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VAUGHAN CL ASSROOM I ngl ésI nt ens i vopar ael  Ver ano Avanz ado


Contents PAGE 02

Translation Booklet 3

PAGE 18

Vocabulary Booklet 3

PAGE 46

Presentations and Public Speaking

PAGE 63

Cloverdale’s Characters

PAGE 68

Sudoku Inglés

PAGE 73

Most Common Irregular Verbs

PAGE 74

Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs

PAGE 75

Common Errors by Spanish Speakers


Translation Booklet

3


Vaughan

LIST 1 - There + to be

S Y S T E M S

1.

Puede que haya habido un malentendido.

There may have been a misunderstanding.

2.

Quiero que haya una azafata en la reunión.

I want there to be a hostess at the meeting.

3.

Tráeme lo que haya.

Bring me whatever there is.

4.

No queda nada por hacer.

There’s nothing left to do.

5.

Parece haber varias versiones.

There seem to be several versions.

6.

No habrá fiesta esta noche.

There won’t be a party tonight.

7.

¿Cuándo habrá una reunión sobre esto?

When will there be a meeting on this?

8.

¿Va a haber otra fiesta como la última?

Is there going to be another party like the last one?

9.

Jamás ha habido alguien como ella.

There’s never been anyone like her.

10.

Ha habido varias tormentas últimamente.

There have been several storms lately.

11.

¿Por qué no había gente cuando llegué allí?

Why weren’t there any people when I got there?

12.

Podría haber habido un accidente.

There could have been an accident.

13.

Debería haber habido un guardia de seguridad.

There should have been a security guard.

14.

Me trajeron todo lo que había.

They brought me everything there was.

15.

No hay ni la mitad de lo que antes había.

There isn’t even half of what there used to be.

16.

¿Ha habido quejas últimamente?

Have there been any complaints lately?

17.

No habría quejas si Pepe estuviera aquí.

There wouldn’t be any complaints if Pepe were here.

18.

¿No debería haber un índice?

Shouldn’t there be an index?

19.

¿Ha habido llamadas para mí?

Have there been any calls for me?

20.

¿Hubo heridos?

Were there any injuries?

21.

¿Hay problemas?

Are there any problems?

22.

¿Habrá alguien esperándome?

Will there be anyone waiting for me?

23.

¿Hay alguna posibilidad?

Is there any chance?

24.

¿Ha habido algún cambio?

Has there been any change?

25.

¿Ha habido algunos cambios?

Have there been any changes?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 3


LIST 2 - Past or third conditional

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Si lo hubieras guardado, habrías podido usarlo.

If you’d kept it, you would’ve been able to use it.

2.

Si hubieras mandado invitaciones, habría venido más gente.

If you’d sent invitations, more people would’ve come.

3.

Si hubiera hecho viento, habríamos pasado más frío.

If it had been windy, we would’ve been colder.

4.

Si yo le hubiera hablado, no se habría quejado.

If I’d spoken to him, he wouldn’t have complained.

5.

Si me lo hubieras dado, lo habría modificado.

If you’d given it to me, I would’ve modified it.

6.

Si no hubiera nevado, podríamos haber salido antes.

If it hadn’t snowed, we could’ve left sooner.

7.

Si hubieras tardado más, habríamos salido sin ti.

If it had taken you longer, we would’ve left without you.

8.

De haber durado más la reunión, me habría ido.

If the meeting had lasted longer, I would’ve left.

9.

Si hubiera habido un incendio, ¿qué habrías hecho?

If there had been a fire, what would you have done?

10.

Si ella me hubiera mirado, yo le habría sonreído.

If she’d looked at me, I would’ve smiled at her.

11.

Si la máquina hubiera funcionado como debe, ahora no tendríamos estos problemas.

If the machine had worked as it should, we wouldn’t have these problems now.

12.

Si hubieras estudiado inglés de niño, ahora sabrías mucho más.

If you’d studied English as a child, you’d know much more now.

13.

Si Aníbal hubiera derrotado a los romanos, el mundo sería diferente hoy.

If Hannibal had defeated the Romans, the world would be different today.

14.

Si no hubieras encendido un cigarro, el tanque no habría estallado.

If you hadn’t lit a cigarette, the tank wouldn’t have exploded.

15.

Si nos hubieras advertido, no lo habríamos mandado.

If you’d warned us, we wouldn’t have sent it.

16.

Si mi espalda no me hubiera dado tantos problemas, habría ido con vosotros.

If my back hadn’t given me so many problems, I would’ve gone with you.

17.

Si no hubiera perdido mi empleo, lo habría comprado.

If I hadn’t lost my job, I would’ve bought it.

18.

Si no lo hubieran vendido, lo habríamos comprado.

If they hadn’t sold it, we would’ve bought it.

19.

Si él hubiera tenido más dinero, ¿lo habría comprado?

If he’d had more money, would he have bought it?

20.

¿Qué habrías hecho si te hubiera pasado a ti?

What would you have done if it had happened to you?

21.

¿Quién habría convocado la reunión si hubieras estado enfermo?

Who would have called the meeting if you had been ill?

22.

Si el dinero hubiera sido mío, no lo habría gastado.

If the money had been mine, I wouldn’t have spent it.

23.

Si yo hubiera estado en tu situación, habría dimitido.

If I’d been in your position, I would’ve resigned.

24.

Si hubiera habido uno más, habría sido distinto.

If there had been one more, it would’ve been different.

25.

Si le hubieras visto, habrías comprendido todo.

If you’d seen him, you would’ve understood everything.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 4


Vaughan

LIST 3 - Verbs with & without “like”

S Y S T E M S

1.

Tengo ganas de hacer algo.

I feel like doing something.

2.

No me apetece hacer nada.

I don’t feel like doing anything.

3.

¿Cómo es el marido ideal?

What is the ideal husband like?

4.

¿A qué suena?

What does it sound like?

5.

Pareces enfadado. (Por tu tono)

You sound angry.

6.

Pareces enfadado. (Por tu aspecto)

You look angry.

7.

Pareces enfadado. (Por todos los conceptos)

You seem angry.

8.

Tienes mejor aspecto.

You look better.

9.

Pareces pesimista. (Según tus palabras)

You sound pessimistic.

10.

Pareces una persona pesimista.

You sound like a pessimistic person.

11.

Os parecéis el uno al otro.

You look like each other.

12.

Os parecéis.

You look alike.

13.

Pareces una estrella de cine.

You look like a movie star.

14.

Hablas como si fueras una estrella de cine.

You talk as if you were a movie star.

15.

Hablas como una estrella de cine.

You talk like a movie star.

16.

¿A quién me parezco?

Who do I look like?

17.

¿Cómo es esta empresa?

What’s this company like?

18.

¿Cómo es la gente en Rusia?

What are the people like in Russia?

19.

¿Se parecen a nosotros? (Físicamente)

Do they look like us?

20.

¿Se parecen a nosotros? (En la forma de ser)

Are they like us?

21.

¿Se visten como nosotros?

Do they dress like us?

22.

¿Qué aspecto tiene la casa?

What does the house look like?

23.

¿Qué aspecto tiene un bosque después de un incendio forestal?

What does a forest look like after a forest fire?

24.

¿Qué aspecto tienes cuando te levantas por la mañana?

What do you look like when you get up in the morning?

25.

¿Cómo eres cuando estás enfadado?

What are you like when you’re angry?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 5


Vaughan

LIST 4 - Make / Do

S Y S T E M S

1.

Haz tus deberes.

Do your homework.

2.

Haz las tareas de la casa.

Do the housework.

3.

Hago ejercicio todas las mañanas.

I do exercises every morning.

4.

Él hace maravillas con muy pocos recursos.

He does wonders with very few resources.

5.

La explosión hizo mucho daño a la fachada.

The explosion did a lot of damage to the façade.

6.

Esto no tiene sentido.

This doesn’t make any sense.

7.

¿Has hecho reservas?

Have you made reservations?

8.

Concertemos una cita para el martes.

Let’s make an appointment for Tuesday.

9.

Haz el amor, no la guerra.

Make love, not war.

10.

Voy a hacer una fortuna.

I’m going to make a fortune.

11.

¿Cuándo vas a tomar una decisión?

When are you going to make a decision? (También “take”)

12.

Tengo que elegir entre el uno o el otro.

I have to make a choice between one or the other.

13.

No hagas tanto ruido.

Don’t make so much noise.

14.

¿Qué tal?

How are you doing?

15.

Has hecho una buena obra. (Moral)

You’ve done a good deed.

16.

No hagas nada.

Don’t do anything.

17.

Vas mejor ahora. (Progresando)

You’re doing better. (Getting better)

18.

Estás haciendo progresos.

You’re making progress.

19.

¿Quién va a lavar los platos?

Who’s going to do the dishes? (Wash)

20.

Da igual.

It doesn’t make any difference. (It doesn’t matter.)

21.

No pueden estar. (Fueron invitados.)

They can’t make it.

22.

Aprovecha tu tiempo.

Make the most of your time.

23.

Hemos dispuesto que te recojan en el hotel.

We’ve made arrangements for you to be picked up at the hotel.

24.

No pongas excusas.

Don’t make excuses.

25.

No te burles de mí.

Don’t make fun of me.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 6


Vaughan

LIST 5 - Indirect & reported speech

S Y S T E M S

1.

¿La conoces?

Do you know her?

2.

Te pregunté si la conocías.

I asked you if you knew her.

3.

Me estoy muriendo.

I’m dying.

4.

Nos dijo que se estaba muriendo.

He told us he was dying.

5.

Tienes que hacerlo como yo lo hice ayer.

You have to do it like I did it yesterday.

6.

Ayer nos dijo que teníamos que hacerlo como él lo había hecho el día anterior.

Yesterday he told us we had to do it like he had done it the day before.

7.

Le maté.

I killed him.

8.

Ella nos dijo que él le había matado.

She told us he had killed him.

9.

Puede que ellos lo hagan.

They may do it.

10.

Él nos dijo que puede que ellos lo hicieran.

He told us they might do it.

11.

No le he visto últimamente.

I haven’t seen him lately.

12.

Ella nos dijo que no le había visto últimamente.

She told us she hadn’t seen him lately.

13.

La clase ha terminado.

The class is over. (The class has ended.)

14.

¿Quién dijo que la clase había terminado?

Who said the class was over? (The class had ended?)

15.

Estaré listo.

I’ll be ready.

16.

Él me dijo que estaría listo.

He told me he’d be ready.

17.

Estoy intentando localizarle.

I’m trying to locate him.

18.

Ella me dijo que estaba intentando localizarle.

She told me she was trying to locate him.

19.

Nunca he ido allí.

I’ve never been there.

20.

Él me dijo que nunca había ido allí.

He told me he’d never been there.

21.

¿Cómo te van las cosas?

How are things going?

22.

Ella me preguntó cómo me iban las cosas.

She asked me how things were going.

23.

Solo nos queda una frase.

We only have one sentence left.

24.

Él me dijo que solo nos quedaba una frase.

He told me we only had one sentence left.

25.

Nadie me dijo que él quería que yo lo hiciese.

Nobody told me he wanted me to do it.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 7


Vaughan

LIST 6 - Present perfect vs. Past

S Y S T E M S

1.

He visto tres películas esta semana.

I’ve seen three movies this week.

2.

Vi tres películas la semana pasada.

I saw three movies last week.

3.

Le vi hace tres segundos.

I saw him three seconds ago.

4.

No le he visto hoy.

I haven’t seen him today.

5.

¿Qué has hecho hoy?

What have you done today?

6.

¿Qué hiciste esta mañana?

What did you do this morning? (Ya es por la tarde.)

7.

¿Qué han dicho?

What did they say? (Siempre en pasado)

8.

¿Qué dijeron cuando te vieron?

What did they say when they saw you?

9.

Últimamente no le hemos pedido ayuda.

We haven’t asked him for help lately.

10.

No le pedimos ayuda el mes pasado.

We didn’t ask him for help last month.

11.

Ella vino ayer pero no ha venido hoy.

She came yesterday but she hasn’t come today.

12.

Me llamaron el lunes pero desde entonces no me han llamado.

They called me on Monday, but since then they haven’t called me.

13.

Han estado aquí.

They’ve been here.

14.

Estuvieron aquí hasta hace dos días.

They were here until two days ago.

15.

¿Dónde has estado?

Where have you been?

16.

He estado con mi novia.

I was with my girlfriend. (Siempre en pasado)

17.

He estado con mi novia tres veces esta semana.

I’ve been with my girlfriend three times this week.

18.

No estuve con ella la semana pasada.

I wasn’t with her last week.

19.

¿Dónde lo has puesto?

Where did you put it? (Siempre en pasado)

20.

Me han dicho que venga aquí.

They told me to come here. (Siempre en pasado)

21.

¿Cómo han reaccionado?

How did they react? (Siempre en pasado)

22.

No he dormido mucho esta noche.

I didn’t sleep much last night. (Siempre en pasado)

23.

Viví en Texas durante 20 años.

I lived in Texas for 20 years.

24.

Llevo tres años viviendo aquí.

I’ve been living here for three years.

25.

Leí dos informes ayer, pero no he leído ninguno hoy.

I read two reports yesterday, but I haven’t read any today.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 8


Vaughan

LIST 7 - Wish & hope statements

S Y S T E M S

1.

Ojalá fuera verdad.

I wish it were true.

2.

Ojalá supiera inglés.

I wish I knew English.

3.

