Lo siento. ¿Cómo te lo puedo enmendar?

I’m sorry. How can I make it up to you?

23.

Tenemos que despedir a 200 trabajadores.

We have to lay off 200 workers.

24.

No atropelles al pobre perro.

Don’t run over the poor dog.

25.

El niño huyó de casa.

The child ran away from home.

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Vaughan

LIST 18 - Phrasal verbs (3)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Si no cuelgas la ropa, yo la colgaré.

If you don’t hang up the clothes, I’ll hang them up.

2.

Si la decisión fuera mía, yo lo omitiría.

If it were up to me, I’d leave it out.

3.

¿Por qué no te deshaces de ese calendario viejo?

Why don’t you get rid of that old calendar?

4.

El tema no salió en la reunión.

The subject didn’t come up at the meeting.

5.

Si tú no sacas el tema de los coches, yo lo sacaré.

If you don’t bring up the subject of the cars, I’ll bring it up.

6.

Este tipo de reto saca lo mejor que hay en él.

This kind of challenge brings out the best in him.

7.

Estamos atravesando un período difícil.

We’re going through a difficult period.

8.

Te estás convirtiendo en un pequeño dictador.

You’re turning into a little dictator.

9.

Si tú rechazas la oferta, yo la rechazaré también.

If you turn down the offer, I’ll turn it down too.

10.

Si tú no elaboras un plan, yo elaboraré uno.

If you don’t draw up a plan, I’ll draw one up.

11.

Extiende un cheque. Extiéndelo a Juan Pérez.

Make out a check. Make it out to Juan Pérez.

12.

Si tú no rellenas el impreso, yo lo rellenaré.

If you don’t fill out the form, I’ll fill it out.

13.

Si tú no rellenas los espacios en blanco, yo los rellenaré.

If you don’t fill in the blanks, I’ll fill them in.

14.

¿Puedes descifrar lo que han escrito?

Can you make out what they’ve written?

15.

Te pareces a tu padre. (Físicamente)

You look like your father.

16.

Te pareces a tu padre. (Forma de ser)

You take after your father.

17.

Devuélvelo adonde lo encontraste.

Take it back to where you found it.

18.

Si no descuelgas el cuadro, yo lo descolgaré.

If you don’t take down the picture, I’ll take it down.

19.

Van a derribar ese muro.

They’re going to knock down that wall.

20.

¿Quién derribó el avión?

Who shot down the plane?

21.

Tendrás que bajar a su nivel. (De ellos)

You’ll have to come down to their level.

22.

Si tú lo desmontas, yo lo volveré a montar.

If you take it apart, I’ll put it back together.

23.

Apunta mi dirección. Apúntala en este papel.

Write down my address. Write it down on this piece of paper.

24.

Rebajamos el precio en un 10%.

We took 10% off the price.

25.

Estoy asumiendo más responsabilidades ahora.

I’m taking on more responsibilities now.

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Vaughan

LIST 19 - Phrasal verbs (4)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Si eso no quita la mancha, esto la quitará.

If that doesn’t take out the stain, this will take it out.

2.

Voy a llevar a mi mujer a pasear.

I’m going to take my wife out for a walk.

3.

Nadie ha asumido el control todavía.

Nobody has taken over yet.

4.

Este sillón ocupa mucho espacio.

This armchair takes up a lot of space.

5.

Yo te subiré hasta el despacho del presidente.

I’ll take you up to the president’s office.

6.

Él te absorberá mucho de tu tiempo.

He’ll take up a lot of your time.

7.

No quiero entrar en esa cuestión.

I don’t want to go into that matter.

8.

Tengo que volver a la oficina.

I have to go back to the office.

9.

Él siguió hablando horas y horas.

He went on talking for hours.

10.

Voy a bajar a la primera planta.

I’m going to go down to the first floor.

11.

No lo estás haciendo bien.

You’re not going about it right.

12.

Me llevo bien con ella.

I get along with her very well.

13.

El sol se puso a las 7:00.

The sun went down at 7:00.

14.

Caí enfermo con gripe.

I came down with the flu.

15.

Esa chica está detrás de mí desde hace un mes.

That girl has been after me for a month.

16.

¡A por ello!

Go for it!

17.

Tienes que entrar por aquella puerta.

You have to go in through that door.

18.

Cuando entres en la sala, no digas nada.

When you go into the room, don’t say anything.

19.

Terminamos hablando del precio de las manzanas.

We wound up talking about the price of apples.

20.

Mi despertador no sonó esta mañana.

My alarm clock didn’t go off this morning.

21.

La bomba estalló antes de que pudiera llegar la policía.

The bomb went off before the police could arrive.

22.

Pasemos al siguiente punto del orden del día.

Let’s go on to the next item on the agenda.

23.

A medida que pasa el tiempo, me doy cuenta de lo mucho que ella significaba para mí.

As time goes on, I realize how much she meant to me.

24.

La reunión seguirá unos 10 minutos más.

The meeting will go on for about 10 more minutes.

25.

Mi hija está cerca de cumplir los 17 años.

My daughter is going on 17.

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Vaughan

LIST 20 - Phrasal verbs (5)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Se ha apagado el incendio. (Por sí solo)

The fire has gone out.

2.

Eso pasó de moda hace años.

That went out of fashion years ago.

3.

Se pusieron en huelga.

They went on strike.

4.

Ensayémoslo una vez más.

Let’s go over it one more time.

5.

¿Qué letra viene después de la K?

What letter comes after K?

6.

Vuelve… te necesito.

Come back… I need you.

7.

Pasa por mi casa antes de ir allí.

Come by my house before going there. (Drop by, stop by, pass by)

8.

¡Baja de ahí!

Come down from there!

9.

Se reduce a una cuestión de dinero.

It comes down to a question of money.

10.

Se reduce a una cuestión de dinero.

It boils down to a question of money.

11.

Este tipo de bolígrafo resulta muy útil.

This kind of pen really comes in handy.

12.

Nos has metido en un buen lío.

You got us into a real mess.

13.

¿Cómo vamos a salir de este lío?

How are we going to get out of this mess?

14.

Se ha despegado el sello.

The stamp came off.

15.

¡Venga! ¡Vamos!

Come on!

16.

Le vi cuando salía del ascensor.

I saw him when he was coming out of the elevator.

17.

Solo tres de las 10 fotos salieron bien.

Only three out of the 10 photos came out well.

18.

La revista se publica mensualmente.

The magazine comes out monthly.

19.

La presentación salió muy bien.

The presentation came out very well.

20.

¿Por qué no vienes a mi casa a tomar una copa?

Why don’t you come over to my place to have a drink?

21.

El total asciende a 3.000 euros.

The total comes to 3,000 euros.

22.

Ve al grano.

Get to the point.

23.

Vamos a vernos otra vez en algún momento.

Let’s get together again sometime.

24.

Tengo que preparar el presupuesto.

I have to draw up the budget.

25.

Cuento contigo. No puedes volver atrás.

I’m counting on you.You can’t back out.

c

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Vaughan

LIST 21 - Common expressions (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Lo harán siempre que les respaldes.

They’ll do it as long as you back them up.

2.

Como regla general, no fumo en clase.

As a general rule, I don’t smoke in class.

3.

Que yo sepa, no han hecho nada todavía.

As far as I know, they haven’t done anything yet.

4.

En cuanto a mí, pueden hacer lo que quieran.

As far as I’m concerned, they can do whatever they want.

5.

Ya he hablado con él detenidamente sobre el asunto.

I’ve already spoken to him at length about the matter.

6.

En el mejor de los casos, recibiremos el tercer premio.

At best, we will receive the third prize.

7.

¿No sabrías por casualidad dónde está Pepe?

You wouldn’t know, by any chance, where Pepe is?

8.

Juan es, con mucha diferencia, el mejor de la clase.

John is by far the best in the class.

9.

En cuanto a ese tema, no tengo más que decir.

Concerning that subject, I have nothing more to say.

10.

El coste de la vida es muy alto aquí.

The cost of living is very high here.

11.

El nivel de vida en mi país es muy alto.

The standard of living in my country is very high.

12.

Debido a circunstancias imprevistas, nos vemos obligados a cancelar el espectáculo.

Due to unforeseen circumstances, we are forced to call off the show.

13.

Te daré un toque mañana por la mañana. (Por teléfono)

I’ll give you a ring tomorrow morning.

14.

Si prestas atención en clase, a la larga aprenderás mucho.

If you pay attention in class, eventually you’ll learn a lot.

15.

Voy a la clínica un día sí y otro no.

I go to the clinic every other day.

16.

Me voy de esta empresa para siempre.

I’m leaving this company for good.

17.

Utiliza las cifras preliminares por ahora.

Use the preliminary figures for the time being.

18.

Él siempre está de mal humor los lunes.

He’s always in a bad mood on Mondays.

19.

Siempre está de buen humor los viernes.

He’s always in a good mood on Fridays.

20.

Además de estos problemas, hay otros también.

In addition to those problems, there are others too.

21.

Si me pagas por adelantado, te haré un descuento.

