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VAUGHAN CL ASSROOM I ngl ésI nt ens i vopar ael Ver ano Pr i nc i pi ant e


Contents PAGE 02

Translation Booklet 1

PAGE 29

Vocabulary Booklet 1

PAGE 50

Presentations and Public Speaking

PAGE 57

Cloverdale’s Characters

PAGE 62

Sudoku Inglés

PAGE 67

Most Common Irregular Verbs

PAGE 68

Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs

PAGE 69

Common Errors by Spanish Speakers


Translation Booklet

1


LIST 1 - Possessive pronouns / adjectives (1)

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

¿Dónde está el mío?

Where’s mine?

2.

¿Quién tiene el de Pepe?

Who has Pepe’s?

3.

Los míos y los de él son muy parecidos.

Mine and his are very similar.

4.

Los nuestros no fueron elegidos.

Ours weren’t chosen.

5.

¿Por qué son más grandes los tuyos que los míos?

Why are yours bigger than mine?

6.

El de ellos es del mismo color que el de ella.

Theirs is the same color as hers.

7.

Los de Pepe no llegarán hasta finales de mes.

Pepe’s won’t arrive until the end of the month.

8.

Estos se parecen mucho a los de él.

These look a lot like his.

9.

¿De quién son estos?

Whose are these?

10.

¿De quiénes eran los que vi ayer?

Whose were the ones I saw yesterday?

11.

¿De quién es este libro?

Whose book is this?

12.

Antes era mío pero ahora es de Pepe.

It used to be mine but now it’s Pepe’s.

13.

El mío es el que está en el estante.

Mine is the one on the shelf.

14.

El de ellos es el azul.

Theirs is the blue one.

15.

El verde antes era mío.

The green one used to be mine.

16.

El de ella es el que está en el suelo.

Hers is the one on the floor.

17.

El tuyo se perdió.

Yours was lost.

18.

Los nuestros son mucho más brillantes que los de él.

Ours are much brighter than his.

19.

El de ella no llegó a tiempo para ser incluido.

Hers didn’t arrive in time to be included.

20.

¿Por qué fue excluido el nuestro?

Why was ours excluded? (Left out)

21.

El de ellos estaba encima del mío.

Theirs was on top of mine.

22.

El libro de María está al lado del tuyo.

Mary’s book is next to yours.

23.

El vuestro fue rechazado.

Yours was rejected.

24.

El de él fue aceptado.

His was accepted.

25.

París es famoso por su arte.

Paris is famous for its art.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 3


LIST 2 - Possessive pronouns / adjectives (2)

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Tu libro y el mío están hechos de un material parecido.

Your book and mine are made of a similar material.

2.

El nuestro ganó el primer premio.

Ours won first prize.

3.

El tuyo ni siquiera recibió un premio de consolación.

Yours didn’t even receive a consolation prize.

4.

Mi libro es mío y es para mí.

My book is mine and it’s for me.

5.

Tu libro es tuyo y es para ti.

Your book is yours and it’s for you.

6.

Su libro (de él) es suyo y es para él.

His book is his and it’s for him.

7.

Su libro (de ella) es suyo y es para ella.

Her book is hers and it’s for her.

8.

Nuestro libro es nuestro y es para nosotros.

Our book is ours and it’s for us.

9.

Vuestro libro es vuestro y es para vosotros.

Your book is yours and it’s for you.

10.

Su libro (de ellos) es suyo y es para ellos.

Their book is theirs and it’s for them.

11.

Mis libros son míos y son para mí.

My books are mine and they’re for me.

12.

Tus libros son tuyos y son para ti.

Your books are yours and they’re for you.

13.

Sus libros (de él) son suyos y son para él.

His books are his and they’re for him.

14.

Sus libros (de ella) son suyos y son para ella.

Her books are hers and they’re for her.

15.

Nuestros libros son nuestros y son para nosotros.

Our books are ours and they’re for us.

16.

Vuestros libros son vuestros y son para vosotros.

Your books are yours and they’re for you.

17.

Sus libros (de ellos) son suyos y son para ellos.

Their books are theirs and they’re for them.

18.

La casa de Pedro está cerca de la mía.

Peter’s house is near mine.

19.

Las llamadas de María son menos importantes que las tuyas.

Mary’s calls are less important than yours.

20.

El perro del Sr. Bruno ladra más que el nuestro.

Mr. Bruno’s dog barks more than ours.

21.

Dame el mío.

Give me mine.

22.

Dale (a él) el suyo.

Give him his.

23.

Dale (a ella) el suyo.

Give her hers.

24.

Danos el nuestro.

Give us ours.

25.

Dales el suyo.

Give them theirs.

c

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PAGE 4


Vaughan

LIST 3 - Pronouns in general (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Te daré el tuyo.

I’ll give you yours.

2.

Tengo el mío porque me pertenece a mí.

I have mine because it belongs to me.

3.

Tienes el tuyo porque te pertenece a ti.

You have yours because it belongs to you.

4.

Él tiene el suyo porque le pertenece a él.

He has his because it belongs to him.

5.

Ella tiene el suyo porque le pertenece a ella.

She has hers because it belongs to her.

6.

Tenemos el nuestro porque nos pertenece.

We have ours because it belongs to us.

7.

Tenéis el vuestro porque os pertenece.

You have yours because it belongs to you.

8.

Tienen el suyo porque les pertenece.

They have theirs because it belongs to them.

9.

Guardo mi libro donde guardas el tuyo.

I keep my book where you keep yours.

10.

Guardas tu libro donde guardamos el nuestro.

You keep your book where we keep ours.

11.

Él guarda su libro donde ella guarda el suyo.

He keeps his book where she keeps hers.

12.

Ella guarda su libro donde ellos guardan el suyo.

She keeps her book where they keep theirs.

13.

Guardamos nuestro libro donde él guarda el suyo.

We keep our book where he keeps his.

14.

Guardáis vuestro libro donde yo antes guardaba el mío.

You keep your book where I used to keep mine.

15.

Guardan su libro donde antes guardábamos el nuestro.

They keep their book where we used to keep ours.

16.

Me gusta el mío porque me ayuda.

I like mine because it helps me.

17.

Te gusta el tuyo porque te ayuda.

You like yours because it helps you.

18.

Le gusta (a él) el suyo porque le ayuda.

He likes his because it helps him.

19.

Le gusta (a ella) el suyo porque la ayuda.

She likes hers because it helps her.

20.

Nos gusta el nuestro porque nos ayuda.

We like ours because it helps us.

21.

Os gusta el vuestro porque os ayuda.

You like yours because it helps you.

22.

Les gusta el suyo porque les ayuda.

They like theirs because it helps them.

23.

Enséñame el tuyo.

Show me yours.

24.

Te enseñaré el mío.

I’ll show you mine.

25.

Enséñale (a él) el nuestro.

Show him ours.

c

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Vaughan

LIST 4 - Pronouns in general (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Enséñale (a ella) el de ellos.

Show her theirs.

2.

Enséñanos el de ella.

Show us hers.

3.

Os enseñaré el de él.

I’ll show you his.

4.

Enséñales el vuestro.

Show them yours.

5.

Dámelo si es mío.

Give it to me if it’s mine.

6.

Te lo daré si es tuyo.

I’ll give it to you if it’s yours.

7.

Dáselo (a él) si es suyo.

Give it to him if it’s his.

8.

Dáselo (a ella) si es suyo.

Give it to her if it’s hers.

9.

Dánoslo si es nuestro.

Give it to us if it’s ours.

10.

Os lo daré si es vuestro.

I’ll give it to you if it’s yours.

11.

Dáselo (a ellos) si es suyo.

Give it to them if it’s theirs.

12.

Ella me los dio porque eran míos.

She gave them to me because they were mine.

13.

Él te los dio porque eran tuyos.

He gave them to you because they were yours.

14.

Yo se los di (a él) porque eran suyos.

I gave them to him because they were his.

15.

Tú se los diste (a ella) porque eran suyos.

You gave them to her because they were hers.

16.

Se los dimos (a ellos) porque eran suyos.

We gave them to them because they were theirs.

17.

Ellos os los dieron porque eran vuestros.

They gave them to you because they were yours.

18.

Pídemelo.

Ask me for it.

19.

Pídeselo a él.

Ask him for it.

20.

Pídeselo a ella.

Ask her for it.

21.

Pídeselo a ellos.

Ask them for it.

22.

Te lo pediré.

I’ll ask you for it.

23.

Te los pediré.

I’ll ask you for them.

24.

Pídeselos a ella.

Ask her for them.

25.

Pídemelos a mí.

Ask me for them.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

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Vaughan

LIST 5 - Auxiliary verbs

S Y S T E M S

1.

No llueve mucho aquí.

It doesn’t rain much here.

2.

No vienen aquí a menudo.

They don’t come here often.

3.

No ocurrirá.

It won’t happen.

4.

¿Cuándo estarán aquí?

When will they be here?

5.

¿Cuándo estuvieron aquí?

When were they here?

6.

¿Cuántas veces han estado aquí?

How many times have they been here?

7.

¿Irías si pudieras pagarlo?

Would you go if you could afford it?

8.

¿Irás si puedes pagarlo?

Will you go if you can afford it?

9.

¿Habrías ido si hubieras podido pagarlo?

Would you have gone if you could’ve afforded it?

10.

No voy a ir porque no puedo pagarlo.

I’m not going to go because I can’t afford it.

11.

No fui porque no podía pagarlo.

I didn’t go because I couldn’t afford it.

12.

No iré porque no podré pagarlo.

I won’t go because I won’t be able to afford it.

13.

No iría aunque pudiera pagarlo.

I wouldn’t go even if I could afford it.

14.

¿Le viste ayer?

Did you see him yesterday?

15.

¿Le has visto hoy?

Have you seen him today?

16.

¿Le verás mañana?

Will you see him tomorrow?

17.

¿Le verías si tuvieras tiempo?

Would you see him if you had time?

18.

¿Le vas a ver más tarde?

Are you going to see him later?

19.

¿Tienes que verle?

Do you have to see him?

20.

¿No me dijiste que le ibas a ver?

Didn’t you tell me you were going to see him?

21.

¿Le habrías visto si hubiera estado aquí ayer?

Would you have seen him if he’d been here yesterday?

22.

No lo hice.

I didn’t do it.

23.

No lo hago.

I don’t do it.

24.

No lo estoy haciendo.

I’m not doing it.

25.

No lo haré.

I won’t do it.

c

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PAGE 7


LIST 6 - Comparatives & superlatives

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Soy más alto que tú.

I’m taller than you.

2.

No eres tan alto como yo.

You aren’t as tall as I am.

3.

Hay más camellos en Siria que aquí.

There are more camels in Syria than here.

4.

No hay tantos camellos aquí como en Siria.

There aren’t as many camels here as in Syria.

5.

Esto es mejor.

This is better.

6.

Esto es mucho mejor.

This is much better. (A lot better)

7.

Aquello no es tan bueno como esto.

That isn’t as good as this.

8.

¿Por qué fumas tanto?

Why do you smoke so much?

9.

¿Por qué fumas tanto como él?

Why do you smoke as much as he does?

10.

¿Por qué fumas tantos cigarros como él?

Why do you smoke as many cigarettes as he does?

11.

Tengo más tiempo que tú.

I have more time than you do.

12.

No tienes tanto tiempo como yo.

You don’t have as much time as I do.

13.

No sé por qué me enfadé tanto.

I don’t know why I got so angry.

14.

No me enfadé tanto como él.

I didn’t get as angry as he did.

15.

Eres más afortunado que yo.

You’re more fortunate than I am.

16.

No soy tan afortunado como tú.

I’m not as fortunate as you are.

17.

Hay más luz solar aquí que en Suecia.

There’s more sunlight here than in Sweden.

18.

No hay tanta luz solar en Suecia como aquí.

There isn’t as much sunlight in Sweden as here.

19.

No hay tanta gente en Suecia como aquí.

There aren’t as many people in Sweden as here.

20.

¡No hables tanto! Don’t talk so much!

Don’t talk so much!

21.

Hablas tanto que no sé qué hacer.

You talk so much that I don’t know what to do.

22.

Hablas tanto como tu padre.

You talk as much as your father (does).

23.

Incluso hablas más que mi tío.

You even talk more than my uncle (does).

24.

Pero no dices tantas tonterías como él.

But you don’t say as many stupid things as he does.

25.

Quiero tanto dinero como tú tienes.

I want as much money as you have.

c

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Vaughan

LIST 7 - There + to be

S Y S T E M S

1.

Hay un perro en esta casa.

There’s a dog in this house.

2.

Hay varias ideas interesantes.

There are several interesting ideas.

3.

Hay un bolígrafo en tu mesa (de trabajo).

There’s a pen on your desk.

4.

Hay mucha gente en la tienda.

There are a lot of people in the shop.

