Page 1

GeormM SPRING 1 9 9 5 ^ j A L U M N I MAGAZINE

THE LOST SQUADRON • Internet: Connecting the World • The Paper Trail • Time Tactics • Research: Neutrinos Weigh In

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Apply for a Georgia Tech 1 Visa * or MasterCard? You'll get all the benefits of a NationsBank credit card. And the Georgia Tech Alumni Association will benefit every time you use your card to make purchases or get cash advances. Georgia Tech gave you a great education. The Georgia Tech Visa or MasterCard is a great way to give something no extra cost, every time you use it. To apply, just call.


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Get a higher degree of home buying power. We will reduce your out-of-pocket costs.


The Alumni Home Financing Program® gives you flexible cost-saving benefits including a zero point option, low down payments and a ho-cost credit report. We will give you negotiating clout. Before you find a home, The Priority Buyer ProgramSM puts a written loan commitment* in your hands. We will cut down your paperwork. You'll do less hunting and copying of documents because Prudential Home Mortgage asks for the least possible papeiwork. We will give you a fast loan decision. You will receive a loan decision as soon as 24 hours after you apply by phone.** As few as 15 business days after your application is approved, we can close on your home purchased

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"Ifall business transactions were run in this efficient, courteous, and helpful manner, life would be much less stressful!"—Patricia Young Cooke & fames R. Cooke, Alumni Borrowers. A remarkable 100% of Georgia Tech Alumni who have obtained mortgages through The Alumni Home Financing Program say they would use the program again! You'll enjoy the same high degree of service from Prudential Home Mortgage, the exclusive providers of this program. Mortgage counselors are available from 8 a.m. to midnight (EST), Monday through Friday. So call now, and handle the entire process, up until closing, by phone from your home or workplace. And get the most value from the time and money you invest in home financing.


1-800-ALUMNI-9 (1-800-258-6649) Prudential Home M o r t g a g e ®

* Your loan commitment will be subject to the terms and conditions contained in the loan commitment letter for this program. ** Eligibility requirements for the 24-hour loan decision include: Primary purchase t r.msactions with a down payment of 2 0 % or more, an overall good credit profile and a signed purchase contract. Condominiums and co-operative properties are not eligible. Also, because your loan decision is not subject to . m appraisal, you may want to consult your legal advisor to include an appraisal contingency in your purchase contract. Other conditions may apply. t N o t available in all states. T h e 15-day close is subject to certain condition .. Contact a Prudential Home Mortgage representative for details. ©1995 T h e Prudential Insurance Company of America. Information in this ad is accurate as of 1/1/95 and is subject to change without notice. All loans arc o riginated by The Prudential Home Mortgage Company, Inc., the administrator of this program. Mne Alumni Home Financing Program is a registered service mark and Buying Power Pledge and T h e Priority Buyer Program are MTvice marks of The Prudential Insurance Company of America. The Prudential Home Mortgage Cqmpany, Inc., 8000 Maryland Avenue, Clayton, Missouri, is an affiliate of The Prudential Insurance Company of America, doim ; business as P H . Mortgage Company, Inc. in Ohio. New York Office: Expressway Executive Center, Inc., Suite 100, 48 South Service Road, Melville, New York 11747; Arizona BK 8408; Florida Licensed Mortgage Lender; lllinoi: Residential Mortgage Licensee; Licensed Mortgage Banker/New Jersey Department of Banking; Calif. Broker/Lender. All California loans will be made pursuant to a California Department of Corporations Consumer Finance Li nder license or Commercial Finance Lender license. Equal Housing Opportunity.

Volume 71 Number 4 SPRING 1995


Features 1 6The Internet

Discover a brave new cyber-world on the Information Superhighway; (here's even an off ramp to your alma mater. Written by Hoyt Coffee

Page 26



Time Tactics


The Paper Trail



How do successful people manage their time? Rule number one is to remember there is no such thing as "free time." The other rules follow Written by B. Eugene Griessman

To keep U.S. companies competitive, to protect the environment, to provide for future generations—all are the task of the Institute of Paper Science. Written by James li. Kloeppel Page 30

The Lost Squadron... Found! After 50 years in an icy tomb, lost World War II airplanes are resurrected by two Tech alumni in an Arctic adventure. Excerpts from the book by David Hayes

Technotes Grant for Molecular Design Institute; Down to earth; Technology with art; /.inn elected to National Academy; Tech suspends SAT. fraternity



Page 53

Neutrinos Weigh In


Pacesetters Eric Snyder: Tcst-l.ab-on-a-Chip Frank Golley and Jane Coker: Lasting Impressions


Profde David McDowell: On-the-job Discovery

Cover Photo: After 50years under Greenland's keen/), the fabled WWII "Last Squadron " has been discovered— and some salvaged— by two Tech adventurers. LOU SAPIENZA PHOTO


is published quarterly for Roll Gall contributors by the Georgia Tech Alumni Association. Send correspondence and changes <>/ address to: GEORGIA 'I'M H ALUMNI MAGAZINE, Alumni/Faculty House, 11^ North

Avenue NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0175 • Editorial: (404) 853-0760/0761 Advertising: (404) 894-9270 • Fax: (404) 894-5113 • e-mail: © 1995 Georgia Tech Alumni Association • ISSN: Hxu-9747

GEORGIA TECH • Contents 3

Thank you to the official sponsors of the

ALUMNIVJM AGAZIN E John C. Dunn, editor Hoyt Coffee, associate editor Gary Meek, Stanley Leary photography Everett Hullum, design Robb Stanek, advertising Contributing writers: Lisa Crowe B. Eugene Griessman James E. Kloeppel

Publications Committee

GEIMSATKR AIIMM MAGAZINE • Acme Business Products • Atlanta Marriott Northwest • Atlanta Renaissance Hotel • Avis Rent-A-Car • Bank South • The Coca-Cola Company • Delta Air Lines • Diamond Brostrom

• Doubletree Hotel • Georgia's Stone Mountain Park • Georgia Tech Theatre for the Arts • Jasper Jeep-Eagle/ American Cherokee Leasing • LDDS Communications • NationsBank

• Prudential Home Mortgage • Ritz-Carlton, Atlanta * Ritz-Carlton, Buckhead • Technology Park/ Atlanta • Trust Company Bank . Wyndham Mid town Hotel

• Piedmont Hospital

Chairman Louis Gordon Sawyer Sr., NS '46 Chairman, Sawyer-RileyCompton, Atlanta Members William "Guy" Arledge, IM 71 Director of Communications, CARE, Atlanta McKinley "Mac" Conway Jr., GE '40 President, Conway Data Inc., Norcross, Ga. Hubert L. Harris Jr., IM '65 President, Invesco Services Inc., Atlanta McAllister "Mac" Isaacs III, TEX '60 Executive Editor, Textile World, Atlanta George A. Stewart Jr., AE '69 President, Stewart Consulting Group, Dunwoody, Ga. James M. Langley Vice President External Affairs, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JohnB. Carter Jr., IE '69 Vice President and Executive Director, Georgia Tech Alumni Association, Atlanta

Future Home of the 1996 Olympic Village 4

GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

Georgia Tech Alumni Association Board of Trustees Officers Frank H. Maier Jr. IM '60 president G. William Knight IE '62, MS IM '68 past president H. Milton Stewart IE '6l president-elect/treasurer Hubert L. Harris Jr. IM '65 vice preside) it/activities Francis N. Spears CE 7 3 , MS CE '80 vice president/communications Jay M. McDonald IM '68 vice president/Roll Call J o h n B. Carter Jr. IE '69 vice president/executive director James M. Langley vice president, external affairs

Trustees Charles G. Betty CHE 7 9 G. Niles Bolton ARCH '69 James W. Bowyer CE '64, MS SANE '66 Richard H. Bradfield ARCH '60 Lucius G. Branch GMGT 7 1 Carey H. Brown IE '69 Fred L. Cook TCH 7 1 , PhD 7 5 Albert W.'Culbreth Jr. IM '68

Charles F. Easley Jr. IM '86 Dwight H. Evans CE 7 0 , MS SANE 7 3 Marion B. Glover IM '65 Robert L. Hall IM '64 L. Andrew Hearn Jr. EE '57 Gabriel C. Hill III TEXT '57 Douglas R. Hooker ME 7 8 , MS TASP '85 J. Scott Howell ISYE 7 5 Calvin D. Johnson MSCI 7 3 Douglas W. Johnson IM '65 Robert H. Ledbetter Sr. IM '58 David M. McKenney PHYS '60. IE '64 Francis B. Mewborn II CLS '56 Jean A. Mori ME '58 Charles D. Moseleyjr. IE '65 G. David Peake IE '61 Thomas J. Pierce Jr. CHE '61 Linda Podger-Williams CE '81 J. Lamar Reese Jr. IM '55 B. Jane Skelton IM 7 7 Haywood F. Solomon Sr. IM 7 0 W. Pierre Sovey IE '55 Emily H. Tilden IE 7 8 , MS IE 7 9 Rene L. Turner IE '83 Philip S. Vincent IE '66 Warren O. Wheeler EE '63 Vincent T. Zarzaca IE '55, MS IM '66 Stephen P. Zelnak Jr. IM '69

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A special rate fot Tech fans only. Weekends throughout football and basketball seasons. Aftetwatd, telax with a drink. Or enjoy dining in The Restaurant ot The Cafe. Then settle back in a luxutious room at the heatt of downtown


OwnAdassic A V25 scale replica of the official Ramblin' Wreck

After an overwhelming response, the Georgia Tech Alumni Association is offering a second edition ol the Ramblin' Wreck. The perfectly reproduced model is six inches long and features:

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Really celebrate birthdays, graduations, weddings, anniversaries, retirements, or that special event with the one you love (or a longtime Bulldog "friend")

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Tech Gets Materials Grant


eorgia Tech is one of two institutes in a consortium funded by the Office of Naval Research to create Molecular Design Institutes for the study and synthesis of new materials. The consortium leaders are Tech, which received an initial grant of $490,000, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory at Berkeley, Calif., with an initial grant of $735,000. Later this year, Tech is schedtiled to receive an additional $4 million grant, and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, $6 million. Collaborating with Tech will be Clark Atlanta University, Emory University, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TDA Research, Texaco and Exxon. The institutes were selected from competitive proposals, but not for the construction of new facilities. The purpose is to develop superior approaches to new material structures. Potential applications are in the areas of electronics, photonics, sensors, catalysts, corrosion resistant materials, active materials, structural materials and special coatings.

Down to


one is the artificial turf; (irant field at Bobby Dodd Stadium has gone natural and gotten back to its grassroots, Workmen lay out the drain age system as they prepare the field lor a return to real grass in lime for kickoff next fall, when the Yellow Jackets begin their 1995 football season.

GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘. TechNotes 7

TechMes P l l l M o s nv KAI AI>AMS

TACTICS OF\W I SLCCESSW PEOPLE BMeneGriessman Ever Wonder How Successful Men and Women Are Able To Get So Much Done? Gene Griessman has the answers.

Technology with Art


eorgia Tech researcher and photographer Rae Adams combines lech nological and artistic forces tO create

They are in his new book. Order your copy today. Autographed copies

are available.