Ojalá tuviera mucho dinero.

I wish I had a lot of money.

4.

Ojalá fuera rico.

I wish I were rich.

5.

Ojalá pudiera hacerlo como él lo hace.

I wish I could do it like he does.

6.

Ojalá estuviera más preparado.

I wish I were more prepared.

7.

Ojalá conociera a gente importante.

I wish I knew important people.

8.

Ojalá no tuviera que acompañarles.

I wish I didn’t have to go with them.

9.

Ojalá mi jefe me apoyara más.

I wish my boss supported me more.

10.

Ojalá pudieras estar con nosotros.

I wish you could be with us.

11.

Ojalá lloviera más.

I wish it rained more.

12.

Ojalá lo hubiera sabido.

I wish I had known.

13.

Ojalá fuera mío.

I wish it were mine.

14.

Ojalá mi mujer fuera como la tuya.

I wish my wife were like yours.

15.

Ojalá mi mujer se hubiera casado con otra persona.

I wish my wife had married someone else.

16.

Ojalá no fuera tan difícil encontrar trabajo.

I wish it weren’t so difficult to find work.

17.

Ojalá hubieras estado aquí cuando llegaron.

I wish you had been here when they arrived.

18.

Ojalá no tuviera una nariz tan grande.

I wish I didn’t have such a big nose.

19.

Ojalá lo hubiéramos visto.

I wish we had seen it.

20.

Ojalá fuera real.

I wish it were real.

21.

Ojalá no hubiera llovido tanto.

I wish it hadn’t rained so much.

22.

Ojalá no fumaras tanto.

I wish you didn’t smoke so much.

23.

Ojalá sea verdad.

I hope it’s true.

24.

Ojalá llueva mañana.

I hope it rains tomorrow.

25.

Ojalá vengan.

I hope they come.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 9


LIST 8 - Plan / Try / Intend / Think about-of

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

¿Cuándo piensas hacerlo?

When are you planning to do it?

2.

Tengo intención de hacerlo mañana.

I intend to do it tomorrow.

3.

¿Por qué no intentas llamarle?

Why don’t you try calling him? (To call)

4.

Estoy pensando en hacerlo pero no he decidido.

I’m thinking about doing it but I haven’t decided.

5.

Piénsalo.

Think about it.

6.

¿Qué piensas hacer?

What are you planning to do?

7.

¿Qué opinas?

What do you think?

8.

¿Qué estás pensando?

What are you thinking?

9.

¿Qué opinas de él?

What do you think of him?

10.

Se me ha ocurrido una manera de resolverlo.

I’ve thought of a way to solve it.

11.

Reflexiona sobre ello.

Think it over.

12.

No tengo intención de reflexionar sobre ello.

I don’t intend to think about it.

13.

Pensamos llevarles al Museo del Prado.

We’re planning to take them to the Prado Museum.

14.

Procura estar allí puntualmente.

Try to be there on time.

15.

Pruébalo; te gustará.

Try it; you’ll like it.

16.

Lo intentaré.

I’ll try.

17.

¿Has pensado alguna vez en jubilarte?

Have you ever thought about retiring?

18.

No me gusta pensar en esas cosas.

I don’t like to think about those things.

19.

Tengo intención de trabajar hasta que me muera.

I intend to work until I die.

20.

¿A quién se le ocurrió esta genial idea?

Who thought of this great idea?

21.

¿Cuándo piensas llamarle?

When are you planning to call him?

22.

¿Qué planes tienes para este fin de semana?

What plans do you have for this weekend?

23.

No pienso hacer nada.

I’m not planning to do anything.

24.

¿Por qué no intentas descansar un poco?

Why don’t you try to get some rest?

25.

Procura entender todo lo que te dicen.

Try to understand everything they tell you.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 10


Vaughan

LIST 9 - In order to/for

S Y S T E M S

1.

Estoy aquí para ayudarte.

I’m here to help you.

2.

Un abrelatas es para abrir latas.

A can opener is for opening cans.

3.

Lo hicimos para mejorar nuestra imagen.

We did it to improve our image.

4.

Estas listas son para mejorar tu inglés.

These lists are for improving your English.

5.

Hice estas listas para mejorar tu inglés.

I made these lists to improve your English.

6.

Un reloj es para saber la hora.

A watch is for telling the time.

7.

Llevo un reloj para saber la hora.

I wear a watch to know the time.

8.

Con el fin de mejorar la productividad, hemos decidido implantar un sistema nuevo.

In order to improve productivity, we’ve decided to implement a new system.

9.

Esta máquina es para controlar el proceso.

This machine is for monitoring the process.

10.

Instalamos esta máquina para controlar el proceso.

We installed this machine to monitor the process.

11.

Vinieron aquí para hablarnos del proyecto.

They came here to speak to us about the project.

12.

¿Para qué quieres esto?

What do you want this for?

13.

Lo quiero para mejorar mi inglés.

I want it to improve my English.

14.

¿Para qué quieres mejorar tu inglés?

What do you want to improve your English for?

15.

Para poder comunicarme con la gente.

To be able to communicate with people.

16.

¿Para qué es esto?

What’s this for?

17.

No sé para qué es.

I don’t know what it’s for.

18.

Creo que es para separar las páginas.

I think it’s for separating the pages.

19.

Revísalo para asegurar que no haya errores.

Look it over to make sure there aren’t any mistakes.

20.

Para hacerlo, necesito el informe.

To do it, I need the report.

21.

¿Qué tengo que hacer para convencerle?

What do I have to do to convince him?

22.

¿Qué carretera debo coger para ir a Valencia?

What highway should I take to go to Valencia?

23.

Este dinero es por ser un buen niño y por ayudar a tu hermana.

This money is for being a good boy and for helping your sister.

24.

This is an opportunity to improve your English.

This is an opportunity to improve your English.

25.

This is important for your future.

This is important for your future.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 11


LIST 10 - Hope / Wait / Expect / Look forward to

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Espero que sepas lo que haces.

I hope you know what you’re doing.

2.

¿A quién estás esperando?

Who are you waiting for?

3.

Espero una llamada en unos 20 minutos.

I’m expecting a call in about 20 minutes.

4.

¿Qué esperabas?

What did you expect?

5.

Espero que todo salga bien.

I hope everything turns out okay.

6.

Espero con ilusión tu carta.

I’m looking forward to your letter.

7.

Les esperábamos a las tres.

We were expecting them at 3 o’clock.

8.

Estábamos esperándoles hasta las tres.

We were waiting for them until 3 o’clock.

9.

Nos cansamos de esperarles.

We got tired of waiting for them.

10.

Espero que no estés esperando un niño.

I hope you’re not expecting a baby.

11.

¿Cuándo esperas que llegue el informe?

When do you expect the report to arrive?

12.

No me gusta tener que esperar.

I don’t like having to wait.

13.

Espero que no tengas que esperarle mucho tiempo.

I hope you don’t have to wait for him for a long time.

14.

Esperas mucho de tu gente.

You expect a lot from your people.

15.

Y espero que mi gente espere mucho de mí también.

And I hope my people expect a lot from me too.

16.

Hola, Pedro. No te esperaba.

Hi, Peter. I wasn’t expecting you.

17.

Esperábamos tener un hijo pero ahora sabemos que estamos esperando una hija.

We were hoping to have a son but now we know we are expecting a daughter.

18.

Esperábamos mucha más gente.

We were expecting a lot more people.

19.

Espero (con ilusión) tu contestación.

I’m looking forward to your answer.

20.

Esperamos (con ilusión) conocer a tu nueva esposa.

We’re looking forward to meeting your new wife.

21.

No esperábamos que te casaras tan rápido.

We didn’t expect you to get married so quickly.

22.

¿Qué puedes esperar de una persona como Morgan?

What can you expect from a person like Morgan?

23.

Espero que a Morgan no se le olvide la cita.

I hope Morgan doesn’t forget the appointment.

24.

Esperaban más de ti.

They were expecting more from you.

25.

Espérame.

Wait for me.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 12


Vaughan

LIST 11 - So-such / So that / Like-as

S Y S T E M S

1.

Estas listas son tan aburridas que me deprimo.

These lists are so boring that I get depressed.

2.

Son listas tan aburridas que me deprimo.

They are such boring lists that I get depressed.

3.

Esa película era tan mala que me fui.

That film was so bad that I left.

4.

Era una película tan mala que me fui.

It was such a bad film that I left.

5.

El coche era tan caro que no lo compré.

The car was so expensive that I didn’t buy it.

6.

Era un coche tan caro que no lo compré.

It was such an expensive car that I didn’t buy it.

7.

Nunca he visto a un hombre tan testarudo.

I’ve never seen such a stubborn man.

8.

Nunca he tomado una paella tan buena.

I’ve never had such a good paella.

9.

Gano dinero para que tú lo puedas gastar.

I earn money so that you can spend it.

10.

He venido aquí para que me puedas ayudar.

I’ve come here so that you can help me.

11.

Estoy aprendiendo inglés para poder mejorar mi posición.

I’m learning English so that I can improve my position.

12.

Lo hacemos para que ellos no se quejen.

We do it so that they don’t complain.

13.

Trabajo como profesor.

I work as a teacher.

14.

Trabajo como un esclavo.

I work like a slave.

15.

Estoy aquí como representante de Pedro.

I’m here as Peter’s representative.

16.

Estoy aquí como una especie de asesor.

I’m here as a kind of advisor.

17.

Os hablo como miembro del comité asesor.

I’m speaking to you as a member of the advisory committee.

18.

Él habla como un niño.

He talks like a child.

19.

Él habla como si supiera lo que pasó.

He talks as if he knew what happened.

20.

Él habla como yo.

He talks like me.

21.

Son como nosotros.

They are like us.

22.

Son tan altos como nosotros.

They are as tall as we are.

23.

Conforme avanzas, te darás cuenta de que es fácil.

As you advance, you will realize that it’s easy.

24.

A medida que te hagas más mayor, tendrás que cumplir más reglas.

As you get older, you will have to conform to more rules.

25.

Es como si estuviéramos sin gravedad.

It’s as if we were without gravity.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 13


LIST 12 - The more… the more / No matter

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Cuanto más fumo, más toso.

The more I smoke, the more I cough.

2.

Cuanto más bebo, más me emborracho.

The more I drink, the drunker I get.

3.

Cuanto más la veo, más la quiero.

The more I see her, the more I love her.

4.

Cuanto antes mejor.

The sooner, the better.

5.

Cuanto más trabajas, más ganas.

The more you work, the more you earn.

6.

Cuanto más estudias, más aprendes.

The more you study, the more you learn.

7.

Cuanto más rápido conduces, más pronto llegas.

The faster you drive, the sooner you arrive.

8.

Por mucho que estudies, no aprenderás más.

No matter how hard you study, you won’t learn any more.

9.

Cuanto más te enseño, mejor hablas.

The more I teach you, the better you speak.

10.

Cuanto más te conozco, más gracioso me pareces.

The more I get to know you, the funnier you seem to me.

11.

Cuanto más grande es un tomate, peor sabe.

The bigger a tomato is, the worse it tastes.

12.

Cuanto más tarde vienes, mejor.

The later you come, the better.

13.

Te respaldaré pase lo que pase.

I’ll back you up no matter what happens.

14.

Cuanto más rico eres, más problemas tienes.

The richer you are, the more problems you have.

15.

Por muy bien que lo escribas, no lo aceptarán.

No matter how well you write it, they won’t accept it.

16.

Por mucho que ganes, no podrás comprarlo.

No matter how much you earn, you won’t be able to buy it.

17.

Por muy rápido que conduzcas, no llegarás a tiempo.

No matter how fast you drive, you won’t arrive on time.

18.

Por muy alto que seas, el equipo no te contratará.

No matter how tall you are, the team won’t hire you.

19.

Por muchas clases que recibas, no aprenderás más.

No matter how many classes you receive, you won’t learn any more.

20.

Por mucho que le regales, ella no te hará caso.

No matter how much you give her, she won’t pay any attention to you.

21.

Cuanto más despacio conduzcas, más tarde llegarás.

The slower you drive, the later you’ll arrive.

22.

Cuanto menos vayas allí, mejor.

The less you go there, the better.

23.

Cuantos menos cigarros fumes, menos toserás.

The fewer cigarettes you smoke, the less you’ll cough.

24.

Cuanto más estudies estas listas, más aprenderás.

The more you study these lists, the more you’ll learn.

25.

Por muy a menudo que lo hagas, no lo harás mejor.

No matter how often you do it, you won’t do it better.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 14


LIST 13 - In spite of / Despite / Although / Even though / Even if / Even / Not even

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

1.

Voy a ir a pesar del tiempo.

I’m going to go in spite of the weather.

2.

Voy a verle a pesar de tu opinión.

I’m going to see him despite your opinion.

3.

Voy a ir a pesar de que está lloviendo.

I’m going to go in spite of the fact that it’s raining.

4.

Voy a verle a pesar de que estás en contra de la idea.

I’m going to see him despite the fact that you’re against the idea.

5.

Voy a ir aunque llueva.

I’m going to go even if it rains.

6.

Voy a ir aunque está lloviendo.

I’m going to go even though it’s raining.

7.

Ni siquiera la lluvia me detendrá.

Not even the rain will stop me.

8.

Aunque me gusta la cerveza, no la suelo beber.

Although I like beer, I don’t usually drink it.

9.

Aunque me dieras un millón de dólares, no lo haría.

Even if you gave me a million dollars, I wouldn’t do it.