5.

¿Hay mucha gente fuera?

Are there many people outside?

6.

No hay muchos alumnos en esta clase.

There aren’t many students in this class.

7.

Hay agua en el suelo.

There’s some water on the floor.

8.

Hay gente en aquel restaurante.

There are some people in that restaurant.

9.

Hay uno aquí y otro allí.

There’s one here and another one over there.

10.

Hay un semáforo en esa esquina.

There’s a traffic light on that corner.

11.

Hay dos razones importantes.

There are two important reasons.

12.

¿Hay leche en esa botella?

Is there any milk in that bottle?

13.

No hay leche en esa botella.

There isn’t any milk in that bottle.

14.

Hay leche en esa botella.

There is some milk in that bottle.

15.

¿Hay japoneses en tu oficina?

Are there any Japanese people in your office?

16.

No hay japoneses en mi oficina.

There aren’t any Japanese people in my office.

17.

Hay japoneses en mi oficina.

There are some Japanese people in my office.

18.

¿Hay mucha tinta en la pluma?

Is there much ink in the pen?

19.

No hay mucha tinta en la pluma.

There isn’t much ink in the pen.

20.

Hay mucha tinta en la pluma.

There’s a lot of ink in the pen.

21.

¿Hay muchas oportunidades en tu país?

Are there many opportunities in your country?

22.

No hay muchas oportunidades en mi país.

There aren’t many opportunities in my country.

23.

Hay muchas oportunidades en mi país.

There are a lot of opportunities in my country.

24.

No hay camellos en este país.

There aren’t any camels in this country.

25.

No hay buenos profesores en este colegio.

There aren’t any good teachers in this school.

c

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PAGE 9


LIST 8 - Direct & indirect imperatives

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Dile que venga aquí.

Tell him to come here.

2.

Venga aquí por favor.

Come here please.

3.

Pídele que venga aquí.

Ask him to come here.

4.

¿Podría venir aquí por favor?

Could you come here please?

5.

¿Le importaría venir aquí por favor?

Would you mind coming here please?

6.

¿Quiere venir aquí por favor?

Would you come here please?

7.

Quiero que venga usted aquí.

I want you to come here.

8.

Le voy a decir (a él) que venga aquí.

I’m going to tell him to come here.

9.

Le dije que viniera aquí.

I told him to come here.

10.

Que venga aquí.

Have him come here.

11.

Llévame al hotel.

Take me to the hotel.

12.

Dile que te lleve al hotel.

Tell him to take you to the hotel.

13.

Que él te lleve al hotel.

Have him take you to the hotel.

14.

Pídele que te lleve al hotel.

Ask him to take you to the hotel.

15.

¿Te importaría llevarme al hotel?

Would you mind taking me to the hotel?

16.

¿Podrías llevarme al hotel?

Could you take me to the hotel?

17.

Quiero que me lleves al hotel.

I want you to take me to the hotel.

18.

Te dije que me llevaras al hotel.

I told you to take me to the hotel.

19.

Me gustaría que me llevaras al hotel.

I’d like you to take me to the hotel.

20.

Estoy buscando a alguien que me lleve al hotel.

I’m looking for someone to take me to the hotel

21.

Dile (a ella) que lo haga así.

Tell her to do it this way. (Like this)

22.

Hazlo así. Do it this way. (Like this)

Do it this way. (Like this)

23.

Pídele (a ella) que lo haga así.

Ask her to do it this way.

24.

¿Te importaría hacerlo así?

Would you mind doing it this way?

25.

¿Podrías hacerlo así por favor?

Could you do it this way please?

c

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Vaughan

LIST 9 - The accusative

S Y S T E M S

1.

Quiero que me escuches.

I want you to listen to me.

2.

Quieren que lo hagamos.

They want us to do it.

3.

Queremos que ella nos lo dé.

We want her to give it to us.

4.

Quisiera que me lo enseñaran.

I’d like them to show it to me.

5.

Quisiera que él estuviera incluido.

I’d like him to be included.

6.

Quiero que seas justo.

I want you to be fair.

7.

Quiero que se imprima ahora.

I want it to be printed now.

8.

Quiero que el informe esté listo para mañana.

I want the report to be ready for tomorrow.

9.

¿Qué quieres que haga?

What do you want me to do?

10.

¿Qué quieres que diga?

What do you want me to say?

11.

¿Cuál quieres que elija?

Which one do you want me to choose?

12.

¿Adónde quieres que vaya?

Where do you want me to go?

13.

¿Cuándo quieres que esté aquí?

When do you want me to be here?

14.

¿Cuántos quieres que traiga?

How many do you want me to bring?

15.

¿Con qué frecuencia quieres que la llame?

How often do you want me to call her?

16.

¿A qué hora quieres que estemos allí?

What time do you want us to be there?

17.

¿Dónde quieres que lo pongamos?

Where do you want us to put it?

18.

¿Por qué quieres que lo hagamos así?

Why do you want us to do it like this? (This way)

19.

¿Cuántas veces quieres que les visitemos?

How many times do you want us to visit them?

20.

¿Quieres que le llame?

Do you want me to call him?

21.

El jefe quiere que Pepe lo haga.

The boss wants Pepe to do it.

22.

El jefe quiere que todo el mundo asista.

The boss wants everyone to attend. (Everybody)

23.

Todo el mundo quiere que te quedes.

Everyone wants you to stay. (Everybody)

24.

Quiero que alguien me ayude.

I want someone to help me. (Somebody)

25.

Quiero que ellos lo entiendan también.

I want them to understand it too.

c

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PAGE 11


Vaughan

LIST 10 - To get (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

¿Dónde conseguiste ese libro?

Where did you get that book?

2.

¿Me puedes conseguir un empleo?

Can you get me a job?

3.

Vete a por tu libro.

Go and get your book.

4.

El teléfono está sonando… yo lo cogeré.

The telephone is ringing… I’ll get it.

5.

No te enfades.

Don’t get angry.

6.

No te disgustes.

Don’t get upset.

7.

No te pongas enfermo.

Don’t get sick.

8.

No te pongas triste.

Don’t get sad.

9.

No te cases.

Don’t get married.

10.

Me estoy cansando.

I’m getting tired.

11.

Me estoy aburriendo.

I’m getting bored.

12.

Estoy mejorando.

I’m getting better.

13.

Estoy empeorando.

I’m getting worse.

14.

Está oscureciendo.

It’s getting dark.

15.

No te asustes.

Don’t get frightened. (Scared)

16.

No te alarmes.

Don’t get alarmed.

17.

No te pongas nervioso.

Don’t get nervous.

18.

Necesitamos reunirnos.

We need to get together.

19.

Levántate.

Get up.

20.

Nos llevamos bien.

We get along.

21.

Llegué de regreso anoche.

I got back last night.

22.

Me confundí.

I got confused.

23.

Me lié con esos verbos.

I got mixed up with those verbs.

24.

No te harás rico trabajando para otros.

You won’t get rich working for others.

25.

No te emociones.

Don’t get excited.

c

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Vaughan

LIST 11 - To get (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

No dejes que ello te deprima.

Don’t let it get you down.

2.

Me pondré en contacto con él.

I’ll get in touch with him. (Get in contact with)

3.

Te acostumbrarás a mi estilo.

You’ll get used to my style.

4.

Me perdí.

I got lost.

5.

Larguémonos de aquí.

Let’s get out of here.

6.

Tardé dos meses en recuperarlo.

It took me two months to get it back.

7.

No estoy llegando a ninguna parte.

I’m not getting anywhere.

8.

Lo superé. (Un disgusto)

I got over it.

9.

Súbete al autobús.

Get on the bus.

10.

Bájate del autobús.

Get off the bus.

11.

Bájate del árbol.

Get down from the tree.

12.

Aléjate del humo.

Get away from the smoke.

13.

Él no sabe transmitir sus ideas.

He doesn’t know how to get his ideas across.

14.

Me las apaño.

I get by.

15.

Sal del coche.

Get out of the car.

16.

Métete en el coche.

Get into the car.

17.

Cuando llegues allí, llámame.

When you get there, call me.

18.

¿A qué hora llegaste a casa?

What time did you get home?

19.

Recibí más de 20 cartas ayer.

I got more than 20 letters yesterday.

20.

Él siempre se sale con la suya.

He always gets his way.

21.

Pongámonos en marcha.

Let’s get going.

22.

Vaya al grano.

Get to the point.

23.

Hay maneras de burlar la ley.

There are ways to get round the law.

24.

¡Quítate de en medio!

Get out of the way!

25.

No me malinterpretes.

Don’t get me wrong.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 13


LIST 12 - Too / Too much-many / Enough

Vaughan

1.

El inglés es demasiado difícil para mí.

English is too difficult for me.

2.

Es demasiado complicado.

It’s too complicated.

3.

Tiene demasiadas preposiciones.

It has too many prepositions.

4.

Tiene demasiada gramática compleja.

It has too much complex grammar.

5.

Fumas demasiado.

You smoke too much.

6.

Fumas demasiados puros.

You smoke too many cigars.

7.

¿Por qué fumas tanto?

Why do you smoke so much?

8.

El techo es demasiado alto para tocarlo.

The ceiling is too high to touch.

9.

No soy lo suficientemente alto.

I’m not tall enough.

10.

Soy demasiado bajo.

I’m too short.

11.

El techo no es lo suficientemente bajo.

The ceiling isn’t low enough.

12.

El agua está demasiado fría para beberla.

The water’s too cold to drink.

13.

Es demasiado caro.

It’s too expensive.

14.

No tengo suficiente dinero para comprarlo.

I don’t have enough money to buy it.

15.

No soy lo suficientemente rico para comprarlo.

I’m not rich enough to buy it.

16.

No es lo suficientemente barato.

It’s not cheap enough.

17.

Es demasiado pesado para llevarlo.

It’s too heavy to carry.

18.

No soy lo suficientemente fuerte para llevarlo.

I’m not strong enough to carry it.

19.

Soy demasiado débil.

I’m too weak.

20.

Está demasiado lejos para leerlo.

It’s too far away to read.

21.

No está lo suficientemente cerca para leerlo.

It’s not close enough to read.

22.

Ahora está demasiado cerca.

Now it’s too close.

23.

Ahora está lo suficientemente cerca.

Now it’s close enough.

24.

No tengo suficiente tiempo.

I don’t have enough time.

25.

No hay suficientes sillas.

There aren’t enough chairs.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

S Y S T E M S

PAGE 14


LIST 13 - Countables & uncountables

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

No hay agua en el vaso.

There isn’t any water in the glass.

2.

Hay agua en el vaso.

There’s some water in the glass.

3.

Hay un perro en esta casa.

There’s a dog in this house.

4.

No hay ningún perro en esta casa.

There isn’t a dog in this house.

5.

No hay perros en esta casa.

There aren’t any dogs in this house.

6.

¿Tienes hijos?

Do you have any children?

7.

Estamos teniendo problemas.

We’re having some problems.

8.

No recibí cartas ayer.

I didn’t get any letters yesterday.

9.

No hay gente allí.

There aren’t any people there.

10.

Hay gente allí.

There are some people there.

11.

¿Hay mujeres en la Marina?

Are there any women in the navy?

12.

¿Hay tigres en Rusia?

Are there any tigers in Russia?

13.

¿Hay correo para mí?

Is there any mail for me?

14.

No ha habido incendios forestales este verano.

There haven’t been any forest fires this summer.

15.

Dame agua.

Give me some water.

16.

No me des agua.

Don’t give me any water.

17.

Necesito sal.

I need some salt.

18.

¿Hay manera de convencerles?

Is there any way to convince them?

19.

Tengo monedas.

I have some coins.

20.

No tengo monedas.

I don’t have any coins.

21.

¿Tienes monedas?

Do you have any coins?

22.

No tengo ni idea.

I have no idea.

23.

No tengo ningún abrigo.

I don’t have a coat.

24.

No tengo ningún libro.

I don’t have a book.

25.

No tengo libros

I don’t have any books.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 15


LIST 14 - Irregular verbs (past forms)

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Ganaron la apuesta pero no ganaron el concurso.

They won the bet but they didn’t win the contest.

2.

Le dejé hacerlo pero no le dejé verla.

I let him do it but I didn’t let him see her.

3.

La empresa creció pero no creció rápidamente.

The company grew but it didn’t grow quickly.

4.

Fui a la tienda pero no fui al parque.

I went to the shop but I didn’t go to the park.

5.

Leí la carta pero no leí el informe.

I read the letter but I didn’t read the report.

6.

Vendí el coche pero no vendí la casa.

I sold the car but I didn’t sell the house.

7.

Envié la carta pero no envié las fotos.

I sent the letter but I didn’t send the pictures.

8.

Robé los cuadros pero no robé las joyas.

I stole the pictures but I didn’t steal the jewels.

9.