$14.95 Georgia Tech Bookstore 350 Ferst Drive Atlanta, GA 30332-0453 (404) 894-2515 Fax: (404) 894-2530


GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘ Spring 1995

"Artifacts," a black-and-white photo exhibit on display through April 27 at westbrook Gallery in the Georgia Tech Center lor the Ails. I ler photo of sand tufa at Mono hake, which supplies water to kos Angeles, shows the tula revealed as the lake's level drops. While Mono


Lake displays the impact of human activ4 n ^ , M - ' ' ' * â&#x20AC;˘ ' ^v,;' ity on the environment, her photo of a warehouse door in Apalachicola (top) reveals in stark contrast the processes of nature on human construction. A research associate with the Georgia Tech Research Institute, Adams has a master's degree in photography. I let subjects range from nonrepresentational and clecontexluali/ed. Including mud flows and rock erosion, lo classic landscapes.


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Zinn Elected to National Academy


r. Ben T. Zinn, the David S. Lewis Jr. chair and Regents' Professor, has been elected to membership in the National Academy of Engineering. Zinn is a professor in the School of Aerospace Engineering with a joint appointment in the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering. Membership in the organization honors those w h o have made "important contributions to engineering theory and practice, including significant contributions to the literature of engineering theory and practice," and those who

have demonstrated "unusual accomplishment in the pioneering of new and developing fields of technology." Zinn is recognized for research in unsteady combustion processes; he is co-holder of seven patents in the field of pulse combustion. Zinn came to Tech in 1965 after completing his Ph.D. studies in aeronautical engineering and mechanical science at Princeton University. He attained the rank of Regents' Professor in 1973, and the Lewis Chair in 1992. Zinn is also a fellow of the American Institute of Aero-

nautics and Astronautics and an honorary professor at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Beijing. His fields of research have included combustion instabilities in rocket motors, ramjets and jet engines; oscillatory flames; reacting flows; soot formation; acoustics; and pulse combustion. Zinn is a former member of the U.S. and Israeli National Soccer Teams. His election to the National Academy of Engineering brings Georgia Tech's total number of active members to 12.



AWAY-FROM-HOME IMPROVEMENT the best in casual dining at K.T.'s American Grille. Or When we decided to renovate the Atlanta Marriott Northwest, we did more than just give it a facelift. unwind after a meeting at Pitchers, where you will find We've created a brand new hotel with a standard of an extensive selection of beers from around the world. luxury beyond compare. Whether you meet for the day or stay for a week, the new Atlanta Marriott Northwest is From the cool green marble of the ATLANTA everything your hotel should he. For front desk to the simple elegance of our new Concierge Level, every detail was more information, or reservations, call designed with our guests in mind. Enjoy 800-228-9290 today.


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Avis and your alumni association have formed a special partnership to give you great savings on car rentals and the opportunity to steer future generations of deserving Georgia Tech students toward success. As a participant in our new Avis Alumni Association Member Benefit Program, you're entitled to our special Alumni Association rates and discounts. They will save you money on both business and promotional leisure rentals. And every time you rent from Avis, a contribution will be made to the Avis/Georgia Tech Alumni Association scholarship fund. It's a great way to enjoy the value and quality of Avis... and make a difference. To get you started, we're offering you a free upgrade. See the coupon on the right for details. For more information and reservations, call an employee-owner of Avis at our special Avis Alumni Association Member Services Desk: 1-800-422-3810. And be sure to mention your Avis Worldwide Discount (AWD) number: B105900.

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Free Avis Upgrade! For reservations, call our special Avis Alumni Association Member Services Desk at 1-800-422-3810. And be sure to mention your Avis Worldwide Discount (AWD) number: B105900. Terms and Conditions Coupon valid for a one-time, one-car-group upgrade on an Intermediate (Group C) through a Full Size 4-door (Group E) car. Maximum upgrade to Premium (Group G). Offer valid on daily, weekend and weekly rates only. Coupon must be surrendered at time of rental; one per rental. Coupon valid at Avis corporate and participating licensee locations in the continental U.S. Cars and upgrades are subject to availability at time of rental. An advance reservation with request for upgrade is required. Renter must meet Avis age, driver and credit requirements. Minimum age is 25. Offer expires June 30, 1995. Rental Sales Agent Instructions At Checkout: Assign customer a car one car group higher than car group reserved. Upgrade to no higher than Group G. Charge for car group reserved. In CPN, enter UUGC375. Complete this information: RA* Rental Location Attach to COUPON tape.





Of course, we' don't mean the kind of sleepless all-nighters you spent cramming as a Yellow Jacket. This is the Wyndham Midtown Atlanta. Luxurious guest rooms, superb service, along with popular dining and entertainment. All only $79 a night. Now that's an all-nighter you can look forward to. For reservations, call 800-WYNDHAM. Or call your travel planner. ^ ^ WYNDHAM MIDTOWN ATLANTA HOTEL Peachtree & 10th Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30309 404-873-4800


â&#x20AC;˘\ *Ftaie is per room, per nighL single or double occupancy. Offer valid through 12/31/95. Friday and Saturday nights only. Addirional charge for double/double bedded rooms. Noi applicable 10 conventions or groups Limited ;r. nilnhiiry Other rust


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GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

The Internet Catch a wave on the Information Superhighway. By Hoyt Coffee Photographs by Gary Meek


Believing that a "missile gap" existed, the Defense Department created the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to develop military technology. It took another 12 years before the Defense Department commissioned ARPANET, meant to guarantee the nation would retain computing capability after a nuclear exchange. The system proved so popular with researchers that the network split into two parts, one for civilian science and one for military research. With the advent of personal computers in the late 70s, the networked world was set to expand beyond the confines of government and academia. By 1986, both the Defense Department and ARPA were out of the picture and the National Science Foundation took over management of the Net. "When ARPA got out of the business of doing the network, the NSF picked it up because the research community had come to depend on it so much," says Michael Mealling, a Georgia Tech research scientist who is investigating the next generation of Internet services. Within a year, some 10,000 servers were connected; that number increased tenfold in two more years and hit 1 million in 1992. "It just kind of accreted over time," A Brief History of Cyber-time Mealling says "Everybody started sticking themselves on this network. And they kept 'rue to its irreverent tenets, the bright light upgrading the backbone network until basithat is the Internet had its start in the dark cally it's just a big conglomeration of smaller days of the Cold War. Although the concept networks all attached together. had been bandied about since the Roosevelt years, it wasn't until the Soviet Union put "Now, a packet of information can make it Sputnik in orbit in 1957 that serious work got across the United States or across the world under way. just by routing itself in and among all those different smaller networks." Graduate student Sougata Mukherjea has deIn 1993, a new force appeared, the Nasigned a "road map" for the World-Wide Web that tional Center for Supercomputing Applicacan produce a three-dimensional "tree" of the tions' Mosaic interface: The World-Wide Web connections to any point on the Internet. was born. Proliferating at a rate of 341,634 "You can't drive across the country without a percent a year, according to Kevin Hughes of road map—a graphic depiction of what's going Enterprise Integration Technologies (EIT), on—so does it make sense to navigate the Infortraffic on the Web surpassed that on older mation Superhighway without visual road maps?" Internet devices in less than 10 months. aybe it's fitting that the Internet's two most popular metaphors don't mix: You can't surf on the freeway. But that's the nature of cyberspace —a virtual universe freewheeling at lightspeed, showing little respect for convention, outright disdain for the establishment. It's 30 million people from literally every continent, separated by distance, by culture, but a nation unto itself of "cybertribes" in a synthetic world. And it's information, a seemingly endless supply, perhaps greater than ever imagined in a single place before construction began on the "Information Superhighway." What once may have taken days or weeks of diligent library research now can be accomplished in just a few hours of Net surfing. Letters that languished for days in mail bags just to reach another state now traverse the globe in seconds. Forums on even the most bizarre of subjects convene at random, and the Byzantine workings of government and commerce are illuminated as never before. But where did this labyrinth of networks, more than a million strong, come from? And how did it escape public notice for so long?


GEORGIA TECH • The Internet


Browsing: New Virtual Water Sport

Internet Timeline 1945 Presidential Science Adviser Vannevar Hush proposes MEMEX, .1 machine thai stores


n its early days, which for our purposes means a couple of years ago, "surfing the Net" could be as fearsome as it was alluring. A good deal of computer knowledge was necessary in order to use a Gopher, the University of Minnesota's menu-driven information service, or the Veronica tool for searching the data bases. Mastering file transfer protocol, or ftp, required considerable skill, and the downloaded text-only files often ended u p going to some unknown corner of cyberspace never to b e seen again.

The Web changed all that. "The Web and a lot of the tools that have been written over the past couple of years have done a phenomenal job of hiding a lot of what w e used to call the savage interface from the user," Mealling says. Although many users freely interchange the terms, the World-Wide Web and the Internet are not the same thing. Internet refers to the countless computers and networks and the cables connecting them: It's hardware. The Web refers to what EIT's Hughes calls "a body of information—an abstract space of knowledge."

information and allows users to create links to related texts and illustrations.

1956 Soviet I nion launches Sputnik; in response the limed stales creates the Advanced Research Projecl Agencj (ARPA) in the Defense Department

Connected to Tech The Institute and Alumni Association are on-line.


here's a new oft ramp on the

Information Superhighway, and it

leads to Georgia Tech. Both the Insli lute and the Alumni Association now have home pages'' on the World Wide Web. By accessing the- association's home page through the internet, alumni can gain "immediate access to the Alumni Assoc ta lion and Georgia Tech." says Bennett

to establish a U.S.

Gaston, information systems coordinator,

lead in military

Working with student assistant l.ance Dooly, Gaston set up the Alumni Associa lion Web page to Improve services lor members. A lot of the services that we had to do by telephone t >r la\ can now he dime on the Internet, such as address changes," Gaston sacs, "Alumni can just connect to the home page' and fill out a change of address lot in. "They will also be' able to order met chandise from us electronically." In addition, the Web page will pic icicle such sere ices us sports schedules and times and places of Georgia Tech club meetings. future plans call for creating an electronic membership directory in database formal that can be scare heel. Current editions of


1962 RANDs Haul Ma ran proposes a packet

switching network with multiple o r points

Web pages for those links offer further resources, such as Mechanical Engineering magazine, available through the College of Engineering's site. Web surfers can also download a freeware edition of NCSA's Mosaic Web browser from the Institute home page. • To reach the Institute, go to ( The Alumni Association Web page is accessible through the Institute page or at (

Tech Topics and the (in IKCIC Tn it An \i\i

MAGAZINl ate already on line, and back issues will be available, also in database format, in the future. Access to the Institute's home page is available through the Alumni site. The [nsti lute page offers links to all of Tech's col leges, schools! organizations and clubs.


GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

Bennett Gaston (rear) and Lance Dooly pore over the Tech Wei) page's interactive campus map. When Web surfers click on a building, they receive an information page on the location.