If you pay me in advance, I’ll give you a discount.

22.

¿Quién es el encargado de este proyecto?

Who’s in charge of this project?

23.

En todo caso, creo que deberías hablar con tu jefe.

In any case, I think you should talk to your boss.

24.

Hice un análisis en profundidad del tema.

I made an in-depth analysis of the subject.

25.

En resumidas cuentas, estamos en quiebra.

In short, we’re bankrupt.

c

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Vaughan

LIST 22 - Common expressions (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

En términos de beneficios, el año ha sido bueno.

In terms of profits, the year has been good.

2.

A pesar de la escasez de agua, hemos logrado conservar el césped en buenas condiciones.

In spite of the water shortage, we’ve managed to keep the grass in good condition.

3.

A la larga, todos saldremos ganando.

In the long run, we will all come out ahead.

4.

Estaré de regreso en 15 minutos. Mientras tanto, repasad vuestros apuntes.

I’ll be back in 15 minutes. In the meantime, go over your notes.

5.

En teoría, el negocio va muy bien.

In theory, the business is going very well.

6.

En vista de los problemas, he decidido cancelarlo.

In view of the problems, I’ve decided to cancel it.

7.

¿Me lo podrías dar por escrito, por favor?

Could you give it to me in writing please?

8.

Da igual que seas alto o bajo.

It doesn’t matter whether you’re tall or short.

9.

Trae tu agenda por si acaso.

Bring your diary just in case.

10.

Hemos perdido el contacto debido a un malentendido.

We’ve lost contact on account of a misunderstanding.

11.

Sin duda tienes noticia de los cambios recientes.

No doubt you’ve heard about the recent changes.

12.

Lo hice a propósito.

I did it on purpose.

13.

En nombre de la Dirección, quiero expresar su agradecimiento a todos los empleados por los excelentes resultados.

On behalf of the management, I want to thank all the employees for the excellent results.

14.

Tuve un accidente camino de la oficina.

I had an accident on the way to the office.

15.

En términos generales, estoy de acuerdo con el plan.

On the whole, I agree with the plan.

16.

Las cosas están empezando a escapar a nuestro control.

Things are starting to get out of control.

17.

¿Crees que vale la pena?

Do you think it’s worth it?

18.

Me siento algo fuera de lugar aquí.

I feel somewhat out of place here.

19.

Llegaron sanos y salvos.

They arrived safe and sound.

20.

Antes de entrar en esta empresa, yo era autónomo.

Prior to joining this company, I was self-employed.

21.

Tardé mucho en romper el hielo con él.

It took me a long time to break the ice with him.

22.

Estoy dispuesto a hacer lo que sea siempre que sea legal.

I’m willing to do anything as long as it’s legal.

23.

Hasta cierto punto, estoy de acuerdo contigo.

To a certain extent, I agree with you.

24.

Aquello fue la gota que colmó el vaso.

That was the last straw.

25.

¿Quién lleva la voz cantante aquí?

Who runs the show here?

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Vaughan

LIST 23 - Common expressions (3)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Tarde o temprano, te arrepentirás de haberlo hecho.

Sooner or later, you’ll regret having done it.

2.

Estuve en contacto con él ayer.

I was in touch with him yesterday.

3.

Siempre les confundo. Se parecen mucho.

I always get them mixed up. They look a lot alike.

4.

Ganaremos más tiempo si se lo mandamos por fax.

We’ll gain more time if we fax it to them.

5.

El proyecto empezó con buen pie.

The project got off to a good start.

6.

El proyecto empezó con mal pie.

The project got off to a bad start.

7.

No puedo deshacerme de este resfriado.

I can’t get rid of this cold.

8.

Vigílale. Personalmente, no me fío de él.

Keep an eye on him. Personally, I don’t trust him.

9.

Ten presente que deben estar listos para mañana.

Keep in mind that they must be ready by tomorrow.

10.

Tendré que recurrir a enchufes para conseguir eso.

I’ll have to pull some strings to get that.

11.

No puedes confiar en él para las cosas importantes.

You can’t rely on him for important things.

12.

Tenemos que recurrir a financiación ajena.

We have to resort to outside financing.

13.

No podemos contratar a más gente por ahora.

We can’t hire any new people for the time being.

14.

Corres el riesgo de perder tu empleo.

You run the risk of losing your job.

15.

Podemos descartar la segunda alternativa.

We can rule out the second alternative.

16.

Tienes que dar ejemplo delante de la gente.

You have to set an example in front of the people.

17.

Déjame ponerte un ejemplo.

Let me give you an example.

18.

Si tienes que competir con él, no tienes posibilidad.

If you have to compete with him, you don’t stand a chance.

19.

Tengo que volver atrás y partir de cero otra vez.

I have to go back and start from scratch again.

20.

Sigamos en contacto.

Let’s stay in touch.

21.

Tengo la costumbre de pensar en voz alta.

I have the habit of thinking out loud.

22.

Tengo algunos cabos sueltos que atar primero.

I have to tie some loose ends first.

23.

No iré a no ser que vengas conmigo.

I won’t go unless you come with me.

24.

Toda empresa tiene sus altibajos.

Every company has its ups and downs.

25.

Mientras que a mí me gusta el helado de chocolate, a mi mujer le gusta el helado de vainilla.

Whereas I like chocolate ice cream, my wife likes vanilla ice cream.

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Vaughan

LIST 24 - Common expressions (4)

S Y S T E M S

1.

¡Qué follón!

What a mess!

2.

Él es sin duda la persona más inteligente aquí.

He’s, without a doubt, the most intelligent person here.

3.

Mis ventas han crecido por el “boca a boca”.

My sales have grown by word-of-mouth.

4.

Es tan despistado que se le olvidó su cumpleaños.

He’s so absent-minded that he forgot his birthday.

5.

¿Hasta dónde llegamos con esto ayer?

How far did we get with this yesterday?

6.

Hasta ahora, hemos ganado todos los partidos.

So far we’ve won every game.

7.

La mandé a verte para que la conocieras.

I sent her to see you so that you could meet her.

8.

Lo haré en seguida.

I’ll do it right away.

9.

Según mi secretaria, no hubo llamadas.

According to my secretary, there weren’t any calls.

10.

Soy consciente de las posibles repercusiones.

I’m aware of the possible repercussions.

11.

Estoy confundido en cuanto a quién es quién.

I’m mixed up as to who is who.

12.

Le gusta correr riesgos.

He likes to take risks.

13.

Estamos por delante de la competencia.

We’re ahead of the competition.

14.

Las cosas han ido más allá de mi control.

Things have gone beyond my control.

15.

A propósito, ¿ha venido Paco hoy?

By the way, has Paco come today?

16.

Lo haré a primera hora de la mañana.

I’ll do it first thing in the morning.

17.

Si es necesario, puedo traer a Juan para echarte una mano.

If need be, I can bring John to give you a hand.

18.

En cualquier caso, creo que deberíamos llamarles.

In any event, I think we should call them.

19.

Mi discurso causó el efecto contrario.

My speech caused the opposite effect.

20.

Al contrario, creo que conseguiste lo que querías.

On the contrary, I think you achieved what you wanted.

21.

El partido fue cancelado debido al tiempo.

The game was called off because of the weather.

22.

Les contrataremos a condición de que entreguen la mercancía antes de Navidades.

We’ll contract them provided they deliver the merchandise before Christmas.

23.

Estoy harto de estas listas.

I’m fed up with these lists.

24.

Estoy harto de estas listas.

I’m sick and tired of these lists.

25.

Ya es el colmo. No voy a tratar más con él.

I’ve had it. I’m not going to deal with him anymore.

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LIST 25 - Adjective enrichment (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Has hecho una evaluación precisa de la situación.

You’ve made an accurate assessment of the situation.

2.

Solo se puede conseguir a largo plazo.

It’s only achievable in the long term.

3.

Dinamarca es una sociedad acomodada.

Denmark is an affluent society.

4.

Dilo en voz alta.

Say it aloud.

5.

Estoy asombrado de tu progreso.

I’m amazed by your progress.

6.

Tu progreso ha sido asombroso.

Your progress has been amazing.

7.

Fue una situación graciosa.

It was an amusing situation.

8.

Ese ruido es muy molesto.

That noise is very annoying.

9.

Fue una experiencia horrible.

It was an awful experience.

10.

Fue una amarga experiencia.

It was a bitter experience.

11.

Mi mujer puede ser muy mandona a veces.

My wife can be very bossy at times.

12.

Tengo amplia experiencia en la enseñanza.

I have broad experience in teaching.

13.

No seas tan descuidado.

Don’t be so careless.

14.

Fue un trabajo que supuso un desafío para mí.

It was a challenging job.

15.

Ella es una mujer con encanto.

She is a charming woman.

16.

Es una chica muy risueña.

She is a cheerful girl.

17.

Hace un poco de frío hoy.

It’s a little chilly today.

18.

Él es una persona de mente cerrada.

He’s a closed-minded person.

19.

Estoy preocupado por las ventas.

I’m concerned about sales.

20.

Tengo confianza en el futuro.