Enseñé el alfabeto pero no enseñé los números.

I taught the alphabet but I didn’t teach the numbers.

10.

La llevé al museo pero no la llevé al palacio.

I took her to the museum but I didn’t take her to the palace.

11.

Dormí en mi casa pero no dormí en mi cama.

I slept at home but I didn’t sleep in my bed.

12.

Olvidé el libro pero no olvidé los papeles.

I forgot the book but I didn’t forget the papers.

13.

Conocía el problema pero no sabía la solución.

I knew the problem but I didn’t know the solution.

14.

Oí el final pero no oí el principio.

I heard the end but I didn’t hear the beginning.

15.

Tenía el libro pero no tenía el bolígrafo.

I had the book but I didn’t have the pen.

16.

Compré la comida pero no compré las bebidas.

I bought the food but I didn’t buy the drinks.

17.

Elegí el rojo pero no elegí el azul.

I chose the red one but I didn’t choose the blue one.

18.

Lo hice esta mañana pero no lo hice ayer.

I did it this morning but I didn’t do it yesterday.

19.

Vine en coche pero no vine solo.

I came by car but I didn’t come alone.

20.

Me sentía raro pero no me sentía mal.

I felt strange but I didn’t feel bad.

21.

Volé a Roma pero no volé a París.

I flew to Rome but I didn’t fly to Paris.

22.

Rompí el vaso pero no rompí la botella.

I broke the glass but I didn’t break the bottle.

23.

Conduje el coche pero no conduje el tractor.

I drove the car but I didn’t drive the tractor.

24.

Bebí del vaso pero no bebí de la botella.

I drank from the glass but I didn’t drink from the bottle.

25.

Lo comí todo pero no lo comí rápidamente.

I ate it all but I didn’t eat it quickly.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 16


LIST 15 - Irregular verbs (participles)

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Él ha hecho cosas que yo no hice de joven.

He’s done things I didn’t do when I was young.

2.

Yo lo vi pero ella no lo ha visto todavía.

I saw it but she hasn’t seen it yet.

3.

Él siempre gana pero yo nunca he ganado.

He always wins but I’ve never won.

4.

Nunca la he dejado hacer lo que quiere.

I’ve never let her do what she wants.

5.

No hemos crecido tanto como crecimos en mayo.

We haven’t grown as much as we grew in May.

6.

Ha sido más fácil hoy de lo que fue ayer.

It’s been easier today than it was yesterday.

7.

Leí el informe pero no he leído los anexos.

I read the report but I haven’t read the appendices.

8.

Vendí el coche pero aún no he vendido la casa.

I sold the car but I haven’t sold the house yet.

9.

Envié la carta pero aún no he enviado las fotos.

I sent the letter but I haven’t sent the pictures yet.

10.

No lo han robado.

They haven’t stolen it.

11.

No te he enseñado el condicional todavía.

I haven’t taught you the conditional yet.

12.

La llevé a lugares adonde nunca te he llevado.

I took her to places where I’ve never taken you.

13.

Durmieron en sitios donde nunca he dormido.

They slept in places where I’ve never slept.

14.

¿Se te ha olvidado algo?

Have you forgotten anything?

15.

La conozco desde hace mucho tiempo.

I’ve known her for a long time.

16.

Nunca he oído chistes como los que oíste ayer.

I’ve never heard jokes like the ones you heard yesterday.

17.

No he tenido mucho tiempo.

I haven’t had much time.

18.

Hemos comprado muchas cosas últimamente.

We’ve bought a lot of things lately.

19.

Hemos elegido quedarnos aquí.

We’ve chosen to stay here.

20.

He venido para resolver la situación.

I’ve come to solve the situation.

21.

Nunca me he sentido así.

I’ve never felt this way.

22.

Nunca he volado en un jumbo.

I’ve never flown in a jumbo jet.

23.

Nadie ha batido esa marca.

No one has broken that record.

24.

No he conducido el coche que condujiste ayer.

I haven’t driven the car you drove yesterday.

25.

Ya he bebido más de lo que bebí anoche.

I’ve already drunk more than I drank last night.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 17


Vaughan

LIST 16 - Negative questions

S Y S T E M S

1.

¿Por qué no está hecho de madera?

Why isn’t it made of wood?

2.

¿Por qué no están aquí?

Why aren’t they here?

3.

¿Por qué no está ella contigo?

Why isn’t she with you?

4.

¿Por qué no está él trabajando?

Why isn’t he working?

5.

¿Por qué no somos los número uno?

Why aren’t we number one?

6.

¿Por qué no estuviste allí?

Why weren’t you there?

7.

¿Por qué no fue más fácil?

Why wasn’t it easier?

8.

¿Por qué no estaba donde yo lo puse?

Why wasn’t it where I put it?

9.

¿Por qué no estaba él listo?

Why wasn’t he ready?

10.

¿Por qué no estaban aquí cuando llegué?

Why weren’t they here when I arrived?

11.

¿Por qué no estábamos incluidos?

Why weren’t we included?

12.

¿Por qué no fueron invitados?

Why don’t you come more often?

13.

¿Por qué no hay más vino?

Why weren’t they invited?

14.

¿Por qué no hay chicas en esta fiesta?

Why isn’t there more wine?

15.

¿Por qué no había un comité de control?

Why aren’t there any girls at this party?

16.

¿Por qué no había regalos para los obreros?

Why wasn’t there a control committee?

17.

¿Por qué no vienes más a menudo?

Why weren’t there any gifts for the workers?

18.

¿Por qué no te llama ella?

Why doesn’t she call you?

19.

¿Por qué no llueve aquí?

Why doesn’t it rain here?

20.

¿Por qué no lo hace él mismo?

Why doesn’t he do it himself?

21.

¿Por qué no utilizan el sistema nuevo?

Why don’t they use the new system?

22.

¿Por qué no esperamos hasta mañana?

Why don’t we wait until tomorrow?

23.

¿Por qué no funciona?

Why doesn’t it work?

24.

¿Por qué no fuiste?

Why didn’t you go?

25.

¿Por qué no nos llamaron?

Why didn’t they call us?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 18


LIST 17 - Verbs with & without “like”

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Te pareces a tu padre.

You look like your father.

2.

Pareces cansado.

You look tired.

3.

No sé cómo eres.

I don’t know what you’re like.

4.

¿Qué aspecto tiene él?

What does he look like?

5.

Huele a humo.

It smells like smoke.

6.

Parece que vamos a tener un problema.

It looks (seems) like we’re going to have a problem.

7.

Parece que va a llover.

It looks like it’s going to rain.

8.

Tu idea parece interesante.

Your idea sounds interesting.

9.

¿Cómo es ella?

What’s she like?

10.

¿Qué aspecto tiene ella?

What does she look like?

11.

Trabajo como profesor.

I work as a teacher.

12.

Trabajo como un esclavo.

I work like a slave.

13.

¿A qué sabe?

What does it taste like?

14.

Sabe a fresas.

It tastes like strawberries.

15.

Os parecéis mucho.

You look a lot alike.

16.

Hazlo así.

Do it like this.

17.

Dicen que me parezco a ti.

They say I look like you.

18.

Te estás comportando como un niño.

You’re acting like a child. (Behaving)

19.

Hablas como un loro.

You talk like a parrot.

20.

Os hablo como miembro del comité ejecutivo.

I’m speaking to you as a member of the executive committee.

21.

Parece importante. (Lo que se ha dicho.)

It sounds important.

22.

Parece un tema importante.

It sounds like an important subject.

23.

Huele bien. It smells good.

It smells good.

24.

Huele a coliflor.

It smells like cauliflower.

25.

¿Cómo es trabajar con ella?

What’s it like working with her?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 19


LIST 18 - Affirmative / Negative / Interrogative

Vaughan

1.

Estoy listo.

I’m ready.

2.

No estoy listo.

I’m not ready.

3.

¿Estás listo?

Are you ready?

4.

Están enfadados.

They’re angry.

5.

No están enfadados.

They’re not angry. (They aren’t angry.)

6.

¿Están enfadados?

Are they angry?

7.

¿Está él contigo?

Is he with you?

8.

Hay gente allí.

There are some people there.

9.

No hay gente allí.

There aren’t any people there.

10.

¿Hay gente allí?

Are there any people there?

11.

Tú estabas con ellos.

You were with them.

12.

¿Estabas con ellos?

Were you with them?

13.

¿Estaba lloviendo cuando saliste?

Was it raining when you left?

14.

¿Tu hermano fuma?

Does your brother smoke?

15.

¿No sabe tu mujer conducir?

Doesn’t your wife know how to drive?

16.

Él sabe bastante acerca de nosotros.

He knows quite a lot about us.

17.

Ella no viene por aquí muy a menudo.

She doesn’t come here very often.

18.

No sé hacerlo.

I don’t know how to do it.

19.

Forman un buen equipo.

They form a good team.

20.

¿No le conoces?

Don’t you know him?

21.

No lo haré a no ser que me apoyes.

I won’t do it unless you support me.

22.

Estarán aquí dentro de unos minutos.

They’ll be here in a few minutes.

23.

¿Cuándo llegarán aquí?

When will they get here?

24.

Ella no tardó mucho.

It didn’t take her long.

25.

Llegaron sanos y salvos.

They arrived safe and sound.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

S Y S T E M S

PAGE 20


Vaughan

LIST 19 - Make / Do

S Y S T E M S

1.

Haz algo.

Do something.

2.

Hazme una oferta.

Make me an offer.

3.

Haz el trabajo.

Do the job.

4.

Haz lo que quieras.

Do whatever you want.

5.

Hazme una promesa.

Make me a promise.

6.

Haz el crucigrama.

Do the crossword puzzle.

7.

Hazme un favor.

Do me a favor.

8.

Haz la cama.

Make the bed.

9.

Haz una presentación.

Make a presentation.

10.

Hazlo lo mejor que puedas.

Do the best you can. (b)

11.

Hago negocios con ellos.

I do business with them.

12.

Vamos a hacer unos cambios.

We’re going to make some changes.

13.

¿Tengo que hacer un discurso?

Do I have to make a speech? (También “give”)

14.

¿Quién va a hacer la compra?

Who’s going to do the shopping?

15.

¿Cómo te ganas la vida?

How do you make a living?

16.

Haz una lista de lo que tienes que hacer.

Make a list of what you have to do.

17.

Tengo que hacer una llamada.

I have to make a phone call.

18.

No cometo errores.

I don’t make mistakes.

19.

Haz un esfuerzo.

Make an effort.

20.

No crees problemas.

Don’t make problems.

21.

Haces mal uso de tu tiempo.

You make poor use of your time.

22.

¿Quién va a hacer la cena?

Who’s going to make dinner?

23.

Asegúrate de que están comiendo.

Make sure they’re eating.

24.

Tienes que causar una buena impresión.

You have to make a good impression.

25.

¿Puedo hacer una petición?

Can I make a request?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 21


Vaughan

LIST 20 - Indirect & reported speech

S Y S T E M S

1.

Dile que venga.

Tell him to come.

2.

Ella quiere que vayas.

She wants you to go.

3.

Dile que quiero que venga aquí.

Tell him I want him to come here.

4.

Ella me dijo que quería que fueras allí.

She told me she wanted you to go there.

5.

Me gusta escucharte hablar.

I like listening to you talk.

6.

Él me dijo que le gustaba escucharte hablar.

He told me he liked listening to you talk.

7.

No iré a menos que me acompañes.

I won’t go unless you come with me.

8.

Él me dijo que no iría a menos que le acompañaras.

He told me he wouldn’t go unless you went with him.

9.

Esto está bien.

This is fine.

10.

Ella me dijo que estaba bien.

She told me it was fine.

11.

Lo voy a hacer.

I’m going to do it.

12.

Él me dijo que lo iba a hacer.

He told me he was going to do it.

13.

No hay nadie esperándonos.

There isn’t anyone waiting for us.

14.

Me dijeron que no había nadie esperándonos.

They told me there wasn’t anyone waiting for us.

15.

Va a haber una fiesta esta noche.

There’s going to be a party tonight.

16.

Él me dijo que iba a haber una fiesta esta noche.

He told me there was going to be a party tonight.

17.

Me dijeron que ibas a mandarme un cheque.

They told me you were going to send me a check.

18.

Creo que va a llover.

I think it’s going to rain.

19.

¿No dijiste que iba a llover?

Didn’t you say it was going to rain?

20.

Quiero que lo traigas mañana.

I want you to bring it tomorrow.

21.

Él me pidió que lo trajera mañana.

He asked me to bring it tomorrow.

22.

Ya se ha hecho.

It’s already been done.

23.

Alguien me dijo que ya se había hecho.

Someone told me it had already been done.

24.

Trabajo en un almacén.

I work in a warehouse.

25.

¿No dijiste que trabajabas en un almacén?

