Emanuel Christ / Christoph Gantenbein
The Art Space
Emanuel Christ / Christoph Gantenbein
The Art Space
The Art Space The studio addresses the relationship between art and architecture. The students developed monographic museums dedicated to the specific stances of the following artists: Hans Arp, Ellen Gallagher, Isa Genzken, Dan Graham, Philip Guston, Jenny Holzer, Roni Horn, Pierre Huyghe, Mike Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Pipilotti Rist, Wilhelm Sasnal, Roman Signer, and Monika Sosnowska. Each interpretation of the artists’ oeuvres guided the choice of an unexpected building type and the selection of an appropriate site within the city of Los Angeles. The city was also the destination of the field trip—generously funded by the gallery Hauser & Wirth—during which the students visited different art spaces and artist studios. The triad Art, Space, and Type thus defined the frame within which the students developed the tenets of their design for an ideal art space. The results address the tension between art and architecture as impartial disciplines. Furthermore, they tackle the debate around the significance of architecture in the contemporary art world, and the recurring question of the primacy of one over the other.
Studio Instructors Emanuel Christ Christoph Gantenbein Teaching Associate Daniel Quesada Lombó Students William Adams, Rekha Auguste-Nelson, Mohamad Berry, Mingyu Kim, Yixin Li, Yan Ma, Farhad Mirza, Matthew Okazaki, Demir Purisic, Daniel Quesada Lombó, Farnoosh Rafaie, Andrea Soto Morfin, Joseph Varholick, Madelyn Willey Directed Research Victoria Easton Final Review Critics Iñaki Ábalos, Ricardo Bak Gordon, Preston Scott Cohen, Victoria Easton, Kersten Geers, Reto Geiser, Éric Lapierre, Mark Lee, Mohsen Mostafavi, Carles Muro, Camilo Restrepo Ochoa, David Van Severen, Enrique Walker
An art space for Wilhelm Sasnal by Matthew Okazaki, midterm model study.
The Art Space
A Public Space for Art Joseph Varholick
Double Identity Emanuel Christ
Spectacular Infrastructure William Adams
The Point of Least Resistance Victoria Easton
Fallout Rekha Auguste-Nelson
Dream Machine Éric Lapierre
Re-Framing Arp Daniel Quesada Lombó
Under One Roof Demir Purisic
A Collection of Rooms Madelyn Willey
Monuments and Phantoms Matthew Okazaki
Guston Barn Mingyu Kim
Nostalgic Artificiality Farnoosh Rafaie
A Portrait Gallery for Los Angeles Farhad Mirza
The Underwater Museum Yixin Li
Hortus Doppelgänger Andrea Soto Morfin
The Artistic Ruins Yan Ma
The Greenhouse Mohamad Berry
Afterword A Gallery Space Stacen Berg
Foreword Emanuel Christ
The Art Space
8 An art space for Isa Genzken based on a Victorian house hall by Madelyn Willey, midterm model study.
A building should please everyone, unlike a work of art, which does not have to please anyone. A work of art is a private matter for the artist, a building is not. A work of art is brought into the world without there being a need for it, a building meets a need. A work of art has no responsibility to anyone, a building to everyone. The aim of a work of art is to make us feel uncomfortable, a building is there for our comfort. A work of art is revolutionary, a building conservative. A work of art is concerned with the future and directs us along new paths, a building is concerned with the present. We love anything that adds to our comfort, we hate anything that tries to pester us into abandoning our established and secured position. We love buildings and hate art. So the building has nothing to do with art and architecture is not one of the arts? That is so. —Adolf Loos, “Architektur”1
1 Adolf Loos, “Architektur,” from Trotzdem 1900–1930 (Innsbruck: Brenner Verlag, 1931), 101. For an English version of this text, see http://www.mom.arq.ufmg.br/mom/ arq_interface/2a_aula/loos_architecture.pdf (last accessed March 2017), 82–83.
This studio is about the space for art. It allows the reflection and discussion on the relationship between architecture and art to take center stage. Art and architecture have always been closely linked: architecture has often been praised as art —as Baukunst— or even the mother of all arts. Architecture doesn’t exist without artistic aspiration and design ambition. Nevertheless, architecture is not art. Its individual expression is limited since it is always bound to a purpose, and to the logic of engineering and craftsmanship. However, art has served architecture since antiquity. Be it private or public, almost every building was adorned with decoration or paintings up until modernity—only then did the relationship between art and architecture start to radically change, as art itself became a purpose of architecture, as in the art gallery or museum. Relegated to providing the vehicle or means of art presentation, architecture is thus forced to reflect upon itself. A new complementary relationship is established between the artwork and the building. Architecture becomes the frame, the background, and the container for the art. The problem of an art space is then posed. The question is no longer, Which art for which architecture? It is rather, Which architecture for which art? The emancipation of art opens a door onto the astounding history of museums and their exhibition spaces from the 19th century to the present day. The contemporary omnipresence of art, and thus of the art space, has rendered museums and galleries as architectonic bestsellers. However, conventional routines slowly crept in, turning the art space into a boring, ordinary room. The exhibition space becomes pointless and faceless. Are we witnessing a crisis of the art space?
The Art Space
12 An art space for Pierre Huyghe based on cooling towers and anatomical theaters by Andrea Soto Morfin, midterm model study.
From Art to Type First, the students had to engage with an artistic position to which they felt attracted. Choosing from a pool of possible artistsâ€”all represented by the gallery Hauser & Wirthâ€”the students concentrated on the paintings of Philip Guston, Wilhelm Sasnal, and Ellen Gallagher; the spatially centered work by Dan Graham, Pierre Huyghe, and Monika Sosnowska; Jenny
A fantastic aspect of architecture is its fundamental quality of ambivalence. On the one hand, each project results from specific conditions within a given design task. Its spatial and cultural context, as well as its specific program, assigns it its character, which is unique and singular. On the other hand, each architectural design is in its nature also absolute and timeless; it is automatically anchored within the tradition of architecture history, which tells us about the constant principles of composition and construction. What interests us is this double reality of architectureâ€™s necessary contemporaneity combined with an immutable timelessness. The challenge is therefore to be able to attribute a double identity to each project so that it becomes exemplarily architectural while at the same time specifically contextual. Our teaching method aims at achieving this double identity through the two key concepts of transfer and transformation. The project starts with a transfer, which relies on typological references. The architectural type is to be understood as a generally applicable principle that belongs to the absolute and timeless facet of architecture. But program and context are responsible for adjustments and alterations to the original type. The combination of these opposing aspects produces something new, where transfer and transformation act as innovative design strategies. This method has been adapted to the particular case of this studio.