10.

Aunque es amigo mío, no pienso invitarle.

Even though he’s a friend of mine, I’m not planning to invite him.

11.

Aunque fuera amigo mío, no le invitaría.

Even if he were a friend of mine, I wouldn’t invite him.

12.

Todo el mundo se puso a reír, incluso el profesor.

Everyone started laughing, even the teacher.

13.

Ni siquiera le conozco.

I don’t even know him.

14.

Ni siquiera estoy listo.

I’m not even ready.

15.

Ni siquiera nos visitaron.

They didn’t even visit us.

16.

Ni siquiera me han llamado.

They haven’t even called me.

17.

Ni siquiera podíamos hablar con él.

We couldn’t even talk to him.

18.

Lo haré a pesar de que no están de acuerdo.

I’ll do it in spite of the fact that they don’t agree.

19.

Aunque no están de acuerdo, lo haré.

Even though they don’t agree, I’ll do it.

20.

Es incluso más difícil de lo que pensaba.

It’s even harder than I thought.

21.

Aunque tuviera el dinero, no te lo daría.

Even if I had the money, I wouldn’t give it to you.

22.

Aunque tengo el dinero, no pienso dártelo.

Even though I have the money, I’m not planning to give it to you.

23.

Aunque se negaron a financiarnos, lo construimos.

Even though they refused to finance us, we built it.

24.

Aunque se niegue a financiarnos, lo construiremos.

Even if they refuse to finance us, we’ll build it.

25.

Lo construiremos a pesar de su negativa.

We’ll build it despite their refusal.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 15


Vaughan

LIST 14 - Most / None / All / Both / A few / Either / Neither

S Y S T E M S

1.

Quiero o el rojo o el verde, no los dos.

I want either the red one or the green one, not both.

2.

No quiero ni el rojo ni el verde.

I want neither the red one nor the green one.

3.

No quiero ni el uno ni el otro.

I don’t want either one.

4.

Tengo unas cuantas preguntas que hacerte.

I have a few questions to ask you.

5.

La mayoría de la gente aquí fuma.

Most people here smoke.

6.

Ninguno de ellos dos fuma.

Neither of them smokes.

7.

Ninguno de ellos tres fuma.

None of them smoke.

8.

Todos ellos fuman.

All of them smoke.

9.

Los dos fuman.

Both of them smoke.

10.

¿Cuántas monjas hay en esta empresa? Ninguna.

How many nuns are there in this company? None.

11.

Bastantes de ellos vinieron a la fiesta.

Quite a few of them came to the party.

12.

Ninguno de ellos hicieron acto de presencia.

None of them showed up.

13.

La mayoría de las veces lo hago yo mismo.

Most of the time I do it myself.

14.

No queda ninguno.

There are none left. (There aren’t any left.)

15.

Cualquiera de los dos valdría.

Either one is okay.

16.

Nos quedan bastantes frases.

We have quite a few sentences left.

17.

Casi ninguno de ellos fuma.

Hardly any of them smoke.

18.

Algunos de ellos fuman.

Some of them smoke.

19.

Pocos de ellos fuman.

Few of them smoke.

20.

Unos cuantos fuman.

A few of them smoke.

21.

Tanto Pepe como Paco tomaron parte.

Both Pepe and Paco took part.

22.

Ninguno de los dos tomaron parte.

Neither of them took part. (Neither one of them…)

23.

Todo el mundo sabe que ninguno de los libros ha sido traducido.

Everyone knows that none of the books have been translated.

24.

Muchos de ellos comparten tu opinión.

Many of them share your opinion.

25.

Más o menos la mitad de ellos gana más que yo.

More or less half of them earn more than I do.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

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Vaughan

LIST 15 - The passive voice

S Y S T E M S

1.

Se está haciendo.

It’s being done.

2.

Se hace dos veces por semana.

It’s done twice a week.

3.

Se estaba haciendo cuando se fueron las luces.

It was being done when the lights went out.

4.

Se hizo ayer.

It was done yesterday.

5.

Se va a hacer.

It’s going to be done.

6.

Se hará en un futuro próximo.

It will be done in the near future.

7.

Se ha hecho varias veces.

It’s been done several times.

8.

Antes se hacía mucho.

It used to be done a lot.

9.

Se haría si hubiera tiempo.

It would be done if there were time.

10.

Se habría hecho si hubiera habido tiempo.

It would have been done if there had been time.

11.

Se puede hacer.

It can be done.

12.

Se podría hacer.

It could be done.

13.

Tiene que hacerse.

It has to be done.

14.

Debe hacerse.

It must be done.

15.

Debería hacerse.

It should be done.

16.

Puede que se haga.

It may be done.

17.

No se robó.

It wasn’t stolen.

18.

No se está comprando.

It’s not being bought.

19.

No se vende a menudo.

It isn’t sold often.

20.

Esa asignatura no se enseña aquí.

That subject isn’t taught here.

21.

No se ha prestado a nadie.

It hasn’t been lent to anyone.

22.

Antes se hacía mucho.

It used to be done a lot.

23.

Se hizo a mano.

It was made by hand.

24.

Siempre se hace a mano.

It’s always made by hand.

25.

Siempre se ha hecho a mano.

It’s always been made by hand.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 17


Vocabulary Booklet

3


Vaughan

LIST 16 - Phrasal verbs (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Si eso no quita la mancha, esto la quitará.

If that doesn’t take out the stain, this will take it out.

2.

Voy a llevar a mi mujer a pasear.

I’m going to take my wife out for a walk.

3.

Nadie ha asumido el control todavía.

Nobody has taken over yet.

4.

Este sillón ocupa mucho espacio.

This armchair takes up a lot of space.

5.

Yo te subiré hasta el despacho del presidente.

I’ll take you up to the president’s office.

6.

Él te absorberá mucho de tu tiempo.

He’ll take up a lot of your time.

7.

No quiero entrar en esa cuestión.

I don’t want to go into that matter.

8.

Tengo que volver a la oficina.

I have to go back to the office.

9.

Él siguió hablando horas y horas.

He went on talking for hours.

10.

Voy a bajar a la primera planta.

I’m going to go down to the first floor.

11.

No lo estás haciendo bien.

You’re not going about it right.

12.

Me llevo bien con ella.

I get along with her very well.

13.

El sol se puso a las 7:00.

The sun went down at 7:00.

14.

Caí enfermo con gripe.

I came down with the flu.

15.

Esa chica está detrás de mí desde hace un mes.

That girl has been after me for a month.

16.

¡A por ello!

Go for it!

17.

Tienes que entrar por aquella puerta.

You have to go in through that door.

18.

Cuando entres en la sala, no digas nada.

When you go into the room, don’t say anything.

19.

Terminamos hablando del precio de las manzanas.

We wound up talking about the price of apples.

20.

Mi despertador no sonó esta mañana.

My alarm clock didn’t go off this morning.

21.

La bomba estalló antes de que pudiera llegar la policía.

The bomb went off before the police could arrive.

22.

Pasemos al siguiente punto del orden del día.

Let’s go on to the next item on the agenda.

23.

A medida que pasa el tiempo, me doy cuenta de lo mucho que ella significaba para mí.

As time goes on, I realize how much she meant to me.

24.

La reunión seguirá unos 10 minutos más.

The meeting will go on for about 10 more minutes.

25.

Mi hija está cerca de cumplir los 17 años.

My daughter is going on 17.

c

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PAGE 19


Vaughan

LIST 17 - Phrasal verbs (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Se ha apagado el incendio. (Por sí solo)

The fire has gone out.

2.

Eso pasó de moda hace años.

That went out of fashion years ago.

3.

Se pusieron en huelga.

They went on strike.

4.

Ensayémoslo una vez más.

Let’s go over it one more time.

5.

¿Qué letra viene después de la K?

What letter comes after K?

6.

Vuelve… te necesito.

Come back… I need you.

7.

Pasa por mi casa antes de ir allí.

Come by my house before going there. (Drop by, stop by, pass by)

8.

¡Baja de ahí!

Come down from there!

9.

Se reduce a una cuestión de dinero.

It comes down to a question of money.

10.

Se reduce a una cuestión de dinero.

It boils down to a question of money.

11.

Este tipo de bolígrafo resulta muy útil.

This kind of pen really comes in handy.

12.

Nos has metido en un buen lío.

You got us into a real mess.

13.

¿Cómo vamos a salir de este lío?

How are we going to get out of this mess?

14.

Se ha despegado el sello.

The stamp came off.

15.

¡Venga! ¡Vamos!

Come on!

16.

Le vi cuando salía del ascensor.

I saw him when he was coming out of the elevator.

17.

Solo tres de las 10 fotos salieron bien.

Only three out of the 10 photos came out well.

18.

La revista se publica mensualmente.

The magazine comes out monthly.

19.

La presentación salió muy bien.

The presentation came out very well.

20.

¿Por qué no vienes a mi casa a tomar una copa?

Why don’t you come over to my place to have a drink?

21.

El total asciende a 3.000 euros.

The total comes to 3,000 euros.

22.

Ve al grano.

Get to the point.

23.

Vamos a vernos otra vez en algún momento.

Let’s get together again sometime.

24.

Tengo que preparar el presupuesto.

I have to draw up the budget.

25.

Cuento contigo. No puedes volver atrás.

I’m counting on you.You can’t back out.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 20


Vaughan

LIST 18 - Phrasal verbs (3)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Te respaldaré.

I’ll back you up.

2.

Lo solucionaremos.

We’ll work it out.

3.

Tengo muy poca información en que basarme.

I have very little information to work on.

4.

Sus planes fracasaron.

Their plans didn’t work out.

5.

ONU significa “Organización de Naciones Unidas”.

The U.N. stands for “United Nations”.

6.

Destacas entre la gente de tu edad.

You stand out among the people of your age.

7.

¿Qué has averiguado?

What did you find out? (Usamos el pasado.)

8.

No rompas esa foto.

Don’t tear up that photo.

9.

Es una foto de mi ex novia y quiero romperla.

It’s a photo of my ex-girlfriend and I want to tear it up.

10.

Derribaron la casa.

They tore down the house.

11.

No puedo arrancar esta pegatina. ¿Me la arrancas?

I can’t tear off this sticker. Can you tear it off for me?

12.

No puedo arrancar esta página. ¿Me la arrancas?

I can’t tear out this page. Can you tear it out for me?

13.

Me aseguraré de que ella esté allí puntualmente.

I’ll see to it that she’s there on time.

14.

Tengo la capacidad de ver el futuro.

I have the ability to see into the future.

15.

Voy a ir a la estación a despedirles.

I’m going to the station to see them off.

16.

Tenemos que idear algo y rápido.

We have to think something up fast.

17.

No consumas toda la batería hoy.

Don’t use up all the battery today.

18.

Me gusta pasear por la fábrica.

I like to walk around the factory.

19.

Ten cuidado con los rateros.

Watch out for pickpockets.

20.

Deberías vigilar tus propios intereses.

You should watch out for your own interests.

21.

Pongámonos a trabajar.

Let’s get to work.

22.

El rumor se difundió rápidamente.

The rumour got around quickly.

23.

Voy a dejar de fumar.

I’m going to give up smoking.

24.

La fábrica despedía un olor horrible.

The factory gave off a horrible smell.

25.

¿He omitido algunos verbos compuestos?

Have I left out any phrasal verbs?

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 21


Vaughan

LIST 19 - Phrasal verbs (4)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Pepe abrirá la reunión con una breve presentación.

Pepe will lead off the meeting with a brief presentation.

2.

¿Dónde hemos parado antes del descanso?

Where did we leave off before the break?

3.

Nos sobran 10 chuletas de cordero.

We have 10 lamb chops left over.

4.

No debemos disminuir los esfuerzos.

We mustn’t let up.

5.

Los precios se estabilizarán para mediados de año.

Prices will level off by mid-year.

6.

Había libros tirados por todas partes.

Books were lying around everywhere.

7.

Se le iluminó la cara.

His face lit up.

8.

¿No podemos adelantar la fecha?

Can’t we move up the date?

9.

Deberíamos retrasar la fecha.

We should move back the date.

10.

Esto nos abrirá nuevas oportunidades de negocio.

This will open up new business opportunities for us.

11.

No deberías dejar pasar una oportunidad como esta.

You shouldn’t pass up an opportunity like this one.

12.

¿Cuándo vas a devolverme el dinero?

When are you going to pay me back?

13.

Hemos saldado nuestras deudas.

We’ve paid off our debts.

14.

Esto me liberará para hacer otras cosas.

This will free me up to do other things.

15.

Terminémoslo ya de una vez.

Let’s get it over with.

16.

Me crié en un barrio peligroso.

I grew up in a dangerous neighborhood.

17.

Quieren que yo presente mi dimisión.

They want me to hand in my resignation.

18.

¿Qué tienes puesto?

What do you have on?

19.

Morgan ha dado con una idea que podría resolver la situación.

Morgan has hit on an idea that could solve the situation.

20.

Él siempre salta de un tema a otro.

He always jumps from one subject to another.

21.

Quisiera señalar lo importante que es este tema.

I would like to point out how important this subject is.

22.

¿Podemos posponer la reunión hasta mañana?

Can we put off the meeting until tomorrow?

23.

La situación exige una solución creativa.

The situation calls for a creative solution.

24.

Tuve que hacerlo de nuevo.

I had to do it over.

25.

Tuve que empezar de nuevo.