Working with students in a mechanical engineering class, Mark Guzdial is studying ways to use the Internet to teach students how to work better in teams. The arcane systems of the early Net continue to serve throughout (you can still telnet to different computers or transfer files with ftp), but the infinitely friendlier interface of the Web-browsing programs such as Mosaic and now Netscape hide the old utilities' machinations quite well. The Web is simple to navigate, even for the least versed of "newbies." That's because of a development known as the Uniform Resource Locator, or URL, which assigns a unique "address" to every document available on the Web. "The browsers are very usable," says James Foley, director of Tech's Graphics, Visualization and Usability Center, which studies computer-human interfaces. "Because of the URL, they can link to huge amounts of information very easily, in ways that are far easier than the Gophers and the Veronicas and the ftp, all those things that require you to do too much computer hacking. "This is the first non-computer-hacker tool for accessing widely available assets of information in the Internet." Browser pages, as the images that appear on the computer monitor are called, contain specially highlighted words or phrases known as hypertext. These are the "buttons" that activate hyperlinks, which when selected, take the user automatically to the LJRL address of the desired document or information. The links may also include an assortment of other media such as pictures, sound, even brief

digital movies, which are called hypermedia. The browsers are able to quickly locate huge amounts of information because self-directing programs are constantly prowling the Net, amassing huge directories of documents. "There are things called Web-walkers or spiders that go around and pick up files off of other people's servers and index the information so that you can search them," Mealling says. "You can go to such a special .server and ask it about certain key words and things like that, and it will build a list of links to pages that may have something interesting to you."

networking research, Information Mes Processors used on Honeywell minicomputer with IJ.K of


1970 VRPANET hosts begin using Network Control Protocol.

1972 Ray Tomlinson of BH\ invents e mail program to send messages across a network

Come on In, the Water's Fine


onnecting to the Internet can be very easy or very difficult, depending on the connection you choose. Most experts recommend that first-time surfers hook up with one of the three big cahunas of on-line serviceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;America Online, CompuServe or Prodigy. "They're extremely easy to get set up. They've got good user support," Mealling says. "They've done a lot of predigesting of a lot of the information to make it a lot easier to get to, as opposed to having to learn all the intricacies of the Internet." The major services offer several connection packages, which can get to be pretty expensive if you sign up for all the bells and whistles. For instance, Prodigy offers basic service for $9-95 a month, but that's for only a limited amount of time on-line. Extra hours

1973 first international \ K l ' \ \ l T connections are made in England and Norway,

GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘ The Internet


1974 BBN opens Telenet, a commercial version "I ARPANET.

1975 ZOG, new KMS, .1 distributed hypermedia system, debuts at CarnegieMellon,

1976 [ l CP (l NlX-to-1 NIX cop)) is developed al AT&T Bell Labs

1978 The firs) hypermedia videodisk, the Aspen Movie Map, is demon strated In MIT.

1979 USENET is established between Duke and I NC,

1981 CSNET (Computer Science Network) is buill with money from National Science Foundation. Ted Nelson conceives Xanadu, a central hypertexl database including all written information.


cost more, and many of Prodigy's services, such as the ZiffNet software download service, add to the monthly cost. Of course, there are many smaller services offering full Internet access, and with the advent of the Web interface, they can be just as easy to use as the big three. Mindspring Enterprises, which currently serves about 2,200 users from the Advanced Technology Development Center on the Tech campus, offers access to the casual surfer for about a dollar an hour plus a hookup fee, and that includes the software. Unlimited service is available for $35 a month, according to Susan Nicholson, EE '82, director of marketing for Mindspring. Also, a number of large firms such as Microsoft and AT&T are staking a claim to the on-line gold mine. "Now that companies are getting involved, and they've got 50 or 60 programmers that they can throw at a job for a year, you get a much better product," Mealling says. In terms of hardware, a computer with a modem is essentially all that's needed to start surfing with a connection service. For best results, more advanced systems such as the 486 IBM clone with a speedy 14.4 baud modem are recommended, especially for users who want to take full advantage of hypermedia. Once online, users will be able to access any computer network connected to the Net; electronic mail services; Usenet news groups, which offer news, information and interactive discussions on virtually any subject; public and private information services such as the National Weather Service; and a rapidly expanding variety of other connections.

Infobahn: What's Down the Road?


s compelling as the Internet already is, . researchers are actively improving it around the clock, and Georgia Tech, a hub in the original NSFnet, is on the cutting edge. Mealling, for example, is researching ways to make finding information on the Web even easier than it is now. "One of the problems you have now, as far as trying to find some piece of information, is that you have to spend hours browsing around the Net and the Web looking for the information you want," he says. "What we want is something where you can just ask it about what you want, the price of Christmas trees in Hawaii, for instance, and it runs off and finds the information for you and brings

GEORGIA TECH 窶「 Spring 1995

The World-Wide Web has made the Internet much more friendly, and Michael Mealling is working on ways to make it even more so. it back." Sougata Mukherjea, a graduate student in the GVU, has been working for nearly three years on a system to provide what Foley calls a "road map of the Web." "You can't drive across the country without a road map, without a graphical depiction of what's going on, so how does it make sense to navigate the Information Superhighway without visual road maps?" Foley says. Mukherjea's program can display a threedimensional "tree" of any part of the Web with customized colors and symbols to tell the user at a glance what kind of information is stored at each site and how it interconnects with other related sites. It also can filter out unrelated links in the Web, making it even easier to tell what's down the road. Mark Guzdial, a professor in the College of Computing, and several other Tech researchers are looking at ways to use the Internet in education窶馬ot just as a way to broadcast information, but to allow thoughtful interaction as well. The Collaborative and Multimedia Interactive Learning Environment (CaMILE), which is being tested in a mechanical engineering class this year, lets students discuss projects and share ideas in a virtual classroom. It also offers suggestions for the students on how to communicate their ideas more effectively and work better with others.

"We want to help them learn to work in teams." Guzdial says. "For us as teachers, we want to learn how to help students learn better. The point of this project is education." There are many other projects under way at Tech aimed at fulfilling the dream of an Information Superhighway: electronic news distribution (there are already 60 newspapers on-line), advertising for the 21st century, virtual reality. And they will significantly affect the Internet and, therefore, the world in the

future. Just as the telephone and the automobile went from being convqniences to essentials, so will the computer and its connection to the wide world. Just what the Net will look like after the millennium is hard to tell. There's talk of a Giganet with billion-bit-per-second performance and a National Information Infrastructure with universal connection. Whatever its future course, the electronic frontier, like its -> , Wild West counterpart, goes beyond the horizon. Reaching it will be an adventure. •

Graduate student's virtual graffiti gallery preserves urban art form.



Intemel Protocol EUnel (European i MX network) is created to provide e-mail and USENET services.

Crimes of the Art t's said that the proof of art is durability, whether future generations will look upon a work and again appreciate its worth. For the world's urban adepts, the guerrilla artists w h o forever war with the soap-bucket soldiers of city hall, that's a perspective that was seldom proffered—until now. Enter Susan Farrell, a graduate student in Georgia Tech's information design and technology master's program w h o is out to preserve an ageless art form with the latest technology. An artist herself, Farrell is fascinated by the often intricate graffiti left by underground muralists, works too soon erased by scrub brushes or other artists. A photographer as well. Farrell has been recording the insurgent images and displaying them in her own virtual gallery on the World-Wide Web. "When I see something that's as elaborate as many of these are—well thought out, humorous, disturbing at times—it really moves me," says Farrell, w h o also works in the Georgia Tech Research Institute. "Nobody else seemed to be paying any attention to it, but I thought there was something worth looking at there." The gallery, dubbed Art Crimes: The Writing on the Wall, currently shows more than 700 images from 22 cities around the world. And it litis become the most popular site for web browsers pausing to peruse Tech's offerings. Some 20,000 people visit the site each month, accounting for more than half of the traffic on the school's w e b server. "It's called Art Crimes because in most places, ptiinting graffiti is illegal," Farrell says. "Many of these pieces n o longer exist in the


real world. "The graffiti is being done by friendly urban artists, not violent gangs. City officials try to eradicate graffiti 'tags' (which are artists' signatures) because of the misperception that all tags are signs of urban gangs. Fortunately, 99 percent of the tags you see are only art, and art can't hurt you." Stimulated to create the gallery by the many spray-can paintings she saw in Atlanta and during a trip to Prague in the Czech Republic, Farrell traces the current style of graffiti art to New York's subways during the

1983 Name server developed, eliminating need in know exact path i" oilier systems, UbPANET splits ofl MII.X1T. which integrates with the Defense Data Network. Desktop workstations i oine into being.

1984 Telos introduces File) ision, a hypermedia database lor Macintosh. Number of Net hosts breaks I.ODD. It NET (Japan I MX network) established.

This painting by an artist known as "23" is part of Susan FarreU's collection of Internet graffiti art. GEORGIA TECH • The Internet 2 1

1985 Intermedia, .1 hypermedia system, is conceived al Brown l niversits

1986 t )\\ 1 introduces (ii IDE, .1 hypermedia documeni browser. NSFnel is created; NSF establishes five supei computing centers.

1987 Apple introduces HyperCard, the first widely available personal hypermedia authoring system. 1 I M T is founded. Number ol Net hosts breaks 10,000.

1988 internet worm bur rows through the Net,

1989 Tim Berners proposes the W wide Web proji Number of Ne! hosts OOO.

1970s. But graffiti, even its preservation, goes back much further. The word graffiti comes from the Italian graffio, which means scratch. It was first used by archaeologists to describe the markings they found on walls in Pompeii. Graffiti appears in many other places as well, notably on the walls of medieval churches. In fact, some are preserved in the churches of Cambridge, England, and rival today's works in their intricacy. Farrell's "partner in crime" is Brett Webb, a computer science major at the University of Southern California. Even though the two have never met in person, their Internet links made it possible for them to more than quadruple the size of the gallery from its original 150 pictures, which were posted in September. "It is really easy to do international collaboration, and the Web is a very effective delivery method," Farrell says.— Hoyt Coffee • Art Crimes, now with graffiti images from Atlanta, Prague, Los Angeles, Amsterdam and many other cities around the globe, can be seen at: ( Index.Art_Crimes.html).