16 An art space for Paul McCarthy based on the Sagrestia Nuova of the Medici chapel, Florence, Italy, by Joseph Varholick, midterm model study.
An art space for Roman Signer based on the Basilica of Saint Margaret, Osterhofen, Bavaria, Germany, by Rekha Auguste-Nelson, midterm model study.
Autonomy and Context The two next steps of the studio addressed the questions of autonomy and context. Students were asked to choose a typological reference from three different eras—before 1500, from 1500 to 1900, and from 1900 to 2000—which could echo the artist’s oeuvre in a strong way without infringing on its autonomy. Roman baths, aircraft hangars, baroque churches, gas stations, mosques, Parisian passages, underground cisterns, neoclassical residences, the Roman Forum, a Luis Barragán villa, barns, the Teatro Olimpico, greenhouses, cooling towers, anatomical theatres, furnaces, burial mounds, Hans Poelzig’s Schauspielhaus, Francesco Borromini’s St. Ivo church, shed-roof industrial halls, scaffolding, Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Altes Museum, and the Uffizi, among others, were investigated as suitable typological sources and opened up a field of possibilities. These spaces were built as large-scale models and great importance was attached to the illustration of the artwork within these different spaces, in order to evaluate their displaying potential. Some surprising combinations offered unexpected depth and allowed for new interpretations of the artist’s oeuvre, while others clearly broke the hierarchical balance that allows architecture to remain the art’s servant without taking over it. Obviously, these attempts went far beyond the common idea of the white cube that has been celebrated throughout the
Holzer’s light words; psychological environments by Mike Kelley and Paul McCarthy; Pipilotti Rist’s video world; Roman Signer’s performative leftovers; Isa Genzken’s precise constructions; and Roni Horn’s frozen images. By getting to know the artists’ work, the students started to delineate appropriate spatial frames for an ideal museum. But: “To fulfill this ideal, a museum of modern and contemporary art would have to engage with two crucial—and at first sight contradictory—impulses of 20th- and 21st-century art: autonomy and context. Upholding art’s autonomy from political or social strictures in architectural terms means delivering enough neutral physical space for the objects themselves, and enough mental space for visitors to contemplate them.”1
18 An art space for Jenny Holzer based on the Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque, Abu Dhabi, by Mohamad Berry, midterm model study.
An art space for Jenny Holzer based on a greenhouse by Mohamad Berry, midterm model study.
1 Mechtild Widrich, “A Building is Concerned with the Present. On the Kunstmuseum Basel’s New Building by Christ & Gantenbein,” in Kunstmuseum Basel, New Building (Berlin: Hatje Cantz, 2016). 2 Hal Foster, “After the White Cube,” London Review of Books 37, no. 6 (March 19, 2015): 25–26. See “After the White Cube,” London Review of Books, last accessed March 2017, http:// www.lrb.co.uk/v37/n06/hal-foster/after-the-white-cube.
20th century, and instead addressed the idea of the “museum as icon,” as enunciated by Hal Foster.2 In the next step lies the essential aspect of the transfer, namely the introduction of the type in a tangible context, which allows the building to overcome its iconic attribute by rooting itself in a history, a culture, and a legacy. Here, Los Angeles was chosen as an undetermined site, not only because of its potential as an environment attracting the art scene, but also for its great architectural and urban openness. The identification of an appropriate site to transfer the type is the first step toward transformation, which allows the building to reach a certain autonomy from the original type and produce a genuine design. This process enabled the art, the type, and the site to lead to specific and unique project development. Thus this method, which translates old knowledge into something different, can be called a living, future-oriented tradition.
The Art Space
20 The art space for Paul McCarthy based on the aircraft hangar Hangar One in Moffett Field, by Joseph Varholick, midterm model study.
The Point of Least Resistance
Los Angeles’s vast urban landscape was chosen as the unrestricted site where the students of this design studio identified an appropriate location to imagine an art space. Spaghetti junctions, brownfield riverbeds, gentrified industrial areas, sprawling single-family home neighborhoods, and endless boulevards reaching for the sunset gather in an open field of possibilities that gives a home to the greatest industry of possibilities: the cinema. This dream machine was the point of departure for Los Angeles’s lesser-known debut as an artistic environment. In the mid-1950s, as cinema and the aerospace industry were booming and the Case Study Houses program was offering new lifestyles, Walter Hopps and Edward Kienholz opened the Ferus Gallery. A new point of reference in Los Angeles’s cultural desert, it quickly attracted famous figures such as Ed Ruscha, it showed Andy Warhol’s first commercial exhibition, and it fostered an enthusiasm which would become contagious from the mid-1960s on.1 Since then, much has been written about Los Angeles becoming the contemporary art world’s capital. In this new Berlin-like paradigm, not only is the city experiencing an exponential growth of museums and galleries,2 it is also attracting more and more artists, many of whom are homegrown thanks to the abundance of strong local art schools. Los Angeles simply fascinates by offering a certain je ne sais quoi to a broad range of the art world’s actors: while the Getty can purchase Manet’s Le Printemps for $65 million, artists can still rent large former office spaces in Downtown Los Angeles for relatively affordable rates, despite gentrification. One reason for Los Angeles’s success might be its extreme permeability to art. Spaces offer a kind of point of least resistance3 to artistic appropriation, just as the city’s borders never resisted its unending sprawl. All categories of spaces merge: churches are transformed into kunsthalle, posh villas are built
Standing barefoot on a glass floor through which one can discern the angle of a Lichtenstein, the visitor contemplates a Stella. In the low dining room with a direct view onto the sculpture garden’s luscious green grass, a Rothko is squeezed between a Picasso and photos of Kanye with the owner. “A special sunshade has been subsequently added,” mentions the guide. A Warhol hangs in the children’s room. The visitors’ shoes magically reappear at the other end of the house. “Thank you for visiting the Foundation.” A ribbon window opens onto the painting studio, while an opening leads to another space covered by wooden trusses. The magnificent Southern Californian light draws sharp shadows of gigantic sculptures in the courtyard, while the next court is lusciously green and inhabited by primitive faces. Four warehouses were bought and connected step-by-step, turning the purchase into a very lucrative enterprise. And since then, the artist doesn’t build models anymore; he makes everything at 1:1 scale.