I had to start over.

c

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PAGE 22


Vaughan

LIST 20 - Phrasal verbs (5)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Eso no explica lo que pasó.

That doesn’t account for what happened.

2.

Tienes que dejar un margen para gastos imprevistos.

You have to allow for unforeseen expenses.

3.

La factura global asciende a 1.000 dólares.

The overall bill amounts to $1,000.

4.

No puedo distinguir el uno del otro.

I can’t tell them apart.

5.

Tira eso.

Throw that away.

6.

No deberías decidir eso de forma precipitada.

You shouldn’t rush into that.

7.

Él entró corriendo, me saludó y se fue corriendo.

He rushed in, said hello, and then rushed out.

8.

Esto ocupa demasiado espacio.

This takes up too much space.

9.

Este libro trata de los problemas del Tercer Mundo.

This book deals with Third World problems.

10.

Me muero por verla.

I’m dying to see her.

11.

La reunión no acababa nunca.

The meeting dragged on forever.

12.

El plan se vino abajo.

The plan fell through.

13.

Quiero sondearle sobre el tema.

I want to feel him out on the subject.

14.

Tengo ganas de hacer otra cosa.

I feel like doing something else.

15.

Céntrate en tu trabajo.

Focus on your job.

16.

Le echaron de la reunión.

They kicked him out of the meeting.

17.

No cuentes conmigo.

Count me out.

18.

Él se ha hecho con una buena reputación.

He’s built up a good reputation.

19.

Intenta calmarles.

Try to calm them down.

20.

Tenemos que tomar medidas enérgicas contra esa clase de comportamiento.

We have to crack down on that kind of behavior.

21.

Nunca se me ocurrió.

It never crossed my mind.

22.

Necesitamos conseguir que se comprometan con una fecha.

We need to pin them down to a date.

23.

Mantenme informado.

Keep me posted.

24.

Debemos seguir adelante con el plan.

We should push ahead with the plan.

25.

Explícame eso una vez más.

Run that by me one more time.

c

Vaughan Systems, 2004. Reservados todos los derechos.

PAGE 23


Vaughan

LIST 21 - Common expressions (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Lo harán siempre que les respaldes.

They’ll do it as long as you back them up.

2.

Como regla general, no fumo en clase.

As a general rule, I don’t smoke in class.

3.

Que yo sepa, no han hecho nada todavía.

As far as I know, they haven’t done anything yet.

4.

En cuanto a mí, pueden hacer lo que quieran.

As far as I’m concerned, they can do whatever they want.

5.

Ya he hablado con él detenidamente sobre el asunto.

I’ve already spoken to him at length about the matter.

6.

En el mejor de los casos, recibiremos el tercer premio.

At best, we will receive the third prize.

7.

¿No sabrías por casualidad dónde está Pepe?

You wouldn’t know, by any chance, where Pepe is?

8.

Juan es, con mucha diferencia, el mejor de la clase.

John is by far the best in the class.

9.

En cuanto a ese tema, no tengo más que decir.

Concerning that subject, I have nothing more to say.

10.

El coste de la vida es muy alto aquí.

The cost of living is very high here.

11.

El nivel de vida en mi país es muy alto.

The standard of living in my country is very high.

12.

Debido a circunstancias imprevistas, nos vemos obligados a cancelar el espectáculo.

Due to unforeseen circumstances, we are forced to call off the show.

13.

Te daré un toque mañana por la mañana. (Por teléfono)

I’ll give you a ring tomorrow morning.

14.

Si prestas atención en clase, a la larga aprenderás mucho.

If you pay attention in class, eventually you’ll learn a lot.

15.

Voy a la clínica un día sí y otro no.

I go to the clinic every other day.

16.

Me voy de esta empresa para siempre.

I’m leaving this company for good.

17.

Utiliza las cifras preliminares por ahora.

Use the preliminary figures for the time being.

18.

Él siempre está de mal humor los lunes.

He’s always in a bad mood on Mondays.

19.

Siempre está de buen humor los viernes.

He’s always in a good mood on Fridays.

20.

Además de estos problemas, hay otros también.

In addition to those problems, there are others too.

21.

Si me pagas por adelantado, te haré un descuento.

If you pay me in advance, I’ll give you a discount.

22.

¿Quién es el encargado de este proyecto?

Who’s in charge of this project?

23.

En todo caso, creo que deberías hablar con tu jefe.

In any case, I think you should talk to your boss.

24.

Hice un análisis en profundidad del tema.

I made an in-depth analysis of the subject.

25.

En resumidas cuentas, estamos en quiebra.

In short, we’re bankrupt.

c

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Vaughan

LIST 22 - Common expressions (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

En términos de beneficios, el año ha sido bueno.

In terms of profits, the year has been good.

2.

A pesar de la escasez de agua, hemos logrado conservar el césped en buenas condiciones.

In spite of the water shortage, we’ve managed to keep the grass in good condition.

3.

A la larga, todos saldremos ganando.

In the long run, we will all come out ahead.

4.

Estaré de regreso en 15 minutos. Mientras tanto, repasad vuestros apuntes.

I’ll be back in 15 minutes. In the meantime, go over your notes.

5.

En teoría, el negocio va muy bien.

In theory, the business is going very well.

6.

En vista de los problemas, he decidido cancelarlo.

In view of the problems, I’ve decided to cancel it.

7.

¿Me lo podrías dar por escrito, por favor?

Could you give it to me in writing please?

8.

Da igual que seas alto o bajo.

It doesn’t matter whether you’re tall or short.

9.

Trae tu agenda por si acaso.

Bring your diary just in case.

10.

Hemos perdido el contacto debido a un malentendido.

We’ve lost contact on account of a misunderstanding.

11.

Sin duda tienes noticia de los cambios recientes.

No doubt you’ve heard about the recent changes.

12.

Lo hice a propósito.

I did it on purpose.

13.

En nombre de la Dirección, quiero expresar su agradecimiento a todos los empleados por los excelentes resultados.

On behalf of the management, I want to thank all the employees for the excellent results.

14.

Tuve un accidente camino de la oficina.

I had an accident on the way to the office.

15.

En términos generales, estoy de acuerdo con el plan.

On the whole, I agree with the plan.

16.

Las cosas están empezando a escapar a nuestro control.

Things are starting to get out of control.

17.

¿Crees que vale la pena?

Do you think it’s worth it?

18.

Me siento algo fuera de lugar aquí.

I feel somewhat out of place here.

19.

Llegaron sanos y salvos.

They arrived safe and sound.

20.

Antes de entrar en esta empresa, yo era autónomo.

Prior to joining this company, I was self-employed.

21.

Tardé mucho en romper el hielo con él.

It took me a long time to break the ice with him.

22.

Estoy dispuesto a hacer lo que sea siempre que sea legal.

I’m willing to do anything as long as it’s legal.

23.

Hasta cierto punto, estoy de acuerdo contigo.

To a certain extent, I agree with you.

24.

Aquello fue la gota que colmó el vaso.

That was the last straw.

25.

¿Quién lleva la voz cantante aquí?

Who runs the show here?

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Vaughan

LIST 23 - Common expressions (3)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Tarde o temprano, te arrepentirás de haberlo hecho.

Sooner or later, you’ll regret having done it.

2.

Estuve en contacto con él ayer.

I was in touch with him yesterday.

3.

Siempre les confundo. Se parecen mucho.

I always get them mixed up. They look a lot alike.

4.

Ganaremos más tiempo si se lo mandamos por fax.

We’ll gain more time if we fax it to them.

5.

El proyecto empezó con buen pie.

The project got off to a good start.

6.

El proyecto empezó con mal pie.

The project got off to a bad start.

7.

No puedo deshacerme de este resfriado.

I can’t get rid of this cold.

8.

Vigílale. Personalmente, no me fío de él.

Keep an eye on him. Personally, I don’t trust him.

9.

Ten presente que deben estar listos para mañana.

Keep in mind that they must be ready by tomorrow.

10.

Tendré que recurrir a enchufes para conseguir eso.

I’ll have to pull some strings to get that.

11.

No puedes confiar en él para las cosas importantes.

You can’t rely on him for important things.

12.

Tenemos que recurrir a financiación ajena.

We have to resort to outside financing.

13.

No podemos contratar a más gente por ahora.

We can’t hire any new people for the time being.

14.

Corres el riesgo de perder tu empleo.

You run the risk of losing your job.

15.

Podemos descartar la segunda alternativa.

We can rule out the second alternative.

16.

Tienes que dar ejemplo delante de la gente.

You have to set an example in front of the people.

17.

Déjame ponerte un ejemplo.

Let me give you an example.

18.

Si tienes que competir con él, no tienes posibilidad.

If you have to compete with him, you don’t stand a chance.

19.

Tengo que volver atrás y partir de cero otra vez.

I have to go back and start from scratch again.

20.

Sigamos en contacto.

Let’s stay in touch.

21.

Tengo la costumbre de pensar en voz alta.

I have the habit of thinking out loud.

22.

Tengo algunos cabos sueltos que atar primero.

I have to tie some loose ends first.

23.

No iré a no ser que vengas conmigo.

I won’t go unless you come with me.

24.

Toda empresa tiene sus altibajos.

Every company has its ups and downs.

25.

Mientras que a mí me gusta el helado de chocolate, a mi mujer le gusta el helado de vainilla.

Whereas I like chocolate ice cream, my wife likes vanilla ice cream.

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Vaughan

LIST 24 - Common expressions (4)

S Y S T E M S

1.

¡Qué follón!

What a mess!

2.

Él es sin duda la persona más inteligente aquí.

He’s, without a doubt, the most intelligent person here.

3.

Mis ventas han crecido por el “boca a boca”.

My sales have grown by word-of-mouth.

4.

Es tan despistado que se le olvidó su cumpleaños.

He’s so absent-minded that he forgot his birthday.

5.

¿Hasta dónde llegamos con esto ayer?

How far did we get with this yesterday?

6.

Hasta ahora, hemos ganado todos los partidos.

So far we’ve won every game.

7.

La mandé a verte para que la conocieras.

I sent her to see you so that you could meet her.

8.

Lo haré en seguida.

I’ll do it right away.

9.

Según mi secretaria, no hubo llamadas.

According to my secretary, there weren’t any calls.

10.

Soy consciente de las posibles repercusiones.

I’m aware of the possible repercussions.

11.

Estoy confundido en cuanto a quién es quién.

I’m mixed up as to who is who.

12.

Le gusta correr riesgos.

He likes to take risks.

13.

Estamos por delante de la competencia.

We’re ahead of the competition.

14.

Las cosas han ido más allá de mi control.

Things have gone beyond my control.

15.

A propósito, ¿ha venido Paco hoy?

By the way, has Paco come today?

16.

Lo haré a primera hora de la mañana.

I’ll do it first thing in the morning.

17.

Si es necesario, puedo traer a Juan para echarte una mano.

If need be, I can bring John to give you a hand.

18.

En cualquier caso, creo que deberíamos llamarles.

In any event, I think we should call them.

19.

Mi discurso causó el efecto contrario.

My speech caused the opposite effect.

20.

Al contrario, creo que conseguiste lo que querías.

On the contrary, I think you achieved what you wanted.

21.

El partido fue cancelado debido al tiempo.

The game was called off because of the weather.

22.

Les contrataremos a condición de que entreguen la mercancía antes de Navidades.

We’ll contract them provided they deliver the merchandise before Christmas.

23.

Estoy harto de estas listas.

I’m fed up with these lists.

24.

Estoy harto de estas listas.

I’m sick and tired of these lists.

25.

Ya es el colmo. No voy a tratar más con él.

I’ve had it. I’m not going to deal with him anymore.

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Vaughan

LIST 25 - Adjective enrichment (1)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Hay algo suelto en el sobre.

There’s something loose in the envelope.

2.

El tornillo está demasiado flojo.

The screw is too loose.

3.

Es un lugar muy solitario.

It’s a very lonely place.

4.

La música está demasiado alta.

The music is too loud.

5.

Hicieron un trabajo chapucero.

They did a lousy job.

6.

Ella tiene una voz encantadora.

She has a lovely voice.

7.

Ha sido una experiencia significativa.

It’s been a meaningful experience.

8.

Estas cifras no significan nada para mí.

These figures are totally meaningless to me.

9.

Tu mesa de trabajo está muy desordenada.

Your desk is very messy.

10.

Es un clima muy templado.

It’s a very mild climate.

11.

Esta información puede despistar a la gente.

This information can be misleading for people.

12.

Estás equivocado.

You’re mistaken.

13.

Mi jefe es una persona muy voluble.

My boss is a very moody person.

14.

No seas tan ingenuo.

Don’t be so naïve.

15.

Soy un poco miope.

I’m a little near-sighted.

16.

Esta es una situación extraña.

This is an odd situation.

17.

Tienes que hacerlo así. De otro modo, no te podré ayudar.

You have to do it this way. Otherwise, I won’t be able to help you.

18.

Pepe es una persona extrovertida.

Pepe is an outgoing person.

19.

Fue una experiencia dolorosa para todo el mundo.

It was a painful experience for everyone.

20.

Te veo pálido.

You look pale.

21.

Estoy muy satisfecho con los resultados.

I’m very pleased with the results.

22.

No te preocupes. Tenemos tiempo de sobra.

Tenemos tiempo de sobra. Don’t worry.We have plenty of time.

23.

Es inútil continuar.Ya han tomado una decisión.

It’s pointless to go on. They’ve already made a decision.

24.