A Galaxy of Galleries There's no shortage of on line activity for the art lover, Galleries are everywhere, from the most cultured and urbane to the downright disgusting. Follow the URL's (Uniform Resource Locators) listed bete to find some interesting ones. J Michael C Carlos Museum at Emory

University (http:

< VRLOS ratios.html) LI Art on the Net (http; J LeWeb louvre (http; L) The Virtual Study Tour: In Memory of Architecture (hup: archpropplan, misc virtual_tour.html) J Leonardo da Vinci Museum ( blip: main.html) 1


GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

Business On-line It's a new frontier

that promises

millions of custom

"One businessman recently told me that be was accelerating his investment in new technology to avoid ending up as road-kill on the information superhighway." —Vice President Al Gore


n the tradition of America's Old West pioneers, businesses around the globe are staking claim to outposts along the "Infobahn" and its on-line market of 30 million potential customers. "The Internet is the next commercial frontier," says Bert C. Roberts Jr., chairman of MCI Communications Corp. "Think about it. You can have access to millions of customers. Products and services can be sold 2 t hours a day. And since transactions are handled electronically, sales and distribution can be done much more effectively." Already, hundreds of businesses are touting their wares in Cyberspace, selling everything from software to hard rock via virtual storefronts and electronic malls. Thousands more are using the Net for electronic-mail, for advertising or for customer service. Business travelers book their flights and make hotel reservations from a laptop computer plugged into a telephone. And as Net utilities become ever more ubiquitous, businessmen are discovering they can't afford to detour around the information superhighway. "Electronic business is going to take a greater and greater share of the total business in industry after industry," says Michael C. McChesney, chief executive officer of SecureWare and a partner in a planned Internet bank. The potential for such growth led McChesney and Calvin D. Johnson. MSci 7 3 and an Alumni Association trustee, to take a small Kentucky thrift on-line. Johnson, chief of operations for the E-Bank (It hasn't been officially named yet), has 25 years of experience in electronic banking, and he predicts the dream of a teller in the living room is nearing reality. "The home-banking issue is a lot like Jurassic Park," Johnson says. "It always seems to die off, but there's always a little bit of DNA left over that'll be reborn and take a new form and be a little bit stronger. It looks like

V \ ers; now's the time to stake a claim for a virtual storefront on the electronic mall

the magazine and sit back and wait for letters to the editor, and you get two or three, maybe," says Conway, whose Site Selection magazine is the official publication pf the International Development Research Council (IDRC). "But if you take the same subject content that you had in that editorial and toss it out to one of the discussion groups on the Internet, you get 300 comments." The Net also provides access to a near limitless fount of background information. "In just an hour you can have more information than you'd get in a whole day at the library," says Tim Venable, associate editor oiSite Selection. "The Net has something for everyone, no matter what business you're in." McKinley "Mac" Conway Jr., GE '40, uses the On the down side, Conway echoes the Internet to generate discussions about topics woes of many w h o have tried to bring a comimportant to the International Development pany on-line with a pre-World-Wide Web Research Council and to provide background system. Without the friendly user interface information for its magazine, Site Selection. offered by Mosaic and other Web browsers, the Net is "still very intimidating and awethe '90s version is going to stay." some for almost everyone," he says. "We still have people w h o are afraid of it and Up to 2 million Americans could have don't know h o w to use it. So there's a access to (he virtual bank, which will offer great need to simplify the system and to checking, loans, automated bill payments, organize it so that someone w h o knows ATM cards and the like. very little about the whole thing can log in For Net surfers w h o prefer to deal in greenbacks, there is "e-cash," a digital equiva- and use it effectively." lent of money being tested by DigiCash, a Dan Beggs, external systems manager for Dutch firm. It sets up electronic bank acConway Data, says simplifying access to comcounts from which customers can make with- pany data bases for information buyers and drawals to pay for items on the Net. Once the the nearly 2,000 IDRC members is behind a cyber-money is extracted from the account, it move to the Web. He says the organization works essentially like cash. should have a Web-like page by April. Critical to the success of the E-Bank—and Such simplifications, already powering a to other financial institutions planning to go virtual explosion of Net connections, will on-line, such as Wells Fargo and MasterCard bring more and more businesses on line—and —is security, which is McChesney's specialty. make it ever more vital that businesses be His company, incubated in the Advanced connected. As Vice President Al Gore said in Technology Development Center on the Tech a speech advocating a n e w information infracampus, provides software to keep hackers structure, "Virtually every business will find it away from confidential information such as possible to use these n e w tools to become credit-card numbers. more competitive. And by taking the lead in The information industry itself, while still quickly employing these n e w information somewhat distinct from the Net, is fast betechnologies, America's businesses will gain coming dependent on it. Publishers like enormous advantages in the worldwide marMcKinley "Mac" Conway Jr., GE '40, are findketplace." ing Net routes to be the speediest and most Otherwise, businesses may indeed end up pervasive available for exchanging ideas. as "road-kill on the information superhigh"You know, you can write an editorial in way." —Hoyt Coffee

WAIS released by Thinking Machines Corp. (topher released

In University of Minnesota. I ,S. High Perfor mance Computing \d establishes the National Research and Education Network (NREN).

1992 Internet Society chartered. World-Wide Web released b) * ERN. Number of hosts breaks 1,000, NSFnet backbone

upgraded to '13. First MBONE audio ami video multicasts.

GEORGIA TECH • The Internet


Wired to the Wild West 1993 .1 Hard Day's Night becomes the first full length movie transcribed into hypertext formal and distributed via compact disc. White House. World Bank and United Nations come on-line. U.S. National Information Infrastructure Act, Mosaic 1.0 for X Windows released bj the National Center for Supercomputing Applications,

Worldwide Web byte traffic surpasses Gopher traffic on NSFnel in March. Senate and Mouse provide information servers. Jim Clark ami Mare Andreessen form Mosaic Communications Corp. Shopping malls arrived on the Net. Worms on the N joined by Spiders, ami Sn


Users beware: outlaws are stalking the Net.


ne of the Internet's most exciting aspects is its wide-open, anythinggoes atmosphere. It's been called the only successful anarchy ever, a sprawling boom town that offers visitors a taste of every virtue and vice—and attracts its share of villains. "The Internet is a bit like the Wild West right now," says CompuServe spokesman Pierce Reid. "People are working on ways to make it more secure, but right now we don't recommend that anyone do anything on the Internet they wouldn't want made public." Privacy—the lack of which has people referring to the Internet as the "Information Snooper-highway"—is just one of many security issues under scrutiny these days. Users also face threats from "crackers," a term used by upstanding computer hackers to describe their malevolent counterparts; information thieves; e-mail bombers; and other assorted data-base denizens. And security such as passwords is often useless. "The Internet is like a vault with a screen door on the back," says William Cheswick, a network-security specialist with AT&T Bell Labs. "I don't need jackhammers and atom bombs to get in when I can walk in through the door." According to the Computer Emergency Response Team, a Carnegie-Mellon group that handles complaints from systems operators, computers are attacked almost daily along the Net. In the first nine months of 1994, for example, CERT recorded more than 1,500 incidents—up more than 75 percent over 1993AT&T's Steven Bellovin says that less than 5 percent of the intrusions to computer systems by an outsider are ever detected. Some of them, though, are hard to miss: Working from an apartment in North Carolina, Kevin Mitnick, a 31-year-old super-hacker, "spoofed" his way into the files of securityexpert Tsutomu Shimomura at the San Diego Supercomputer Center by faking the address of a "friendly" machine. When Mitnick was arrested, investigators discovered he had stolen 20,000 credit-card numbers. But a worse threat is the likelihood that Mitnick extracted Shimornura's utility programs—a potent set of burglar's tools in the hands of a hacker—and distributed them over the Net.

GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

Shimomura proved technical tricks can be used by the good guys as well, tracking Mitnick across the country through cellulartelephone systems and Internet-access providers. Once the hacker's location was narrowed down to Raleigh, N.C., Shimomura pinpointed Mitnick's location using a frequency-detecting antenna linked to a laptop computer. Security threats aren't only the purview of such outsiders; sometimes they're as close as the telephone. For example, Internet access providers typically check their customers' hard drives when they log on in order to find out if they need any software updates. But that same utility could also secretly scan a user's machine for other information. Any activity on the Internet leaves an electronic trail that can be traced, as 28 Harvard students recently found out. The campus newspaper, by tracking the students' activity on the university's network, revealed that they had been downloading pornography. Protecting confidential information on the Net is a key to developing electronic commerce. Most computer-security firms are perfecting software to encrypt sensitive information such as credit-card numbers, and they've had some success. "Cryptography is the most important technology for securing transactions," says Michael C. McChesney, chief executive officer of Atlanta-based Seen re Ware. In public-key cryptography, the customer can be sure he is actually talking to the bank; the bank is sure it's talking to a legitimate customer. Each party in a transaction has two software "keys," one that is published like a telephone number, the other a private key similar to a personal-identification number used with ATMs. Both keys are needed to decode the encrypted information. While encryption may solve some confidentiality problems, it won't stop crackers. Companies are fighting back with "firewalls," computer spin-offs of secure operating systems that act as a barrier by using a variety of devices like passwords, keys and alarms. Experts warn, however, that firewall technology is not perfect. "There is no such thing as absolute security," Bellovin says. "There is only relative risk." —Iloyt Coffee

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Time Tactics You can't hold back the hands of time or stop its relentless advance. But there are things you can do to manage your time more effectively and efficientlyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;just keep your datebook handy.

By B. Eugene Griessman Illustrations by Mac Evans


ometimes you hear the comment, "Do that in your free time." But the truth is, there is no such thing as free time We may have leisure time, but no one has free time. Time, because it is invisible and intangible, doesn't get enough respect. It's far easier to think of tangible things like cars and houses as having value. If someone stole a painting or jewelry from you, you would report the crime to the police. But the theft of time usually is not even considered a misdemeanor. Time is not free. When you're relaxing with family or friends or strolling through the woods, you're investing some of your time or giving some away. That's what Stanley Marcus, the legendary CEO of NeimanMarcus, meant when he told me, "I am miserly with my time in some areas so that I can be profligate with my time in other areas." Lawrence H. Summers is now one of President Bill Clinton's top economic advisers He came to this post from the World Bank, where he was chief economist with a research staff of some 600 people. Prior to that, he was a professor at Harvard University When I told Summers that I was wrifjng a book on time management, he shared this 26

GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘ Spring 1995


lA •s-tactic with me. He told me that when he was teaching at Harvard and encountered students who were having trouble getting their work done, he asked them to keep a log of their time—the way lawyers and accountants do. If they actually worked 30 minutes on a project, they logged in 30 minutes. No more. No less. He told them to log only what they could ethically bill a client. If they took time out for a snack break, that time was to be deducted from the log. Using the log, students realized that they often imagined they were working longer on projects than they actually were. This tactic isn't necessary for people who have learned to manage their time well. But for the person who's having trouble managing time, keeping a log can be a useful diagnostic tool. A log can have shock value even for experienced workers when they see how much time is simply unaccounted for. Some seasoned time tacticians use logs as a self-management tool. James L. S. Collins, president of Chick-fil-A, has been logging himself for years. He started doing it as a discipline and found the practice so useful that he's never abandoned it. All high achievers I know establish priorities. Helen Gurley Brown, editor of Cosmopolitan, keeps a copy of the magazine on her desk at all times. Whenever she's tempted to fritter away time doing some activity that doesn't directly contribute to the well-being of the publication, a glance at the magazine helps her get back on track. Brown says that unless you have a sense of priorities, you may work very hard and even be self-congratulatory at the end of the day, but you will be farther from attaining your goal than when you started.

Homer Rice's Method


he most important question to ask about your priorities is: "Will doing this help me reach some important goal in my life?" Homer C. Rice, longtime athletics director of the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets, is someone whose career has been transformed by goals. Rice has been so successful that his peers in the National Association of Collegiate Athletic Directors annually confer an award named for him on the nation's top athletics director. Rice began his coaching career at a rural high school in Kentucky. He later moved to a larger high school, where he compiled an incredible win-loss-tie record of 101-9-7, with seven undefeated seasons, a 50-game undefeated streak, and five straight championships. He subsequently became a university coach, a professional coach and a university athletics director. How did he do it? Rice began to read all the books he could find on achievement. He observed that many of those books recommended writing down what you want to attain—your aspirations, your goals, your dreams. The young coach began to do just that, and he wrote beside the goals the dates for attainment, plus a plan for achieving them. One by one, almost by magic, Rice began to reach the goals he had written down. He was so pleased with the outcome that he began to teach his players to do the same. He still does. When I taught management classes at Georgia Tech, I sometimes had Rice speak to the class. The last time, he showed us a set of 3 x 5-inch cards. "These are my goals," he said, "one on each card. I take them everywhere. When I'm at the airport waiting for a plane, I'll pull them out and read them. The fun is in expecting them to happen." He believes goals should be written clearly and concisely. Reading the goals aloud at least twice each day helps imprint them on the unconscious mind. "Be patient, be GEORGIA TECH • Time Tactics


relaxed, be confident," he says. "If you deserve what you are asking for, it will come."