The Point of Least Resistance
as galleries, hangars produce art, office spaces sell art, strips are declared as art,4 and Crystal becomes Christ.5 Endorsing these patterns, new galleries are recurrently established in upcoming areas and museum-like shows are planned in a panoply of genuine industrial spaces, while artists are offered residencies and fed by the on-site organic products of the urban garden sheltering chickens. Four Los Angeles Tales Figurines and props inhabit the hangar, which stands 32 feet high and 100 square feet large. However, a penetrating smell defies the visitor and confirms that this is not Hollywood. The constant odor of resin burns the throat. The studio is like a battlefield of nightmares, where a large team pours and forms resin night and day. In a second connected hangar, IKEA-like shelves are aligned and filled with wooden boxes up to the ceiling. A good percentage of the artist’s oeuvre is archived here. “There is no sprinkler,” adds the gallery’s manager.
1 For more about this story, see: Hunter Drohojowska-Philp, Rebels in Paradise: The Los Angeles Art Scene and the 1960s (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2011). 2 Facts confirm: Los Angeles County is the region with the most museums in the United States (681, compared to New York County’s 414). See Christopher Ingraham, “There are more museums in the U.S. than there are Starbucks and McDonalds—combined,” The Washington Post, June 13, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/ wp/2014/06/13/there-are-more-museums-in-the-us-thanthere-are-starbucks-and-mcdonalds-combined/. 3 The Point of Least Resistance, or also The Least Resistance (1981), is a Super-8 film by artists Peter Fischli and David Weiss, starring a bear and a rat who meander throughout Los Angeles and wonder about the nature of art and their career. 4 Such as in Every Building on the Sunset Strip, Ed Ruscha’s 1966 leporello book documenting all the building facades on both sides of Sunset Boulevard. 5 Built in 1980 by Philip Johnson, the Crystal Cathedral has been the place of worship for a congregation of the Reformed Church in America. In 2012, it was sold to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange and renamed Christ Cathedral.
The former Scottish Rite Masonic Temple is the esoteric jewel box for an art foundation collection. The 1960s building on Wilshire Boulevard is no jewel at all, but shall become the source of inspiration to artists producing site-specific work for its 65,000-square-foot exhibition surface. The opaque volume, already adorned by mosaics on the exterior, patiently awaits moveable white walls to welcome new kinds of rituals, honoring Los Angeles’s famous ability to create its own religions and cults.
The Art Space
26 Site model of an art space for Mike Kelley in Rowena Reservoir by Farnoosh Rafaie.
Typology: Permanence and Newness By relating their pedagogy to typology, Christ and Gantenbein target the core of the discipline. Because architecture is so ancient a human activity that addresses permanent issues (shelter for humans and their activities; respect for the laws of nature through construction), it can sometimes bend under the weight of its own history and simply attempt to reproduce itself as it has always been. In another regard, some architects see this permanent dimension as too heavy, and furthermore contradictory with the necessity of facing and taking into account ever-renewed needs brought on by the evolution of life and its continuous flux of changes.
Architecture is Giving a Sharable Meaning to Buildings The teaching methods of Emanuel Christ and Christoph Gantenbein, based on the transfer of architectural types, have provided one of the most coherent and stimulating academic experiences of my last few years in the field of international architecture education. One reason for this success lies in its intention to explore architecture as an autonomous discipline—despite the fact that it is obviously linked to many different cultural fields, from construction to anthropology—whose aim is to give form to buildings. As architects, why do we choose any one specific form and organization over another? On which set of reasons may we base a strong architectural decision—especially after we acknowledge that architecture is not a science? How can this decision be objective? How may this decision be shared with others in order to allow the building to communicate a controlled array of meanings and feelings—especially in a time when architects no longer share a common language? The whole of Christ and Gantenbein’s studio approach aims at answering these questions by arming students with solid conception tools.
Transfer: A Method to Imagine But what to do with type? If type is permanent, then how is it possible to give a new interpretation of it? As a specific answer to this question, Christ and Gantenbein developed a method of transferring types from one place to another. Some types are fundamentally not linked to a specific place (such as the courtyard building) while others are very place specific (the Haussmannian building, for instance, is linked to Paris). In their teaching at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Christ and Gantenbein’s studio transferred types from non-Swiss cities—Hong Kong, Buenos Aires, and Delhi, for example—to Swiss cities. In the Art Space studio, their students focused on imagining a monographic museum dedicated to a
One of the discipline’s core issues is the relationship between permanence and newness. Permanence offers the possibility to express the continuity of human activities and for new generations to benefit from the experiences of their predecessors; it is the condition that allows architecture to be a culture. Typology is the permanent aspect of architecture. Whatever new constructions, new necessities, and new architectural vocabularies emerge, types are permanent. For the French theoretician Antoine Quatremère de Quincy, everything is precise in the model, while everything is more or less hazy in the type.1 Model is linked to a specific time; type is out of time. Model is linked to history; type to theory. Historic sight of the discipline has to be very precise about chronology and the conditions of an event’s possibilities. In the historic field, buildings are linked to their specific time, and it is impossible to make them move. By contrast, in the field of theory, ideas travel freely through time, and a new contemporary view onto an ancient building or set of ideas can change their meanings. Theory is so impartial to time that, in its field, present can modify past. Christ and Gantenbein are practitioners and teachers. They necessarily explore ways of involving the long run in their work without bending under excessive respect for the past. Type, as a theoretical issue dealing with permanence, is thus the perfect tool for their exploration.
1 The original quotation: “Tout est précis et donné dans le modèle; tout est plus ou moins vague dans le type.” Antoine Quatremère de Quincy, Dictionnaire historique d’architecture (Paris: Le Clerc, 1832).
contemporary artist and placing it in a specific site within the city of Los Angeles. Each project is based on the crossing of the principles and themes of the artist with an architectural type— such as the reservoir, Roman baths, urban passages, and others. Results were surprisingly diverse and the work as a whole was highly stimulating. A proof of the studio’s quality is that it posed a general inquiry to the discipline that went beyond the scope of the studio, but whose answers were explored with specificity within the studio’s work: How can a method based on permanence generate such a level of contemporariness and invention? The answer is found in the crossing method. Because it is a type-based method and because type is hazy, it is by definition an open method. As types are crossed with other sites, other ways of living, and, in the case of the Art Space studio, with a specific artist’s world, this method somewhat works as a technique of automatic writing. By bringing things together almost automatically, in a sometimes “absurd” way, it is a kind of dream machine: a tool that prompts imagination and allows one to think about things in a way one normally would not, nor even dare consider. And this is the most important point of the method. It is a way of creating newness—sometimes even truly disruptive newness—rooted in the long run of permanence. By so doing, newness is linked to the past, the past itself is reactivated by the contemporary, and the essence of architecture can be reached.
