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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924014519940


Frontispiece


KNOTS TIES AND SPLICES A

HANDBOOK

SEAFARERS, TRAVELLERS, & ALL WHO USE CORDAGE

HISTORICAL, HERALDIC,

J.

AND PRACTICAL NOTES

TOM BURGESS, A^V

LONDON

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND

SONS, Limited

Broadway, Ludgate Hill, E.G.


-J

@.

/

/

X('^o^


CONTENTS.

THE USES OF KNOTS

I

II.

THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF KNOTf.

7

III.

HERALDIC KNOTS

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

I4

-

-

-

-

24

-

"

=

-

33

.

o

=

=

39

.

o

.

46

-

$2

lO

IV.

CORDAGE AND

ITS VARIETIES

SIMPLE KNOTS

AND LOOPS

V.

VI.

SHORTENINGS

-

VII.

KNOTS FOR UNITING

ROPJ:S

VIII. SPLICES

-

-

IX.

OTHER MODES OF UNITaNG ROPES

-

X. TIES

58


VIU

CONTENTS.

XL MOORINGS AND RING KNOTS

65

XII.

HITCHES AND BENDS

71 XIII.

FASTENINGS AND LASHINGS

78

XIV.

THE ENDS OF ROPES

86

XV. KNOTS AND THEIR APPLICATION

92

XVI. A KNOT ALPHABET

98


KNOTS, TIES,

AND

SPLICES.

I.

THE USES OF KNOTS.

KNOTS?

What?

Knots?

There are love knots, matrimonial knots, GorThese are figurative. There is the Stafford Knot, the Bouchier Knot, the

dian Knots.

Lacy Knot, the Henage Knot, the Dacre Knot, the Harrington Knot (which is not a knot at all), as well as the Wake Knot. These are heraldic. There is the Monkey Knot, the Wind Knot, the Peruvian Knot, and conjurors' knots. These are fancy knots.

There are weavers' knots,

builders' knots, sailors'

knots, reef knots, fishermen's knots.

These are

real

and useful knots. But they are only twisted cord. Cni bono? What the use

Let a few personal examples

suffice.

Thirty years ago a lad was standing gazing at a surging mass of coloured to

and

's

.'

fro over the

silk,

in

a garden

which heaved

heads of a dense crowd.

The wind


KNOTS, TIES,

AND

SPLICES.

and heavy masses of overhead. The crowd had assembled to

was blowing

in

vapour rolled

gusts,

fitful

Cautious bystanders wished

witness a balloon ascent.

the exhibition to be postponed in consequence of the state of the weather; but the

aeronaut took his seat in the

crowd roared, and the

The men who held by the

car.

the ropes were nearly pulled off the ground

At

plunging balloon.

last, in

and struggling thing was It rose

life

released,

and away

all

that the wind

it

mad

went.

was was too strong, and that

above the surrounding buildings, but

obvious to the

sheer despair, the

it

of the aerial navigator was in great danger.

The boy could

see

groups of people.

him

gesticulating to the various

He saw

the grapnel thrown out. It

dragged the ground. There was a pause for a moment in the progress of the balloon,

but the bystanders

Again the balloon came on towards the boy in the garden. At first he was paralysed, but his companion said, " Let us catch the ropes and twist merely gaped.

them round a tree." The boy thought that such a scheme was not only wild in conception, but useless in practice. They waited for a few moments, until the grapnel again touched the ground, and tore up the surface of the adjoining pasture.

The traveller above when the grapnel

called to "secure the guide-ropes

caught."

The boys were ready and nel caught a

the

mad

stump

in the

excited,

when the grap-

hedge-bottom, and checked

career of the balloon which

struggled above them.

They rushed

fluttered

and

forward, seized


THE USES OF KNOTS. a rope, and ran round

the stump of a tree with

it.

They were about to do the same with another rope, when the grapnel gave way. "Hold on, Jack," said the elder boy, "to this rope.'

And

he took the other, and

secured

creaked

The

in

a few seconds had

The

round the post of the gate.

it

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

tree

was pulled

like a

young

sapling.

and daring aeronaut came out

intrepid

ropes

of the

held on by a rope for a moment, and dropped to

car,

The

the earth.

balloon, released of his weight, tore

up the gate-post, snapped the cord which the tree, and bounded into the

tied

it

to

air.

"Well done, boys," said the late Mr. Graham, when he recovered his breath. " You did more than

now

those fools dare," pointing to the crowd which

my

"I owe

hurried up.

life

to your

knowing the

power of a twisted rope, and having the

ability to

a simple knot."

tie

That was

My

ties.

of the I

my

first

lesson in the uses of knots

and

second led to a more profound knowledge

art.

was staying

at Ennis, fishing in the Fergus,

when

the salmon ran, and occasionally visiting the lakes of Inchiqutn, Ballyalla, or

Drumconora

for trout,

suddenly

my

rod snapped in the second

cast-line

was

torn.

plight a

was

in

young angler was ever

in plenty, but

my

must elapse ere "

I

What

it

when

joint.