Bill Moore's 80/20 Rule


Devising remedies for "the absentminded malady" can be an important time saving tactic.

• /


n deciding on your priorities—what to do, what not to do, and when to do what:—one test to apply is what has become known as ''the 80/20 rule." Here's what happened to William E. Moore when he tried it. When Moore graduated from Georgia Tech in 1939, he took a job as a salesman for the Glidden Paint Co. His draw was $160 per month. Moore set a goal: $1,000 a month. As soon as he had a good feel for his job, Moore sat down with his client information and sales charts and determined exactly who accounted for most of his business. He found that approximately 20 percent of his customers accounted for 80 percent of his sales. He also realized that he was spending equal amounts of time with each of his customers, regardless of how much they purchased. What Bill Moore did next was to return 36 of his least active customers to the company and focus only on the top 20 percent of his customers. The 80/ 20 rule became Moore's magic formula. What happened? He met his goal of $1,000 per month the first year, surpassed it the next, and went on to become the top producer on the West Coast. Never abandoning the rule, Moore became a very wealthy man, eventually becoming chairman of the Kelly-Moore Paint Co. You can apply the principle of the 80/20 rule to customers you call on or to the items on your to-do list. Paying attention to what will get the greatest return sets you free from those tasks that contribute little or nothing to your success. Like Bill Moore, you may need to "fire" 80 percent of your customers, eliminate 80 percent of what you've been putting on your to-do list.

The Absentminded Malady


illions of work hours are lost every day by people looking for things: managers looking for misplaced reports and letters; researchers looking for misplaced books, monographs and quotes; administrators looking for misplaced invoices and receipts. Even though this is a.common ailment, society does precious little to help the absentminded.

GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

Time-management books rarely mention how to cope with the malady. Fortunately, many absentminded people make important contributions to society. But they go into tailspins regularly, spending hours looking for misplaced articles. Invaluable time is lost retracing steps, asking everyone along the trail: Have you seen the report? my book? my glasses? my keys? my papers? The emotional stress that accompanies these episodes can range from mild discomfort to catatonic seizures. Some time ago, my life screeched to a traumatic stop for several unpleasant hours. I misplaced my appointment book. That may not seem like much of a problem to people who do not live by their appointments, but for those of us who do, it is nothing short of a calamity. During that time, no plans could be made, no invitations accepted, nothing constructive could be done. I was totally distracted. Someone called to see if I could do a keynote speech for their organization. I wanted to do it very much, but I didn't know whether I was already booked or not. I didn't know what I had agreed to do at nine o'clock the next morning, let alone at nine o'clock two months from then. After looking frantically and calling everyone, I was mentally and emotionally exhausted. I resolved to look in my car for the fourth time, and there I found the book, hidden in a little nook between the seat and the door. My life began again. That day, I decided to take immediate steps to protect me in the future. I developed a survival plan for the absentminded. Here are the main features: • A place for everything and everything in its place. Select a spot to put your glasses, your favorite pen, your keys and your appointment book, and discipline yourself to return them to that spot every time. You might even select two alternate places, such as the nightstand or your desk for glasses. Abraham Lincoln is said to have had a file in his law office labeled: "If nowhere else, look for it here." • Don't hide things. You may be so clever that you'll forget where you hid them. • Enlist the aid of a friend who is patient and present-minded (as opposed to absentminded). Tell him/her where you're putting your files, folders, books and the like. But don't select someone who will belittle you or become cross with you. And never choose an absentminded person for this assignment. • Write your name, address, and phone

number on valuable items. And offer a reward. If you lose something and a finder returns it, don't be cheap. Pay the reward cheerfully. • Use cues and reminders. When you park in a large parking lot, make a notation of what row and level you are on. • Look before you leap. I have found that most of what I have lost in my life was lost when 1 was leaping. I have lost valuable materials in the computer when someone interrupted me, or I rushed off to a meeting and did not take time to save the file I was working on. What about my appointment book? Now I have two. One stays at my desk. The other is a portable computer. I update both each day. The extra time I spend being redundant is better than the alternative.

Become an Expert


ames W. "Jim" Wesley, former president and CEO of the Summit Communications Group and a 1955 Georgia Tech graduate in industrial management, told me that several years ago he was having dinner with a prominent physician and asked this question: "Why is it that some physicians become truly excellent, and others never quite make it?" The physician replied: "If you want to be an excellent physician, you must embrace your field." Wesley told me he has never forgotten the word the physician used: embrace. Wesley says that's been true in his career. When he started managing a radio business for Cox Communications, Wesley recalls wanting to learn everything about radio from the ground up. As he put it, "I wanted to know the feel of the goods. Whatever brainpower I acquired in college, those were just disciplines that supported my knowledge of the field." In 1972, Jim Cathcart was a struggling salesman. That year he happened to hear a radio program produced by Earl Nightingale that revolutionized the young salesman's life: "If you'll spend one extra hour each day in the study of your chosen field ... you'll be a national expert in five years or less." Cathcart took the saying to heart. "Within five years, just as Nightingale had told me, I was traveling the nation speaking, training and writing on my chosen subject," Cathcart stated. Today Cathcart is one of the nation's best-known personalities in the field of personal development and a past president of the National Speakers Association.

Nightingale's promise calls for an extra hour per day, not simply ar^ hour per day. The promise begins when you invest an hour beyond what it takes to be simply adequate. /--^/MY When I was a graduate (APPOINTMEN , , ,. V BOOK!! T student, I used to listen to Nightingale. I liked his program so much that I asked his sponsor to send me the scripts. Recently, I found one of those scripts in my files: "Here's a formula for success that will work every time, for any man or woman on earth: A lifetime consists of years, months, weeks and days. The basic unit of a lifetime is a single day. And a single day is made up of certain acts which each of us must perform in the arena in which each of us finds himself. We need only perform successfully each act of a single day to have that day be successful. Repeat this each day for a week and you have a successful week, and so on. If you will only do each day the things you know you should do each day ... and do them as successfully as you possibly can ... you can rest assured that you will be successful all the years of your life.... Your job, then, is to play out the game you have been given to the best of your ability. Success is nothing more, or less, than this." •

About the Author 15. Eugene (iriessman. Ph.D., is the author of six books, including The Achievement Factors, which won the benjamin franklin Award for books on business and career. This article is excerpted from his latest book. Time Tactics of Very Sue cessfiil People, published by McGraw Hill (SI (.95), \ best seller. Time TdCtiCS is ahead) in its fourth printing and has been translated into several languages, it is one ofGarccrT rack's books on tape. Griessman's career at Georgia Tech. which spans more than a decade, has included teaching, writing and promoting Institute development, lie has been a popular speaker at Georgia Tech clubs around the country.

After looking frantically and calling everyone, I was mentally and emotionally exhausted. I resolved to look in my car for the fourth time, and there I found my lost date book. My life began again.

GEORGIA TECH • Time Tactics 2 9


GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

The Paper Trail Research is thefiberof the Paper Technology Alliance. By James E. Kloeppel


or untold millennia, human beings have sought the ideal writing surface. From cave walls to clay tablets, from papyrus to parchment, the search inexorably went on. Finally, about 2000 years ago, a Chinese inventor had the ingenious notion of beating cloth rags to a pulp, pouring the resulting mass into a vat of water, and dipping the suspended fibers out with a screen made'of cloth and bamboo. The fine art: of papermaking had begun. Today, paper has become the universal medium. We write on it. We draw on it. We package our products in it. We pay our bills with it. We ship our goods in it. We paper our houses with it. We sneeze into it. We clean up spills with it. We even dry ourselves with it. We constantly demand more of it, and more from it. The average American now consumes over 600 pounds of paper products a year. In 46 out of 50 states, the pulp and paper industry has become one of the 10 largest manufacturing industries; U.S. capacity accounts for nearly one-third of the world's paper and paperboard production. American companies export more than 9 million tons of paper products annually, generating sales in excess Continued on page 34

The paper trail begins here, in nurseries like this one, where thousands of seedlings are sprouted, then transported to nearby plantations; there they mature into trees that will be turned into paper. GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘ The Paper Trail


Paper Science Boosts Yield The Center for High-Yield Pulp Science works to develop new technologies to keep the United States competitive in a growing global market.


erhaps no one feels the synergism between Georgia Tech and the Institute of 1'apcr Science and Technology more than I )t. leflcry I Isieh. director of Georgia Tech's Center of Excel lence for High-Yield Pulp Science. "The alliance has proved very beneficial to both institutions." says Hsieh (pronounced Shay). "The mutual sharing of knowledge, COUtseWOrk and facilities nol only enhances the education of students, but the research of faculty members as well. The two institutions truly complement one another." Hsieh, a professor of chemical engineering at Georgia Tech and an adjunct professor at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, teaches a certificate program In pulp and paper engineering. As director of the center, Hsieh also facilitates communication between researchers at the t w o institutions.

The Center for High-Yield Pulp Science was created five years ago by Georgia lech. the Institute of Paper Science and Technology and the I lerly foundation. (Pounded in 1938 by the state of Georgia, the Savannah-based llcrly foundation promotes economic development of the pulp and paper industry within Georgia and the United States.) The center focuses industrial support for a high-yield pulping project led by Georgia Tech, For a yearly membership fee, corporate sponsors may offer input on research projects and receive early access to research results and royalty-free rights to use any technology developed. Special Interest projects can also be funded directly In member companies.

Pilot Demonstrations


he center is equipped with a high-yield pulping plant (capable of producing up to 3.5 tons of pulp a day) and a state-of-the-art distributed-computer control system.


GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘ Spring 1995

"The computer power here could run a full-size pulp and paper mill," I Isieh says, "We can demonstrate this capability and help mill owners select the best hardware and software configuration for their particular operation." I Isieh and his colleagues ran also use the computer's information center to demonstrate the power of a real-time mill management system. "By locating sensors and computer terminals at various work stations, we can gather data on raw materials, production quantity and quality, warehouse inventory, process controls, and market fluctuations. All the information required to make a business decision can be instantly relayed to key personnel throughout the plant." The computer control system includes a sophisticated model that can anticipate and help correct potential process-control problems before they occur. The center also supports the development of specialty sensors to aid in the production process, Ongoing work at the center includes an effort to substantially improve the quality of libers generated by the mechanical pulping process. The project focuses on two objectives: high yield and better fiber utilization. "A typical mechanical pulping process yields 95-percent fibers, but the poor quality and color of the pulp make it suitable only for newsprint and other low-grade paper products," I Isieh says. "Chemical pulping, on the other hand, produces much brighter and higher-quality fibers, but the yield drops to only 45 percent." By incorporating a chemical impregnation stage in his mechanical pulping process, I Isieh hopes to produce a medium-quality fiber at yields approaching 85 percent. The resulting fibers may not be suitable for finequality writing papers, says Hsieh, but could certainly be used for napkins, paper towels, and the linings of disposable diapers—products where a little residual color would not be objectionable. At Georgia Tech's Center of Excellence for HighYield Pulp Science, Dr. Jeffery Hsieh leads in research that focuses industrial support for high-yield pulping projects. His work also facilitates "the mutual sharing of knowledge, course work and facilities" between Tech's center and the Paper Institute;—to the benefit of both.