Has hecho un esfuerzo digno de elogio.

You’ve made a praiseworthy effort.

25.

Tenemos unos asuntos urgentes que atender.

We have some pressing matters to attend to.

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Vaughan

LIST 26 - Adjective enrichment (2)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Él es propenso a salirse por la tangente.

He’s prone to go off on tangents.

2.

Estoy orgulloso de ser miembro de esta organización.

I’m proud to be a member of this organization.

3.

Fue una decisión prudente y sensata.

It was a wise decision.

4.

Quiero ver los datos en su estado bruto.

I want to see the raw data.

5.

Es tranquilizador saber que Pepe está llevando el proyecto.

It’s reassuring to know that Pepe is handling the project.

6.

Es refrescante recibir buenas noticias por una vez.

It’s refreshing to receive good news for a change.

7.

Pepe es una persona que hace bien lo que se le encarga.

Pepe is a reliable person.

8.

Hemos conseguido algo extraordinario.

We’ve achieved something remarkable.

9.

Soy reacio a llamarles hasta que no tengamos más información.

I’m reluctant to call them until we have more information.

10.

Ella es una persona ingeniosa.

She’s a resourceful person.

11.

Él es una persona muy inquieta.

He’s a very restless person.

12.

Ha sido una experiencia gratificante.

It’s been a rewarding experience.

13.

Es demasiado arriesgado.

It’s too risky.

14.

Pasé un período difícil hasta aprender este trabajo.

I had a rough time until I learned this job.

15.

Ella es a veces maleducada con sus subordinados.

She’s sometimes rude to her subordinates.

16.

Me asusta cualquier cosa que corra por el suelo.

I’m scared of anything that runs along the floor.

17.

Él es una persona muy egocéntrica.

He’s a very self-centered person.

18.

Ella es una persona con mucha confianza en sí misma.

She’s a very self-confident person.

19.

¿Por qué eres tan tímido?

Why are you so self-conscious?

20.

Soy autónomo.

I’m self-employed.

21.

Él es una persona independiente que consigue las cosas por sus propios recursos.

He’s a self-reliant person.

22.

No seas egoísta.

Don’t be selfish.

23.

Ella tiene una lengua muy afilada.

She has a very sharp tongue.

24.

No seas tímido.

Don’t be shy.

25.

Eres muy hábil con la gente.

You’re very skilful with people.

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Vaughan

LIST 27 - Adjective enrichment (3)

S Y S T E M S

1.

Ha habido un ligero cambio en mis planes.

There’s been a slight change in my plans.

2.

Quiero ser esbelto como tú.

I want to be slim like you.

3.

Las cosas marchan sin sobresaltos.

Things are running smoothly.

4.

Las ventas han subido de manera constante desde que Morgan se hizo cargo del departamento.

Sales have risen steadily since Morgan took over the department.

5.

Estás haciendo progresos continuos.

You’re making steady progress.

6.

Él es una persona sincera, franca y recta.

He’s a straightforward person.

7.

La habitación está un poco cargada.

The room is a little stuffy.

8.

Es sorprendente lo bien que hablan inglés.

It’s surprising how well they speak English.

9.

Ha sido un día muy estresante.

It’s been a very stressful day.

10.

Tienes que ser más discreto en reuniones como esa.

You have to be more tactful in meetings like that one.

11.

La comida es muy sabrosa.

The food is very tasty.

12.

Esto solo es un plan provisional.

This is only a tentative plan.

13.

Has hecho un trabajo maravilloso.

You’ve done a terrific job.

14.

Has hecho un trabajo concienzudo.

You’ve done a thorough job.

15.

Tenemos que seguir un programa muy apretado.

We have to follow a very tight schedule.

16.

Es una tarea que consume mucho tiempo.

It’s a time-consuming task.

17.

Eres un jefe duro.

You’re a tough boss.

18.

Él es de fiar.

He’s trustworthy.

19.

Se debió a circunstancias inevitables.

It was due to unavoidable circumstances.

20.

Recibí una visita inesperada.

I received an unexpected visit.

21.

Es injusto decir eso.

It’s unfair to say that.

22.

Todavía nos quedan unos asuntos que rematar.

We still have some unfinished business left.

23.

Es una oportunidad única.

It’s a unique opportunity.

24.

Es improbable.

It’s unlikely.

25.

Tu jefe está muy disgustado con tu actitud.

Your boss is very upset with your attitude.

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LIST 28

S Y S T E M S

1.

UN BOCAZAS

A LOUDMOUTH

2.

POR LO VISTO, AL PARECER

APPARENTLY

3.

MEZCLA

BLEND

4.

CUMPLIDO

COMPLIMENT

5.

DANES

DANISH

6.

TERREMOTO

EARTHQUAKE

7.

CARACTERÍSTICAS

FEATURES

8.

ENCABEZAMIENTO

HEADING

9.

EN MEDIO

IN THE WAY

10.

PERMISIVO

LENIENT

11.

NO OBSTANTE

NEVERTHELESS

12.

PERFIL

PROFILE

13.

MARCHA ATRÁS

REVERSE

14.

EGOÍSTA

SELFISH

15.

RANURA

SLOT

16.

SUBVENCIÓN

SUBSIDY

17.

LA VÍA LÁCTEA

THE MILKY WAY

18.

AGRADECER

TO APPRECIATE

19.

CUMPLIR CON

TO COMPLY WITH

20.

DESHACERSE DE

TO GET RID OF

21.

ORIENTAR

TO ORIENT

22.

OXIDARSE

TO RUST

23.

TENER ÉXITO, TRIUNFAR

TO SUCCEED

24.

SUBVALORAR

TO UNDERRATE

25.

VENIDERO

UPCOMING

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LIST 29

S Y S T E M S

1.

UN RECORDATORIO

A REMINDER

2.

CANDIDATO, SOLICITANTE

APPLICANT

3.

TENSIÓN SANGUÍNEA

BLOOD PRESSURE

4.

PREOCUPADO

CONCERNED

5.

GUARDERÍA

DAYCARE CENTER

6.

ECONÓMICAS

ECONOMICS

7.

PROMETIDO / A

FIANCÉ

8.

ARDOR (DE ESTÓMAGO)

HEART BURN

9.

INPRECISO

INACCURATE

10.

ESPERANZA DE VIDA

LIFE EXPECTANCY

11.

VIDA NOCTURNA

NIGHT LIFE

12.

RENTABILIDAD

PROFITABILITY

13.

ACERTIJO

RIDDLE

14.

ANTIGÜEDAD (EN UNA EMPRESA)

SENIORITY

15.

CARACOL

SNAIL

16.

BRONCEADO

SUNTAN

17.

LOS JUEGOS OLÍMPICOS

THE OLYMPIC GAMES

18.

EVALUAR,VALORAR

TO ASSESS

19.

TOSER

TO COUGH

20.

REGALAR (POR NO QUERER)

TO GIVE AWAY

21.

SUPERAR

TO OVERCOME

22.

DAR EJEMPLO

TO SET AN EXAMPLE

23.

RESUMIR

TO SUM UP

24.

DESATAR

TO UNTIE

25.

ASPIRADORA

VACUUM CLEANER

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LIST 30

S Y S T E M S

1.

UN CONTRATIEMPO

A SETBACK

2.

AGRADECIDO

APPRECIATIVE

3.

MOLESTO

BOTHERSOME

4.

CONCIENZUDO

CONSCIENTIOUS

5.

FECHA TOPE, PLAZO

DEADLINE

6.

EFICAZ

EFFECTIVE

7.

FLOTA

FLEET

8.

HEREDERO

HEIR

9.

CADA VEZ MÁS

INCREASINGLY

10.

PROBABLE

LIKELY

11.

BLOC PARA NOTAS

NOTEPAD

12.

PROMETEDOR

PROMISING

13.

RIVALIDAD

RIVALRY

14.

ACUERDO, ARREGLO

SETTLEMENT

15.

BLANDURA

SOFTNESS

16.

EXCEDENTE

SURPLUS

17.

LA CRUZ ROJA

THE RED CROSS

18.

APOYAR, RESPALDAR

TO BACK UP

19.

CHOCAR

TO CRASH

20.

HACER EL GANSO

TO GOOF OFF

21.

DESBORDAR

TO OVERFLOW

22.

AFILAR, SACAR PUNTA

TO SHARPEN

23.

RENDIRSE

TO SURRENDER

24.

PERDER TIEMPO (MALGASTAR)

TO WASTE TIME

25.

VIABILIDAD

VIABILITY

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LIST 31

S Y S T E M S

1.

ACENTO

ACCENT

2.

APROPIADAMENTE

APPROPRIATELY

3.

DE MENTE AMPLIA

BROAD-MINDED

4.

CONSUMIDOR

CONSUMER

5.

SORDO

DEAF

6.

EFICACIA

EFFECTIVENESS

7.

INUNDACIÓN

FLOOD

8.

DESAMPARADO

HELPLESS

9.

INGENIO

INGENUITY

10.

LANGOSTA (DE MAR)

LOBSTER

11.

PULPO

OCTOPUS

12.

ORGULLOSO

PROUD

13.

REALEZA

ROYALTY

14.

INDEMNIZACIÓN POR DESPIDO

SEVERANCE PAY

15.

AGRIO

SOUR

16.

ENCUESTA, SONDEO

SURVEY

17.

CUANTO ANTES MEJOR

THE SOONER THE BETTER

18.

ESTAR EN MEDIO

TO BE IN THE WAY

19.

RECORTAR, REDUCIR

TO CUT BACK

20.

QUEJARSE

TO GRIPE

21.

DERROCAR

TO OVERTHROW

22.

ACORTAR

TO SHORTEN

23.

BARRER

TO SWEEP

24.

ENSANCHAR

TO WIDEN

25.

CÍRCULO VICIOSO

VICIOUS CIRCLE

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LIST 32

S Y S T E M S

1.

EN CONSECUENCIA

ACCORDINGLY

2.

GAMA, SURTIDO

ARRAY

3.

BUROCRACIA

BUREAUCRACY

4.

CHIRIMBOLO

CONTRAPTION

5.

ENCANTADO

DELIGHTED

6.

ÁNIMO, ALIENTO

ENCOURAGEMENT

7.

GOMA ESPUMA

FOAM RUBBER

8.

DUDOSO

HESITANT

9.

LESIONADO

INJURED

10.

LOGÍSTICA

LOGISTICS

11.

EN CAMBIO

ON THE OTHER HAND

12.

MARIONETA

PUPPET

13.

RUINAS

RUINS

14.

VERGONZOSO

SHAMEFUL

15.

CHISPA

SPARK

16.

CISNE

SWAN

17.

EL ESTADO DEL BIENESTAR

THE WELFARE STATE

18.

SER GORDO

TO BE OVERWEIGHT

19.

CONSIDERAR

TO DEEM

20.

PASÁRSELO BIEN

TO HAVE A GOOD TIME

21.

FALLECER

TO PASS AWAY

22.

SUSPIRAR

TO SIGH

23.

ECHAR LA SIESTA

TO TAKE A NAP

24.

RESOLVER

TO WORK OUT

25.

VOLCAN

VOLCANO

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LIST 33

S Y S T E M S

1.

PRECISIÓN

ACCURACY

2.

QUE YO SEPA

AS FAR AS I KNOW

3.

CATÓLICO

CATHOLIC

4.

COMODIDAD

CONVENIENCE

5.

EXIGENTE

DEMANDING

6.

FONDO, AGUANTE

ENDURANCE

7.

POR AHORA, DE MOMENTO

FOR THE TIME BEING

8.

GANCHO, ANZUELO, GARFIO

HOOK

9.

LOCURA

INSANITY

10.

A LARGO PLAZO

LONG-TERM

11.

DE OTRO MODO, SI NO

OTHERWISE

12.

BASTANTES

QUITE A FEW

13.

RON

RUM

14.

JEREZ

SHERRY

15.

PICANTE, CONDIMENTADO

SPICY

16.

SUDOROSO

SWEATY

17.

TOZUDO

THICK-HEADED

18.

DERROTAR

TO BEAT

19.

EXIGIR

TO DEMAND

20.

INSINUAR

TO INSINUATE

21.

IRSE AMONTONANDO

TO PILE UP

22.

INCORPORARSE

TO SIT UP

23.

PARECERSE A (FORMA DE SER)

TO TAKE AFTER

24.

GRITAR

TO YELL

25.

BUITRE

VULTURE

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LIST 34

S Y S T E M S

1.

TALÓN DE AQUILES

ACHILLES HEEL

2.

ASFALTO

ASPHALT

3.

ALTO EL FUEGO

CEASE-FIRE

4.

CONVINCENTE

CONVINCING

5.

DINAMARCA

DENMARK

6.

NOVIAZGO FORMAL

ENGAGEMENT

7.

VISIÓN DE FUTURO, PREVISIÓN

FORESIGHT

8.

REHEN

HOSTAGE

9.

IMPLICACIÓN, INVOLUCRACIÓN

INVOLVEMENT

10.

LEAL

LOYAL

11.

ABRUMADOR

OVERWHELMING

12.

TRANQUILIZADOR

REASSURING

13.

TRISTEZA

SADNESS

14.

ESCASEZ (TEMPORAL)

SHORTAGE

15.

PORTAVOZ

SPOKESMAN

16.

PEZ ESPADA

SWORDFISH

17.

COMPLETO Y ESMERADO

THOROUGH

18.

DOBLAR

TO BEND

19.