I’m confident about the future.

21.

El lugar estaba muy abarrotado.

The place was very crowded.

22.

Esa fue una decisión muy atrevida.

It was a very daring decision.

23.

Estarían encantados de tenerte en su equipo.

They would be delighted to have you on their team.

24.

Ha sido una velada encantadora.

It’s been a delightful evening.

25.

Ella es una persona muy merecedora.

She’s a very deserving person.

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Vaughan

LIST 26 - Adjective enrichment (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Solo contratamos a personas discapacitadas.

We only hire disabled people.

2.

Todo el mundo parece desanimado por aquí.

Everybody seems dejected around here.

3.

Los resultados podrían ser desalentadores.

The results could be discouraging.

4.

Estoy decepcionado con los resultados.

I’m disappointed with the results.

5.

Los resultados han sido decepcionantes.

The results have been disappointing.

6.

El desenlace final es dudoso.

The final outcome is doubtful.

7.

El resto del camino es cuesta abajo.

The rest of the way is downhill.

8.

El discurso fue aburrido.

The speech was dull.

9.

Me siento tonto cuando trato de hablar alemán.

I feel dumb when I try to speak German.

10.

Estoy ansioso de conocer los resultados.

I’m eager to know the results.

11.

Me siento un poco violento cuando hablo alemán.

I feel a little embarrassed when I speak German.

12.

Fue una situación violenta.

It was an embarrassing situation.

13.

Los resultados son alentadores.

The results are encouraging.

14.

Hemos sufrido una cadena interminable de retrasos.

We’ve suffered an endless chain of delays.

15.

Hemos pasado una velada muy agradable.

We’ve spent a very enjoyable evening.

16.

Estoy completamente agotado.

I’m completely exhausted.

17.

No creo que hayas sido justo en esta decisión.

I don’t think you’ve been fair in that decision.

18.

Somos fieles a los principios de nuestro fundador.

We are faithful to the principles of our founder.

19.

Este plan no es económicamente viable.

The plan isn’t feasible.

20.

Esta habitación está horriblemente sucia.

This room is filthy.

21.

Ese hombre está forrado de dinero.

That man is filthy rich.

22.

Necesito un intérprete de primera.

I need a first-rate interpreter.

23.

El sótano está inundado.

The basement is flooded.

24.

Soy plenamente consciente del problema.

I’m fully aware of the problem.

25.

Ella es una niña superdotada.

She’s a gifted girl.

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Vaughan

LIST 27 - Adjective enrichment (3)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Él es un chico muy guapo.

He’s a very good-looking boy.

2.

No estoy dispuesto a apoyarles.

I’m not willing to support them.

3.

Estoy muy agradecido por tu ayuda.

I’m very grateful for your help.

4.

Él es de una familia adinerada.

He’s from a wealthy family.

5.

No seas avaro.

Don’t be greedy.

6.

Es un hombre muy apuesto.

He’s a very handsome man.

7.

No me gustan los teléfonos móviles, pero a veces resultan útiles.

I don’t like mobile phones, but they come in handy at times.

8.

Soy un poco duro de oído.

I’m a little hard of hearing.

9.

Esto podría ser perjudicial para mis intereses.

This could be harmful to my interests.

10.

Él es una persona muy trabajadora.

He’s a very hard-working person.

11.

No te preocupes por mi jefe. Grita mucho pero es inofensivo.

Don’t worry about my boss. He shouts a lot but he’s harmless.

12.

Ha sido un día ajetreado.

It’s been a hectic day.

13.

Esta información ha sido de mucha ayuda.

This information has been very helpful.

14.

Me siento desamparado ante esta situación.

I feel helpless in the face of this situation.

15.

Soy un poco reacio a iniciar el plan ahora.

I’m a little hesitant to initiate the plan now.

16.

Estoy afónico hoy.

I’m hoarse today.

17.

Estamos en una situación desesperada.

We are in a hopeless situation.

18.

Hemos recibido un pedido enorme.

We’ve received a huge order.

19.

Tienes que ser humilde y decidido al mismo tiempo.

You have to be humble and self-confident at the same time.

20.

Tenemos que reducir el tiempo de espera.

We have to reduce idle time.

21.

Él es un conocido periodista.

He’s a well-known journalist.

22.

Ella es una persona muy celosa.

She’s a very jealous person.

23.

Él es un vago.

He’s a lazy person.

24.

Mi secretaria es zurda.

My secretary is left-handed.

25.

No es muy probable que vengan aquí hoy.

It’s not very likely that they will come here today.

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List 28

S Y S T E M S

1.

FLECHA

ARROW

2.

POR CIERTO, A PROPÓSITO

BY THE WAY

3.

PAÑUELO

HANDKERCHIEF

4.

SIN EMBARGO

HOWEVER

5.

PROBABILIDAD

LIKELIHOOD

6.

IMÁN

MAGNET

7.

TORTILLA

OMELET

8.

REEMBOLSO

REFUND

9.

RELACIONADO

RELATED

10.

ESCASO

SCARCE

11.

SENSIBLE

SENSITIVE

12.

ARAÑA

SPIDER

13.

PROVISIONAL, TEMPORAL

TENTATIVE

14.

TERRITORIO

TERRITORY

15.

ESTAR DE BUEN HUMOR

TO BE IN A GOOD MOOD

16.

SOPORTAR, AGUANTAR

TO BEAR

17.

DESCANSAR

TO REST

18.

JUBILARSE

TO RETIRE

19.

RASCAR, ARAÑAR

TO SCRATCH

20.

FIRMAR

TO SIGN

21.

ESTIRAR

TO STRETCH

22.

FORMAR, ENTRENAR

TO TRAIN

23.

SILBAR

TO WHISTLE

24.

TOALLA

TOWEL

25.

DISGUSTADO

UPSET

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List 29

S Y S T E M S

1.

EFICAZ

EFFECTIVE

2.

LESIÓN

INJURY

3.

DA IGUAL

IT DOESN’T MATTER

4.

NO VALE LA PENA

IT’S NOT WORTH IT

5.

POR SI ACASO

JUST IN CASE

6.

AVERÍA

BREAKDOWN, MALFUNCTION

7.

EN GENERAL

ON THE WHOLE

8.

PERSEVERANTE

PERSEVERING

9.

OBRA DE TEATRO

PLAY

10.

INDEPENDIENTEMENTE DE

REGARDLESS OF

11.

COMENTARIO (CON CRÍTICA)

REMARK

12.

COMPAÑERO DE HABITACIÓN

ROOMMATE

13.

SARCASMO

SARCASM

14.

CULEBRA

SNAKE

15.

ETAPA

STAGE

16.

LOS AÑOS CINCUENTA

THE FIFTIES

17.

COOPERAR

TO COOPERATE

18.

FINANCIAR

TO FINANCE

19.

INFLUIR EN

TO INFLUENCE

20.

RECONOCER

TO RECOGNIZE

21.

DAR LA MANO

TO SHAKE HANDS

22.

DESACELERAR, IR MAS DESPACIO

TO SLOW DOWN

23.

TRADUCIR

TO TRANSLATE

24.

CONFIAR EN, FIARSE DE

TO TRUST

25.

VOLUNTAD

WILL

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List 30

S Y S T E M S

1.

AGRADECIMIENTO

APPRECIATION

2.

CUESTA ABAJO

DOWNHILL

3.

DE VEZ EN CUANDO

EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE

4.

NO TIENE SENTIDO

IT DOESN’T MAKE SENSE

5.

PROBABLE

LIKELY

6.

FUERZA LABORAL

MANPOWER

7.

MÁXIMO

MAXIMUM

8.

PESADILLA

NIGHTMARE

9.

OPTIMISTA

OPTIMISTIC

10.

PASTILLA

PILL

11.

PERFIL

PROFILE

12.

RELACIÓN

RELATIONSHIP

13.

ASEO (EN LUGARES PUBLICOS)

RESTROOM

14.

ENCUESTA, SONDEO

SURVEY

15.

EL POLO NORTE

THE NORTH POLE

16.

EL POLO SUR

THE SOUTH POLE

17.

NOMBRAR

TO APPOINT

18.

VALORAR

TO ASSESS

19.

CARECER DE, FALTAR

TO LACK

20.

LOCALIZAR

TO LOCATE

21.

ESPERAR CON ILUSIÓN

TO LOOK FORWARD TO

22.

MEDIR

TO MEASURE

23.

INTRODUCIR EN FASES

TO PHASE IN

24.

LUCHAR

TO STRUGGLE

25.

SOBREVIVIR

TO SURVIVE

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List 31

S Y S T E M S

1.

BENEFICIOSO

BENEFICIAL

2.

COMPARACIÓN

COMPARISON

3.

SABOR

FLAVOR

4.

IMPRESIONANTE

IMPRESSIVE

5.

FABRICACIÓN

MANUFACTURING

6.

MEDIDA, MEDICIÓN

MEASUREMENT

7.

FUERA DE CONTROL

OUT OF CONTROL

8.

MÉDICO

PHYSICIAN

9.