Patented Technology


n 1993, Hsieh received a patent for a novel method of removing ink from recycled fibers. His technique uses a de-inking cell with a central anode and perimetal cathode that subjects the fiber slurry to a direct-current electric field. "Becadse ink particles carry an electric charge, the electric field enhances the migration of the ink particles away from the fiber surfaces anil causes the ink to coagulate," Hsieh says. "The ink then floats to the surface of the slurry, where it can be easily skimmed off." Not only does Hsieh's process remove more ink, it also reduces chemical consumption and produces a cleaner, brighter pulp of recycled fibers. The process can be applied to all kinds of recycled paper, from newsprint and lightweight coated stock to laser-printed waste paper like that produced in most offices. The technology can be easily retrofitted into existing mills. In other research, I Isieh and his students recently explored the possibility of using kuil/u as a non-wood fiber alternative. (See Fall 1993 Alumni Magazine:) Although the researchers successfully produced "kudzu paper." Hsieh doubts the plant will ever serve as a \iable substitute for wood. Not only were overall yields low when compared to wood pulp, the plant's tough outer bark and pithy inner core were extremely difficult to remove, Such research, however, is becoming incrcas ingly important in the ongoing search for a globally competitive fiber supply.

A Tireless Worker and Teacher


sieh was recently named a Fellow of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry for his service to the association and the industry. TAPPI, the world's largest technical association for paper and related industries, sited Hsieh as "a tireless worker, a superb teacher, a prolific writer, and an expert in pulping and bleaching." Since joining Georgia Tech's pulp anil paper program in 1983, Hsieh has been well received by students due to his enthusiastic "hands-on" teaching style and clear explanations of fundamental knowledge applied to practical situations. —JamesE. Kloeppel

GEORGIA TECH • The Taper Trail 3 3

of $100 billion. Paper has indeed become big business. Located on a corner of the Georgia Tech campus, the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (formerly The Institute of Paper Chemistry) is dedicated to the further development and utilization of this inexpensive but highly versatile material called paper. "The Institute is a small, private, graduateresearch university which was created in 1929," says Dr. Richard Matula, IPST president. "Since its inception, the Institute has pursued three synergistic missions: graduate-level, multidisciplinary education; research; and service. All are focused on the technological needs of the pulp and paper industry." "^ With support from nearly 60 of the nation's major pulp and paper manufacturers and supplier companies, researchers at the Institute are addressing such concerns as enhanced productivity, improved quality control, dwindling resources, and meeting increasingly stringent environmental regulations. They do this through a rigorous program consisting of both fundamental and applied research, process engineering, and commercialization of technology. Projects range from studying a tree as a raw, renewable resource, to converting that tree into paper products, to utilizing those

products as unique engineering materials.

A Time of Transition


n the early days, the Institute was affiliated with Lawrence College, a small liberal arts institution in Appleton, Wis. But as the Institute grew and its mission broadened in complexity, the intellectual interaction among peer researchers in Appleton became limited. "The days of Edisonian science were over," says Matula, "and we realized that we could not continue to make major contributions to the tec linological development of the pulp and paper industry by working in an isolated environment. It became clear that, to best meet the needs of our constituV encies, we needed to have a synergistic relationship with a major research university that possessed strong programs in science and engineering." The search for a new home took Institute Researchers from representatives to a number of universities Georgia Pacific, an and research institutes. Several tempting offers IPST supporter, were received, but the one which caused the examine seedling most excitement came from Georgia Tech. growth in one of the "Georgia Tech and the state of Georgia company nurseries. were enthusiastic about forming an alliance," says Matula, "and pledged $15 million to support our move. Atlanta is a dynamic city and major transportation hub, and there is a grows. ing focus on pulp and paper in the Southeast. I It's good to be where the action is." But more important to bringing the Institute to Atlanta was Tech's solid tradition of conducting both basic and applied research. "Some universities put a low premium on applied research," says Matula. "Georgia Tech filled the perspective of the type of research university we truly wanted to form an alliance with." So, after 60 years in Appleton, the Institute moved to Atlanta in July 1989. Temporary offices were opened in the old, remodeled Atlantic Steel warehouse on 14th Street. In September 1992, the Institute moved into its newly constructed headquarters: the $28.7 million Paper Tricentennial Building on the corner of 10th and Hemphill streets. The 162,000-square-foot facility houses laboratories, classrooms, offices, a library and a museum (see story at right). The old Atlantic Steel property is still used by the Institute as an industrial research facility. The facility houses pilot-scale equipment and space to expand laboratory activities. IPST President Matula: "Georgia Tech filled the perspective of the type The alliance has proved beneficial to both of research university we truly wanted to form an alliance with." 34

GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘ Spring 1995

institutions, offering numerous opportunities for cooperative endeavors and joint research projects in such areas as applied biology, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. In addition, students from both institutes enrich their educational experiences by the increased resources of faculty and facilities, fast year, several Georgia Tech students enrolled in Institute graduate programs. The Institute has undergone several major transitions, says Matula. "We moved from a small, northern town to a large, southern city. We changed our name; we even changed our logo. Now. as we move into an era of increasing global competitiveness, we are experiencing another transition. The Institute has an important role in develop ing the new technology that will help our member companies and the nation compete effectively in the global marketplace. Our vision for the future is that we will establish the Institute as the international leader in edu cation, research, and service relevant to the technological areas associated with the pulp and paper industry."

A Future Fiber Supply


s the industry enters the 21st century, new -threats are looming over the not-toodistant horizon. These include growing international competition for both raw materials

Ph.D. student Joel Panek and assistant professor Peter Pfromm inspect handsheets to investigate deinking by flotation.

arid finished products, and the challenge of meeting productivity demands in light of increasingly tough environmental regulations. World demand for paper products is steadily on the rise, says Matula. "The usage rate of paper per capita is highest in developed countries, and continues to increase. And, as the world's economies continue to develop and grow, there' will be even more demand." While there promises to be significant growth for the future, a major concern is how much of this growth will occur in the United States. The Institute is pursuing a number of initiatives designed to help the U.S. maintain its industrial leadership in the global marketplace. "The industry has a potential problem of maintaining an adequate wood supply," says Matula. "Environmental pressures—like concern over the spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest—have taken vast tracts of land from commercial use. Consequently, the land base for harvestable trees is decreasing." In addition, there are regions in the world where trees simply grow much faster than in the United States, says Matula. "In Brazil, for example, eucalyptus trees are being grown in plantation style at rapid rates. From planting to harvest can take as little as five years, compared to 30 years or more in the United States. As a result, Brazil and other developing

The American Museum of Papermaking


Curator Cindy Bowden stands before displays at the American Museum of Papermaking, located on the Tech campus.

ocated on the ground floor of the Paper Tricentennial Building on the corner of loth and Hemphill streets, the American Museum of Papermaking is an internationally renowned resource on the history of paper and paper technology. The museum features a remarkable collection of rate books, finely crafted watermarks. Intricately carved wooden printing blocks, early handmade newspapers, and period tools and machines. Exhibits depict the history of papermaking from its earliest days to the present, the transition of papermaking from an ait to an industry, and contemporary paper manufacture and use. • Museum hours arc Monday through Friday, 9 a.m.-5:J0 p.m. Admission is free.

GEORGIA TECH • The Paper Trail


countries are becoming highly competitive as pulp suppliers." As the costs of raw materials and manufacturing processes continue to spiral upward, the cost of transporting pulp or paper products from other countries to the U.S. will become less and less a part of the equation. "In the future, such decisions as whether to modernize a plant in south Georgia or build a new plant in some other country will be based on a number of issues, including fiber supply and economics. With over 700,000 jobs in the United States linked to the pulp and paper industry, we have a lot to lose. Our objective is to provide the U.S. "^ with a globally competitive fiber supply which at the same time offers adequate acreage for recreation and the environment, Matula says.

New and Recycled


ne way to meet this goal is to produce better, faster-growing trees on whatever land is commercially available. In one longterm project, Institute researchers are attempting to produce clones of southern pine through somatic embryogenesis. Nearing success, the program has the potential for economically generating large numbers of seedlings for plantations, nurseries and reforestry operations. It also provides an efficient and inexpensive way of mass propagation of genetically superior trees. Another way of maintaining an adequate fiber supply is to recycle as much waste paper as possible. Although the use of recycled paper is gaining momentum within the industry, it requires both expensive technology and commercial demand. Paper collected for recycling must first be sorted by type and grade, and then cleaned of all nonfiber material such as plastic, glue, staples and inkâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a formidable and expensive task. In fact, the costs of collecting the paper and the additional processing required to make it usable can exceed the price of virgin pulpwood. But there? is an even bigger problem which has severely limited its use: paper made from recycled fibers is not as strong as paper made from virgin fibers. "Part of the ability of fibers to bond is their ability to bend and conform to one another in the sheet," says Dr. David Orloff, director of the Engineering and Paper Materials Division. "The process of forming paperâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;particularly Continued on page 36

GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘ Spring 1995


Dr. David Orloff, director of the Engineering and Paper Materials Division, and his colleagues have developed a technique which adds the necessary strength to recycled paper without subjecting its fibers to the troublesome and expensive process of refining. RIGHT: State-of-theart control rooms like this are now used to operate and monitor the highly technical process of papermalung.

Papermaking at a Mile a Minute


ince the invention of paper nearly 2000 years ago, the basic process of papermaking has undergone very little change. It has become exceedingly faster, however. Today's modern paper machine, as long as two city blocks and costing more than a quarter of a billion dollars, can create a continuous sheet of paper 30 feet wick' at production speeds in excess of 60 miles an hour. The process of converting trees into paper begins in the forest, where trees are harvested and cut into logs. The logs are taken to the mill, where they are stripped of their bark and cut into small chips. The chips are then broken down through a pulping process into individual fibers and mixed with water. The resulting pulp is treated with various chemicals to make the finished pulp softer, smoother, or brighter, and sent to the paper machine, Pulp enters the paper machine through a large tank nozzle known as the headbox, where it is sprayed onto a rapidly moving belt of fine-wire mesh. As excess water is quickly removed by gravity and suction, the wood fibers cling together, forming a continuous web of paper. The newly formed paper is carefully lifted from the wire screen and pressed between metal rollers and felt to squeeze out additional water and give the paper its strength. A series of heated cylinders then evaporates the remaining water, and a winder reels the continuous web into a very long roll of paper.