Didn’t you say you worked in a warehouse?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 22


Vaughan

LIST 21 - Say & tell

S Y S T E M S

1.

Di tu nombre.

Say your name.

2.

Dime tu nombre.

Tell me your name.

3.

No dijeron nada.

They didn’t say anything.

4.

No nos dijeron nada.

They didn’t tell us anything.

5.

¿Cuándo vas a decirlo?

When are you going to say it?

6.

¿Cuándo vas a decírselo (a ellos)?

When are you going to tell them?

7.

¿Qué dice la gente?

What are people saying?

8.

¿Qué le vas a decir a la gente?

What are you going to tell people?

9.

Di lo que quieras.

Say whatever you want.

10.

No distingo la diferencia entre ellos.

I can’t tell the difference between them.

11.

Cuenta un chiste.

Tell a joke.

12.

Di la verdad.

Tell the truth.

13.

Dime la verdad.

Tell me the truth.

14.

¿Qué han dicho?

What did they say? (Se usa el pasado en inglés.)

15.

¿Qué te han dicho?

What did they tell you?

16.

¡No me digas!

You don’t say!

17.

Hay un dicho en inglés que dice lo mismo.

There’s a saying in English that says the same.

18.

Puedo ver en tus ojos que estás enfadada.

I can tell from your eyes that you’re angry.

19.

Los hombres siempre dicen mentiras.

Men always tell lies.

20.

Nunca he dicho una mentira.

I’ve never told a lie.

21.

Nunca he dicho nada malo acerca de él.

I’ve never said anything bad about him.

22.

Ella me dio los buenos días.

She said good morning to me.

23.

¡Hazlo porque lo digo yo!

Do it because I say so!

24.

Di la palabra mágica.

Say the magic word.

25.

Dinos lo que pasó.

Tell us what happened.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 23


Vaughan

LIST 22 - Miscellaneous sentences

S Y S T E M S

1.

Ella está con él.

She’s with him.

2.

Él está con ella.

He’s with her.

3.

Estás conmigo.

You’re with me.

4.

Estoy contigo.

I’m with you.

5.

¿Cuál es su nombre? (de él)

What’s his name?

6.

¿Dónde está su vestido? (de ella)

Where’s her dress?

7.

¿Con quién estás?

Who are you with?

8.

Mi hermano está en aquella habitación.

My brother is in that room.

9.

Soy una persona alta.

I’m a tall person.

10.

Mi trabajo es muy interesante.

My job is very interesting.

11.

Su trabajo (de ella) es aburrido.

Her job is boring.

12.

¿Es importante este informe?

Is this report important?

13.

Estoy contento con tu progreso.

I’m happy with your progress.

14.

Esto no es mi informe.

This isn’t my report.

15.

Esta no es la única solución.

This isn’t the only solution.

16.

Aquél no es tu coche.

That isn’t your car.

17.

¿Es de París tu mujer?

Is your wife from Paris?

18.

¿De dónde es entonces?

Where is she from then?

19.

Tu solución es muy cara.

Your solution is very expensive.

20.

No es la única solución.

It’s not the only solution.

21.

¿Es grande tu compañía?

Is your company big?

22.

Mi jefe está loco.

My boss is crazy.

23.

Su mujer está loca también.

His wife is crazy too.

24.

¿Es difícil esto?

Is this difficult?

25.

Esta no es mi dirección.

This isn’t my address.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 24


Vaughan

LIST 23 - Miscellaneous sentences

S Y S T E M S

1.

Están en aquella habitación.

They’re in that room.

2.

Están listos.

They’re ready.

3.

Mis hijos están en el colegio.

My children are at school.

4.

¿Dónde están?

Where are they?

5.

¿Quiénes son Uds.?

Who are you?

6.

¿Quiénes son ellos?

Who are they?

7.

¿De dónde son?

Where are they from?

8.

¿Por qué están aquí?

Why are they here?

9.

Estas sillas son cómodas.

These chairs are comfortable.

10.

Aquellas mesas son nuevas.

Those tables are new.

11.

Tus ideas son interesantes.

Your ideas are interesting.

12.

Tus padres son aburridos.

Your parents are boring.

13.

Estas listas son útiles.

These lists are useful.

14.

Tus respuestas son correctas.

Your answers are correct.

15.

Mis planes no son definitivos.

My plans aren’t final.

16.

Estas cifras son erróneas.

These figures are wrong.

17.

Estás equivocado.

You’re wrong.

18.

Tienes razón.

You’re right.

19.

¿Qué son estos?

What are these?

20.

¿Qué son aquellos?

What are those?

21.

Estos son fáciles.

These are easy.

22.

Aquellos son difíciles.

Those are difficult.

23.

Están conmigo.

They’re with me.

24.

No están en el ejército.

They aren’t in the army.

25.

¿Dónde están entonces?

Where are they then?

c

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Vaughan

LIST 24 - Miscellaneous sentences

S Y S T E M S

1.

Este libro es mío.

This book is mine.

2.

Aquella silla es tuya.

That chair is yours.

3.

Estos bolígrafos son de él.

These pens are his.

4.

Aquellas flores son de ella.

Those flowers are hers.

5.

Este coche es nuestro.

This car is ours.

6.

Aquella revista no es vuestra.

That magazine isn’t yours.

7.

Estos periódicos son de ellos.

These newspapers are theirs.

8.

El mío y el tuyo son iguales.

Yours and mine are the same.

9.

El tuyo está al lado del mío.

Yours is next to mine.

10.

El de él es caro también.

His is expensive too.

11.

El mío es bastante barato.

Mine is quite cheap.

12.

Soy una persona callada.

I’m a quiet person.

13.

Mis padres son del mismo país que los tuyos.

My parents are from the same country as yours.

14.

¿Dónde está el mío?

Where’s mine?

15.

Estos no son de ellos.

These aren't theirs.

16.

Los de ellos son los azules.

Theirs are the blue ones.

17.

Los míos están en el rincón.

Mine are in the corner.

18.

Los tuyos están allí.

Yours are over there.

19.

Los de ella están detrás de los tuyos.

Hers are behind yours.

20.

Los de él están delante de los míos.

His are in front of mine.

21.

Los nuestros son los caros.

Ours are the expensive ones.

22.

Los de ella son los baratos.

Hers are the cheap ones.

23.

¿Cuáles son los tuyos, éstos o aquellos?

Which ones are yours, these or those?

24.

¿Cuál es el tuyo, éste o aquél?

Which one is yours, this one or that one?

25.

¿Dónde están los de ella?

Where are hers?

c

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PAGE 26


Vaughan

LIST 25 - Miscellaneous sentences

S Y S T E M S

1.

¿A dónde vas los sábados?

Where do you go on Saturdays?

2.

¿Sabe ella dónde estás?

Does she know where you are?

3.

¿Tiene ella tu dirección?

Does she have your address?

4.

¿Se acuerda ella del incidente?

Does she remember the incident?

5.

¿Ella te quiere?

Does she love you?

6.

¿Cocina bien?

Does she cook well?

7.

¿Dónde vive?

Where does she live?

8.

¿Por qué te llama tan tarde?

Why does she call you so late?

9.

¿Por qué te habla en inglés?

Why does she speak to you in English?

10.

¿Dónde pasa los fines de semana?

Where does she spend her weekends?

11.

¿Sabe ella quien soy?

Does she know who I am?

12.

¿Sabe donde vivo?

Does she know where I live?

13.

¿Cuántos años tiene ella?

How old is she?

14.

¿Por qué me conoce?

Why does she know me?

15.

¿Trabaja en la misma empresa que tú?

Does she work in the same company as you?

16.

¿Conduce?

Does she drive?

17.

¿Tiene mucho dinero?

Does she have a lot of money?

18.

¿Por qué viene aquí tan a menudo?

Why does she come here so often?

19.

¿Le gustas?

Does she like you?

20.

¿Te gusta ella?

Do you like her?

21.

¿Con qué frecuencia la ves?

How often do you see her?

22.

¿A dónde la llevas los fines de semana?

Where do you take her on the weekends?

23.

¿Le gusta a ella ir a la playa?

Does she like to go to the beach?

24.

¿Vas a casarte con ella?

Are you going to marry her?

25.

¿A dónde vas a llevarla este fin de semana?

Where are you going to take her this weekend?

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Vaughan

LIST 26 - Miscellaneous sentences

S Y S T E M S

1.

Vamos a ir a un lugar lejos de aquí.

We’re going to go to a place far from here.

2.

Vamos a gastar todo nuestro dinero.

We’re going to spend all our money.

3.

Vamos a divertirnos.

We’re going to have a good time.

4.

No te vamos a escribir.

We’re not going to write to you.

5.

Vamos a quedarnos allí durante un mes.

We’re going to stay there for a month.

6.

¿Qué vas a hacer esta noche?

What are you going to do tonight?

7.

No voy a hacer nada.

I’m not going to do anything.

8.

¿Por qué no hacemos algo?

Why don’t we do something?

9.

¿Cómo qué?

Like what?

10.

Podemos ver una película.

We can see a movie.

11.

Podemos hacer muchas cosas.

We can do a lot of things.

12.

Puedes venir con nosotros si quieres.

You can come with us if you want.

13.

No puedo ir ahora.

I can’t go now.

14.

Tengo muchas cosas que hacer.

I have a lot of things to do.

15.

Puedes dejarlas para mañana.

You can leave them for tomorrow.

16.

Tengo que hacerlas hoy.

I have to do them today.

17.

Tengo que empezar de nuevo.

I have to start again.

18.

Voy a terminar esto pronto.

I’m going to finish this soon.

19.

Estoy cansado de hacer listas.

I’m tired of making lists.

20.

Quiero ir a casa.

I want to go home.

21.

Voy a buscar un trabajo estable.

I’m going to look for a stable job.

22.

Tengo que mantener a mi familia.

I have to support my family.

23.

Gastan mucho dinero.

They spend a lot of money.

24.

Hay muchas frases en este libro.

There are a lot of sentences in this book.

25.

¿Qué vas a hacer ahora?

What are you going to do now?

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Vocabulary Booklet

1


Vaughan

LIST 27 - Phrasal Verbs (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Mírale.

Look at him.

2.

Búscales.

Look for them.

3.

Cuídales.

Take care of them. (Look after them.)

4.

Si no recoges a Tom, yo lo recogeré.

If you don’t pick up Tom, I’ll pick him up.

5.

Si no pruebas la ropa, la probaré yo.

If you don’t try on the clothes, I’ll try them on.

6.

Si no te pones esa corbata, me la pondré yo.

If you don’t put on that tie, I’ll put it on.

7.

Si tú no investigas la cuestión, yo la investigaré.

If you don’t look into the matter, I’ll look into it.

8.

Si tú no sacas la basura, yo la sacaré.

If you don’t take out the garbage, I’ll take it out.

9.

Si tú no llamas a Jennifer, yo la llamaré.

If you don’t call up Jennifer, I’ll call her up.

10.

Si no recuperas la clase ahora, no podrás recuperarla.

If you don’t make up the class now, you won’t be able to make it up.

11.

Si no pones a Tom a prueba ahora, no podrás ponerle nunca.

If you don’t try out Tom now, you’ll never be able to try him out.

12.

Todo saldrá bien.

Everything will turn out fine.

13.

Todo saldrá bien.

Everything will work out fine.

14.

¿Cómo salió todo?

How did everything come out?

15.

No entres en el coche.

Don’t get into the car.

16.

No salgas del coche.

Don’t get out of the car.

17.

No subas al autobús.

Don’t get on the bus.

18.

No bajes del autobús.

Don’t get off the bus.

19.

No entres en el ascensor.

Don’t get into the elevator.

20.

No salgas del ascensor.

Don’t get out of the elevator.

21.

Habla más alto, por favor.

Speak up, please.

22.

Me quedaré con un cachorro y regalaré los otros.

I’ll keep one puppy and I’ll give away the others.

23.

Por favor… no los regales.

Please… don’t give them away.

24.

¡Ojo! ¡Cuidado!

Look out! (Watch out!)

25.

¡Cuidado con ese coche!

Look out for that car! (Watch out for that car!)

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Vaughan

LIST 28 - Phrasal Verbs (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Si no buscas la palabra en el diccionario, yo la buscaré.

If you don’t look up the word in the dictionary, I’ll look it up.

2.

No mires atrás.

Don’t look back.

3.

Un policía se me acercó.

A policeman came up to me.

4.

Se me acercó andando.

He walked up to me.

5.

Se me acercó corriendo.

He ran up to me.

6.

Me acerqué al policía.

I went up to the policeman.

7.

Le pedí un cigarro.

I asked him for a cigarette.

8.

Se lo pedí educadamente.

I asked him for it politely.

9.

Él sacó dos cigarros de su paquete.

He took two cigarettes out of his pack.

10.

Los sacó con su mano izquierda.