The Art Space
32 An art space for Isa Genzken by Madelyn Willey, midterm model study.
The Art Space
A Public Space for Art
Paul McCarthy creates work that is as varied in subject and media as it is grotesque and disturbing. McCarthy’s art is best understood as a cultural critique: a blatant, in-your-face exhibition of perversions that actively resist a collective societal repression—themes that address the public at large. Many of his sculptures approach the scale of the monument, such as “Complex Shit” or his 80-foot-tall “Tree.” These works are fabricated with the intention of being displayed in exterior, public spaces and exposed to the elements—they reject the traditional requirement that art be housed within a controlled and protected architectural space. In terms of public amenity, Los Angeles is historically disadvantaged. The infrastructural device of the freeway allowed for greater sprawl, and this in turn motivated increasingly privatized investments and the general abandonment of public urban spaces. After a century-long trajectory based on sprawl and privatization, the city must reexamine its public sphere. As an icon of the city, the freeway is simultaneously public in the sense of propriety and exposure while completely antipublic in terms of interaction and social program. The art space identifies an uncompleted viaduct of the I-110 Harbor freeway as its site and proposes to reclaim this forgotten fragment. The aircraft hangar, as an architectural type, is redeployed as a canopy that assumes a scale appropriate for the recapture of a monumental section of infrastructure. In an ironic rehabilitation, the freeway, which disadvantaged the public realm, becomes a communal space for art. The result is a promenade open to the city, the public, light, and air. The proposal is an alternative to the traditional gallery: it understands art as a public experience. Ultimately the project is a means of seizing and designating a public environment for art, imposing oft-unsettling works upon the city without apology.
35 1:1 model study of a universal node.
A Public Space for Art
36 Top to bottom: Site plan, elevation, and section.
R0.50 R3.00 5.32
Top to bottom: Shade-screen detail study, base connection, node connection detail, base detail.
A Public Space for Art
38 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views with Paul McCarthyâ€™s Tree.
Roman baths, as utilitarian and necessary structures in their function, became equally critical in their social capacity as spectacular spaces. A similar duality in this project, between the brutal infrastructure of its site in Los Angeles and the nature of the ethereal art created by Pipilotti Rist, creates a setting for the bathhouse as a bridge between utilitarian functions and the spectacular. This contemporary art space and bathhouse is, as the Roman baths were, a work of spectacular infrastructure. The project is not about viewing the art of Pipilotti Rist in a typical “white cube” setting. Instead, this art space is integrated into everyday life. There exists in the project a varying degree in which factors such as depth and articulation of geometry, natural light, texture or tonality of concrete, and the reflectivity of water challenge and elevate the art. In this way, the project critically binds the subject matter of the bathhouse—the body, the water, the steam, the architecture—to the subject matter of the art and its projection on both the space and on the bathers themselves. There are also rooms that allow the artist almost complete control over the work, operating as moments of respite in the bathing sequence. The reinforced concrete walls, barrel vaults, and domes are elevated through massive scale, details that engage the body, a coat of white paint, and the art. The essential informality of the project, while addressing the thesis of the artist, does not prescribe particular modes of inhabitation or behavior. In some respects, the architecture could seem to provide mere infrastructure that simply accommodates an art-space bathhouse function as a second life. Yet certain articulations, such as the soft corners of the columns and the relationship between the columns and sloped floors of the pools, suggest that the architecture is tailored for the art and the body. Rather than contrasting the utilitarian and the spectacular, this bathhouse harmonizes the two as one and the same.
43 Final model view with projection of Pipilotti Ristâ€™s films.
STOR PHYSICAL THERAPY
CAFE / BAR
39'-0" C AM
Site plan and ground-floor plan.
William Adams Section through each space, long section, and main elevation.
46 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views with projections of Pipilotti Ristâ€™s films.
The waiting is terrible. —Roman Signer, “Paula van den Bosch in Conversation with Roman Signer”1 So Roman Signer speaks of the fuses that trigger his time sculptures—explosions that cross the boundaries between slow and fast, material and immaterial, thereby generating new forms. Although Signer has a vision for every detonation, he cannot anticipate the resultant art pieces, whether gas, liquid, or solid, that are sprayed, spilled, or shattered in the blast. An art space for Signer must withstand explosions, which in turn will embed the resultant sculptures into the building’s flesh. Art and space are ultimately inextricable, and the project seeks to heighten the dialectic, pursuing a final synthesis more captivating than the sum of its parts. To counter the blunt force of Signer’s explosions, the project summons the extreme scale and delicate articulation of late Baroque architecture: extensive glazing, soaring and faceted, evokes that seeming paradox of fragility and enormity. Rising to 90 feet at its apex, the domed roof draws the eye upward—skyward—above the 15-foot concrete ring braced for impact. In this sunlit zone, beyond human occupation, the time sculptures burst forth. Meanwhile, the art space actuates a vast wasteland spawned by an interstate offramp, its monumentality finally acknowledged and matched in the mass atop it.
1 Gerhard Mack and Roman Signer, “Paula van den Bosch in Conversation with Roman Signer,” in Roman Signer (Contemporary Artists) (New York: Phaidon, 2006).
51 Final site model view of the art space nested in within the spaghetti junction.
52 Site plan and section.
Rekha Auguste-Nelson Floor plan and elevation.
54 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views with traces of Roman Signerâ€™s performances.