DESPLEGAR

TO DEPLOY

20.

MANTENERSE EN FORMA

TO KEEP FIT

21.

REZAR

TO PRAY

22.

RESBALAR

TO SLIP

23.

ASUMIR EL MANDO

TO TAKE OVER

24.

DOLOR DE MUELA

TOOTHACHE

25.

GARANTÍA (SOBRE UN PRODUCTO)

WARRANTY

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Vaughan

LIST 35

S Y S T E M S

1.

ADQUISICIÓN

ACQUISITION

2.

A TODA COSTA

AT ALL COSTS

3.

RETO, DESAFÍO

CHALLENGE

4.

POLICÍA

COP

5.

MERECEDOR

DESERVING

6.

EMPRENDEDOR

ENTERPRISING

7.

QUINCENA

FORTNIGHT

8.

¿POR QUÉ?

HOW COME?

9.

NO TIENE SENTIDO

IT DOESN’T MAKE ANY SENSE

10.

LUJOSO

LUXURIOUS

11.

OSTRA

OYSTER

12.

RECREO

RECREATION

13.

AHORROS

SAVINGS

14.

PALA

SHOVEL

15.

CÓNYUGE

SPOUSE

16.

MANTEL

TABLECLOTH

17.

ESMERO

THOROUGHNESS

18.

CHANTAJEAR

TO BLACKMAIL

19.

ODIAR

TO DESPISE

20.

ECHAR A PATADAS

TO KICK OUT

21.

ANDAR CON DILACIONES, APLAZAR

TO PROCRASTINATE

22.

RONCAR

TO SNORE

23.

RASGAR, ROMPER (TELA, PAPEL)

TO TEAR

24.

PASTA DE DIENTES

TOOTHPASTE

25.

PAPELERA

WASTE BASKET

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Vaughan

LIST 36

S Y S T E M S

1.

VENTAJOSO

ADVANTAGEOUS

2.

DETENIDAMENTE

AT LENGTH

3.

TALONARIO DE CHEQUES

CHECKBOOK

4.

CORCHO

CORK

5.

DISPOSITIVO

DEVICE

6.

ENTORNO, MEDIO AMBIENTE

ENVIRONMENT

7.

ASUSTADO

FRIGHTENED

8.

HUMILDE

HUMBLE

9.

¡MENOS MAL!

IT’S A GOOD THING !

10.

VALOR DE MERCADO

MARKET VALUE

11.

LORO

PARROT

12.

REFERENCIA

REFERRAL

13.

CABEZA DE TURCO

SCAPEGOAT

14.

TÍMIDO

SHY

15.

ESTANCADO

STAGNANT

16.

MANSO

TAME

17.

CONSIDERACIÓN

THOUGHTFULNESS

18.

FAROLEAR

TO BLUFF

19.

ELABORAR, CONFECCIONAR

TO DRAW UP

20.

DESPEDIR (EN MASA)

TO LAY OFF

21.

PROPORCIONAR

TO PROVIDE

22.

RESOLVER

TO SOLVE

23.

PENSAR EN VOZ ALTA

TO THINK OUT LOUD

24.

TORNEO

TOURNAMENT

25.

ADINERADO, RICO

WEALTHY

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PAGE 39


Vaughan

LIST 37

S Y S T E M S

1.

CONSEJO, ASESORAMIENTO

ADVICE

2.

A EXPENSAS DE

AT THE EXPENSE OF

3.

LISTA DE VERIFICACIÓN

CHECKLIST

4.

COSTOSO

COSTLY

5.

DECEPCIONADO

DISAPPOINTED

6.

DE VEZ EN CUANDO

EVERY NOW AND THEN

7.

BRECHA, LAGUNA

GAP

8.

TENGO UN HAMBRE QUE NO VEAS

I’M STARVING

9.

NO VALE LA PENA

IT’S NOT WORTH IT

10.

COLCHÓN

MATTRESS

11.

NÓMINA

PAYROLL

12.

LAMENTABLE

REGRETFUL

13.

ESPANTAPÁJAROS

SCARECROW

14.

PECADO

SIN

15.

FONDO, AGUANTE

STAMINA

16.

AGUA DE GRIFO

TAP WATER

17.

AMENAZA

THREAT

18.

HERVIR

TO BOIL

19.

DARSE DE BAJA

TO DROP OUT

20.

ALARGAR

TO LENGTHEN

21.

DAR UN PUÑETAZO

TO PUNCH

22.

DERRAMAR, TIRAR

TO SPILL

23.

AMENAZAR

TO THREATEN

24.

CHALET ADOSADO

TOWNHOUSE

25.

CAPRICHOSO

WHIMSICAL

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Vaughan

LIST 38

S Y S T E M S

1.

ACOMODADO

AFFLUENT

2.

INTENTO

ATTEMPT

3.

BARBILLA

CHIN

4.

MOSTRADOR

COUNTER

5.

DESANIMADO

DISCOURAGED

6.

UN DÍA SI Y OTRO NO

EVERY OTHER DAY

7.

CHISMORREO

GOSSIP

8.

DESEQUILIBRIO

IMBALANCE

9.

MARFIL

IVORY

10.

DESORDENADO

MESSY

11.

SEMEJANTES

PEERS

12.

FIABILIDAD

RELIABILITY

13.

PLAN

SCHEME

14.

UN ESCÉPTICO

A SKEPTIC

15.

CONSTANTE Y EQUILIBRADO

STEADY

16.

SABROSO

TASTY

17.

UMBRAL

THRESHOLD

18.

BOTAR

TO BOUNCE

19.

TEÑIR

TO DYE

20.

TUMBARSE

TO LIE DOWN

21.

REUNIR LAS CONDICIONES

TO QUALIFY

22.

RIZAR EL RIZO

TO SPLIT HAIRS

23.

TIRAR (A LA BASURA)

TO THROW AWAY

24.

REMOLQUE

TRAILER

25.

SILBATO, PITO

WHISTLE

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Vaughan

LIST 39

S Y S T E M S

1.

OBJETIVO

AIM

2.

DOLOR DE ESPALDA

BACKACHE

3.

ALMEJAS

CLAMS

4.

VALOR,VALENTÍA

COURAGE

5.

DESCUBRIMIENTO

DISCOVERY

6.

AGOTADO, RENDIDO

EXHAUSTED

7.

PROMOCIÓN (ESCOLAR)

GRADUATING CLASS

8.

INAPROPIADO

IMPROPER

9.

POR SI ACASO

JUST IN CASE

10.

ENGAÑOSO

MISLEADING

11.

BUENA SALUD FÍSICA

PHYSICAL FITNESS

12.

DIGNO DE ELOGIO

REMARKABLE

13.

TIJERAS

SCISSORS

14.

ESCEPTICISMO

SKEPTICISM

15.

VOLANTE

STEERING WHEEL

16.

CONTRIBUYENTE

TAXPAYER

17.

TRONO

THRONE

18.

CRIAR, EDUCAR

TO BRING UP

19.

PERMITIR, POSIBILITAR

TO ENABLE

20.

ESPERAR CON ILUSIÓN

TO LOOK FORWARD TO

21.

REACCIONAR

TO REACT

22.

APUÑALAR

TO STAB

23.

HACER COSQUILLAS

TO TICKLE

24.

PERIODO DE PRUEBA

TRIAL PERIOD

25.

MAYORISTA

WHOLESALER

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Vaughan

LIST 40

S Y S T E M S

1.

ALIANZA

ALLIANCE

2.

GLOBO

BALLOON

3.

PRECIPICIO, ACANTILADO

CLIFF

4.

CANGREJO, NÉCORA

CRAB

5.

VERGONZOSO

DISGRACEFUL

6.

EXPERIMENTADO

EXPERIENCED

7.

TUMBA

GRAVE

8.

EN UN APRIETO

IN A PINCH

9.

NUDO

KNOT

10.

MONOPOLIO

MONOPOLY

11.

RATERO, CARTERISTA

PICKPOCKET

12.

ELIMINACIÓN

REMOVAL

13.

DESTORNILLADOR

SCREWDRIVER

14.

FLACO

SKINNY

15.

ESTEREOTIPO

STEREOTYPE

16.

TIERNO

TENDER

17.

APRETADO

TIGHT

18.

EXIGIR

TO CALL FOR

19.

SOBRESALIR, DESTACAR

TO EXCEL

20.

PARECERSE A

TO LOOK LIKE

21.

NEGARSE A

TO REFUSE

22.

DESTACAR, SOBRESALIR

TO STAND OUT

23.

ANDAR DE PUNTILLAS

TO TIPTOE

24.

TRAMPOSO

TRICKY

25.

PRUDENTE, JUICIOSO, SABIO

WISE

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Vaughan

LIST 41

S Y S T E M S

1.

ALMENDRA

ALMOND

2.

CEBADA

BARLEY

3.

PISTA, INDICIO

CLUE

4.

CHOQUE

CRASH

5.

INSATISFECHO

DISSATISFIED

6.

FECHA DE CADUCIDAD

EXPIRATION DATE

7.

AVARO

GREEDY

8.

EN CUALQUIER CASO

IN ANY CASE

9.

EXPERTO

KNOWLEDGEABLE

10.

HIPOTECA

MORTGAGE

11.

PELIGRO, ESCOLLO, TRAMPA

PITFALL

12.

RESERVADO

RESERVED

13.

GAVIOTA

SEA GULL

14.

CALUMNIA

SLANDER

15.

PALO

STICK

16.

FABULOSO, GENIAL

TERRIFIC

17.

HASTA CIERTO PUNTO

TO A CERTAIN EXTENT

18.

CALMARSE

TO CALM DOWN

19.

ESFUMARSE

TO FADE AWAY

20.

BURLARSE DE

TO MAKE FUN OF

21.

SOLTAR, LIBERAR

TO RELEASE

22.

SEGUIR EN CONTACTO

TO STAY IN TOUCH

23.

ENDURECER

TO TOUGHEN

24.

DIGNO DE CONFIANZA

TRUSTWORTHY

25.

SIN VALOR

WORTHLESS

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Vaughan

LIST 42

S Y S T E M S

1.

SIMPÁTICO

AMIABLE

2.

ALBORNOZ

BATHROBE

3.

CARBÓN

COAL

4.

COSECHA, CULTIVO

CROP

5.

UN INCONVENIENTE

A DRAWBACK

6.

INSTALACIONES

FACILITIES

7.

DIRECTRICES

GUIDELINES

8.

RESPONSABLE DE

IN CHARGE OF

9.

CHULETAS DE CORDERO

LAMB CHOPS

10.

LENGUA MATERNA

MOTHER TONGUE

11.

ENCHUFE

PLUG

12.

DE CARÁCTER FUERTE

RESILIENT

13.

SEMILLAS

SEEDS

14.

NEGRERO

SLAVE DRIVER

15.

ROÑOSO

STINGY

16.

LOS ARABES

THE ARABS

17.

LOGRAR

TO ACHIEVE

18.

ALCANZAR (DESDE ATRAS)

TO CATCH UP

19.

DESMAYAR

TO FAINT

20.

HACER USO DE

TO MAKE USE OF

21.

RESCATAR

TO RESCUE

22.

APESTAR

TO STINK

23.

ATRAPAR

TO TRAP

24.

ATÚN, BONITO

TUNA

25.

HERIDO

WOUNDED

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PAGE 45


Presentations & Public Speaking

Telephoning and conference calls Vocabulary for dealing with questions Interview evaluation sheet Vocabulary for business English


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

This is Sonia.

Answering a call

Sonia speaking. How can I help you? (Not 'I am Sonia!')

Excuse me, who's calling please?

Asking who is on the telephone

May I ask who's speaking? Who shall I say is calling? (Not 'Who is this?')

Could you please tell me the number of your Madrid branch?

Asking for a number

Could you give me the number of the Human Resources department? Do you have the number for....?

Is this the Customer Service Department? Could I speak to...

Asking for someone

Is Maria there/in? Could you put me through to Extension 123? Can I have Extension 123?

I'll just put you through.

Connecting someone

Can you hold the line? Can you hold on a minute/moment? Hold please.

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PAGE 47


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

I'm afraid Maria is not available at the moment.

When someone is not available

Maria's out/away at the moment... The line is busy; could you call back later?

Taking a message

Leaving a message

Can/Could/May I take a message? Would you like to leave a message?

Could I leave a message for her? Could you pass on a message to Sonia for me please?

Have I got this straight? Have I got that right?

Checking information

Let me just check the details... Just to confirm, you are arriving on the 27th, is that right?

I'm sorry, this connection is terrible. Could you repeat that please?

Problems with the line

I think there's some interference on the line. I'm sorry, I think we got cut off just then. You're breaking up – do you have a land line I could call you on?

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

TELEPHONE EXPRESSIONS

Thank you for calling. Is there anything else I can help you with?

Ending a call

Very nice to talk to you. If there's anything else, you can reach me on my mobile/ my extension is 8893. Talk to you again soon.

Add any further sentences you can think of‌

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PAGE 49


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

EXPRESSIONS FOR DEALING WITH QUESTIONS

Do you mind if I ask you whether… Could you tell me if…

Asking Questions – Polite

I’d be interested to know… I’d like to know … Would you mind telling me/us about…

Please do/ Go ahead/Certainly.

Answering Polite Questions

That’s a good point. That’s an interesting question. I’m glad you asked me/raised that.

Statement Questions

Make a statement with a question intonation or a question tag. E.g. - “The project won’t be finished on time?” Or “We’ve underestimated the budget, haven’t we?”