He took them out with his left hand.

11.

Apagó el cigarro que tenía en la boca.

He put out the cigarette he had in his mouth.

12.

Lo apagó con sus dedos.

He put it out with his fingers.

13.

Si no apagas el incendio, yo lo apagaré.

If you don’t put out the fire, I’ll put it out.

14.

Si no apagas la vela, yo la apagaré.

If you don’t blow out the candle, I’ll blow it out.

15.

Si no apagas la luz, yo la apagaré.

If you don’t turn off the light, I’ll turn it off. (Switch off)

16.

Si no enciendes la luz, yo la encenderé.

If you don’t turn on the light, I’ll turn it on. (Switch on)

17.

Si pones la radio, yo la apagaré.

If you turn on the radio, I’ll turn it off.

18.

Si no subes el volumen, yo lo subiré.

If you don’t turn up the volume, I’ll turn it up.

19.

Si no bajas el volumen, yo lo bajaré.

If you don’t turn down the volume, I’ll turn it down.

20.

El profesor no se presentó para la clase.

The teacher didn’t show up for the class. (Turn up)

21.

Escúchame.

Listen to me.

22.

Si no cancelas la reunión, yo la cancelaré.

If you don’t call off the meeting, I’ll call it off.

23.

Quítate el abrigo. Quítatelo ahora.

Take off your coat. Take it off now.

24.

Repasa el informe primero. Después lo repasaré yo.

Look over the report first. Then I’ll look it over.

25.

Pasemos a la lista siguiente.

Let’s go on to the next list.

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Vaughan

LIST 29 - Phrasal Verbs (3)

S Y S T E M S

1.

¿Quién le sustituyó?

Who took over for him?

2.

¿Cuándo despegó el avión?

When did the plane take off?

3.

Me encontré (casualmente) con Juan el otro día.

I ran into John the other day.

4.

Choqué contra un árbol.

I ran into a tree.

5.

Nos hemos quedado sin gasolina.

We’ve run out of gasoline. (Petrol)

6.

Se me ha acabado la paciencia.

I’ve run out of patience.

7.

Estamos sin dinero.

We’re out of money.

8.

Tendrás que inventar una historia.

You’ll have to make up a story.

9.

Si tú no aclaras este punto, yo lo aclararé.

If you don’t clear up this point, I’ll clear it up.

10.

Si tú no despiertas a la niña, yo la despertaré.

If you don’t wake up the little girl, I’ll wake her up.

11.

Déjame en esta esquina. (Van en coche.)

Let me off at this corner.

12.

Si defraudas a tu gente, me defraudarás a mí también.

If you let down your people, you’ll let me down too.

13.

Has omitido el punto 3.Yo lo omití también.

You left out point 3. I left it out too. (Se usa el pasado.)

14.

Salieron para Chile anoche.

They left for Chile last night.

15.

Atravesaron la barrera del sonido.

They broke through the sound barrier.

16.

Si no guardas tus juguetes, ¿quién los guardará?

If you don’t put away your toys, who will put them away?

17.

No te des por vencido.

Don’t give up.

18.

No des tu brazo a torcer.

Don’t give in.

19.

Si tú no distribuyes las notas, yo las distribuiré.

If you don’t give out the grades, I’ll give them out.

20.

Si tú no revisas el informe, yo lo revisaré.

If you don’t look over the report, I’ll look it over.

21.

Sé suficiente inglés para salir del paso.

I know enough English to get by.

22.

Me las apañaré.

I’ll get by.

23.

Llegué al hotel 10 minutos tarde.

I got to the hotel 10 minutes late.

24.

Si no superas la enfermedad hoy, la superarás pronto.

If you don’t get over the illness today, you’ll get over it soon.

25.

Aléjate del humo.

Get away from the smoke.

c

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PAGE 32


Vaughan

LIST 30 - Phrasal Verbs (4)

S Y S T E M S

1.

He mirado con detenimiento tu currículum.

I’ve looked through your résumé.

2.

Mi coche se averió en medio de la carretera.

My car broke down in the middle of the highway.

3.

Desglosa las ventas. Desglósalas por regiones.

Break down the sales. Break them down by regions.

4.

Da la vuelta a la tortilla. Dale la vuelta ahora.

Turn over the omelette. Turn it over now.

5.

Si Superman no se da la vuelta, no podré ver su capa.

If Superman doesn’t turn around, I won’t be able to see his cape.

6.

Esto se está convirtiendo en una pesadilla.

This is turning into a nightmare.

7.

Resulta que todo el mundo lo sabía menos yo.

It turns out that everyone knew except me.

8.

Si no inflas el globo, yo lo inflaré.

If you don’t blow up the balloon, I’ll blow it up.

9.

Si no vuelas el puente, yo lo volaré.

If you don’t blow up the bridge, I’ll blow it up.

10.

Elige el color que más te guste.

Pick out the colour you like the best.

11.

Déjamelo a mí.

Leave it to me.

12.

Déjame salir.

Let me out.

13.

Déjame entrar.

Let me in.

14.

Ella dejó escapar un suspiro.

She let out a sigh.

15.

Si no te apuntas al curso, yo me apuntaré a él.

If you don’t sign up for the course, I’ll sign up for it.

16.

Emprendieron el viaje ayer.

They set out yesterday.

17.

Quiero fijar unas reglas antes de empezar.

I want to set down some rules before starting.

18.

Voy a concertar una entrevista con ella.

I’m going to set up an interview with her.

19.

Cálmate.

Settle down.

20.

Túmbate.

Lie down.

21.

Incorpórate.

Sit up.

22.

¿Cuándo volviste? (Llegar de regreso)

When did you get back? (f)

23.

No pude establecer contacto con ellos. (Telefónico)

I couldn’t get through to them.

24.

Adelante.

Go ahead.

25.

Estábamos en el barrio y decidimos pasar por aquí para haceros una visita.

We were in the neighborhood and we decided to drop by and pay you a visit.

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PAGE 33


Vaughan

List 31 - Phrasal Verbs (5)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Pasaré por tu casa camino de la mía.

I’ll pass by your house on the way to mine. (Drop by)

2.

La buena señora falleció después de una larga enfermedad.

The good lady passed away after a long illness.

3.

Me quedé sin sentido.

I passed out.

4.

Primero tienes que atravesar un cruce.

First you have to pass through an intersection.

5.

No dejes pasar esta oportunidad.

Don’t pass up this opportunity.

6.

No te acerques a mi novia.

Stay away from my girlfriend.

7.

Dejé el colegio a los 15 años.

I dropped out of school when I was 15 years old.

8.

Nos quedamos levantados hasta las tantas.

We stayed up very late. (c)

9.

Nos quedamos por ahí hasta las tantas.

We stayed out very late.

10.

Le gusta presumir.

He likes to show off.

11.

¿Cómo puedo transmitirles la importancia de esto?

How can I get across to them the importance of this?

12.

No sé cómo transmitírselo.

I don’t know how to get it across to them.

13.

Ella me habló hasta convencerme. (Me comió el coco.)

She talked me into it.

14.

Me alegro de que me hayas hablado para convencerme de lo contrario.

I’m glad you talked me out of it.

15.

No me líes.

Don’t mix me up.

16.

No puedo captar lo que dicen.

I can’t make out what they’re saying.

17.

No te quedes atrás.

Don’t fall behind.

18.

No te enamores.

Don’t fall in love.

19.

No puedo seguir el ritmo.

I can’t keep up.

20.

Vas muy de prisa. No puedo seguir tu ritmo.

You’re going too fast. I can’t keep up with you.

21.

Si no les alcanzas, ganarán la carrera.

If you don’t catch up with them, they’ll win the race.

22.

Me caí al agua.

I fell into the water.

23.

El niño se cayó del árbol.

The little boy fell out of the tree.

24.

Ella entró en una depresión.

She fell into a depression.

25.

No te apoyes en la mesa.

Don’t lean on the table.

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Vaughan

List 32

S Y S T E M S

1.

UNA CALLE DE DOBLE SENTIDO

A TWO-WAY STREET

2.

ANUNCIO (EN PRENSA)

AD

3.

ADVERSARIO

ADVERSARY

4.

BICHO

BUG

5.

ESCUETO, CONCISO

CONCISE

6.

INGENIERÍA

ENGINEERING

7.

PROHIBIDO

FORBIDDEN

8.

CALOR

HEAT

9.

ESCONDIDO, OCULTO

HIDDEN

10.

IMPARCIAL

IMPARTIAL

11.

IMPACIENTE

IMPATIENT

12.

CLASE MEDIA

MIDDLE CLASS

13.

MISTERIOSO

MYSTERIOUS

14.

PESIMISTA

PESSIMISTIC

15.

IMPORTANTE, SIGNIFICATIVO

SIGNIFICANT

16.

SINCERIDAD

SINCERITY

17.

ESTRATÉGICO

STRATEGIC

18.

AFECTAR

TO AFFECT

19.

DICTAR

TO DICTATE

20.

PROHIBIR

TO FORBID

21.

IMPRESIONAR

TO IMPRESS

22.

COSER

TO SEW

23.

AGRADECER

TO THANK

24.

DAR LA BIENVENIDA

TO WELCOME

25.

RARO

UNCOMMON

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Vaughan

List 33

S Y S T E M S

1.

ADECUADAMENTE

ADEQUATELY

2.

AGRESIVO

AGGRESSIVE

3.

NACIMIENTO

BIRTH

4.

MANTA

BLANKET

5.

PRESUPUESTO

BUDGET

6.

ELEGANTE

ELEGANT

7.

TEMOR, MIEDO

FEAR

8.

FRUSTRANTE

FRUSTRATING

9.

LUNA DE MIEL

HONEYMOON

10.

EN TEORÍA

IN THEORY

11.

NATURALMENTE

NATURALLY

12.

PREDOMINANTE

PREDOMINANT

13.

TRIMESTRALMENTE

QUARTERLY

14.

MÁQUINA DE COSER

SEWING MACHINE

15.

ESTRICTO

STRICT

16.

ASEGURAR

TO ASSURE

17.

COBRAR, CARGAR

TO CHARGE

18.

CONTENER

TO CONTAIN

19.

DESCUBRIR

TO DISCOVER

20.

PREVER

TO FORECAST

21.

MANTENER UNA REUNIÓN

TO HOLD A MEETING

22.

SALTAR, OMITIR

TO SKIP

23.

SEGUIR EN CONTACTO

TO STAY IN TOUCH

24.

ROPA INTERIOR

UNDERWEAR

25.

BIENESTAR

WELL-BEING

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Vaughan

List 34

S Y S T E M S

1.

UNA PÉRDIDA DE TIEMPO

A WASTE OF TIME

2.

AYUDA, AUXILIO

AID

3.

COMPORTAMIENTO

BEHAVIOR

4.

MANDÓN

BOSSY

5.

COMPARABLE

COMPARABLE

6.

HECHO

FACT

7.

FORMATO

FORMAT

8.

RAYO, RELÁMPAGO

LIGHTNING

9.

NERVIOS

NERVES

10.

DOLOROSO

PAINFUL

11.

SOMBRA

SHADE

12.

DORMIDO, CON SUEÑO

SLEEPY

13.

AMENAZA

THREAT

14.

LOGRAR, CONSEGUIR

TO ACHIEVE

15.

ESTAR EN HUELGA

TO BE ON STRIKE

16.

ECHAR LA CULPA A

TO BLAME

17.

FORMAR ACADÉMICAMENTE

TO EDUCATE

18.

LUCHAR, PELEAR

TO FIGHT

19.

FLOTAR

TO FLOAT

20.

DOBLAR, PLEGAR

TO FOLD

21.

ENGORDAR

TO GAIN WEIGHT

22.

GUIAR

TO GUIDE

23.

IMPLANTAR, PONER EN MARCHA

TO IMPLEMENT

24.

DESAFORTUNADAMENTE

UNFORTUNATELY

25.

BALLENA

WHALE

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Vaughan

List 35

S Y S T E M S

1.

PRECISO, EXACTO

ACCURATE

2.

DECISIVO

DECISIVE

3.

DESTINO

DESTINATION

4.

EMBAJADA

EMBASSY

5.

VENTILADOR, ABANICO

FAN

6.

OLVIDADIZO

FORGETFUL

7.

FRÁGIL

FRAGILE

8.

DOLOR DE CABEZA

HEADACHE

9.

IDENTIDAD

IDENTITY

10.

INCOMPETENCIA

INCOMPETENCE

11.

INICIATIVA

INITIATIVE

12.

MENTIROSO

LIAR

13.

ASUNTO

MATTER

14.

ALCALDE

MAYOR

15.

NORUEGO

NORWEGIAN

16.

LIGERAMENTE

SLIGHTLY

17.

MALETA

SUITCASE

18.

TRUENO

THUNDER

19.