Daniel Quesada Lombó
To frame a piece of art, to exhibit it under a certain light, and to select its space is to establish a particular way of seeing the object. To reframe Hans “Jean” Arp is to take a fresh look at his oeuvre. Although mostly known for his abstract sculpture, Arp cannot be portrayed without a careful look at his collages, his painting, and his poetry. The juxtaposition of these mediums under different frames invites an imaginative journey in rediscovering Arp. The art space seeks to create a multilateral relationship to Arp’s oeuvre. The display takes place throughout a modified commercial building in the Los Angeles Arts District. The exhibition space displays the collection under contrasting spaces: it provides intimate one-to-one spaces; it shows the museum storage in a studio-like display; and it plays with the shop window to frame the consumable image. The spaces are located throughout the complex and invite a passage of discoveries. The building, like the display, reframes an existing condition in order to bring new light into the neighborhood. Duplicating an existing industrial building creates a modern version of an urban passage. The new united building puts the old and the new in dialogue through similarities in their architectural details. Yet, its subtle twists create a modified condition and brings a new air to the neighborhood with its public modern passage.
59 Final model view of the passage.
60 Site plan and axonometric view of the doubled warehouse.
Daniel Quesada Lombรณ Ground-floor plan and main street elevation.
62 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views showing the different Hans Arp galleries in the passage and on the roof.
Under One Roof
This project explores the relationship of publicness, intimacy, and singularity within a contemporary art space in Los Angeles. Monika Sosnowska examines the politics and poetics of the built environment by engaging and transforming the architecture of the exhibition space in often unexpected and complex ways. She creates large site-specific sculptures made of industrial materials such as steel and concrete. These sculptures are installed and as a result transform the physical space into what Sosnowska calls a “mental space.” Through the awkward and chaotic insertion of her monumental sculptures within existing architectural spaces, Sosnowska transforms the way these spaces are perceived. The relationship between her art and the space it inhabits is one of tension, while the relationship between her art and the viewer is one of intimacy. Three very different typologies have been studied, all of which represent an exploration within the relationship of architecture and the public realm: The visual accessibility created by the Masstransiscope, a public piece of artwork located in an abandoned train station in New York; the singular space of the Palazzo Uffizi; the level of intimacy experienced within Sosnowska’s art; and the public yet personal experience of the Plaza de Platerias are all found within this contemporary art space. Located on an abandoned site in an industrial area in Los Angeles, the art space is a singular form that contains art under one roof. The architecture engages with the site by bending and twisting to create a public plaza in the center. The space is physically singular yet visually broken up by creating a new and intimate experience around each bend. The experience of art is further enhanced through the facade—at each formal bend of the architecture, the brick facade stretches and opens, allowing for the art to be framed and viewed from the plaza.
65 Final model view showing an extract of the meandering structure perforated by Monika Sosnowskaâ€™s steel structures.
Under One Roof
66 Ground-floor plan.
Under One Roof
68 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model view showing the meandering structure inhabited and perforated by Monika Sosnowskaâ€™s steel structures.
A Collection of Rooms
The work of Isa Genzken can be defined by a great diversity in medium and method that has constantly transformed over the past four decades. The work incorporates contemporary symbols, products, objects, and fetishes, but always references historical movement. The art space began in exclusive collections displayed in private homes, intimately curated alongside family portraits and furniture. These houses were comprised of rooms with differing functions and attributes, framing art differently from every viewpoint. Today, art is mainly shown in a divided white box interior with a general sameness between spaces. Variations in scale, lighting, and intimacy are neutralized. The art space for Genzken’s work combines a series of rooms spatially foreign to one another, creating great difference in experience and relationship to the art. Each room abstracts a different typology—Victorian gallery, gas station, and typical American house—and reproduces attributes of scale and light native to these typologies. The threshold between rooms is often blurred as the discrete parts sequentially form a whole.
73 Final model night view of the collection of rooms inhabited by Isa Genzkenâ€™s works.
A Collection of Rooms
Site plan and ground-floor plan.
Madelyn Willey Sections and axonometric view.
A Collection of Rooms
76 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views showing the collection of rooms inhabited by Isa Genzkenâ€™s works.
The Art Space
Monuments and Phantoms
His paintings are drawn from a vast arena of found images . . . they may be quietly ordinary or historically momentous. —Achim Borchardt-Hume and Wilhelm Sasnal, “A Conversation About Painting”1 Through the use of two typological elements, the scaffold and the museum, and through the specific lens of work by the artist Wilhelm Sasnal, this project offers a new form of art space in the city of Los Angeles. The proposal uses the structural and conceptual qualities of the scaffold to provide a critique on, and ultimately transform, the formal and social understandings of Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Altes Museum in Berlin. The project is situated in Surfridge, California, a once-vibrant neighborhood community off the coast of the Pacific Ocean, where all that remains are the streets, sidewalks, and lampposts of a town that has been forcibly vacated, abandoned, and demolished to accommodate the growing needs of the Los Angeles International Airport. It is here that the new art space, a temporary open-air structure, hopes to provide a means of both displaying and viewing art for the citizens and artists of the city.
1 Achim Borchardt-Hume and Wilhelm Sasnal, “A Conversa tion About Painting,” Wilhelm Sasnal (London: Whitechapel Gallery, 2011).
81 Final model view of the Altes Museum scaffolding.
Monuments and Phantoms
82 Site plan and ground-floor plan.
Matthew Okazaki Elevation and sections.
Monuments and Phantoms
84 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views showing Wilhem Sasnalâ€™s works hanging on the Altes Museum scaffolding.
The word “barn” is a combination of two Anglo-Saxon words: bere, meaning “barley” (or any grain), and ern, meaning “place of storage.” A barn is essentially a place for storage, and its form is shaped by topography, weather, convenience, labor efficiency, and tradition. However, barns have always been conceived to domesticate the outer world into their interior darkness, stability, and peace. The sun was only able to get slight glimpses into the barn where Jackson Pollock loved to work. The interior of Pollock’s barn indeed witnessed the creative process of his art. This project suggests the venue of art creation is simultaneously the venue of art viewing. Historically, barn development has been characterized by increasingly open plans and lighter frames; these architectural ideas are also incorporated into the design of this art space. The plans are open with light steel framing as the structure. The spacing between concrete panels allows light and wind inside. The skylights face south and allow ample natural lighting. This elementary design with simple arrangements and materials is in harmony with nature. In such an environment, a visitor will find a contemplative peace in tribute to Philip Guston.
89 Final model view showing Philip Gustonâ€™s paintings hanging in the barn.
Site plan, section, and elevation.
EAST ELEVATION SECTION A-Aâ€™
Mingyu Kim Ground-floor plan.