GEORGIA TECH â&#x20AC;˘ The Paper Trail


the drying stage—forever changes the fibers The fibers become stiffer, so they no longer conform as easily, and become weaker, both of which results in a weaker sheet of paper." To regain the necessary strength, recycled fibers must undergo a process called refining, where they are bent back and forth countless times. As the fibers are bent, little fibrils emerge. The fibrils in crease the available surface area and enhance the bonding process, making a stronger sheet of paper. "Unfortunately, the fibrils also tend to clog the pores in the sheet, making it more difficult to remove the water during the manufacturing process," says Orloff. "To remove the water you must slow down the paper machine, which decreases production and drives the cost up even more." Orloff and his colleagues have developed a technique which adds the necessary strength to recycled paper without subjecting the fibers to the troublesome and expensive process of refining. The procedure involves adding a unique device called an impulse dryer

Institute senior associate engineer Charles Courchene prepares a sample for oxygen bleach in the CRS Reactor.

to a conventional paper machine. "The impulse dryer uses a specially designed roller to transfer thermal energy to the paper," says Orloff. "Steam, formed between the wet paper and hot roller, expands rapidly through the sheet, forcing out large amounts of water. The libers are pushed closer together in the process, yielding higher density and greater strength. As a result, we can make more effective use of recycled fibers. And the more self-sufficient we are—either by our production of virgin fiber or by our use of recycled fiber—the better off U.S. companies will be." The Institute initiated work on the impulse dryer in the early 1980s. A consortium has been created to commercialize the technology.

Environmental Regulations


aper recycling is not the only environmental concern facing the industry. Tighter restrictions on air emissions and the release of effluents pose continuing challenges. "The pulp and paper industry will have to

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GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

make some dramatic changes to meet new environmental regulations," says Dr. Earl Malcolm, director of the Chemical and Biological Sciences Division. "New limits imposed on the amount of chlorine that can he used in the bleaching process, for example, are forcing major process changes." Wood fibers are naturally brown, and when left untreated, are used to make products such as brown paper bags and corrugated boxes. To pro duce white paper, the pulp must be bleached. To remain viable, the industry must come up with economic alternatives for the bleaching process. Says Malcolm, "We are exploring a variety of oxygen-based chemicals to replace the variety of chlorine-based chemicals that have been used traditionally. A whole new commercial technology is coming into play, and part of our mission is to stay on top of that emerging technology." Traditional pulping technologies are also undergoing major changes, as the industry attempts to meet tighter regulations on the release of effluents. "To reduce the amount of chemicals being

Dr. Earl Malcolm, director of the Chemical and Biological Sciences Division, and coworkers are exploring economical alternatives for the bleaching process.

released into the environment, paper mills are trying to recycle more of the water internally," says Malcolm. "But, as the water is reused over and over, the concentrations of dissolved metals grow ever stronger. As a result, corrosion is becoming a serious problem for the industry. Metal parts that were supposed to last at least 10 years are lasting only three, requiring costly repairs*and expensive new parts." To resolve the problem, researchers at the Institute are examining the use of new materials, and exploring where to most effectively place them in the pulping operation. They are also looking at novel ways to purge the corrosive chemicals from the process water. From developing new trees to reducing the industry's effects upon the environment— these are only a few of the many programs the Institute of Paper Science and Technologyis pursuing. Through its multidisciplinary programs in education, research and service, the Institute continues to seek solutions to real-world problems affecting the pulp and paper industry. •



• • • • • • • • • • I


1:00pm 8:00pm TBA TBA TBA 11:00am




The Lost Squadron. The story of eight World War n planes and two Tech alumni's impossible dream Excerpted from the book by David Hayes Photography by Lou Sapienza/GES

Pat Epps pointed downward at the glittering white icefieldsof southern Greenland. In August of 1980, after a week of buzzing around the Arctic in a single-engine plane, Epps, ME '56, and his friend Richard Taylor, Arch '65, were flying home. The night before, in a bar at a remote airstrip, the talk had turned to the legendary Lost Squadron. This squadron, so the story ran, was on a World War II mission when it ditched in Greenland in 1942. The crews had been rescued, but their brand-new warplanes were left on the ice cap. Someone said they had been seen as recently as the early '60s.


GEORGIA i n 11 â&#x20AC;˘ Spring 1995

.. Found!

1942 On July 15,1942, a squadron of six P-38 Lightnings and two B-17 Flying Fortress bombers wasflyingfrom Greenland to Iceland when they ran head-on into an Arctic blizzard. As conditions deteriorated, they decided to turn back, only to discover that the base was socked in. Running desperately low on fuel, the two bombers and six fighter planes crashlanded on the ice cap in the largest forced landing in history. GEORGIA m i l * Ibe Lost Squadron



1981 The Ix)st Squadron remained nothing moi than an intriguing hit of aviation history until spring 1981, when a wealthy businessman taxied up to Epps' hangar in a brand-new Learjet. "I swear, that's a beautiful airplane," Epps said. "Yeah," the customer replied, "but I've always wanted a P-38." Epps chuckled. "Well, sir, I know where six P-38s are." Epps called Taylor that evening. "Hey, Richard, want to go north again?"



Epps and Taylor peered landscape was a gently rolling, featureless blanket of white. They had heard reports that the planes had been seen from the air as recently as 1961. A B-17 tail fin was 20 feet high, so there was every reason to believe the tip might be visible poking through a mound of snow. But they saw nothing. Epps and Taylor had rented a pair of magnetometers, devices that can detect iron and steel by the variations they cause in the earth's magneticfield.For practice they had walked around DeKalb-Pcachtree Airport in Atlanta, locating pipes under its concrete apron. The magnetometers worked like a charm. On the ice cap, Epps and Taylor set up a simple grid pattern and ... took turns walking in parallel lines about 50 yards apart. They took readings at regular intervals and watched for large fluctuatioas that might indicate the location of a plane. The next day they retraced part of the grid and got wildly different results. To solve the puzzle of the erratic magnetometer readings, Epps and Taylor visited the experiment station at Georgia Tech, their alma mater, where they learned the fluctuations were probably caused by intense magnetic activity common at high latitudes. Subsurface radar would be more effective.

Epps turned the crank. There was a distinct thunk, and the drill dropped an inch. Pay dirt! The crew hauled the drill to the surface. Embedded inside the coring device was a piece of aluminum tubing about 1/2-inch in diameter. Taylor held up a tape recorder that Bobbie Bailey had given him with a tape to play when a piece of the plane was removed. He punched play and Diana Ross sang The Impossible Dream. [Don] Brooks' thermal meltdown generator, which resembled a torpedo with a giant stainless-steel nose cone, was suspended by chains over the ice. Water from the solar collector fed into the generator-powered boiler, and hot water was pumped Into the meltdown device. By keeping the hot nose cone just above the ice, it would, in theory, melt straight down as it was lowered. [It didn't.]

A huge tent with a cathedral ceiling sheltered the silo unloader which, thanks to two diesel generators driving powerful electric motors, began carving its way down to the P-38. One hundred yards away, Bailey's new Super Gopher was melting a four-foot diameter hole down through the ice cap.... It resembled an obese plumb bob around which copper tubing had been wound. Boiling water was pumped through the tubing and back to the surface. At 9 a.m. on June 6, the Super Gopher hit something at 256 feet.


The entire plane w the eerie glow of halo top of the wing was tl the U.S. Army Air Fori The cramped cockpit condition, its gauges ; intact. The Lightning'; tail booms disappear! runnels that opened I cavern containing the had been wrenched ft sat in place, supporte

Six months later, o 1993, Epps, Brooks, B visitors milled about i hangar in Middlesbor Girl," as Harry Smith'; named, was in pieces, tered around the flooi stored on huge shelvi back wall. Only a pair extending nearly the < hangar from either sii provided a skeletal su plane that was to com For Epps, searchinj Squadron had never h venture. It had started

PersonalObservation Jbrm

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"Particles so slight that they were long thought to have no mass at all may be some of the most consequential matter in the universe, probably much more abundant and substantial than all the ordinary matter in planets, stars and galaxies. "In experiments aimed at answering one of the most intriguing questions in particle physics and cosmology, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico have produced especially strong evidence that these elusive particles, called neutrinos, do indeed have mass. "This means that neutrinos could constitute a major component of the mysterious invisible matter, the longsought missing mass that cosmologists think fills and shapes the universe and could dictate its fate." 窶年ew York Times Jan. 31, 1995

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ews leaking out of Los Alamos National Laboratory that experiments conducted by a team of research scientists had produced evidence that commonplace, subatomic particles known as neutrinos had mass was heralded in such major media as the New York Times and Time magazine. "If it's true, the finding

supercomputers that mirror astronomical observations of the real universe. Dr. William C. Louis, who graduated from Georgia Tech with a physics degree in 1973, is a spokesman for the team of about 40 physicists, representing 12 different institutions, who are conducting experiments at Los Alamos. Louis says that based on the observations of neutrinos produced by a proton

William Louis, Phys 73, is spokesman for studying neutrinos. If experiments prove research could revolutionize theories aboi to investigate neutrinos.



the universe. And there are a billion times more neutrinos and photons than there are protons and neutrons. All it takes is for neutrinos to have a tiny mass— say one-billionth the mass of a proton or heavier—for them to contribute substantially to the mass of the universe. How do you measure the mass of neutrinos? The way you try to measure one is a good example of quantum mechanics. What you look for is one flavor of neutrinos—neutrinos come in different flavors or different families. For example, there is a neutrino associated with the electron, and a neutrino associated with the muon, which is heavier, and another neutrino associated with the tau, which is heavier still. They are all like electrons, but heavier. To put it simply, you look for neutrinos of one flavor turning into another, or oscillating, so the phenomenon is called neutrino oscillations. That is evidence that neutrinos have mass and, in fact, you can measure the difference in masses-squared of fhe two different types of neutrinos if you see this happening. Have you been able to see this? What we have is evidence that this is happen-


GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

Richard Bolton of the Los Alamos team researching neutrinos poses inside the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector tank, which is used to find "the signature of the anti-electron neutrino."

ing. I stress evidence because in this field nothing is ever proved until it is seen by several experiments. I don't think this is proof, but it is evidence that this is happening. This has caused a lot of excitement, because if it is true, then it implies that neutrinosdo contribute substantially to the mass of the universe. Are neutrinos part of the dark matter that cosmologists are looking for? Neutrinos could be part of the dark" matter. That's

one reason it is very interesting to try to measure the neutrino mass. It's important to begin with, but the possibility that it contributes to the dark matter makes it even more exciting. How much mass do the experiments suggest that neutrinos have? If these preliminary results are due to neutrino oscillations, then neutrinos have a mass of about a half an e-v or higher. In particle physics, an e-v unit stands for electron-volts. To put it in perspective, a proton

has a mass of approximately 1 billion electron volts. If our excess is due to neutrino oscillations, that implies neutrinos have a mass on the order of a billionth of the mass of the proton or higher. That's important because there are a billion more neutrinos than there are protons in the universe. Where the mass range is sensitive is the mass range where neutrinos would contribute as much < >r more to the mass of the universe than all the protons in the universe.


What are the implications of that?

inside the Liquid Scintillator utti-electron neutrino." as a mass of approxilately 1 billion electron alts. If our excess is due . ) neutrino oscillations,

It will help us understand how the universe evolved. As far as we know, there was the big bang 10 or 15 billion years ago, and knowing the neutrino masses will help us understand how the universe evolved, how stars and clusters of galaxies formed. Also, it will help us understand the late of the universe. The universe is now expanding rapidly, and depending on how much mass density there is in the universe, it could either keep expanding forever or eventually stop and contract int( > another big bang. Of course, that is billions and billions of years In>m now, but from a physics standpoint, I think everybody is interested in trying to understand as much as possible about how the universe began and what the future is.