APOSTAR

TO BET

20.

DAR DE COMER, ALIMENTAR

TO FEED

21.

CABER

TO FIT

22.

MENTIR

TO LIE

23.

AGITAR, TEMBLAR

TO SHAKE

24.

UNIR

TO UNITE

25.

SI

WHETHER

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Vaughan

List 36

S Y S T E M S

1.

UN ATAJO

A SHORTCUT

2.

DISCIPLINA

DISCIPLINE

3.

PARA SIEMPRE

FOREVER

4.

PASTOR ALEMÁN

GERMAN SHEPHERD

5.

CHISMORREO

GOSSIP

6.

AURICULARES

HEADPHONES

7.

LÍDER

LEADER

8.

CERCANO

NEARBY

9.

SIMPLE, SIN AIRES

PLAIN

10.

PRAGMÁTICO

PRAGMATIC

11.

ARRIESGADO

RISKY

12.

ESCÁNDALO

SCANDAL

13.

LISTO, ELEGANTE

SMART

14.

RESUMEN

SUMMARY

15.

APRETADO

TIGHT

16.

EXPORTAR

TO EXPORT

17.

ODIAR

TO HATE

18.

DUDAR,VACILAR

TO HESITATE

19.

INSPECCIONAR

TO INSPECT

20.

LEVANTAR

TO LIFT

21.

ECHAR DE MENOS, PERDER

TO MISS

22.

RECORDAR

TO RECALL

23.

DAR LA MANO

TO SHAKE HANDS

24.

A NO SER QUE

UNLESS

25.

ANCHURA

WIDTH

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Vaughan

List 37

S Y S T E M S

1.

IRA, RABIA, ENFADO

ANGER

2.

QUE YO SEPA

AS FAR AS I KNOW

3.

EN CUALQUIER CASO

AT ANY RATE

4.

AMARGO

BITTER

5.

AVERÍA, DESGLOSE

BREAKDOWN

6.

BREVEMENTE

BRIEFLY

7.

EMOCIONANTE

EXCITING

8.

FORTUNA

FORTUNE

9.

FUNCIONAL

FUNCTIONAL

10.

GITANO

GYPSY

11.

INMEDIATO

IMMEDIATE

12.

EQUIPAJE

LUGGAGE

13.

EVIDENTE, OBVIO

OBVIOUS

14.

POBREZA

POVERTY

15.

PRÁCTICA

PRACTICE

16.

BILLETE DE VUELTA

RETURN TICKET

17.

SONRISA

SMILE

18.

SUMINISTRO

SUPPLY

19.

SOLICITAR

TO APPLY FOR

20.

ESPERAR, PREVER

TO EXPECT

21.

INVENTAR

TO INVENT

22.

CARGAR

TO LOAD

23.

CUIDAR (DE ALGUIEN)

TO LOOK AFTER

24.

PARTICIPAR

TO PARTICIPATE

25.

PERIÓDO DE PRUEBA

TRIAL PERIOD

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Vaughan

List 38

S Y S T E M S

1.

VALLA PUBLICITARIA

BILLBOARD

2.

CAMPAÑA

CAMPAIGN

3.

CAJERO

CASHIER

4.

EXCUSA

EXCUSE

5.

AUTÉNTICO

GENUINE

6.

IMPACTO

IMPACT

7.

INCOMPETENTE

INCOMPETENT

8.

MÍNIMO

MINIMUM

9.

PERMANENTEMENTE

PERMANENTLY

10.

PERTINENTE, CORRESPONDIENTE

PERTINENT

11.

APLAZAMIENTO

POSTPONEMENT

12.

PARA QUE ...

SO THAT ...

13.

APOYO, RESPALDO

SUPPORT

14.

APLICAR

TO APPLY

15.

COBRAR

TO COLLECT

16.

ADJUNTAR (A UNA CARTA)

TO ENCLOSE

17.

EXAMINAR

TO EXAMINE

18.

ADIVINAR, SUPONER

TO GUESS

19.

INFORMAR

TO INFORM

20.

INVESTIGAR

TO INVESTIGATE

21.

PROGRESAR

TO PROGRESS

22.

COMPARTIR

TO SHARE

23.

DEJAR PROPINA

TO TIP

24.

DESAGRADABLE

UNPLEASANT

25.

FUERZA DE VOLUNTAD

WILLPOWER

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PAGE 41


Vaughan

List 39

S Y S T E M S

1.

COMO SI

AS THOUGH

2.

PRIMA, INCENTIVO

BONUS

3.

DIBUJOS ANIMADOS

CARTOONS

4.

DESDE LUEGO, POR SUPUESTO

CERTAINLY

5.

CONSERVADOR

CONSERVATIVE

6.

DISEÑO

DESIGN

7.

SALIDA

EXIT

8.

UÑA

FINGERNAIL

9.

MOSCA

FLY

10.

PERIODISTA

JOURNALIST

11.

REINO

KINGDOM

12.

LÓGICAMENTE

LOGICALLY

13.

NINGUNA PARTE

NOWHERE

14.

FUERA DE CONTROL

OUT OF CONTROL

15.

PORTÁTIL

PORTABLE

16.

PRECAUCIÓN

PRECAUTION

17.

CUALIFICADO

QUALIFIED

18.

NEUMÁTICO

TIRE

19.

INVOLUCRAR

TO INVOLVE

20.

BAJAR, HACER DESCENDER

TO LOWER

21.

POSPONER

TO POSTPONE

22.

PROCEDER

TO PROCEED

23.

SUPONER

TO SUPPOSE

24.

RARO

UNUSUAL

25.

ALA

WING

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PAGE 42


Vaughan

List 40

S Y S T E M S

1.

HERMOSURA, BELLEZA

BEAUTY

2.

CIUDADANO

CITIZEN

3.

CAJÓN

DRAWER

4.

EXPORTACIONES

EXPORTS

5.

SOLTURA

FLUENCY

6.

ULTRAMARINOS, COMESTIBLES

GROCERIES

7.

PEINADO

HAIRSTYLE

8.

AUDICIÓN, CAPACIDAD AUDITIVA

HEARING

9.

POCO A POCO

LITTLE BY LITTLE

10.

SUERTE, FORTUNA

LUCK

11.

ESPEJO

MIRROR

12.

BARRIO

NEIGHBORHOOD

13.

PÁRRAFO

PARAGRAPH

14.

PRECISAMENTE

PRECISELY

15.

RECESIÓN

RECESSION

16.

EGOÍSTA

SELFISH

17.

SOLDADO

SOLDIER

18.

LA LEY

THE LAW

19.

PREDECIR

TO PREDICT

20.

PULSAR

TO PRESS

21.

PREVENIR, EVITAR

TO PREVENT

22.

SOBREVIVIR

TO SURVIVE

23.

HERRAMIENTA

TOOL

24.

VARIEDAD

VARIETY

25.

ALAMBRE, CABLE

WIRE

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Vaughan

List 41

S Y S T E M S

1.

UN REQUISITO

A REQUIREMENT

2.

FRENOS

BRAKES

3.

POR CASUALIDAD

BY CHANCE

4.

PAPEL CARTÓN

CARDBOARD

5.

CONSECUTIVO, SEGUIDO

CONSECUTIVE

6.

DEUDA

DEBT

7.

DESCUENTO

DISCOUNT

8.

EXPRESIVO

EXPRESSIVE

9.

PLANO, LLANO

FLAT

10.

PARA SIEMPRE

FOR GOOD

11.

TRABAJADOR

HARD-WORKING

12.

JOYA

JEWEL

13.

LEGAL

LEGAL

14.

PARA NADA, EN ABSOLUTO

NOT AT ALL

15.

DE SOBRA

PLENTY OF

16.

PRIVADO, ÍNTIMO

PRIVATE

17.

CORRECTAMENTE, ADECUADAMENTE

PROPERLY

18.

PROSPERIDAD

PROSPERITY

19.

MATERIA, COSA, SUSTANCIA

STUFF

20.

HACER UN ESFUERZO

TO MAKE AN EFFORT

21.

SEÑALAR, RESALTAR

TO POINT OUT

22.

TRAGAR

TO SWALLOW

23.

DESEAR

TO WISH

24.

TEMA (DE CONVERSACIÓN)

TOPIC

25.

VEHÍCULO

VEHICLE

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PAGE 44


Vaughan

List 42

S Y S T E M S

1.

ACEPTACIÓN

ACCEPTANCE

2.

CONTABLE

ACCOUNTANT

3.

EXTROVERTIDO

EXTROVERTED

4.

BANDERA

FLAG

5.

FRACCIÓN

FRACTION

6.

PATATAS FRITAS

FRENCH FRIES

7.

INFLEXIBLE

INFLEXIBLE

8.

INESTABILIDAD

INSTABILITY

9.

RENTABLE

PROFITABLE

10.

LECTURA

READING

11.

RECIBO

RECEIPT

12.

ENVÍO (DE MERCANCIAS)

SHIPMENT

13.

FUENTE, ORIGEN

SOURCE

14.

SORPRENDENTE

SURPRISING

15.

INTERRUPTOR

SWITCH

16.

LAS RAMAS

THE BRANCHES

17.

LA DIRECCIÓN

THE MANAGEMENT

18.

GOBERNAR

TO GOVERN

19.

ECHAR AL CORREO

TO MAIL

20.

PROPORCIONAR, SUMINISTRAR

TO PROVIDE

21.

PROVOCAR

TO PROVOKE

22.

COMERCIO

TRADE

23.

DESAFORTUNADO

UNLUCKY

24.

VÍCTIMA

VICTIM

25.

TALLER MECÁNICO

WORKSHOP

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Vaughan

List 43

S Y S T E M S

1.

LOGRO, CONSECUCIÓN

ACCOMPLISHMENT

2.

ACONSEJABLE

ADVISABLE

3.

APETITO

APPETITE

4.

BALA

BULLET

5.

CONFIDENCIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

6.

ACTUAL

CURRENT

7.

REGLA DE ORO

GOLDEN RULE

8.

INDEFINIDAMENTE

INDEFINITELY

9.

ALTAVOZ

LOUDSPEAKER

10.

PARADÓJICO

PARADOXICAL

11.

FONTANERO

PLUMBER

12.

ANTERIORMENTE

PREVIOUSLY

13.

ADECUADO

PROPER

14.

BASTANTE

QUITE

15.

BUSQUEDA

SEARCH

16.

LISO

SMOOTH

17.

PROPINA

TIP

18.

VALER LA PENA

TO BE WORTHWHILE

19.

ATERRIZAR, TOMAR TIERRA

TO LAND

20.

MEMORIZAR

TO MEMORIZE

21.

CUESTIONAR

TO QUESTION

22.

ESPECIALIZARSE

TO SPECIALIZE

23.

ENCENDER

TO SWITCH ON

24.

BANDEJA

TRAY

25.

VOLUMEN

VOLUME

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PAGE 46


Vaughan

List 44

S Y S T E M S

1.

A TODA VELOCIDAD

AT FULL SPEED

2.

AUTÉNTICO

AUTHENTIC

3.

BASADO EN

BASED ON

4.

CAPÍTULO

CHAPTER

5.

CHICLE

CHEWING GUM

6.

HARINA

FLOUR

7.

GRATITUD

GRATITUDE

8.

GRIEGO

GREEK

9.

¡ESPERA!

HOLD ON!

10.

ANFITRIONA

HOSTESS

11.

POR ESCRITO

IN WRITING

12.

INVERSIÓN

INVESTMENT

13.

PRÉSTAMO

LOAN

14.

MINA

MINE

15.

EMBARAZADA

PREGNANT

16.

ASCENSO, PROMOCIÓN

PROMOTION

17.

EMISORA DE RADIO

RADIO STATION

18.

CIENCIA

SCIENCE

19.

VELOCIDAD

SPEED

20.

SISTEMÁTICO

SYSTEMATIC

21.

DIMINUTO, MUY PEQUEÑO

TINY

22.

ESTAR FAMILIARIZADO CON

TO BE FAMILIAR WITH

23.

DISPARA

TO SHOOT

24.

TRATAR

TO TREAT

25.

CARTERA, BILLETERO

WALLET

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PAGE 47


Vaughan

List 45

S Y S T E M S

1.

CONTABILIDAD

ACCOUNTING

2.

DINERO EN METÁLICO

CASH

3.

CONEXIÓN

CONNECTION

4.

PRESA

DAM

5.

DÉCADA

DECADE

6.

POLVO

DUST

7.

EFICIENCIA

EFFICIENCY

8.

AGRICULTURA

FARMING

9.

FAVORABLE

FAVORABLE

10.

GUARDA

GUARD

11.

TRABAJO DOMÉSTICO

HOUSEWORK

12.

LESIÓN

INJURY

13.

VESTÍBULO (DE HOTEL)

LOBBY

14.

MODESTO

MODEST

15.