92 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views showing Gustonâ€™s painting hanging in the barn.
The strangely dark and delirious work of Mike Kelley elicits an almost profane reinterpretation of the past in a fabricated connection to the individuals who experience them. His work is explicitly an exhibition of psychologically laden objects. A layering of a highly repressed past, in its disregard, becomes a more pervasive and sustained blanketed wound. These unconscious projections of the artist somehow serve to define a veneered content of remembrance: fragments hidden below a sculpted form to express nostalgic artificiality. The unseen and idiosyncratic manifest in the ancient typological reference of the burial mound. It is in this formation where the mounds exist as this kind of abstracted artificiality. The mounds, made from the earth as hidden and embedded elements with an appearance of naturalism, collectively create a mock landscape that simulates topography. Evoking ancient artificiality, the burial mound serves to inform the art space embedded within the site in Los Angeles: the Rowena Reservoir. Evolving beyond its initial use, the reservoir retains its past fragments augmented into its new artificial form. The project restructures the once-functional reservoir from its current state of pseudolandscape to the expressed relic woven into the earth. Adhering to the arbitrary and nodal grid, the art space is informed by the unexpressed geometry as it extracts the entombed reservoir from below grade and blends a new layer of artificiality upon the site. Galleries rest within the reservoir, whose function evolves into a hybridization between the new and old. The art space is a monument to artificiality, blending into the locale rather than completely opposing it. Rather than adhering to the homogeneity of pure utility, the proposed space becomes an embodiment of the found and discarded, and a connection to a state of other. It is in coalescing these fragments of continued remembrance where I propose to create architecture of nostalgic artificiality.
97 Final model view showing the descent in the transformed Rowena Reservoir.
Site plan and sections.
Farnoosh Rafaie Axonometric drawing.
100 Top: Final model cross-section view showing the different cabinets within the reservoir.
Bottom: Final model roof study view.
Following page: Final model view showing Mike Kelleyâ€™s work displayed in the Rowena Reservoir.
102 Final model roof view.
A Portrait Gallery for Los Angeles
The photographs created by Roni Horn are often portraits in multiples. They are, among other things, studies in “the changeable, inconsistent nature of identity.”1 In response to these aspects of Horn’s work that are concerned with questions about perception and the mutability of the gaze and its target, the project turned to an architectural type that deals precisely with sight and spectator experience in an attempt to explore possible forms for a contemporary portrait gallery in Los Angeles: the Roman theater. By studying certain architectural elements that are characteristic to Roman theaters, such as those that afford a variety of views and proximities, and further adapting them to new scales and tectonic systems appropriate to the site, the proposal reconsiders traditionally democratic presentations of spectator and spectacle. The adapted form allows for a systematically mediated relationship between audience and artwork: works can be viewed in close proximity, from three or four feet away, or from across the room. The location identifies a common ground between the theater type and the unmistakable local gestures toward the densified street life of the Arts District, be it the entrance of the Geffen Contemporary at MOCA (formerly the Temporary Contemporary) or the public breezeway at the new Hauser & Wirth space. The major questions of the project ask how the building might participate in tandem with, and in the service of, the alleged me-and-you relationship that a portrait gallery promises while also providing viewers the opportunity to find themselves in the gaze of a photographed or painted face directed toward or away from them. What kind of building might encourage this dialogue? 1 Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, RONI HORN. PORTRAIT OF AN IMAGE, 2013, http://www.schirn.de/en/exhibitions/2013/roni_horn/.
105 Final model ouside view of the scaffolding structure holding the round portrait cabinets.
Site plan and section.
A Portrait Gallery for Los Angeles
Farhad Mirza Floor plans of all floors.
A Portrait Gallery for Los Angeles
108 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views of Roni Hornâ€™s works in the round cabinets.
The Underwater Museum
Ellen Gallagher creates works that are often themed in water. Delicacy, softness, feminine beauty, resilience, and tenderness; depth, darkness, uncanny, relics, death, and debris; dynamics, material cycle, identity, and gender, all pointing toward a metaphor of underwater realm that the artist depicts, through her diverse body of works, as existing within its own integrity yet hiding from daily consciousness. The architectural type of underground water reservoir has existed for thousands of years. The invisible nature of this space contrasts with both its status as vital infrastructure and its statement of administrative power and structural strength. Furthermore, there exist intuitive connections of this typology with Gallagherâ€™s dreamlike underwater world. The waterbed surrounding the Department of Water and Power building, built by AC Martin in 1965, provided the point of departure of an underwater environment. Los Angeles: a city of cars, a city where water is scarce. A city replenished with spirits of art. A parking structure is translated into a cistern and then further into a space for art. How does the implementation of artwork shed light into the significance of mediocre and forgotten spaces, giving them new characteristics and potential? This is a project on juxtaposition of the three distinct elements, each one multiplying meaning into another. As an exploration, an experimentation, and a question mark, the proposal is essentially an investigation into a novel interpretation of the contemporary art space.
111 Site model of the Department of Water and Power Building built by AC Martin in 1965.
The Underwater Museum
Ground floor, level -1, and level -2 plans.
The Underwater Museum
114 Above and following page: Final model views of Ellen Gallagherâ€™s paintings reflecting in the underground waterbeds.
Andrea Soto Morfin
The forest is a place of fiction and tales, it is a place of fear, where things happen that you don’t see and you don’t know about. The Forest of Lines is a science fiction experiment in a way. —Amelia Douglas, “A Forest of Lines: An Interview with Pierre Huyghe”1 La Saison des Fêtes and Forest of Lines are two nearly twin gardens that, though both created by Pierre Huyghe, behave in different ways. Their personalities are almost opposite. One is obscure, mysterious, chaotic, and rebellious. The other is rational, objective, and symbolic. Each garden has its own enclosure, evoking the typology of the hortus conclusus. The art space is not only in the garden, or in the architecture that shelters the garden, but exactly in the silent void that exists in the dialogue between art, nature, and architecture. The doppelgänger could also be understood as an idea of duality: a duality of the interior space that pulls you out and up into the sky, or pulls you down into the ground. The materiality of each building also reflects a duality: tectonic and stereotomic, the material of one building speaks of a lighter system made of a steel-bolted structure; the other structure, heavy and underground, is made of thick brick walls, in relation to a topographical mound as a preexistence in the site. This mound, at more than 20 meters high, is the most prominent element. It could also begin to resemble a funerary mound, but immediately we can tell that this mound is different, industrial, unnatural; it is rough and made of debris and wasted material.