You used a particle accel-

Unraveling the mysteries of neutrinos "is important to begin with, but the possibility that it contributes to the dark matter makes it even more exciting." is evidence for neutrino oscillations, because we don't know of any other way it could be produced. If it is produced, it will interact in a certain way in our oil, producing light, which is then detected by the 1220 photo-tubes lining the inside surface of the tank. From all those phototubes we can measure accurately the particle identification, the position and direction, and thereby help determine whether that neutrino was an anti-electron neutrino or some other type of neutrino. It's actually fairly straightforward. It's a tank of oil and neutrinos that interact to produce light, and from that light you can recon-

more data in 1994. From our 1993 data we had some evidence that this was happening, and nbvv we have more evidence. What we want is more data.

When did you conduct your experiments? It was September and October of 1993. And then we took data from August through November of 1994. We want to take much more data. Neutrinos interact very weakly. Because of this, the everyday person doesn't know about neutrinos, even though trillions of them pass through one's body every second.

How have you presented your findings? I've given a colloquium and other talks. We're talking about our preliminary results. We plan to submit a paper to the scientific literature in March.

What kind of reaction

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P WSifflfflS Test-Lab-on-a-Chip By John Dunn


ric S. Snyder calls his invention a paradigm shift. Research & Development magazine hailed it as one of the world's "most brilliant" inventions, rating it among "the 100 most technologically significant new products" of 1994. The R&D 100 awards, which have been called the "Nobel Prize of applied research." recognize products that have been proven viable in the commercial arena.

The invention, called SHIELD, is a reliability-teston-a-chip, developed by Snyder and colleague David V. Campbell at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M. The magazine recognized the invention because it "simultaneously solves two pervasive problems in the $83 billion microelectronics industry: the sharp growth in testing costs and the need to constantly increase performance without jeopardizing reliability." Snyder, who graduated from Georgia Tech with a

bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1985 and a master's in 1988, says his on-chip testing of integrated circuit reliability is a novel solution to a challenging technical problem. The SHIELD silicon integrated circuit performs reliability tests that previously required an expensive, complicated, highfrequency, custom one-ofa-kind test system. Snyder says he was trying to build just such a test system when the concept occurred to him to "put the


tion generator and other types of electronic instruments onto an integrated circuit to evaluate the reliability of integrated circuit processes. "We're providing the stress on the chip and using the technology to

evaluate itself," Snyder says. The acronym SHIELD is taken from a combination of letters derived from self-stressing, high-frequency, reliability devices. The device, which has a patent


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Snyder's self-stressing, high-frequency, reliability device is "cheaper, faster—and most of the good motherhood statements apply." pending, has been successfully built at five different integrated-circuit fabrication facilities, and licensing agreements are being negotiated with several commercial companies. "It's cheaper, faster—and most of the good motherhood statements apply," Snyder says happily. "It performs the type of characterizations necessary to achieve the maximum performance and reliability of the technology using relatively inexpensive instruments." Accolades for the invention are still coming. A presentation about the invention was voted best paper at die 1993 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, and it was awarded best paper at the 199a IEEE International Test Stntcture Conference in a ceremony held in Nara, Japan. Snyder, w h o joined Sandia National Laboratories six years ago, is the senior member of the technical staff of the Electronics Quality and Reliability Center, where he is engaged in research on semiconductor device reliability. He has taught classes on integrated-circuit reliability at the University of New Mexico and on integrated- circuit device technology at Sandia. He and his wife, Nancy, married during his senior year at Tech. She is a former employee of the Georgia Tech Research Institute. They have a four-year-old daughter, Hallie, and a second child is due in April. Snyder has taken a longtime interest in ham radio and transferred it to the Internet, where he has become a frequent surfer on the World-Wide Web. •

self-stressing, aency, device is fasterâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and le good mothersments apply."

We're Close To GeorgiaTech And AWorld Away From The Ore

as been successfully built :rent integrated-circuit facilities, and licensing ; are being negotiated il commercial companies, aper, fasterâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and most of totherhood statements 'der says happily. "It perype of characterizations o achieve the maximum :e and reliability of the using relatively inexpennents." es for the invention are r 5"

itation about the invent e d best paper at the International Reliability nposium, and it was est paper at the 1994 lational Test Structure i in a ceremony held in 1.

who joined Sandia Nairatories six years ago, is member of the technical Electronics Quality and Eenter, where he is en:search on semiconductor ihiliru T-tt^ haQ t'jiioht

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he next time you quaff a soda, take a close look at the container before tossing it in the recycling bin. We're talking about a lot more than an empty can here. "The packaging is really a small piece of advertising," says Frank Golley, a partner with Coker/Golley, an Atlanta packaging-design firm. "It's the container that gives the first impression of the product and determines whether the consumer will buy it, or even see it." Although shoppers may not feel the pull of packaging, Golley says it's always there, tugging at your heartstrings. Take the design that Coker Golley completed for Biskins, a new breakfast roll launched by Flowers Industries. It's a simple English-muffin bag with a clear window that reveals the rolls, surrounded by a ^rpllnw m'noham nattprn

four designers and have snagged Coca-Cola, Georgia Pacific Corp. and Flowers breads as major clients. The firm has won awards from the Beverage Packaging Council, the Paperboard Packaging Council and the Package Design Council. Coker and Golley credit much of their success to their technical training. "As industrial designers, we are oriented to three dimensions," Golley says. "It's the ability to visualize in the round that makes us different from graphic designers. We see the package as a whole, rather than a series of flat pictures." Coker and Golley also attribute their effectiveness to the firm's meticulous marketing research. They call it "analyzing a product's competitive environment," but it boils down to checking out what's displayed at the grocery store in an unusually creative and analytical way. O n p p y q m n l p is f h p i r

Coker and Golley display some of the pre agedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and helped sell. Their success has c to "visualize in the round, to see the pack ers. They picked up some lavishly illustrated tourist magazines, went back to the hotel to pour the liquids down the sink, crammed everything into boxes and flew it all back home. "We put it out all over, looked at it, talked about it, ate it and got some inspiration," Golley said. After being immersed in

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On-the-job Discovery By Lisa Crowe

product is being lost each year due to fatigue and fracture problems. avid McDowell doesn't mind Mon"It's emerged as sort of day mornings. It's a hidden cost—the cost of the start of a week of disdoing business with uncovery. "The greatest thing charted materials." about my job is that I'm Understanding materials excited about it every day," is no longer a question of says McDowell, a mechanijust detecting flaws. Now cal engineering professor. that consumer goods are "I'm always dealing with designed for finite use, developing new knowlknowing how materials edge, so I never know exdeform and how long they actly how my day will go. can be expected to last has It's like on-the-job training become critical. for the rest of your life." "One is no longer deDavid L. McDowell has signing components for infinite life," McDowell says. "Most design considerations these days focus on how you can ensure that a certain target life will Born—Dec. 20. 1956, at Red Oak, Iowa, be obtained. Education—BS in mechanical engineering, Uni"Take the automobile as versity of Nebraska, 1979; MS 1981 and Ph.D. an example. We want 1983, both in mechanical engineering. University vehicles that go faster with of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, less fuel use than ever bePersonal—lie and his wife, kathy, have three fore, and they need to be sous, Matt, 9; Andy, 7; and James, 3. affordable. Any automobile Achievements—National Science foundation designed for infinite life Presidential Young Investigator Award, 1986; would be terribly fuel-inefAlfred Noble Prize for outstanding technical paper ficient and expensive. by an author no older than 31 years of age, 1986; These types of consumer Pi fan Sigma Gold Medal, awarded for outstanddemands must continually ing contributions in mechanical engineering by an be met. individual less than 10 years beyond the BS degree, 1987; lull professor, director of Georgia Tech "If we understand the Interdisciplinary Mechanical Properties Research way materials deform and Laboratory, 1992; selected as one of is members fail, we can use that inforof the Defense Science Study Group (Georgia mation combined with Tec lis first appointee), 1992-9$; Georgia Tech computer technology to faculty Research Author Award, 199$; Mtldmlc make better estimates for de'bonneur, Societe Francaise de Metallurgie el de how long things will last." McDowell's work Materiaux, 1991. involves experimental Leisure interests—Golf, hiking, basketball, footresearch and the use of loll and reading fiction. computers for modeling.


a particular interest in how deformations occur and how cracks grow in the common materials that we use to build everything from toaster ovens to commercial airplanes. It's a highly specialized research area, but in recent years the importance of fracture and fatigue research has extended far beyond the walls of the laboratory. "It's of great economic importance," McDowell say's. "It is estimated that roughly $5 billion to $10 billion of the gross national

The McDowell File


GEORGIA TECH • Spring 1995

"I use a combination of experimental work and numerical simulation where we use the computer to model the growth of these cracks, and look at the details of what's going on in the material nearer the tip of the crack as it grows." McDowell did his graduate work in mechanical engineering and specialized in applied mechanics, but as his career progressed, he found himself collaborating closely with researchers from other disciplines. "Material deformation and failure is a multifaceted problem, and if you only see one of the facets, you will have a limited understanding," McDowell says. "Several university groups have made a lot of progress with a multifaceted approach, and it's the approach that I have been taking since I came here." As director of Georgia Tech's Interdisciplinary Mechanical Properties Research Laboratory (MPRL), McDowell works with faculty from mechanical engineering, materials science and engineering, aerospace engineering, the Georgia Tech Research Institute and Emory University. "Our philosophy is that it is necessary to have the applied solid mechanics, materials science, materials characterization and com-

"I use a combination of xperimental work and umerical simulation mere we use the com'Uter to model the growth f these cracks, and look at ae details of what's going n in the material nearer le tip of the crack as it rows." McDowell did his raduate work in mechanial engineering and pecialized in applied rechanics, but as his caser progressed, he found imself collaborating losely with researchers "om other disciplines. "Material deformation nd failure is a multifacted problem, and if you nly see one of the facets, ou will have a limited nderstanding," McDowell ays. "Several university roups have made a lot of rogress with a multifacted approach, and it's the pproach that I have been iking since I came here." As Hi rector of (Tenrpia

Dr. David L. McDowell and mechanical-engineering graduate student Steve Lustig work on a problem in mt putation capabilities integrated together." McDowell also chairs Tech's Materials Council, a group that represents over 100 faculty with materialsrelated research interests. "Activities in materials on caninus are extremelv

up in Bellevue, Neb., McDowell dreamed of being a sportswriter, but by the time he entered the University of Nebraska, he had decided that his math and science abilities were his strongest skills. His father was a civil engineer.

in little things like machines." McDowell has never regretted his career choice, but he still loves sports. "I like to play sports, read, listen, watchâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;all of it," McDowell says. "The thing I like about sports is

pretty r of my e search ; grateful everyth He a of his z dealing "Stu<

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Alumni cruising the Information Superhighway can now visit Georgia Tech and the Alumni Association. A map to the Institute's stop on the Internet and the rest of Cyberspace begins on page 16.

Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine Vol. 71, No. 04 1995  
Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine Vol. 71, No. 04 1995