BENEFICIO Y PÉRDIDA

PROFIT AND LOSS

10.

RECIBO

RECEIPT

11.

FIABILIDAD

RELIABILITY

12.

INGRESOS

REVENUE

13.

RECTO

STRAIGHT

14.

FUERZA

STRENGTH

15.

TEÓRICO

THEORETICAL

16.

AUTORIZAR

TO AUTHORIZE

17.

SER CONSCIENTE DE

TO BE AWARE OF

18.

SER OPTIMISTA

TO BE OPTIMISTIC

19.

ENGAÑAR

TO DECEIVE

20.

EVOLUCIONAR, DESARROLLAR

TO EVOLVE

21.

CABER, AJUSTARSE

TO FIT

22.

VOLVERSE LOCO

TO GO CRAZY

23.

PASAR POR ALTO

TO OVERLOOK

24.

ECHAR LA SIESTA

TO TAKE A NAP

25.

ACOSTUMBRADO A

USED TO

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List 32

S Y S T E M S

1.

CITA, COMPROMISO

APPOINTMENT

2.

ENORME

HUGE

3.

MASACRE

MASSACRE

4.

MEDIOCRE

MEDIOCRE

5.

EN ABSOLUTO

NOT AT ALL

6.

AGOTADO (NO EN EXISTENCIA)

OUT OF STOCK

7.

MONTÓN

PILE

8.

PROMETEDOR

PROMISING

9.

ADECUADO, APROPIADO

PROPER

10.

PROPUESTA

PROPOSAL

11.

ARROZ

RICE

12.

SATISFECHO

SATISFIED

13.

HOMBRO

SHOULDER

14.

AMENAZA

THREAT

15.

POR LO TANTO

THUS

16.

ACONSEJAR, ASESORAR

TO ADVISE

17.

BENEFICIARSE DE

TO BENEFIT FROM

18.

RETRASAR, DEMORAR

TO DELAY

19.

PREVER, HACER UNA PREVISIÓN

TO FORECAST

20.

LLEVARSE BIEN CON

TO GET ALONG WITH

21.

RECOGER

TO PICK UP

22.

DEPENDER DE, CONFIAR EN

TO RELY ON

23.

AFEITARSE

TO SHAVE

24.

TRAMPA

TRAP

25.

TESTIGO

WITNESS

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List 33

S Y S T E M S

1.

UNA AMPLIA GAMA

A WIDE RANGE

2.

CLIENTE

CUSTOMER

3.

EXIGENTE

DEMANDING

4.

AGOTADO

EXHAUSTED

5.

EN TODO CASO

IN ANY CASE

6.

GANADO (VACUNO, LANAR, ETC.)

LIVESTOCK

7.

DOMINIO

MASTERY

8.

HORNO

OVEN

9.

BENEFICIOS (ECONÓMICOS)

PROFITS

10.

PERSPECTIVAS

PROSPECTS

11.

PAPEL

ROLE

12.

RUGOSO, ASPERO, TURBULENTO

ROUGH

13.

MARINO, MARINERO

SAILOR

14.

LA EDAD MEDIA

THE MIDDLE AGES

15.

ANALIZAR

TO ANALYZE

16.

SOLICITAR

TO APPLY FOR

17.

ASEGURAR

TO ASSURE

18.

COMPORTARSE

TO BEHAVE

19.

COLABORAR

TO COLLABORATE

20.

ASUSTAR

TO FRIGHTEN

21.

PASÁRSELO BIEN

TO HAVE A GOOD TIME

22.

TOMAR UNA DECISIÓN

TO MAKE A DECISION

23.

COLOCAR

TO PLACE

24.

PRESIONAR

TO PRESSURE

25.

INCONSCIENTE

UNCONSCIOUS

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List 34

S Y S T E M S

1.

QUE YO SEPA

AS FAR AS I KNOW

2.

FECHA TOPE, PLAZO

DEADLINE

3.

A LARGO PLAZO

LONG-TERM

4.

SIN IMPORTANCIA, INSIGNIFICATIVO

MEANINGLESS

5.

EN ULTRAMAR

OVERSEAS

6.

DOLOR

PAIN

7.

REPUTACIÓN

REPUTATION

8.

RAÍZ

ROOT

9.

ESCÉPTICO

SKEPTICAL

10.

ÉXITO

SUCCESS

11.

BLANCO, DIANA, OBJETIVO

TARGET

12.

EL COSTE DE LA VIDA

THE COST OF LIVING

13.

SUMAR

TO ADD UP

14.

CULPAR, ECHAR LA CULPA A

TO BLAME

15.

CONTRIBUIR

TO CONTRIBUTE

16.

DESANIMAR

TO DISCOURAGE

17.

ANIMAR, ALENTAR

TO ENCOURAGE

18.

MATAR TIEMPO

TO KILL TIME

19.

RECORDAR (RECORDARLE A OTRO)

TO REMIND

20.

SOSPECHAR

TO SUSPECT

21.

ACTUALIZAR

TO UPDATE

22.

DIGNO DE CONFIANZA

TRUSTWORTHY

23.

INSATISFACTORIO

UNSATISFACTORY

24.

TRIGO

WHEAT

25.

DISPUESTO

WILLING

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Vaughan

List 35

S Y S T E M S

1.

CONFIANZA

CONFIDENCE

2.

INSTALACIONES

FACILITIES

3.

INVERSIÓN

INVESTMENT

4.

HIERRO

IRON

5.

FUSIÓN (DE EMPRESAS)

MERGER

6.

DE MENTE ABIERTA

OPEN-MINDED

7.

CLIP

PAPER CLIP

8.

CONTENTO

PLEASED

9.

POTENTE, PODEROSO

POWERFUL

10.

OCURRENTE, LISTO, PERSPICAZ

QUICK-WITTED

11.

FIABLE

RELIABLE

12.

VIAJE DE IDA Y VUELTA

ROUND TRIP

13.

TENER EN CUENTA

TO BEAR IN MIND

14.

RESERVAR (MESA, HOTEL, ETC.)

TO BOOK

15.

CANCELAR

TO CALL OFF

16.

LLEVAR A CABO

TO CARRY OUT

17.

APLASTAR

TO CRUSH

18.

PONERSE NERVIOSO

TO GET NERVOUS

19.

REVISAR, REPASAR

TO LOOK OVER

20.

NOTAR

TO NOTICE

21.

PARECERSE A

TO RESEMBLE

22.

DAR POR SENTADO

TO TAKE FOR GRANTED

23.

INJUSTO

UNFAIR

24.

ALTIBAJOS

UPS AND DOWNS

25.

CERA

WAX

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Vaughan

List 36

S Y S T E M S

1.

DISPONIBLE

AVAILABLE

2.

JUSTO

FAIR

3.

PÉRDIDA

LOSS

4.

SUAVE, TEMPLADO

MILD

5.

ATAQUE NERVIOSO

NERVOUS BREAKDOWN

6.

A TIEMPO PARCIAL

PART TIME

7.

LLUVIOSO

RAINY

8.

DIMISIÓN

RESIGNATION

9.

GOMA, CAUCHO

RUBBER

10.

TÍMIDO

SHY

11.

PAPEL CELO, CINTA

TAPE

12.

AZULEJOS

TILE

13.

LOGRAR

TO ACHIEVE

14.

CLARIFICAR

TO CLARIFY

15.

CONTAR CON

TO COUNT ON

16.

DISEÑAR

TO DESIGN

17.

ELABORAR, CONFECCIONAR

TO DRAW UP

18.

PARECERSE

TO LOOK ALIKE

19.

COMETER FALTAS DE ORTOGRAFÍA

TO MISSPELL

20.

ALIVIAR

TO RELIEVE

21.

VARIAR

TO VARY

22.

PESAR

TO WEIGH

23.

VALIOSO

VALUABLE

24.

PUNTO DE VISTA

VIEWPOINT

25.

SIN DUDA

WITHOUT A DOUBT

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Vaughan

List 37

S Y S T E M S

1.

EN VOZ ALTA

ALOUD

2.

BASADO EN

BASED ON

3.

DINERO EN METALICO

CASH

4.

O SEA, EN OTRAS PALABRAS

IN OTHER WORDS

5.

MODESTIA

MODESTY

6.

NÓMINA

PAYROLL

7.

INGENIOSO, QUE TIENE RECURSOS

RESOURCEFUL

8.

VENDEDOR

SALESPERSON

9.

DOLOR DE GARGANTA

SORE THROAT

10.

SER ABURRIDO

TO BE BORING

11.

CONVENCER

TO CONVINCE

12.

MERECER

TO DESERVE

13.

ESTAR EN DESACUERDO

TO DISAGREE

14.

DESPEDIR

TO DISMISS

15.

PERMITIR, POSIBILITAR

TO ENABLE

16.

CONTRATAR (A EMPLEADOS)

TO HIRE

17.

MALTRATAR

TO MISTREAT

18.

POSPONER, APLAZAR

TO POSTPONE

19.

DEMOSTRAR

TO PROVE

20.

CLASIFICAR,VALORAR

TO RATE

21.