LLUVIOSO

RAINY

16.

GAMA

RANGE

17.

VALORACIÓN

RATING

18.

ORILLA

SHORE

19.

DEPÓSITO

TANK

20.

EL CONTENIDO

THE CONTENTS

21.

ESTAR DISPUESTO A

TO BE WILLING TO

22.

DIVIDIR

TO SPLIT

23.

TRUCO, TRAMPA

TRICK

24.

ADVERTENCIA

WARNING

25.

ANUALMENTE

YEARLY

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PAGE 48


Vaughan

List 46

S Y S T E M S

1.

ASOMBROSO

AMAZING

2.

CORRIDA DE TOROS

BULLFIGHT

3.

PRESIDENTE DEL CONSEJO

CHAIRMAN

4.

COMPATIBLE

COMPATIBLE

5.

CONTAGIOSO

CONTAGIOUS

6.

TRIBUNAL

COURT

7.

POSTRE

DESSERT

8.

HEMBRA

FEMALE

9.

GUÍA

GUIDE

10.

IMPROBABLE

IMPROBABLE

11.

LABIOS

LIPS

12.

UBICADO

LOCATED

13.

MATRIMONIO

MARRIAGE

14.

OPERACIÓN

OPERATION

15.

PLACER

PLEASURE

16.

RESPONSABLE

RESPONSIBLE

17.

SEGURO

SECURE

18.

ESPONTÁNEAMENTE

SPONTANEOUSLY

19.

TAREA

TASK

20.

A TRAVÉS DE

THROUGH

21.

LLEVARSE BIEN CON

TO GET ALONG WITH

22.

RAZONAR CON

TO REASON WITH

23.

CONFIANZA

TRUST

24.

OLA

WAVE

25.

¡QUÉ LÍO!

WHAT A MESS!

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PAGE 49


Presentations & Public Speaking

Telephoning and conference calls Vocabulary for dealing with questions Interview evaluation sheet


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

This is Sonia.

Answering a call

Sonia speaking. How can I help you? (Not 'I am Sonia!')

Excuse me, who's calling please?

Asking who is on the telephone

May I ask who's speaking? Who shall I say is calling? (Not 'Who is this?')

Could you please tell me the number of your Madrid branch?

Asking for a number

Could you give me the number of the Human Resources department? Do you have the number for....?

Is this the Customer Service Department? Could I speak to...

Asking for someone

Is Maria there/in? Could you put me through to Extension 123? Can I have Extension 123?

I'll just put you through.

Connecting someone

Can you hold the line? Can you hold on a minute/moment? Hold please.

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

I'm afraid Maria is not available at the moment.

When someone is not available

Maria's out/away at the moment... The line is busy; could you call back later?

Taking a message

Leaving a message

Can/Could/May I take a message? Would you like to leave a message?

Could I leave a message for her? Could you pass on a message to Sonia for me please?

Have I got this straight? Have I got that right?

Checking information

Let me just check the details... Just to confirm, you are arriving on the 27th, is that right?

I'm sorry, this connection is terrible. Could you repeat that please?

Problems with the line

I think there's some interference on the line. I'm sorry, I think we got cut off just then. You're breaking up – do you have a land line I could call you on?

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

Thank you for calling. Is there anything else I can help you with?

Ending a call

Very nice to talk to you. If there's anything else, you can reach me on my mobile/ my extension is 8893. Talk to you again soon.

Add any further sentences you can think of‌

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PAGE 53


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

EXPRESSIONS FOR DEALING WITH QUESTIONS

Do you mind if I ask you whether… Could you tell me if…

Asking Questions – Polite

I’d be interested to know… I’d like to know … Would you mind telling me/us about…

Please do/ Go ahead/Certainly.

Answering Polite Questions

That’s a good point. That’s an interesting question. I’m glad you asked me/raised that.

Statement Questions

Make a statement with a question intonation or a question tag. E.g. - “The project won’t be finished on time?” Or “We’ve underestimated the budget, haven’t we?”

If you want to contradict a statement question, use ‘actually’ or ‘as a matter of fact.’

Contradicting a Statement Question

E.g. - “We’ve underestimated the budget, haven’t we? Actually, we’re right on target.” Or “The project won’t be finished on time? As a matter of fact, we expect to have completed the work by next week.”

I'd like to reassure you about that.

Giving Reassurance

There is no need for concern on that point. You need have no worries on that front. I can understand your concern but...

Add any further sentences you can think of…

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PAGE 54


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

INTERVIEW EVALUATION SHEET

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

c

START OF THE INTERVIEW * Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

TELL ME A BIT ABOUT YOURSELF

HOW DID YOU FIND OUT ABOUT THIS POSITION?

ACHIEVEMENTS

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

WHAT ARE YOUR LONG-TERM CAREER PLANS?

WHY SHOULD WE CHOOSE YOU?

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 55


Appendices Cloverdale’s Characters Sudoku InglÊs Most Common Irregular Verbs Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs Common Errors by Spanish Speakers


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Philip Johnson Phillip Johnson is 39 years old. He’s married and has two children. He lives in a nice house in Lincoln, Nebraska. He is a businessman and he works in a bank in the center of Lincoln. He is the General Manager of the bank. He goes to work every day at 8:30 in the morning. He gets to the office at 9:00. He parks his car under the bank in the parking garage. In the morning, he usually works from 9:00 to 12:30. He spends a lot of time talking on the telephone and reading financial reports. He usually has lunch near his office. There are many good restaurants in the center of Lincoln. He goes back to the office at 1:30 and stays there until 6:00. After work, he usually goes home, but sometimes he goes

to his son’s school to watch him play basketball or baseball. He usually gets home from work at 6:30, but when he goes to see his son, he gets home around 8:00. He likes his job because he has a good salary and because he works with a lot of interesting people. He doesn’t travel very often in his job, but from time to time he needs to go to Omaha, a city 150 miles from Lincoln. When he goes to Omaha, he usually comes back to Lincoln on the same day, but sometimes he needs to spend the night there. He usually stays at the Omaha Sheraton Hotel, but sometimes he stays in the Holiday Inn. He prefers the Sheraton because it has a breakfast buffet.

1. How old is Phillip?

20. Does he park in the street?

2. Is he married or single?

21. Where does he park?

3. Does he have any children?

22. How long does he work in the morning?

38. Does he like his job?

4. How many children does he have?

23. Does he spend a lot of time with customers?

39. Why does he like it?

5. Does he live in New York?

24. What does he spend a lot of time doing?

40. Does he often travel in his job?

6. Where does he live?

25. Does he have lunch at home?

41. Where does he need to go from time to

7. Does he live in a nice house?

26. Where does he usually have lunch?

8. Is he an actor?

27. Are there many good restaurants near

9. What does he do? 10. Does he work in a pharmacy? 11. Where does he work? 12. Is the bank outside of Lincoln? 13. Where is the bank? 14. Does he have an important job?

his office? 28. What time does he go back to the office after lunch?

37. What time does he get home when he’s with his son?

time? 42. How far is Omaha from Lincoln? 43. Does he usually stay in Omaha for several days? 44. How long does he usually stay in Omaha?

29. Does he stay at the office until 7o’clock?

45. Does he always spend the night in Omaha?

30. How long does he stay at the office?

46. Does he usually stay at the Palace Hotel

31. Does he go to a bar with his friends after work?

in Omaha? 47. Where does he usually stay?

15. What’s his position in the bank?

32. Where does he usually go after work?

48. Where does he sometimes stay?

16. Does he go to work every day?

33. What time does he usually get home?

49. Which hotel does he prefer?

17. What time does he go to work?

34. Does he always go home after work?

50. Why does he prefer it?

18. Does he get to the office at 8:45?

35. Where does he sometimes go?

19. What time does he get to the office?

36. Why does he go to his son’s school?

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PAGE 57


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Nancy Johnson Nancy Johnson is 38 years old. She is Phillip’s wife. She lives with her husband and children in Lincoln, Nebraska. She’s from Kansas, the state immediately south of Nebraska. She is an interior decorator. In the morning, she teaches interior design at a technical school 20 miles from Lincoln. She starts her classes every day at 10:00 and finishes at 12:00. She has two classes, each with about 15 students. Then she goes home to have lunch. After lunch, she goes to her husband’s bank where she spends about 30 minutes with the woman responsible for expansion. She looks at the plans for the new bank branches and gives recommendations about the interior design and decoration. She doesn’t receive a

salary for this. She does it because the woman is a good friend of hers. In the afternoon, she works as an independent decorator. Some days, she spends two or three hours visiting different clients and other days she stays at home creating decoration plans or calling people. She decorates offices, restaurants and homes. She doesn’t like to decorate offices very much because the companies usually prefer functional decoration and this is boring for her. She doesn’t like to decorate restaurants either, because often the owner of the restaurant thinks that he’s a professional decorator too. She likes to decorate homes because she is free to make more decisions and to be more creative.

1. Is Nancy 33 years old?

23. What time does she start her classes?

43. Does she receive a nice salary for this help?

2. How old is she?

24. What time does she finish?

44. How much money does she receive?

3. Is she Nigel’s wife?

25. Does she have three classes?

45. Does she help the woman because she’s

4. Whose wife is she?

26. How many classes does she have?

5. Who does she live with?

27. Are there 20 students in each class?

46. Why does she help the woman?

6. Where does she live?

28. How many students are there in each class?

47. What does Nancy do in the afternoon?

7. Is she from Nebraska?

29. Does she have lunch near the technical

48. Does she work in an office?

8. Where is she from?

school?

bored?

49. Where does she work when she’s not visiting clients?

9. Is Kansas far from Nebraska?

30. Where does she have lunch?

10. Is it near Nebraska?

31. Does she stay at home after lunch?

11. Is it north or south of Nebraska?

32. Where does she go after lunch?

12. Is Nancy a school teacher?

33. Does she stay at the bank all afternoon?

51. Does she visit her clients every day?

13. What does she do?

34. Does she spend an hour there every day?

52. How often does she visit clients?

14. Does she teach?

35. How much time does she spend at the

53. Does she only decorate homes?

15. What does she teach?

bank?

50. What does she do when she is working at home?

54. What kind of places does she decorate?

16. Does she teach interior design in the evenings?

36. Does she spend this time with her husband?

55. Does she like to decorate offices?

17. When does she teach it?

37. Who does she spend the time with?

56. Why not?

18. Does she teach it at a university?

38. What is this woman responsible for?

57. Does she like to decorate restaurants?

19. Where does she teach it?

39. Does Nancy help this woman?

58. Why not?

20. Is the technical school in the center of

40. What kind of plans does she look at?

59. Does she like to decorate homes?

41. Does she give recommendations?

60. Why does she like to decorate homes?

Lincoln? 21. Where is it? 22. How many days a week does she teach?

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42. What kind of recommendations does she give?

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 58


Cloverdale’s Characters

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

Paula Eisenbach Paula Eisenbach is 22 years old. She is in her last year at the University of Heidelberg, where she is studying computer systems and graphic arts. She is from Munich, in the south of Germany. Heidelberg is a town in Germany famous for its beauty and for its university. Paula likes it very much. She lives in a flat with two other friends. One of them studies graphic arts, too, and the other works in a fashion shop in the center of the town. Paula spends all of her time attending classes, doing homework, and helping Tom, an American student who lives near her in Heidelberg.Tom is studying graphic arts, too, but he is also working part-time for Walt Disney Corporation as an artist for Disney cartoons. Tom receives a lot of instructions from the Disney people in California over the Internet. With these instructions, he

draws the cartoon characters and scenes and sends them back to California by computer. Disney sends him a lot of work and he gives some of it to Paula. Paula helps him in the evenings and sometimes on the weekends. She likes the artistic work because she wants to improve her technique. She likes to draw, and she’s very artistic, but she doesn’t have the patience or discipline to spend a long time developing complicated scenes or characters.Tom is the opposite and Paula is learning a lot by working with him. They are very good friends. Tom is from California and he wants to go back for the Christmas holidays. He wants to invite Paula to go with him. She’s not sure because she doesn’t know Tom very well yet.

1. Is Paula Eisenbach 40 years old?

18. Is the other friend a student too?

34. Does Tom do all the work alone?

2. How old is she?

19. Is she a fashion model?

35. Who helps him?

3. Does she live in Frankfurt?

20. Where does she work?

36. When does she help him?

4. Where does she live?

21. Where’s the shop?

37. Does she like this work?

5. Does she live there because she works

22. What does Paula spend all her time doing?

38. Why does she like it?

23. What country is Tom from?

39. Is she artistic?

6. Why does she live in Heidelberg?

24. Is he a student?

40. Does she like to spend a long time drawing?

7. What is she studying at the university?

25. Does he live outside of Heidelberg?

41. Why not?

8. Is she from Heidelberg?

26. Where does he live?

42. Is Tom similar to Paula in this respect?

9. Where’s she from?

27. What is he studying?

43. Is Paula learning a lot from Tom?

28. Who does he work part-time for?

44. What is their relationship?

29. What does he draw for the Disney

45. Where is Tom from in the U.S.?

there?