If you want to contradict a statement question, use ‘actually’ or ‘as a matter of fact.’

Contradicting a Statement Question

E.g. - “We’ve underestimated the budget, haven’t we? Actually, we’re right on target.” Or “The project won’t be finished on time? As a matter of fact, we expect to have completed the work by next week.”

I'd like to reassure you about that.

Giving Reassurance

There is no need for concern on that point. You need have no worries on that front. I can understand your concern but...

Add any further sentences you can think of…

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PAGE 50


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

INTERVIEW EVALUATION SHEET

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

c

START OF THE INTERVIEW * Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Verbal Communication (What is said)

1

2

3

4

5

* Non-verbal Communication (How it is said)

1

2

3

4

5

TELL ME A BIT ABOUT YOURSELF

HOW DID YOU FIND OUT ABOUT THIS POSITION?

ACHIEVEMENTS

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

WHAT ARE YOUR LONG-TERM CAREER PLANS?

WHY SHOULD WE CHOOSE YOU?

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PAGE 51


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

Let’s get down to business.

Beginning

Shall we make a start? I’d like to begin by… There are three points I’d like to make.

As you’ll see from the agenda…

Ordering

To begin with… I suggest we take this item first. Let’s start by looking at the issue of…

Turning to…

Introducing a new point

Moving on to… Turning our attention to… Let’s now focus on…

In addition…

Adding

Additionally We should also think about…

Let me give an example…

Giving an example

To illustrate this point, let’s consider… Let’s look at the case of… A case in point is…

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

On the one hand,... but on the other hand... Although..., we must remember that...

Weighing up an idea

Even though..., we should still bear in mind that... In spite of..., I still think that... Despite the fact that..., we mustn’t forget that...

By and large... All in all...

Generalising

Most of the time... On the whole... In general... Generally speaking...

Let me emphasize...

Emphasizing

Can I just draw your attention to...? I’d like to point out...

I’d prefer... to...

Stating preference

I’d rather... I tend to favour... as opposed to...

Let me wrap up by saying...

Concluding

Let me conclude with... I would like to conclude my comments by...

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PAGE 53


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

What do you think?

Asking for an opinion

What’s your opinion? What’s your position on...? What are your views/ thoughts on...?

I strongly/firmly/really believe that... I really feel that...

Giving a strong opinion

I am (absolutely) convinced... There can be no question that... It’s quite/crystal clear that... I’m certain/positive that...

In my opinion, we should… As I see it…

Giving an opinion

As far as I’m concerned… From my perspective/point of view… In my view…

As far as I know/ am able to judge...

Giving a weak opinion

It strikes me/ seems to me that... I would say that... I think it could be argued that...

I see what you mean.

Commenting on opinions

That’s an interesting point. That does need to be considered.

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

Perhaps we’re missing the point.

Relevance

We’re getting off the point. Shall we get back to the point?

We haven’t heard from… I’d like to get your view…

Giving someone the opportunity to speak

Can we hear what…has to say? I would like to invite…to present his views on… Would you care to comment? I think…would like to make a point. Let’s hear from…

So, to sum up… If I could just sum up the discussion… In short…

Summarizing

In brief… The main points that have been made are… The matter as it stands is… Just to review the main points so far…

I’m 100% behind you.

Strong agreement

I entirely agree with you. I’m of exactly the same opinion. I’m in total agreement/accord.

I agree.

Neutral agreement

I see your point. I think we are in agreement on that. I think you’re right.

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

I agree, but… I’m not against it, but… Up to a point, I agree with you.

Tentative agreement

I would tend to agree with you on that. I agree in principle, but… I agree with you on the whole, but it could be argued/said that… I totally/completely disagree with you. I don’t agree at all. I couldn’t agree less.

Strong disagreement

You’re completely in error/mistaken. I could never agree to that. What you are saying is unfeasible/ impossible. You must be joking/ kidding!

Frankly…

Polite strong disagreement

To be blunt… Bluntly… With (all due) respect…

I really can’t agree with you about… I can’t say I share your views on…

Tentative disagreement

I’m not convinced about… I think we need more time to consider… There are two sides to the argument…

I understand your point, but…

Polite disagreement

I can see why you think that, but… I can see what you’re getting at, but…

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

There are other considerations which must be taken into account. For example…

Adding information

Seen from one angle/perspective/point of view… I wonder if you’ve considered… There are certain aspects we must bear/keep in mind… I don’t know if you’re aware of… Have you considered…? Has it occurred to you that...?

Asking questions

Do you realize/know that…? Wouldn’t you agree that…? Shouldn’t we consider…? I was wondering if you’d looked at…?

I have some reservations about...

Expressing concern or reservation

I'm (rather/a little/somewhat) concerned/worried about... I'm afraid that... I can't help feeling that...

There's absolutely no cause for concern about... I can assure you...

Reassuring

Let me assure you... I/we understand/share/appreciate your concern about...

I think we can disregard…

Playing something down

I don’t think we need to focus too much on… These are minor issues when one considers…

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

Excuse me, may I interrupt here?

Interrupting

Just a moment... Can I say something here? Sorry to interrupt/ butt in...

Could I come in at this point? If I could just say something here...

Joining in

If it's alright with everyone, I'd like to take this opportunity to... I have a point to make here. I think I have something to add which could be relevant.

As I was saying...

Coming back to a point after an interruption

Coming back to what I was saying... To resume... To return to...

If I could return to the point I was making... I'll come to that in a moment.

Preventing an interruption

Just let me finish. Just wait a moment... If I might just finish... If you would be so kind as to let me finish...

Before we begin the discussion, I'd just like to say...

Stopping interruptions before they happen

If I could briefly outline three points... I have two points I'd like to make Very briefly... Firstly, I'd like to... and then I would like to...

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

Can/could/may I just ask you...? I was wondering if you could...?

Asking general questions

Could you tell us...? What sort of... I'd be interested to know... Perhaps you could tell us...

Did you...? Is there...?

Asking closed / leading questions

Have you...? Are you going/planning to...? Will there be...?

What exactly do you mean by...

Probing questions

Could you tell us a little more about... Could you go into a little more detail about...

So you're worried about...? If I understand you correctly...?

Paraphrasing

You feel that...? Let me see if I've understood you. You want to... Let me make sure I follow. You feel that...

Could you run that by us again please?

Asking for repetition

I'm afraid I don't quite follow. Could you repeat that? Would you mind going over that again, please? I'm afraid I don't see what you mean.

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Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

There seems to have been a slight misunderstanding.

Correcting misunderstandings

That isn't quite what I meant. Sorry, perhaps I didn't make myself clear. What I was trying to say is that....

That's an interesting question.

Giving yourself time to think of an answer

I'm glad you asked me that. Obviously, there are a lot of issues to consider. That's a difficult question to answer. You have raised a good point there.

I'm (100%) certain that...

Being certain

I'm (absolutely) sure that... There's no doubt...

I'm fairly sure that... I'm almost certain that...

Being fairly sure

It's quite likely that... It's fairly probable that... Probably...

It's possible that...

Being unsure

It's not impossible that... There is a possibilty that...

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PAGE 60


Vaughan

Public Speaking

S Y S T E M S

VOCABULARY FOR BUSINESS ENGLISH

It's very unlikely that... I don't think there's any chance that...

Thinking something is unlikely

It seems highly unlikely that... It is highly improbable that... There's very little likelihood of...

I'm not sure/certain that...

Being uncertain

I have doubts about... I'm uncertain about...

We are prepared to...on condition that... We will concede...if you compromise on...

Bargaining

I think we could...provided that... We are willing to...on the understanding that ... We are ready to...as long as...

Would that be acceptable?

Confirming acceptability

Does that seem satisfactory? Is that an acceptable compromise? We hope that this will be acceptable.

I don't think we could agree to that, unless...

Accepting a bargain

We wouldn't be prepared to..., unless... We'd be reluctant to...unless...

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Appendices Cloverdale’s Characters Sudoku InglÊs Most Common Irregular Verbs Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs Common Errors by Spanish Speakers


Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Natasha Zarakovich Natasha has been thinking about Scotland for the past two weeks. Her cousin, André Zarakovich, has been living in Scotland for 23 years. He moved there with his parents when he was only five years old. He is one year younger than Natasha. Many years ago, when André was a child, he played with Natasha every day in Moscow. They lived next door to each other. André only remembers a few things from that period. However, Natasha still remembers a lot of things. She remembers that André was a bad little boy. He always hit her when they were playing. For the past five years, André and Natasha have been writing to each other. André’s father is an aeronautical engineer and the family has a nice house in the suburbs of Glasgow. Ever since André started writing to Natasha, he has been inviting her to visit him and his family in Glasgow. Natasha would like to go, but it’s too expensive for her. In his last letter, André told her that he had found a new job and that he was earning twice as

much as in his last job. He also told her that, with the extra money in the first two months, he had made a flight reservation for Natasha on British Airways for December 22nd. The return ticket was for January 3rd. When Natasha read the letter, she couldn’t believe

it. She didn’t like the idea of André paying for the ticket, but she was excited that she was finally going to visit another country. She’s never been outside of Russia. In fact, she’s never been more than 50 kilometers outside of Moscow.

1.

14. What did he do to Natasha when they

25. With what airline did he make a reservation?

What has Natasha been thinking about lately?

2. How long has she been thinking about Scotland? 3. What’s her cousin’s name?

were together? 15. How long have they been writing to each other?

26. When will Natasha go to Scotland? 27. Will she stay in Scotland for several months?

4. How long has he been living in Scotland?

16. What does André’s father do?

28. When will she go back to Moscow?

5.

17. What kind of house does André’s family

29. What was Natasha’s reaction when she

Did he move there alone or with his parents?

6. How old was he when he moved to Scotland? 7. How much younger is he than Natasha? 8. Where did André live when he was a young child?

have?

30. What didn’t she like about the arrangement?

19. Since when has André been inviting

31. Why was she excited?

Natasha to Scotland? 20. Would Natasha like to go?

9. Did he live near Natasha or far from her?

21. What’s the problem?

10. What did they do together at that time?

22. What did André tell Natasha about his

11. How much does André remember from that period? 12. How much does Natasha remember? 13. What kind of boy was André when he was little?

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read the letter?

18. Where do they live in Glasgow?

working life? 23. How much more does he earn in his new job?

32. How many times has she traveled abroad? 33. How many times has she been to St. Petersburg? 34. Has she ever been to another large city in Russia? 35. Has she ever been outside of Moscow? 36. How far outside of Moscow has she been?

24. What did he do with the extra money he is earning?

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Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Ana Barghini This morning, shortly before lunch, Anna Barghini received a telephone call from Karl Polster, the Purchasing Manager of Mercedes Benz. They have been in contact for several months because Anna’s company is negotiating a large contract to supply car seats for several models produced by Mercedes. Anna’s having lunch right now in her office. She’s thinking about Karl Polster. It seems strange that the Purchasing Manager of Mercedes should call her so often. His job is more administrative than technical. The real negotiations are between her engineers and the technical people at Mercedes. She has a feeling that Karl is interested in something more than business. In their conversation this morning, he asked her twice when she was planning to visit Stuttgart again. He also talked to her about a country house he has in the Black Forest. Anna doesn’t have a serious relationship with any man right now. She’s really too busy running her father’s company to worry about men. However, she’s 27 years old and

she sometimes feels a little lonely. Karl is a nice young man and quite handsome, but Anna is always afraid that men are more interested in her money than in her. Her family’s estate is worth over 50 million

dollars. She told Karl in their conversation that she was planning to be in Stuttgart for a couple of days at the end of November. She didn’t say anything when he mentioned his country house.

1. Who did Anna receive a telephone call

11. Who are Anna’s engineers dealing with

20. What is she afraid of concerning men?

from?

in Mercedes?

2. When did she received the call?

12. What does Anna think Karl is interested in?

3. What’s Karl’s job in Mercedes Benz?

13. What did Karl ask Anna twice about this

4. How long have they been in contact?

morning?

5. Why have they been in contact?

14. What else did he talk to her about?

6. Is Anna having lunch or dinner right now?

15. What‘s Anna’s situation now concerning

7. Who is she thinking about? 8. What seems strange to Anna about Karl? 9. Is Karl’s job more technical or more administrative? 10. Are the negotiations more technical or administrative?

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men? 16. Why doesn’t she have time for men right now?

21. How much is her family’s estate worth? 22. Did she tell Karl that she was planning to be in Stuttgart? 23. How long did she say she was planning to be there? 24. When did she say she was planning to be there? 25. What did she say when Karl mentioned his country house?

17. How old is she? 18. How does she feel sometimes? 19. What is her opinion of Karl?

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Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Aki Morita Aki Morita was worried about his future in Honda. Earlier that day, his bosses had told him that he would be the quality manager at a new factory that Honda was building in Louisiana. That same night, before saying anything to his family, Aki looked up “Louisiana” in his encyclopedia. It said that Louisiana was famous for its French influence. A group of French Protestants called the “Acadians” had gone to Louisiana to escape persecution.They had established a special culture in Louisiana and they were called the “Cajuns”, which was a deformation of the word “Acadians”. The article also talked about the city of New Orleans and about the history of Louisiana. It said that there had been a lot of political corruption in the state during the ‘30’s and ‘40’s. The only thing that Aki found interesting was the section about the beautiful plantation homes along the Mississippi River, in a town called Natchez. He thought that his wife would enjoy visiting that town. When he had finished the article about Louisiana, he sat down to have dinner

with his family. It was 8:30. His wife noticed that he was quiet during the meal, but she didn’t say anything. She simply thought that

he had had a hard day at the office. He was often quiet and pensive when he was at home.