ARREPENTIRSE

TO REGRET

22.

SATISFACER

TO SATISFY

23.

RIZAR EL RIZO

TO SPLIT HAIRS

24.

ATAR CABOS SUELTOS

TO TIE LOOSE ENDS

25.

ALIANZA DE BODAS

WEDDING RING

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Vaughan

List 38

S Y S T E M S

1.

PAYASO

CLOWN

2.

COMPROMISO

COMMITMENT

3.

PERICIA, HABILIDAD

EXPERTISE

4.

HIPOTECA

MORTGAGE

5.

HOY EN DÍA

NOWADAYS

6.

DE OTRO MODO, SI NO

OTHERWISE

7.

CACAHUETES

PEANUTS

8.

MUESTRA

SAMPLE

9.

HASTA CIERTO PUNTO

TO A CERTAIN EXTENT

10.

APOSTAR

TO BET

11.

DUDAR

TO DOUBT

12.

ARRASTRAR

TO DRAG

13.

REALZAR

TO ENHANCE

14.

PERDONAR

TO FORGIVE

15.

LIARSE, CONFUNDIRSE

TO GET MIXED UP

16.

REUNIRSE (INFORMALMENTE)

TO GET TOGETHER

17.

HACER DAÑO, PERJUDICAR

TO HURT

18.

RESTRINGIR

TO RESTRICT

19.

ASUSTAR

TO SCARE

20.

SUGERIR

TO SUGGEST

21.

RETIRAR

TO WITHDRAW

22.

ADVERTENCIA

WARNING

23.

ADINERADO

WEALTHY

24.

PESO

WEIGHT

25.

BIEN INFORMADO

WELL-INFORMED

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Vaughan

List 39

S Y S T E M S

1.

CRITERIOS

CRITERIA

2.

EN VEZ DE

INSTEAD OF

3.

VOLUBLE, CAMBIA MUCHO DE HUMOR

MOODY

4.

MEJILLONES

MUSSELS

5.

¡NO ME EXTRAÑA QUE...!

NO WONDER ... !

6.

EN LAS AFUERAS

ON THE OUTSKIRTS

7.

PERSUASIVO

PERSUASIVE

8.

ORGULLOSO

PROUD

9.

I+D (INVESTIGACIÓN Y DESARROLLO)

R&D

10.

VENGANZA

REVENGE

11.

CUENTA DE AHORRO

SAVINGS ACCOUNT

12.

CENTRO COMERCIAL

SHOPPING CENTER

13.

SUPONER

TO ASSUME

14.

ASEGURAR

TO ENSURE

15.

FACILITAR

TO FACILITATE

16.

ENTORPECER, PONER TRABAS

TO HINDER

17.

IMPRESIONAR

TO IMPRESS

18.

INVOLUCRAR

TO INVOLVE

19.

HACER BAJAR

TO LOWER

20.

ELOGIAR, ALABAR

TO PRAISE

21.

REACCIONAR

TO REACT

22.

DIRIGIR (COMPAÑÍA O DPTO.)

TO RUN

23.

AHORRAR

TO SAVE

24.

OLAS

WAVES

25.

BIEN HECHO (UN OBJETO)

WELL-MADE

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Vaughan

List 40

S Y S T E M S

1.

ELECCIÓN

CHOICE

2.

CIERVO

DEER

3.

DESVENTAJA

DISADVANTAGE

4.

FRACASO

FAILURE

5.

ES UNA PÉRDIDA DE TIEMPO

IT’S POINTLESS

6.

PRINCIPALMENTE

MAINLY

7.

MUTUAMENTE

MUTUALLY

8.

GLOBAL, TOTAL

OVERALL

9.

RITMO

PACE

10.

REALISTA

REALISTIC

11.

ESCASEZ

SCARCITY

12.

CONFIANZA EN UNO MISMO

SELF-CONFIDENCE

13.

RASCACIELOS

SKYSCRAPER

14.

RETAR, DESAFIAR

TO CHALLENGE

15.

ENTREGAR

TO DELIVER

16.

CADUCAR

TO EXPIRE

17.

DOBLAR, PLEGAR

TO FOLD

18.

DAR UN PASEO

TO GO FOR A WALK

19.

SUJETAR, SOSTENER

TO HOLD

20.

COMPLACER, AGRADAR

TO PLEASE

21.

PRECEDER

TO PRECEDE

22.

PROPORCIONAR

TO PROVIDE

23.

SUDAR

TO SWEAT

24.

INÚTIL

USELESS

25.

BIEN PLANIFICADO

WELL-PLANNED

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PAGE 43


Vaughan

List 41

S Y S T E M S

1.

DESALENTADOR

DISCOURAGING

2.

SUPONGO QUE SÍ

I GUESS SO

3.

A PESAR DE

IN SPITE OF

4.

CRUCE (DE CALLES)

INTERSECTION

5.

SIESTA

NAP

6.

INGENUO

NAÏVE

7.

A PROPÓSITO

ON PURPOSE

8.

DOLOROSO

PAINFUL

9.

RETRATO

PORTRAIT

10.

TASA

RATE

11.

SEGURO DE SÍ MISMO

SELF-CONFIDENT

12.

APRETADO

TIGHT

13.

DISCUTIR (ACALORADAMENTE)

TO ARGUE

14.

REPARAR, ARREGLAR

TO FIX

15.

PERDERSE

TO GET LOST

16.

DAR UN PASEO (EN COCHE)

TO GO FOR A DRIVE

17.

DAR A ENTENDER, IMPLICAR

TO IMPLY

18.

PREDECIR

TO PREDICT

19.

TRANQUILIZAR

TO REASSURE

20.

RESUMIR

TO SUMMARIZE

21.

APROVECHAR

TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF

22.

APUNTAR (ESCRIBIENDO)

TO WRITE DOWN

23.

TENDENCIA

TREND

24.

BIENESTAR

WELFARE

25.

SILLA DE RUEDAS

WHEELCHAIR

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Vaughan

List 42

S Y S T E M S

1.

AVERGONZADO

ASHAMED

2.

DIRECTRICES

GUIDELINES

3.

DE MENTE ESTRECHA

NARROW-MINDED

4.

NEGLIGENCIA

NEGLIGENCE

5.

POBREZA

POVERTY

6.

RECETA (MÉDICA)

PRESCRIPTION

7.

CRUDO, NO COCINADO

RAW

8.

REQUISITOS

REQUIREMENTS

9.

APRÓXIMADAMENTE

ROUGHLY

10.

MAL EDUCADO

RUDE

11.

PAISAJE

SCENERY

12.

AUTÓNOMO (TRABAJADOR)

SELF-EMPLOYED

13.

DESDE CUANDO

SINCE WHEN

14.

ESTAR ABURRIDO

TO BE BORED

15.

TENER GANAS DE

TO FEEL LIKE

16.

HEREDAR

TO INHERIT

17.

INSTALAR

TO INSTALL

18.

DEBER (DINERO, UN FAVOR, ETC.)

TO OWE

19.

AMENAZAR

TO THREATEN

20.

DESAGRADABLE

UNPLEASANT

21.

IMPOPULAR

UNPOPULAR

22.

VOLUMEN

VOLUME

23.

BODA

WEDDING

24.

CAPRICHO

WHIM

25.

SABIDURÍA

WISDOM

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PAGE 45


Presentations & Public Speaking

Telephoning and conference calls Vocabulary for dealing with questions Interview evaluation sheet Vocabulary for business English


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

This is Sonia.

Answering a call

Sonia speaking. How can I help you? (Not 'I am Sonia!')

Excuse me, who's calling please?

Asking who is on the telephone

May I ask who's speaking? Who shall I say is calling? (Not 'Who is this?')

Could you please tell me the number of your Madrid branch?

Asking for a number

Could you give me the number of the Human Resources department? Do you have the number for....?

Is this the Customer Service Department? Could I speak to...

Asking for someone

Is Maria there/in? Could you put me through to Extension 123? Can I have Extension 123?

I'll just put you through.

Connecting someone

Can you hold the line? Can you hold on a minute/moment? Hold please.

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

I'm afraid Maria is not available at the moment.

When someone is not available

Maria's out/away at the moment... The line is busy; could you call back later?

Taking a message

Leaving a message

Can/Could/May I take a message? Would you like to leave a message?

Could I leave a message for her? Could you pass on a message to Sonia for me please?

Have I got this straight? Have I got that right?

Checking information

Let me just check the details... Just to confirm, you are arriving on the 27th, is that right?

I'm sorry, this connection is terrible. Could you repeat that please?

Problems with the line

I think there's some interference on the line. I'm sorry, I think we got cut off just then. You're breaking up – do you have a land line I could call you on?

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

Thank you for calling. Is there anything else I can help you with?

Ending a call

Very nice to talk to you. If there's anything else, you can reach me on my mobile/ my extension is 8893. Talk to you again soon.

Add any further sentences you can think of‌

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

EXPRESSIONS FOR DEALING WITH QUESTIONS

Do you mind if I ask you whether… Could you tell me if…

Asking Questions – Polite

I’d be interested to know… I’d like to know … Would you mind telling me/us about…

Please do/ Go ahead/Certainly.