Amelia Douglas, “A Forest of Lines: An Interview with Pierre Huyghe,” EMAJ: Electronic Melbourne Art Journal 1, no. 3 (2008): 1–7.
117 Site model of the two gardens.
Floor plan and section of the theatre.
Andrea Soto Morfin Floor plan and section of the tower.
120 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views of Pierre Huygheâ€™s installations in the two gardens.
The Artistic Ruins
While Dan Graham cultivates a body of work that is diverse in medium, it is consistent in its pursuits as an investigation into media architecture. From his very first works, including his series Homes for America, to the house designs such as Alteration to a Suburban House, to the pavilions that currently dominate his work, it is not simply that he deals with architectural subjects—the tract house, the picture window, the corporate office building—nor that he uses media traditionally deployed by architects, but that he understands the building itself as media. From journals to models with mirrored and glass facades, we end up in his pavilions with spaces defined only by reflections, mirrors, glass, and windows. Since his art and concepts are very much architectural, the challenge for designing an art space for Graham’s work lies in the relationship between his artistic intention and the architect’s spatial imagination. The site along the Los Angeles River mediates the artifacts and artist, and architecture and architect, in a way that parallels nature and the manmade. A ruinous sculpture garden situated in the Los Angeles River bed is thus conceived, juxtaposing the artwork and the architectural objects in an industrial context that would otherwise remain unoccupied. The design process is primarily subtractive as a result of typological ruins, and the spectator relationship often in focus in Graham’s work is elucidated. It is a composition of spaces that resonates with the creation of Graham’s minimalist art on a conceptual level; at the same time it is also a framework that provides infrastructure for his work. The project introduces a new type of art space that signifies the correlation between the artist’s body of work and its spatial counterpart—a space that could potentially be freed from the traditional understanding of exhibition and gallery, and in turn generate more spatial opportunities for Graham and other artists.
125 Final model view of the art space along the Los Angeles River.
126 Site plan and axonometric view.
Coat Check Ex. Hall 3
Ex. Hall 3
Ex. Hall 4
Ex. Hall 2 Ex. Hall 1 Storage
Ex. Hall 2
Ex. Hall 3
Ex. Hall 4 Kitchen
Process diagrams of the artâ€™s space compartments.
Ex. Hall 4
128 Above and following page: Final model views of Dan Grahamâ€™s installations in the art space.
Jenny Holzer appropriates the technique of monumentally overwhelming the senses to conceal the fact that her texts carry messages that can be shocking, evocative, disturbing, disgusting, or painful. When Holzer locates her text-based work in emotion, she succeeds in freeing it from the purely intellectual sphere. This work develops a visual power customarily attributed to pictures, transforming the places where they appear into lasting images. What we remember about the projections is not primarily content, but rather the altered images of familiar places, newly “described” in her visual language. The Greenhouse is a project at the edge of Los Angeles that raises questions of territory, communication, and belonging. It is an urban vitrine in continuous conversation with the city, giving and receiving visual triggers in the form of projections and LED displays. The greenhouse typology, not usually designed for humans as its main users, is adapted as a manifestation of an art space because of the integral role that light plays in the process of plant production—a characteristic that links back to a main focus in much of Holzer’s work. The continuous 380-meter-long exposed greenhouse, together with the darker, more playful spaces within its retaining wall tucked into topography, become a vivid work of art, where the viewer and the viewed both exist within the realm of a third, much stronger influence: the presence or absence of light. In this context, the topic of sustainability and environmental awareness adds to Holzer’s usual themes, where her iconic phrase, “Protect me from what I want,” now takes on a whole new layer of human greed and ignorance toward ecological issues.
131 Site model of the greenhouse at the border of Los Angeles County.
132 Site plan, projection view, and principal axonometric drawing.
Mohamad Berry Exploded axonometric drawing and perspective section.
134 Above, opposite, and following spread: Final model views of Jenny Holzerâ€™s projections onto the greenhouse and their effect on the interior.
138 An art space for Wilhelm Sasnal as a scaffolding of Schinkelâ€™s Altes Museum, Matthew Okazaki, final model.
We were honored to host the Harvard GSD architecture students and the Christ & Gantenbein team for an explorative and creatively enriching day at Hauser & Wirth Los Angeles. Our galleries in Los Angeles inhabit the restored Globe Mills complex, a collection of late 19th- and early 20th-century buildings adapted by Creative Space L.A. in consultation with Selldorf Architects. The collection of buildings originally housed Globe Grain & Milling Company (A-1 Globe Mills), which benefited from close proximity to Union Station and Los Angeles’s historic Red Car mass transit system. A spur from the Santa Fe Railway allowed for efficient transport of wheat to the mill and then to the port for shipping worldwide. The mill’s success reflected a shift in California’s economy from the speculative Gold Rush of the 19th century to the robust farming in the 20th century. The architectural motif of wheat sheaves coupled with a steamship steering wheel, visible in the column capitals along the ceiling of the breezeway, conveys the mill’s industrial pride. If the mill tower was the heart of the facility and the engine of industry on this site, then the neoclassical bank building facing East 3rd Street was the grand facade, welcoming customers into the soaring skylit arcade that is now the South Gallery of Hauser & Wirth; its institutional architecture signaled an economic and cultural commitment to the public. With this complex as its headquarters for nearly 40 years, Globe Mills was a powerful part of the local and state economy. The Pillsbury Flour Mills Company acquired the property in 1941 and operated here into the mid-1960s. In the 1970s, with light industry moving out of downtown and the Los Angeles businesses decentralizing, the expansive spaces of the district’s abandoned factories attracted artists and musicians who reappropriated the area and ignited its transformation from a desolate place to a hub for creative industries. Thanks to the pioneering influence of artists and the local community, the Downtown Arts District is now home to art galleries, architecture and design firms, television and film production studios, new and converted residential architecture, and the Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc). The gradual evolution of the Arts District has ensured that historic build-
ings exist in harmony with new construction. In Hauser & Wirth’s rich 25-year history, the gallery is widely admired for a sympathetic approach to restoring historic buildings and giving them a new lease of life as contemporary art spaces that invigorate surrounding communities. From the conversion of its first permanent venue that became Hauser & Wirth Zurich in 1996, the gallery has sensitively restored existing structures, connecting international art with local culture through architecture. We were delighted to provide these students an alternative point of view for their architectural projects by encouraging their examination of work by one gallery artist. Through this focus, the students became aware of not only practical information such as weight and dimension, but also biographical considerations and thematic concepts. I was impressed by the group’s innovative ideas and the way each project considered the viewer’s interactions with the artwork inside the space. In our meeting, we discussed specific challenges related to light, access, and flexibility within the exhibition space, as well as how to design a space that will not overpower or detract from the artwork, but rather enhance it. At Hauser & Wirth, we work with the historical elements of our buildings and idiosyncratic spaces to create unique exhibitions. We appreciate the dialogue about a sympathetic approach to architecture and look forward to seeing more from these promising students in the future.