10. Where’s Munich? 11. Is Heidelberg famous for its beer?

Corporation? 12. What is Heidelberg famous for? 13. Does Paula like Heidelberg? 14. Does she live in a house or in a flat?

47. Does he want to go back alone?

31. Does he receive the instructions by

48. Who does he want to invite?

telephone?

15. Does she live alone?

32. How does he receive them?

16. Who does she live with?

33. How does he send the drawings back to

17. What does one of the friends study?

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46. When does he want to go back?

30. Who does he receive instructions from?

49. Does Paula want to go? 50. What’s the problem?

California?

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PAGE 59


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Natasha Zarakovich Natasha Zarakovich is 28 years old. She lives with her mother and brother in a small apartment near Gorky Park in Moscow. She is a chemist and works in the Russian State Laboratory which analyzes and gives approval to pharmaceutical drugs that Russian laboratories produce or that foreign companies want to sell in Russia. She likes her job because she has a good salary and the laboratory is not far from her house. She goes to work every morning on the subway. The laboratory is only three subway stops away from her house and she usually reads novels in English on the way to work. She wants to improve her English because she has a cousin who lives in Scotland. Her cousin invites Natasha to visit him in Scotland every year, but Natasha doesn’t have enough money to go. She wants to go

next year, but she’s not sure yet. Every day Natasha starts work in the laboratory at 7:30 in the morning. She prefers to begin early because there are fewer people in the subway at that time. She works continuously in the lab until 12:00, when she goes home to have lunch with her mother. She gets back to the lab at 1:30 and continues until 4:30. Sometimes she stays past 4:30 if her boss needs her help, but usually she goes to the national library, near the laboratory, and reads until 6:30 or 7:00. Her house is small and noisy, especially when her brother and his friends are there, and she prefers the quiet and solitude of the library. She always reads in English because she wants to take the State English Examination. If she passes it, she automatically receives an increase in her salary.

1. How old is Natasha Zarakovich?

18. How many stops is the laboratory from

2. Who does she live with? 3. Does she live in big or small apartment? 4. Does she live in St. Petersburg?

her house? 19. Does Natasha read the newspaper on the subway?

33. Does she have lunch in the laboratory? 34. Where does she have lunch? 35. What time does she go home for lunch? 36. Who does she have lunch with?

5. What city does she live in?

20. What does she usually read?

37. What time does she get back to the lab?

6. Does she live near the Kremlin?

21. What kind of novels does she read?

38. What time does she finish work?

7. What does she live near?

22. Why does she read English novels?

39. Does she always leave work at 4:30?

8. What does she do?

23. Why does she want to improve her English?

40. Why does she sometimes stay later?

9. Does she work for a private company?

24. How often does her cousin invite her to

41. Where does she usually go after work?

Scotland?

42. Is the library near or far from the laboratory?

25. Does she go?

43. Until what time does she stay at the library?

26. Why doesn’t she go to Scotland?

44. Does she like to go home to read and study?

27. Does she want to go?

45. Why not?

28. When does she want to go?

46. Why is the house noisy?

13. Does Natasha like her job?

29. What time does she start work every day?

47. Why does she like the library?

14. What about her salary?

30. Does she prefer to go to work early?

48. What language does she read in?

15. Is the laboratory near or far from her house?

31. Why does she prefer this?

49. What kind of examination does she want

16. Does Natasha go to work by bus?

32. How many breaks does she take during

10. Where does she work? 11. What kind of drugs does the laboratory analyze? 12. Does it analyze drugs from foreign companies?

17. How does she go to work?

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the morning?

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to take? 50. What does she receive if she passes the exam?

PAGE 60


Cloverdale’s Characters

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

Inés García Inés García is 24 years old. She lives with her parents about 20 kilometers east of Seville, in the south of Spain. She is a lawyer and works in her father’s law firm in the center of Seville.This is her first year in the firm and she does a lot of the jobs that the other lawyers don’t like to do. She knows how to use computers well and the other lawyers and secretaries in the office always ask her for help. She doesn’t mind helping them, but sometimes she gets the impression that they are taking advantage of her. She also works on some of the legal cases that other lawyers don’t want to handle. She spends a lot of time at the court defending labor cases. Her father’s law firm has a lot of big

companies as clients and Inés spends a lot of time preparing cases concerning labor disputes. Her father says that it’s good experience and Inés agrees. She prepares the cases very well, but she doesn’t want to work in the area of labor law for many years. In the future, she wants to work in mergers and acquisitions, where one company buys another company or two companies join to create a new one. She likes this area of law because it includes a lot of financial aspects which she is studying now at night on a special course that she is taking in business management and finance at the University of Seville. She goes there three nights a week from 6:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m.

1. How old is Inés?

17. Does she mind helping them?

33. What course is she taking?

2. Who does she live with?

18. What kind of impression does she get

34. Where does she attend the class?

3. Does she live in the north or south of Spain? 4. What city does she live in? 5. Does she live in Seville or outside of Seville? 6. How far does she live from Seville? 7. Does she live 20 kilometers east or west of Seville? 8. Is she a doctor?

sometimes? 19. What kind of legal cases does she work with?

38. How long does the class last? 39. What time does it begin?

22. What kind of clients does her father’s law

40. What time does it end?

firm have? 23. What kind of cases does Inés spend time preparing?

10. Does she work in the public sector?

25. Does Inés agree with her father?

11. Does she work in a law firm?

26. How does she prepare the cases?

12. Whose law firm does she work in?

27. Does she want to work with labor cases?

13. Is this her first or second year in the law firm?

28. What does she want to work with in the future? 29. What is an acquisition?

15. What kind of things does she do?

30. What is a merger?

16. Why do other people in the firm ask her

31. Why does she like this area of law?

for help?

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37. How many nights a week does she go there?

21. What kind of legal cases does she defend?

24. What does her father say about this?

the firm?

36. Does she go there every night?

20. Where does she spend a lot of time?

9. What does she do?

14. Does she do a lot of different things in

35. When does the class take place?

32. Is she taking a special course now?

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PAGE 61


SUDOKU INGLÉS 1

c

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 62


SUDOKU INGLÉS 2

c

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 63


SUDOKU INGLÉS 3

c

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 64


SUDOKU INGLÉS 4

c

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 65


SUDOKU INGLÉS 5

c

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

PAGE 66


Vaughan

Most Common Irregular Verbs

S Y S T E M S

am, is, are

was, were

been

lead

led

led

become

became

become

leave

left

left

begin

began

begun

lend

lent

lent

blow

blew

blown

let

let

let

break

broke

broken

lose

lost

lost

bring

brought

brought

make

made

made

build

built

built

mean

meant

meant

buy

bought

bought

meet

met

met

catch

caught

caught

pay

paid

paid

choose

chose

chosen

put

put

put

come

came

come

quit

quit

quit

cost

cost

cost

read

read

read

cut

cut

cut

ring

rang

rung

deal with

dealt with

dealt with

rise

rose

risen

do

did

done

run

ran

run

drink

drank

drunk

see

saw

seen

drive

drove

driven

sell

sold

sold

eat

ate

eaten

send

sent

sent

fall

fell

fallen

set

set

set

feel

felt

felt

shut

shut

shut

fight

fought

fought

sit

sat

sat

find

found

found

sleep

slept

slept

fly

flew

flown

speak

spoke

spoken

forget

forgot

forgotten

spend

spent

spent

get

got

got/gotten

stand

stood

stood

give

gave

given

steal

stole

stolen

go

went

gone

take

took

taken

grow

grew

grown

teach

taught

taught

have

had

had

tell

told

told

hear

heard

heard

think

thought

thought

hold

held

held

throw

threw

thrown

hurt

hurt

hurt

understand

understood

understood

keep

kept

kept

wear

wore

worn

know

knew

known

win

won

won

c

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PAGE 67


Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

There are many more important verbs not listed here, but these, barring an oversight, are the most commonly used.

c

Hard “d” sound

“t” sound

“id” sound (additional syllable)

Agreed Allowed Answered Appeared Arrived Believed Belonged Called Carried Changed Cleaned Closed Continued Copied Covered Cried Died Earned Enjoyed Explained Followed Gained Happened Joined Listened to Lived Moved Offered Owned Planned Prepared Played Preferred Pulled Rained Raised Received Retired Saved Seemed Served Showed Smiled Snowed Stayed Studied Tried Used Worried

Asked Checked Cooked Crossed Danced Escaped Finished Helped Hoped Jumped Laughed Liked Looked Missed Noticed Parked Passed Picked Progressed Promised Pushed Reached Stopped Talked Walked Washed Watched Wished Worked

Accepted Acted Added Attended Attracted Avoided Contacted Counted Created Decided Depended on Divided Eliminated Existed Expanded Expected Hated Included Insisted Invented Invited Landed Lifted Lasted Needed Pointed Printed Rented Rested Shouted Started Treated Waited Wanted Wasted

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PAGE 68


Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

S Y S T E M S

The following list outlines some of the most common problems for Spanish speakers caused by direct translation.

SPANGLISH

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

To depend of something

To depend on something

To spend money in something

To spend money on something

To pay something

To pay for something

To buy to someone

To buy from someone

To work in something

To work on something

To focus in something

To focus on something

To know to do something

To know how to do something

To be related with something

To be related to something

To be committed with something

To be committed to something

Near of/from somewhere

Near somewhere

Close of/from somewhere

Close to somewhere

To be based in something

To be based on something

To be responsible of something

To be responsible for something

To be the guilty (I’m the guilty)

To be one’s fault (It’s my fault)

According with someone

According to someone

I must to study

I must study (NEVER to)

I can to swim

I can swim (NEVER to)

I will to go

I will go (NEVER to)

Tell to us

Tell us (NEVER to)

Ask to him

Ask him (NEVER to)

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PAGE 69


Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

Call to Mary

Call Mary (NEVER to)

I am agreed

I agree

Are you agreed?

Do you agree?

To explain you

To explain to you (ALWAYS to someone)

To listen me

To listen to me (ALWAYS to someone)

To listen it

To listen to it (ALWAYS to something)

To propose them

To propose to them (ALWAYS to someone)

An important problem

A big problem

The best important

The most important

The important is...

The important thing is...

To do a purchase

To make a purchase

To make a travel

To make/take a trip

To make a question

To ask a question

To make business

To do business

To make research

To do/carry out research

To take a drink/meal

To have a drink/meal

To arrive to an agreement

To come to/reach an agreement

To get an objective

To reach/achieve an objective

To have sense

To make sense

People is

People ARE

Persons

People

We are three

There are three of us

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Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 70


Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

Actually (= actualmente)

Currently/presently

Illusioned (= ilusionado)

Hopeful/excited

Really (= en realidad)

Actually

Impressing

Impressive

How curious! (= QuĂŠ curioso)

That’s funny/interesting

In a future

In the future

Question (= asunto)

Issue/matter

To discuss (= disputar)

To argue

May I take lent your pen?

May I borrow your pen?

To count a history

To tell a story

To assist to class

To attend class

To remember someone to do something

To remind someone to do something

The competence (= competencia)

The competition/competitors

Nothing of nothing

Nothing at all

Particular lessons

Private lessons

To learn English is funny

Learning English is fun

Customer fidelity

Customer loyalty

A familiar car

A family car

Tonight (= anoche)

Last night

This night (= esta noche)

Tonight

All the days

Everyday

All the day

All day (long)

c

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PAGE 71


Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

During 4 years

For 4 years

It’s for this reason that...

That’s why...

It’s the same

It doesn’t matter

the same than/that

The same as

different that

Different than

I have 21 years

I am 21 years old

10% of discount

A 10% discount

10 thousands of people

10 thousand people

1 thousand million (= 1,000 million)

1 billion [U.S.A.]

c

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PAGE 72


¿ Q u ée s V a u g h a n C l a s s r o o m? VaughanCl as s r oom esuncur s o di ná mi c oei nt e r a c t i v opa r aa pr e nde r i ngl é s c onl osme j or e spr of e s or e sdeV a ugha n, e s t é sdondee s t é sde s det uor de na dor . E nV a ugha nCl a s s r oom, he mospr e pa r a dol o me j or de l mé t odoV a ugha ne nuna c ol e c c i óndel e c c i one spot e nt e sye fi c a c e s . S ol one c e s i t a s2 0mi nut osa l dí apa r a e mpe z a r ame j or a r t ui ngl é s .

•2 0mi nut ostodoslosdías. •20mi nut osnos uponen ada ent uvi da, per os i gnic an muc hí s i moparatuinglés. E nt r ahoyyde s c ubr e www. VaughanCl as s r oom. c om

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