Answering Polite Questions

That’s a good point. That’s an interesting question. I’m glad you asked me/raised that.

Statement Questions

Make a statement with a question intonation or a question tag. E.g. - “The project won’t be finished on time?” Or “We’ve underestimated the budget, haven’t we?”

If you want to contradict a statement question, use ‘actually’ or ‘as a matter of fact.’

Contradicting a Statement Question

E.g. - “We’ve underestimated the budget, haven’t we? Actually, we’re right on target.” Or “The project won’t be finished on time? As a matter of fact, we expect to have completed the work by next week.”

I'd like to reassure you about that.

Giving Reassurance

There is no need for concern on that point. You need have no worries on that front. I can understand your concern but...

Add any further sentences you can think of…

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PAGE 50


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

INTERVIEW EVALUATION SHEET

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

c

START OF THE INTERVIEW * Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

TELL ME A BIT ABOUT YOURSELF

HOW DID YOU FIND OUT ABOUT THIS POSITION?

ACHIEVEMENTS

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

WHAT ARE YOUR LONG-TERM CAREER PLANS?

WHY SHOULD WE CHOOSE YOU?

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PAGE 51


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

Let’s get down to business.

Beginning

Shall we make a start? I’d like to begin by… There are three points I’d like to make.

As you’ll see from the agenda…

Ordering

To begin with… I suggest we take this item first. Let’s start by looking at the issue of…

Turning to…

Introducing a new point

Moving on to… Turning our attention to… Let’s now focus on…

In addition…

Adding

Additionally We should also think about…

Let me give an example…

Giving an example

To illustrate this point, let’s consider… Let’s look at the case of… A case in point is…

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

On the one hand,... but on the other hand... Although..., we must remember that...

Weighing up an idea

Even though..., we should still bear in mind that... In spite of..., I still think that... Despite the fact that..., we mustn’t forget that...

By and large... All in all...

Generalising

Most of the time... On the whole... In general... Generally speaking...

Let me emphasize...

Emphasizing

Can I just draw your attention to...? I’d like to point out...

I’d prefer... to...

Stating preference

I’d rather... I tend to favour... as opposed to...

Let me wrap up by saying...

Concluding

Let me conclude with... I would like to conclude my comments by...

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PAGE 53


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

What do you think?

Asking for an opinion

What’s your opinion? What’s your position on...? What are your views/ thoughts on...?

I strongly/firmly/really believe that... I really feel that...

Giving a strong opinion

I am (absolutely) convinced... There can be no question that... It’s quite/crystal clear that... I’m certain/positive that...

In my opinion, we should… As I see it…

Giving an opinion

As far as I’m concerned… From my perspective/point of view… In my view…

As far as I know/ am able to judge...

Giving a weak opinion

It strikes me/ seems to me that... I would say that... I think it could be argued that...

I see what you mean.

Commenting on opinions

That’s an interesting point. That does need to be considered.

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

Perhaps we’re missing the point.

Relevance

We’re getting off the point. Shall we get back to the point?

We haven’t heard from… I’d like to get your view…

Giving someone the opportunity to speak

Can we hear what…has to say? I would like to invite…to present his views on… Would you care to comment? I think…would like to make a point. Let’s hear from…

So, to sum up… If I could just sum up the discussion… In short…

Summarizing

In brief… The main points that have been made are… The matter as it stands is… Just to review the main points so far…

I’m 100% behind you.

Strong agreement

I entirely agree with you. I’m of exactly the same opinion. I’m in total agreement/accord.

I agree.

Neutral agreement

I see your point. I think we are in agreement on that. I think you’re right.

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

I agree, but… I’m not against it, but… Up to a point, I agree with you.

Tentative agreement

I would tend to agree with you on that. I agree in principle, but… I agree with you on the whole, but it could be argued/said that… I totally/completely disagree with you. I don’t agree at all. I couldn’t agree less.

Strong disagreement

You’re completely in error/mistaken. I could never agree to that. What you are saying is unfeasible/ impossible. You must be joking/ kidding!

Frankly…

Polite strong disagreement

To be blunt… Bluntly… With (all due) respect…

I really can’t agree with you about… I can’t say I share your views on…

Tentative disagreement

I’m not convinced about… I think we need more time to consider… There are two sides to the argument…

I understand your point, but…

Polite disagreement

I can see why you think that, but… I can see what you’re getting at, but…

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

There are other considerations which must be taken into account. For example…

Adding information

Seen from one angle/perspective/point of view… I wonder if you’ve considered… There are certain aspects we must bear/keep in mind… I don’t know if you’re aware of… Have you considered…? Has it occurred to you that...?

Asking questions

Do you realize/know that…? Wouldn’t you agree that…? Shouldn’t we consider…? I was wondering if you’d looked at…?

I have some reservations about...

Expressing concern or reservation

I'm (rather/a little/somewhat) concerned/worried about... I'm afraid that... I can't help feeling that...

There's absolutely no cause for concern about... I can assure you...

Reassuring

Let me assure you... I/we understand/share/appreciate your concern about...

I think we can disregard…

Playing something down

I don’t think we need to focus too much on… These are minor issues when one considers…

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

Excuse me, may I interrupt here?

Interrupting

Just a moment... Can I say something here? Sorry to interrupt/ butt in...

Could I come in at this point? If I could just say something here...

Joining in

If it's alright with everyone, I'd like to take this opportunity to... I have a point to make here. I think I have something to add which could be relevant.

As I was saying...

Coming back to a point after an interruption

Coming back to what I was saying... To resume... To return to...

If I could return to the point I was making... I'll come to that in a moment.

Preventing an interruption

Just let me finish. Just wait a moment... If I might just finish... If you would be so kind as to let me finish...

Before we begin the discussion, I'd just like to say...

Stopping interruptions before they happen

If I could briefly outline three points... I have two points I'd like to make Very briefly... Firstly, I'd like to... and then I would like to...

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

Can/could/may I just ask you...? I was wondering if you could...?

Asking general questions

Could you tell us...? What sort of... I'd be interested to know... Perhaps you could tell us...

Did you...? Is there...?

Asking closed / leading questions

Have you...? Are you going/planning to...? Will there be...?

What exactly do you mean by...

Probing questions

Could you tell us a little more about... Could you go into a little more detail about...

So you're worried about...? If I understand you correctly...?

Paraphrasing

You feel that...? Let me see if I've understood you. You want to... Let me make sure I follow. You feel that...

Could you run that by us again please?

Asking for repetition

I'm afraid I don't quite follow. Could you repeat that? Would you mind going over that again, please? I'm afraid I don't see what you mean.

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

There seems to have been a slight misunderstanding.

Correcting misunderstandings

That isn't quite what I meant. Sorry, perhaps I didn't make myself clear. What I was trying to say is that....

That's an interesting question.

Giving yourself time to think of an answer

I'm glad you asked me that. Obviously, there are a lot of issues to consider. That's a difficult question to answer. You have raised a good point there.

I'm (100%) certain that...

Being certain

I'm (absolutely) sure that... There's no doubt...

I'm fairly sure that... I'm almost certain that...

Being fairly sure

It's quite likely that... It's fairly probable that... Probably...

It's possible that...

Being unsure

It's not impossible that... There is a possibilty that...

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PAGE 60


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

It's very unlikely that... I don't think there's any chance that...

Thinking something is unlikely

It seems highly unlikely that... It is highly improbable that... There's very little likelihood of...

I'm not sure/certain that...

Being uncertain

I have doubts about... I'm uncertain about...

We are prepared to...on condition that... We will concede...if you compromise on...

Bargaining

I think we could...provided that... We are willing to...on the understanding that ... We are ready to...as long as...

Would that be acceptable?

Confirming acceptability

Does that seem satisfactory? Is that an acceptable compromise? We hope that this will be acceptable.

I don't think we could agree to that, unless...

Accepting a bargain

We wouldn't be prepared to..., unless... We'd be reluctant to...unless...

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Appendices Cloverdale’s Characters Sudoku InglÊs Most Common Irregular Verbs Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs Common Errors by Spanish Speakers


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Philip Johnson Yesterday, Phillip Johnson had a busy morning. He usually gets up at 7:30 every morning, but yesterday he got up at 7:00 because his wife, Nancy, had to leave home very early to take a report to a client of hers 70 miles from Lincoln. Nancy left home at 7:25 and Phillip made breakfast for himself and for the children. Usually Nancy makes breakfast for all three, but yesterday was an exception. Phillip took a shower and had breakfast before the children got up. He prepared fried eggs and toast for Michael and Denise and at 8:30 he took them to school. He got to the office at ten minutes past nine. He had three meetings during the morning. The first one was at 10 o’clock with the bank’s lawyer.They discussed a problem with an important client who wanted to suspend payments on a loan. They decided to wait until the meeting of the bank’s Board of Directors to make a final decision. At 11:30, he received the owner of a ceramic factory near Lincoln. The man needed $500,000 to add a new building to his factory. The ceramic factory was one the

best in Nebraska and Phillip knew the man very well and trusted him. At 12:00, Phillip met with the chief commercial officer of the bank to discuss a salary question concerning one of the employees in the commercial

1. Did Phillip have a busy morning yesterday?

14. What time did he leave home?

2. Did he get up at the usual time?

15. Did he leave home alone?

28. What did they decide to do?

3. What time did he get up?

16. Who did he leave home with?

29. What time was his second meeting?

4. What time does he usually get up?

17. Why did he leave home with his children?

30. Who did Phillip receive?

5. Why did he get up earlier than usual?

18. What time did he get to the office?

31. How much money did the man need?

6. Why did Nancy have to leave home early?

19. Did he have any meetings during the

32. What did he need the money for?

7. How far was the client from their home?

morning?

department. He went to lunch with the chief commercial officer at 12:30.They had lunch in a small restaurant near the office.

meeting?