1. What was Aki Morita worried about?

10. Why was it called the “Cajun” culture?

20. What did his wife notice during the meal?

2. What had his bosses told him earlier the

11. What big city did the article mention?

21. What did she say about this?

12. Did Aki read about the history or the

22. What did she think was the problem?

same day? 3. Did Aki tell his family about Louisiana when he got home? 4. What book did he get when he got home?

economy of Louisiana? 13. What he read about the political situation in the ‘30’s and ‘40’s?

5. What did he look up in the encyclopedia?

14. What did Aki find interesting in the article?

6. What did the article say Louisiana was

15. Where were the plantations located?

famous for? 7. What group of people did the article talk about? 8. Why had they gone to Louisiana? 9. What was the name of the culture they established?

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23. Was Aki usually fun and talkative when he was at home? 24. What was Aki usually like when he was at home?

16. What did Aki think that his wife would enjoy? 17. What did he do after he had finished reading the article? 18. Who did he have dinner with? 19. What time did he sit down to have dinner?

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Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

Pierre Monet Pierre Monet had a terrible time getting up this morning. If he hadn’t had an important translation to do at the Ministry, he would’ve stayed in bed until at least 10 o’clock. But he had to get up at 6:30, his normal time to get up.The problem was that he had gone to bed at 4:00 a.m. He had spent ten hours doing an urgent translation for a personal client of his who needed the translation by 8 o’clock that very morning. When Pierre got home at 5:00 p.m. the day before, he began working on a relatively short, easy translation about a corporate merger. The translation needed to be done by the following Monday. At 5:30, however, he

this would mean staying up all night, but he told

included a lot of legal terminology and very long

received a telephone call from the Chairman of

the Chairman not to worry.Within five minutes,

sentences. One sentence was so long that it

Peugeot, who knew Pierre personally, and used

Pierre received the letters and contract by e-

took Pierre almost a minute to find the subject

his services for the translation of important

mail and began translating. By 7:00 p.m., he had

and the verb. By 3:00 a.m., he had finished the

documents. The Chairman told Pierre that a

finished the two letters, one of which was four

contract and he spent the next hour checking it

meeting that was scheduled for the following

pages long. At 9:00 p.m., his wife made him a

thoroughly. Shortly before 4:00 a.m., he sent it to

week with the management of Volvo in Sweden

sandwich and a strong coffee. By that time, he

Peugeot by e-mail. Then he went to bed

had been moved up to tomorrow. He said that

had already finished the first six pages of the

exhausted. His only consolation was that he

he urgently needed Pierre to translate two

contract. However, the second half of the

would earn almost 1,000 euros for the job. It

letters and a 24- page contract. Pierre knew that

contract was quite difficult to translate. It

was worth it.

1. What problem did Pierre have this

11. By what day did he need to finish this

26. How long was one of the letters?

morning? 2. What did he have at the Ministry this morning? 3. How long would he have stayed in bed if he hadn’t had an important translation at the Ministry? 4. What time had he gone to bed the night before? 5. How many hours had he spent doing an important translation at home? 6. Did he do the translation for a personal client or for a client of the Ministry? 7. When did this client need the translation? 8. Did Pierre know about this translation when he got home the day before? 9. Did he start doing this translation when he got home? 10. What translation did he start doing?

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translation? 12. Who did he receive a phone call from? 13. What time did he receive the call? 14. Did the Chairman of Peugeot know Pierre personally? 15. Why did he know him? 16. Who did the Chairman have a meeting with? 17. Where is Volvo located? 18. When was the meeting originally scheduled? 19. What had happened concerning the meeting? 20. What did the Chairman urgently need Pierre to do?

27. What did his wife do at 9:00 p.m.? 28. How much had he already translated by that time? 29. What was the problem with the second half of the contract? 30. What did the second half of the contract include? 31. What problem did Pierre have with one sentence? 32. How far had he progressed by 3:00 a.m.? 33. What did he do between 3:00 and 4:00 a.m.? 34. When did he send the translation to Peugeot?

21. What would this mean for Pierre?

35. How did he send it to them?

22. What did he tell the Chairman of Peugeot?

36. How did he feel when he went to bed?

23. How soon did he receive the documents?

37. What was his only consolation?

24. How did he receive them?

38. What was his feeling about the effort he

25. How far had he progressed by 7:00 p.m.?

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had made?

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Vaughan

Cloverdale’s Characters

S Y S T E M S

François Monet François Monet is Pierre’s nephew. He’s 27 years old and works in a large French chemical company. He a salesman and he travels to many factories throughout the European Union. He often travels to Huelva, a small city not far from Seville, in Spain. When he goes to Seville, he always rents a car to drive to Huelva. That’s how he met Inés García. They met because of a traffic accident. François thinks he was lucky to have the accident, because otherwise he wouldn’t have met Inés. Now he thinks about her every day and calls her as often as he can. He’s even invited her to visit Paris. However, he’s a little afraid of having a more serious relationship with her because he doesn’t understand the character of the people from the south of Spain, especially from Seville.They seem like fun people who look for ways to enjoy life. But he still remembers the opera he saw several years ago called “Carmen”. In the opera, a young soldier fell in love with a gypsy girl from Seville. The poor soldier had all kinds of problems. Inés wasn’t a gypsy girl, but

sometimes she talked and behaved like the singer who played the role of Carmen in the opera. Inés had black hair and dark eyes. François found her very attractive and very different from the girls in Paris.The last time

he spoke to her, he invited her to visit Paris. Since then, he’s called her three times, but her mobile phone was disconnected each time. He hopes she’ll call him.

1. How is François Monet related to

13. What has he invited her to do?

22. What can you say about Inés’ physical

Pierre Monet? 2. How old is he?

14. What is his feeling about having a serious relationship with her?

3. Does he work in a Spanish company?

15. Why is he afraid?

4. Where does he work?

16. What do the people from Seville seem

5. What’s his job in the company?

like to him?

6. Where does he travel in his job?

17. What opera did he see several years ago?

7. Where does he go when he travels to

18. Who did the French soldier fall in love

Spain? 8. How does he travel when he’s in Spain? 9. How did he meet Inés García?

with? 19. What happened in his relationship with her?

10. Why is he glad he had the accident?

20. Is Inés a gypsy?

11. How often does he think about Inés?

21. What does François remember about

12. How often does he call her?

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features? 23. Does François find her attractive or ugly? 24. What did François think about her as compared with the girls in Paris? 25. What did François do the last time he spoke to Inés? 26. How many times has he called her since then? 27. Why hasn’t he been able to talk to her again? 28. What does he hope?

the singer in the opera “Carmen”?

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SUDOKU INGLÉS 1

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

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SUDOKU INGLÉS 2

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

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SUDOKU INGLÉS 3

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

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SUDOKU INGLÉS 4

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

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SUDOKU INGLÉS 5

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Vaughan S Y S T E M S

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Vaughan

Most Common Irregular Verbs

S Y S T E M S

am, is, are

was, were

been

lead

led

led

become

became

become

leave

left

left

begin

began

begun

lend

lent

lent

blow

blew

blown

let

let

let

break

broke

broken

lose

lost

lost

bring

brought

brought

make

made

made

build

built

built

mean

meant

meant

buy

bought

bought

meet

met

met

catch

caught

caught

pay

paid

paid

choose

chose

chosen

put

put

put

come

came

come

quit

quit

quit

cost

cost

cost

read

read

read

cut

cut

cut

ring

rang

rung

deal with

dealt with

dealt with

rise

rose

risen

do

did

done

run

ran

run

drink

drank

drunk

see

saw

seen

drive

drove

driven

sell

sold

sold

eat

ate

eaten

send

sent

sent

fall

fell

fallen

set

set

set

feel

felt

felt

shut

shut

shut

fight

fought

fought

sit

sat

sat

find

found

found

sleep

slept

slept

fly

flew

flown

speak

spoke

spoken

forget

forgot

forgotten

spend

spent

spent

get

got

got/gotten

stand

stood

stood

give

gave

given

steal

stole

stolen

go

went

gone

take

took

taken

grow

grew

grown

teach

taught

taught

have

had

had

tell

told

told

hear

heard

heard

think

thought

thought

hold

held

held

throw

threw

thrown

hurt

hurt

hurt

understand

understood

understood

keep

kept

kept

wear

wore

worn

know

knew

known

win

won

won

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Pronunciation of Common Regular Verbs

Vaughan S Y S T E M S

There are many more important verbs not listed here, but these, barring an oversight, are the most commonly used.

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Hard “d” sound

“t” sound

“id” sound (additional syllable)

Agreed Allowed Answered Appeared Arrived Believed Belonged Called Carried Changed Cleaned Closed Continued Copied Covered Cried Died Earned Enjoyed Explained Followed Gained Happened Joined Listened to Lived Moved Offered Owned Planned Prepared Played Preferred Pulled Rained Raised Received Retired Saved Seemed Served Showed Smiled Snowed Stayed Studied Tried Used Worried

Asked Checked Cooked Crossed Danced Escaped Finished Helped Hoped Jumped Laughed Liked Looked Missed Noticed Parked Passed Picked Progressed Promised Pushed Reached Stopped Talked Walked Washed Watched Wished Worked

Accepted Acted Added Attended Attracted Avoided Contacted Counted Created Decided Depended on Divided Eliminated Existed Expanded Expected Hated Included Insisted Invented Invited Landed Lifted Lasted Needed Pointed Printed Rented Rested Shouted Started Treated Waited Wanted Wasted

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Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

S Y S T E M S

The following list outlines some of the most common problems for Spanish speakers caused by direct translation.

SPANGLISH

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

To depend of something

To depend on something

To spend money in something

To spend money on something

To pay something

To pay for something

To buy to someone

To buy from someone

To work in something

To work on something

To focus in something

To focus on something

To know to do something

To know how to do something

To be related with something

To be related to something

To be committed with something

To be committed to something

Near of/from somewhere

Near somewhere

Close of/from somewhere

Close to somewhere

To be based in something

To be based on something

To be responsible of something

To be responsible for something

To be the guilty (I’m the guilty)

To be one’s fault (It’s my fault)

According with someone

According to someone

I must to study

I must study (NEVER to)

I can to swim

I can swim (NEVER to)

I will to go

I will go (NEVER to)

Tell to us

Tell us (NEVER to)

Ask to him

Ask him (NEVER to)

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Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

Call to Mary

Call Mary (NEVER to)

I am agreed

I agree

Are you agreed?

Do you agree?

To explain you

To explain to you (ALWAYS to someone)

To listen me

To listen to me (ALWAYS to someone)

To listen it

To listen to it (ALWAYS to something)

To propose them

To propose to them (ALWAYS to someone)

An important problem

A big problem

The best important

The most important

The important is...

The important thing is...

To do a purchase

To make a purchase

To make a travel

To make/take a trip

To make a question

To ask a question

To make business

To do business

To make research

To do/carry out research

To take a drink/meal

To have a drink/meal

To arrive to an agreement

To come to/reach an agreement

To get an objective

To reach/achieve an objective

To have sense

To make sense

People is

People ARE

Persons

People

We are three

There are three of us

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Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

Actually (= actualmente)

Currently/presently

Illusioned (= ilusionado)

Hopeful/excited

Really (= en realidad)

Actually

Impressing

Impressive

How curious! (= QuĂŠ curioso)

That’s funny/interesting

In a future

In the future

Question (= asunto)

Issue/matter

To discuss (= disputar)

To argue

May I take lent your pen?

May I borrow your pen?

To count a history

To tell a story

To assist to class

To attend class

To remember someone to do something

To remind someone to do something

The competence (= competencia)

The competition/competitors

Nothing of nothing

Nothing at all

Particular lessons

Private lessons

To learn English is funny

Learning English is fun

Customer fidelity

Customer loyalty

A familiar car

A family car

Tonight (= anoche)

Last night

This night (= esta noche)

Tonight

All the days

Everyday

All the day

All day (long)

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Vaughan

Common Errors By Spanish Speakers

SPANGLISH

S Y S T E M S

ENGLISH - CORRECT VERSION!!

During 4 years

For 4 years

It’s for this reason that...

That’s why...

It’s the same

It doesn’t matter

the same than/that

The same as

different that

Different than

I have 21 years

I am 21 years old

10% of discount

A 10% discount

10 thousands of people

10 thousand people

1 thousand million (= 1,000 million)

1 billion [U.S.A.]

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¿ Q u ée s V a u g h a n C l a s s r o o m? VaughanCl as s r oom esuncur s o di ná mi c oei nt e r a c t i v opa r aa pr e nde r i ngl é s c onl osme j or e spr of e s or e sdeV a ugha n, e s t é sdondee s t é sde s det uor de na dor . E nV a ugha nCl a s s r oom, he mospr e pa r a dol o me j or de l mé t odoV a ugha ne nuna c ol e c c i óndel e c c i one spot e nt e sye fi c a c e s . S ol one c e s i t a s2 0mi nut osa l dí apa r a e mpe z a r ame j or a r t ui ngl é s .

•2 0mi nut ostodoslosdías. •20mi nut osnos uponen ada ent uvi da, per os i gnic an muc hí s i moparatuinglés. E nt r ahoyyde s c ubr e www. VaughanCl as s r oom. c om


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