Hauser & Wirth Gallery, Los Angeles.
Afterword A Gallery Space
The Art Space
140 An art space for Mike Kelley in the Rowena Reservoir, final model view by Farnoosh Rafaie.
Emanuel Christ and Christoph Gantenbein cofounded the firm Christ & Gantenbein in Basel in 1998. Since establishing their practice, a broad range of private and public commissions has given shape to Christ & Gantenbein’s growing body of work. Awardwinning projects such as the renovations and extensions to the Kunstmuseum in Basel (2016), the Swiss National Museum in Zurich (2016), and the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne (ongoing) have strengthened the office’s expertise in the development of museum buildings. Housing schemes in Paris and Switzerland, as well as the Lindt Chocolate Competence Centre in Switzerland, are among others currently on the drawing board. Since graduating from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich in 1998, Christ and Gantenbein have maintained a balance between their professional work and academic involvement. After lectureships at the ETH Studio Basel (2000–2005), the Hochschule für Gestaltung und Kunst (HGK) Basel (2002–2003), the Accademia di Architettura in Mendrisio (2004, 2006, 2009), and the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (2008), they returned to the ETH Zurich (2010–2015), where they taught and conducted research that culminated in the meticulous exposition of more than 400 buildings in the two encyclopedias Typology: Hong Kong, Rome, New York, Buenos Aires (2012) and Typology: Paris, Delhi, São Paulo, Athens (2015). These compendiums further inspire and sustain their ongoing occupation with the city and its underlying paradigms. Victoria Easton studied architecture at the
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and at the ETH Zurich, where she graduated in 2005. Since then, she has been a collaborator of Christ & Gantenbein, where she became associate in 2012. As head of research in Christ and Gantenbein’s studio at the ETH Zurich (2010–2015), she produced the two encyclopedias Typology: Hong Kong, Rome, New York, Buenos Aires (2012) and Typology: Paris, Delhi, São Paulo, Athens (2015). Easton frequently publishes essays on architecture in magazines and journals, and has taught and lectured at the Berlage Institute, TU Delft, and the Illinois Institute of Technology.
Stacen Berg has been with Hauser & Wirth since 2011. She was instrumental in securing, launching, and now overseeing the Los Angeles gallery. Prior to working with Hauser & Wirth, Berg was assistant curator at the Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts in San Francisco, where she worked on an extensive two-year exhibition titled Low Life Slow Life with renowned Los Angeles–based artist, Paul McCarthy. She also previously worked at the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles. Berg holds a BA in art history from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and an MFA in critical writing from the California Institute of the Arts in Los Angeles.
Éric Lapierre is an architect and architectural theoretician. He is the founder and principal of Éric Lapierre Experience (ELEx), his Parisbased organization that coordinates his activities both as builder and as writer. ELEx buildings are recognized on a national and international level through many awards and publications. They aim at keeping architecture as a sophisticated cultural medium in the contemporary ordinary condition. Lapierre teaches design and theory of architecture at the École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture in Marne-la-Vallée Paris Est and the EPFL, and has been guest teacher at Accademia di Architettura di Mendrisio, Université de Montréal (UdM), Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), and KU Leuven in Ghent. Among other books, Lapierre has edited Identification d’une ville: Architectures de Paris (2002), Guide d’architecture de Paris 1900– 2008 (2008), Le Point du Jour, une architecture concrète (2011), and Architecture of the Real: Contemporary Architecture in France (2004).
The Art Space
144 Pierre Huygheâ€™s installation in a hortus conclusus, midterm model study by Andrea Soto Morfin.
146 Study trip to Los Angeles, September 2016.
147 Final reviews, December 2016.
The Art Space Instructors Emanuel Christ Christoph Gantenbein Report Editor and Design Victoria Easton Editorial Support Rekha Auguste-Nelson A Harvard University Graduate School of Design Publication Dean and Alexander and Victoria Wiley Professor of Design Mohsen Mostafavi Assistant Dean and Director of Communications and Public Programs Ken Stewart Editor in Chief Jennifer Sigler Associate Editor Marielle Suba Publications Coordinator Meghan Sandberg
Acknowledgments The studio trip to Los Angeles was made possible by the generous support of the gallery Hauser & Wirth. Image Credits Cover image: Matthew Okazaki Inside cover image: Andrea Soto Morfin Pages 46 (bottom), 59, 62 (bottom), 65, 76 (top), 84, 92 (top), 102, 105, 108 (top), 109, 136: Anita Kan Page 139 © Hauser & Wirth Page 146 © Victoria Easton, Farnoosh Rafaie, Andrea Soto Morfin, Madelyn Willey Page 147 © Keith Scott, Ruben Segovia The editors have attempted to acknowledge all sources of images used and apologize for any errors or omissions. Harvard University Graduate School of Design 48 Quincy Street Cambridge, MA 02138
Series design by Laura Grey and Zak Jensen ISBN 978-1-934510-61-2 Copyright © 2017, President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without prior written permission from the Harvard University Graduate School of Design.
Studio Report Fall 2016
Harvard GSD Department of Architecture
Students William Adams, Rekha Auguste-Nelson, Mohamad Berry, Mingyu Kim, Yixin Li, Yan Ma, Farhad Mirza, Matthew Okazaki, Demir Purisic, Daniel Quesada Lombรณ, Farnoosh Rafaie, Andrea Soto Morfin, Joseph Varholick, Madelyn Willey
ISBN 978-1-934510-63- 6
9 781934 510636
The Art Space, studio report, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, fall 2016. Instructors: Emanuel Christ and Christoph Gantenbein