33. What can you say about the ceramic

8. What time did Nancy leave home?

20. How many meetings did he have?

9. Who prepared breakfast for Phillip?

21. Was the first meeting at 9:30?

34. What was Phillip’s relationship with the man?

10. Who usually makes breakfast?

22. What time was the first meeting?

35. Who did Phillip meet with at 12 o’clock?

11. Was yesterday an exception?

23. Was the meeting with a salesman?

36. What did they discuss?

12. What did Phillip do before the children

24. Who was the first meeting with?

37. How long did the meeting last?

25. Did they discuss a problem?

38. What time did Phillip go to lunch?

26. What was the problem?

39. Who did he have lunch with?

27. Did they make a final decision during the

40. Where did they have lunch?

got up? 13. What did he prepare his children for breakfast?

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factory?

PAGE 63


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Nancy Johnson Yesterday morning wasn’t a normal morning for Nancy Johnson. She usually gets up at 7:30, but yesterday she got up at 6:30. She took a shower, got dressed, and had breakfast in less than 45 minutes. She left home at 7:25 because she had to drive 70 miles to the west of Lincoln to deliver an interior design plan to John Evans, the owner of a house that she is decorating. Mr. Evans needed to give the plan to the company that is building a new master bedroom for him and his wife. Nancy had to deliver it early in the morning because she didn’t have any time the rest of the day to drive to Mr. Evans’ house. Her problem was that she had to be at the technical school where she teaches interior design at 10 o’clock, when her first class started.The technical school is 20 miles east of Lincoln, so Nancy had to drive a total of 160 miles before 10:00. She drove relatively fast and got to Mr. Evans’ house at 8:35. She spent ten minutes talking to him about some details of the plan and then started her drive to the school at 8:45.

She had to drive 90 miles in an hour and fifteen minutes. Fortunately, Lincoln is a relatively small city and there isn’t a lot of traffic. She got to the school at exactly five

minutes to ten. She had a quick coffee with one of the other teachers and entered her class at two minutes past ten.

1. Did Nancy have a normal morning

13. Why didn’t Nancy deliver the plan later

22. What did she talk to him about?

yesterday? 2. What time does she usually get up? 3. What time did she get up yesterday? 4. What did she do before having breakfast? 5. What time did she leave home? 6. How far did she have to drive to Mr. Evans’ house? 7. Is the house east or west of Lincoln? 8. What did she have to deliver to Mr. Evans?

in the day? 14. What time did she have to be at the technical school? 15. How far is the technical school from Lincoln?

24. How long was the trip to the school? 25. Was there a lot of traffic? 26. Why wasn’t there a lot of traffic? 27. What time did Nancy get to the school?

17. Explain why she had to drive 160 miles

28. What did she have before going to her

yesterday. 18. Why did Nancy have to be at the school at 10:00? 19. Did she drive relatively fast or slowly?

10. What is he doing with his house?

20. What time did she get to Mr. Evans’ house?

11. Who is the new bedroom for?

21. How much time did she spend talkingto

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house?

16. How far is it from Mr. Evans’ house?

9. Who is Mr. Evans?

12. Who did he need to give the design plan to?

23. What time did she leave Mr. Evans’

class? 29. Who did she have a coffee with? 30. What time did she enter her class?

him?

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PAGE 64


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Nigel Perkins Last week, Nigel Perkins flew to Monte Carlo with his wife to visit their son, Ronny. Nigel and his wife go to Monte Carlo two or three times every year between November and March because Ronny is too busy the other half of the year to be with them. They drove to Gatwick Airport on Wednesday morning and left the car at the airport parking lot.They had first class reservations for the two-hour flight.The plane left Gatwick on time at 11:15 and got to Monte Carlo ten minutes early, at five minutes past one. Nigel and his wife weren’t expecting to meet Ronny at the airport, so they caught a taxi and went to his apartment near the port. They were surprised to find that their son wasn’t at home. Nigel didn’t have a key to the apartment, so he and his wife spent some time looking at the shop windows along the street. After 20 minutes, they went back to the apartment building and tried again. Ronny still wasn’t there. The temperature was around 15 degrees and Nigel’s wife felt a little

cold.They decided to go to a small bookshop about 300 meters from Ronny’s apartment building. Nigel likes to spend time in bookshops, but his wife, Margaret, doesn’t, so Nigel asked permission to use the telephone and called Ronny’s mobile number. Ronny was in a meeting with a tour operator not far

from the bookshop. He said he was sorry and told Nigel that the porter in his apartment building had a key to his apartment. Nigel and Margaret walked back to the building, called the porter, and asked for the key. Ronny arrived two hours later.

1. What city did Nigel fly to last week?

17. Were they expecting to meet Ronny at

30. What was Margaret’s problem?

2. Who did he go with?

the airport?

3. Who did they go to Monte Carlo to visit?

18. Did they catch a bus or a taxi?

4. How often do they fly to Monte Carlo?

19. Did they go to Ronny’s office or to his

5. In what period of the year do they go there?

apartment?

6. Why don’t they go there in the summer?

20. Where is the apartment?

7. What airport did they leave from?

21. Was Ronny at home when they got there?

8.

22. What was their reaction to this?

Did they drive to the airport or take a taxi?

9. What day did they fly to Monte Carlo?

23. Did they go up to the apartment?

10. Where did they leave their car?

24. Why didn’t they go up to the apartment?

11. What kind of reservations did they have

25. What did they do?

on the flight? 12. Did the plane leave late or on time?

26. How much time did they spend looking at the shops?

13. What time did it leave?

27. What did they do then?

14. Did it get to Monte Carlo early or late?

28. Was Ronny there the second time?

15. What time did the flight arrive?

29. How was the weather that day in Monte

16. Who met them at the airport?

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31. Where did they decide to go? 32. How far was the bookshop from Ronny’s apartment? 33. How do Nigel and Margaret feel about bookshops? 34. What did Nigel ask permission to do in the bookshop? 35. What telephone number did he call? 36. Where was Ronny? 37. Who was he in a meeting with? 38. What did he tell Nigel concerning the porter? 39. What did Nigel and his wife do after talking to Ronny? 40. When did Ronny get home?

Carlo?

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PAGE 65


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Natasha Zarakovich Last night Natasha had a big surprise. Yesterday was her birthday and she thought that nobody at the laboratory knew. She didn’t want to tell them because Russian people always bring a lot of food to the office to celebrate and Natasha was on a strict diet. But she didn’t remember that her boss, Gregori, was going out a lot with one of her best friends, Karina. Gregori and Karina had lunch together yesterday and Karina told him that it was Natasha’s birthday. At 4:20, ten minutes before Natasha was planning to go to the national library, as she does every day, Gregori called her on the phone and asked her to help him with a report he was trying to get finished before 5:30. She thought this was strange, because Gregori doesn’t usually ask her to work late. At 4:30, she went to his office on the third floor. When she got there, there were 10 people with cakes and tea waiting to celebrate her birthday. They stayed in the office, having a good time, until 7:00 p.m. Then Gregori invited all of them to a nightclub in the center of Moscow where there was good

vodka and a gypsy group that played folk music. They stayed at the nightclub, eating, drinking and dancing until 10:30. Natasha got home at 11:00. She talked to her mother for

a few minutes and then went to bed, because she had to get up early this morning to go to the laboratory. She was glad that today was Friday.

1. What kind of surprise did Natasha have

11. What time did Gregori call her?

23. Did they have a good time?

12. What did he ask her to help him with?

24. Where did Gregori invite them?

13. When did he say he wanted to finish the

25. Where was the nightclub?

last night? 2. What was special for Natasha yesterday? 3. What did she think concerning the people at the lab? 4. Did she want to tell them about her birthday?

report? 14. Did Natasha think this was normal or strange? 15. Why did she think this was strange?

26. Was there good vodka or good brandy at the club? 27. What kind of music did the gypsy group play?

5. Why didn’t she want to tell them?

16. Where did she go at 4:30?

28. What did they do at the nightclub?

6. Why didn’t she want to eat a lot of food?

17. Where is Gregori’s office?

29. What time did they leave the nightclub?

7. What didn’t she remember about her

18. How many people were there when she

30. What time did Natasha go home?

boss, Gregori?

got there?

31. What did she do before she went to bed?

19. Were they waiting for her or for Gregori?

32. How long did she talk to her mother?

9. What did Karina tell him?

20. What did they want to celebrate?

33. Did she have to get up early or late this

10. What time was Natasha planning to go to

21. What did they have waiting for her?

8.

What did Gregori and Karina do yesterday?

the library?

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22. How long did they stay in the office?

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morning? 34. What was she glad about this morning?

PAGE 66


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Inés García Yesterday, Inés García had a traffic accident. It happened at about 5:45 p.m. when she was driving to the University of Seville for her evening course in Business Management and Finance. The accident was her fault. She was driving her car, a Ford Puma, through the narrow streets in the center of Seville. At the same time, she was a talking with Paco, her boyfriend, on her mobile telephone. She was listening to her boyfriend and didn’t notice a stop sign in front of her. She ran the stop sign and another car hit her on the passenger side. Fortunately, it was a small car too, an Opel Corsa, and, as a result, the accident wasn’t serious. Inés cut her phone conversation and got out of the car. She went to the other car to speak to the driver. She was happy to see that the other driver was a young man, probably the same age as Inés. When he got out of his car, he smiled and said hello in Spanish but with a French accent. Inés simply looked at him and didn’t

say anything. He was tall and very attractive. He seemed like a very pleasant person. Inés usually talks a lot, but this time she didn’t know what to say.The young man asked her if she had her car papers. Inés went back to her car and got the papers.They finished the

1. What happened to Inés yesterday?

17. What kind of car was it?

2. Did it happen in the morning?

18. What can you say about the accident?

31. Describe the man physically.

3. When did it happen?

19. Why wasn’t the accident serious?

32. Did he seem like a pleasant or unpleasant

4. Where was she going at the time?

20. What did Inés do regarding her phone

5. Why was she going to the University?

conversation?

paperwork in less than ten minutes. Then, the young Frenchman, whose name was François Monet, invited her to have a coffee in a coffee shop across the street. Inés accepted and disconnected her mobile telephone.

hello to her?

person? 33. Does Inés usually talk a lot or very little?

6. Whose fault was the accident?

21. Did she get out of her car or stay in it?

34. Did she talk a lot this time too?

7. What kind of car was she driving?

22. Did she go to the other car or stay next

35. Why didn’t she talk a lot?

8. What part of Seville was she driving through? 9. What can you say about the streets in that area? 10. What was she doing while she was driving?

to hers? 23. Why did she go to the other car? 24. Why was she happy when she saw the other driver?

11. Who was she talking to?

25. How old was the other driver?

12. What didn’t she notice in front of her?

26. Did the other driver smile when he got

13. Did she run the stop sign or did she stop in time? 14. Did she hit another car or did another

out of his car? 27. What did he say to Inés when he got out of his car?

36. What did the young man ask her? 37. Did Inés go back to her car or call her boyfriend? 38. What did she get from her car? 39. How long did it take them to finish the paperwork? 40. What was the young Frenchman’s name? 41. What did he invite her to have with him? 42. Where was the coffee shop?

28. Did he say hello in Spanish or in French?

43. Did Inés accept or reject the invitation?

15. Where did the other car hit her?

29. What kind of accent did he have?

44. What did she do concerning her mobile

16. Was the other car big or small?

30. What did Inés do when the man said

car hit her?

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telephone?

PAGE 67


SUDOKU INGLÉS 1

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 68


SUDOKU INGLÉS 2

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 69


SUDOKU INGLÉS 3

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 70


SUDOKU INGLÉS 4

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 71


SUDOKU INGLÉS 5

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 72


Vaughan

Most Common Irregular Verbs

S Y S T E M S

am, is, are

was, were

been

lead

led

led

become

became

become

leave

left

left

begin

began

begun

lend

lent

lent

blow

blew

blown

let

let

let

break

broke

broken

lose

lost

lost

bring

brought

brought

make

made

made

build

built

built

mean

meant

meant

buy

bought

bought

meet

met

met

catch

caught

caught

pay

paid

paid

choose

chose

chosen

put

put

put

come

came

come

quit

quit

quit

cost

cost

cost

read

read

read

cut

cut

cut

ring

rang

rung

deal with

dealt with

dealt with

rise

rose

risen

do

did

done

run

ran

run

drink

drank

drunk

see

saw

seen

drive

drove

driven

sell

sold

sold

eat

ate

eaten

send

sent

sent

fall

fell

fallen

set

set

set

feel

felt

felt

shut

shut

shut

fight

fought

fought

sit

sat

sat

find

found

found

sleep

slept

slept

fly

flew

flown

speak

spoke

spoken

forget

forgot

forgotten

spend

spent

spent

get

got

got/gotten

stand

stood

stood

give

gave

given

steal

stole

stolen

go

went

gone

take

took

taken

grow

grew

grown

teach

taught

taught

have

had

had

tell

told

told

hear

heard

heard

think

thought

thought

hold

held

held

throw

threw

thrown

hurt

hurt

hurt

understand

understood

understood

keep

kept

kept

wear

wore

worn

know

knew

known

win

won

won

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Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

There are many more important verbs not listed here, but these, barring an oversight, are the most commonly used.

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Hard “d” sound

“t” sound

“id” sound (additional syllable)

Agreed Allowed Answered Appeared Arrived Believed Belonged Called Carried Changed Cleaned Closed Continued Copied Covered Cried Died Earned Enjoyed Explained Followed Gained Happened Joined Listened to Lived Moved Offered Owned Planned Prepared Played Preferred Pulled Rained Raised Received Retired Saved Seemed Served Showed Smiled Snowed Stayed Studied Tried Used Worried

Asked Checked Cooked Crossed Danced Escaped Finished Helped Hoped Jumped Laughed Liked Looked Missed Noticed Parked Passed Picked Progressed Promised Pushed Reached Stopped Talked Walked Washed Watched Wished Worked

Accepted Acted Added Attended Attracted Avoided Contacted Counted Created Decided Depended on Divided Eliminated Existed Expanded Expected Hated Included Insisted Invented Invited Landed Lifted Lasted Needed Pointed Printed Rented Rested Shouted Started Treated Waited Wanted Wasted

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PAGE 74


Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

S Y S T E M S

The following list outlines some of the most common problems for Spanish speakers caused by direct translation.

SPANGLISH

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

To depend of something

To depend on something

To spend money in something

To spend money on something

To pay something

To pay for something

To buy to someone

To buy from someone

To work in something

To work on something

To focus in something

To focus on something

To know to do something

To know how to do something

To be related with something

To be related to something

To be committed with something

To be committed to something

Near of/from somewhere

Near somewhere

Close of/from somewhere

Close to somewhere

To be based in something

To be based on something

To be responsible of something

To be responsible for something

To be the guilty (I’m the guilty)

To be one’s fault (It’s my fault)

According with someone

According to someone

I must to study

I must study (NEVER to)

I can to swim

I can swim (NEVER to)

I will to go

I will go (NEVER to)

Tell to us

Tell us (NEVER to)

Ask to him

Ask him (NEVER to)

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PAGE 75


Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

Call to Mary

Call Mary (NEVER to)

I am agreed

I agree

Are you agreed?

Do you agree?

To explain you

To explain to you (ALWAYS to someone)

To listen me

To listen to me (ALWAYS to someone)

To listen it

To listen to it (ALWAYS to something)

To propose them

To propose to them (ALWAYS to someone)

An important problem

A big problem

The best important

The most important

The important is...

The important thing is...

To do a purchase

To make a purchase

To make a travel

To make/take a trip

To make a question

To ask a question

To make business

To do business

To make research

To do/carry out research

To take a drink/meal

To have a drink/meal

To arrive to an agreement

To come to/reach an agreement

To get an objective

To reach/achieve an objective

To have sense

To make sense

People is

People ARE

Persons

People

We are three

There are three of us

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PAGE 76


Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

Actually (= actualmente)

Currently/presently

Illusioned (= ilusionado)

Hopeful/excited

Really (= en realidad)

Actually

Impressing

Impressive

How curious! (= QuĂŠ curioso)

That’s funny/interesting

In a future

In the future

Question (= asunto)

Issue/matter

To discuss (= disputar)

To argue

May I take lent your pen?

May I borrow your pen?

To count a history

To tell a story

To assist to class

To attend class

To remember someone to do something

To remind someone to do something

The competence (= competencia)

The competition/competitors

Nothing of nothing

Nothing at all

Particular lessons

Private lessons

To learn English is funny

Learning English is fun

Customer fidelity

Customer loyalty

A familiar car

A family car

Tonight (= anoche)

Last night

This night (= esta noche)

Tonight

All the days

Everyday

All the day

All day (long)

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PAGE 77


Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

During 4 years

For 4 years

It’s for this reason that...

That’s why...

It’s the same

It doesn’t matter

the same than/that

The same as

different that

Different than

I have 21 years

I am 21 years old

10% of discount

A 10% discount

10 thousands of people

10 thousand people

1 thousand million (= 1,000 million)

1 billion [U.S.A.]

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PAGE 78


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