My

the most deplorable

There were

in.

fish

cherished rod was spoilt, and days

could be replaced.

could I do

?

" I asked, in

a tone of chagrin.


AND

KNOTS, TIES, "Take to " old

SPLICES.

to old Jack,'' said an old fisherman.

it

Jack

" I

took

And

it.

"

was one of the kindest and most genial His name was, I believe, old tars I ever met with. O'Donnell, and his Christian name McDonnell or was Donagh, Donald, or Dermod, or some Gaelicized Bible name, which was supplanted by the universal Though he had lost an arm in the " untoward Jack. "Old Jack

affair " at

Navarino, he could "

rod with any

man

tie

a

fly "

He was

Munster.

in

pet of the officers of the garrison and the town.

To one he

mended the broken gusto. sister

He was

or

make

a

equally the the boys of

sold his excellent rods,

and he

tackle of the other with equal

very poor, yet he maintained an infirm

and himself

in respectability

and the produce of

rod and

his

on a small pension fly

making.

His

well-balanced four-joint sixteen-feet salmon-rod was a beauty

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the lower joint of ash, the two middle ones

of hickory, and the top of greenhart.

blood tingle to

feel

It

made

one's

the pliant, well-balanced switch,

and to know that the lordly salmon was almost within reach.

me

The

accident to

my

at once to " old Jack,"

favourite rod introduced

and

into the further mysteries of

initiated

" knots, ties,

me and

in

time

splices."

In the course of a few minutes he produced a small bottle of liquid

broken rod, fine

waxed

and cord.

"

glue, with

which he anointed the

"

the splintered parts with

whipped

He did

it

at the neatness, strength,

my

"

equal -to -new" rod.

wondered and renewed symmetry of so readily that I

A

fev/

well-made knots


THE USES OF KNOTS. my

mended

line,

and a new world opened up before

me. If

any one asks the

utility

of knots,

let

the sailor

A little knowledge of them saved ten lives when the Serrano was wrecked it enabled me to reach the Gipsy when she left her moorings with two answer.

;

boys on board bed-cords at a

;

lengthened and firmly united the

it

fire in

Staple's Buildings, which enabled

two people to escape from the upper-floor windows. At a hundred times and places the art for it is an

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

We know that Napoleon ennobled the who could tie a knot in a piece of stretched string. Our ships are a mass of knots and only last month a number of lives were lost in a Staffordshire colliery because the man who mended the rope did The wonderful not know how to splice properly. hero in "Foul Play" would have been much more art

is

useful.

inventor

;

wonderful

if

he could have knotted, knitted, netted,

and spliced well; but the lady was the superior genius here, and had to make the nets.

Some

httle seafaring,

some

living in out-of-the-way

places and travelling in lonely localities, have

me

the manifold uses of knots

knowledge of how to necessity,

though

I

;

and

I

shown

acquired the

them sometimes from have not had the advantage of tie

the boatswain's Saturday afternoon instruction with

a marlinespike. as well as Ties,

and

I

have gathered from various sources,

my own

experience, these notes on " Knots,

Splicing,'' for there are

a knot securely, though

it

is

but few

who can

tie

an operation that we


KNOTS, TIES,

AND

SPLICES.

have to perform nearly every day of our

lives.

Not

only seamen, but nearly every trade and every variety of labourer, has his or

its

special knot,

which has been

handed down from father to son, and from master to It is an art, for apprentice, for any number of years. if a tyro attempts to join two pieces of string together, in all probability it will be what is termed a false or a " granny

" knot,

or simply connect the two ends

an overhaul knot, which,

and which Alpine strength of a rope.

if

the easiest,

travellers

The

know

sailor's,

is

is

by

the clumsiest, fatal

to

the

weaver's, or fisher-

man's knot would answer his purpose better.


II.

THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF KNOTS. The history of knots is lost in the mist of antiquity. An ingenious essayist has told us that they are probably as "old as

human

fingers," and, doubtless, in

Paradise the trailing flowers twisted themselves into

wreaths amongst the spreading branches, as they

formed a bower

for

mankind's

that time they have life.

first

mother.

Since

become interwoven with man's

Superstition has appropriated them, jugglers have

used them, lovers have symbolized them, and good

men have pation.

used them.

They

are a part of his occu-

Eve could not have begun her

proverbial

spinning in the days of general gentility without tying a knot

;

and the

perfect knot every time she

Knots were common

lady of the land

first

moves her

first

ties

a

tatting shuttle.

the time of Homer, for in

in

the eighth book of the " Odyssey," Ulysses

is

repre

â&#x20AC;˘

sented securing the rich and costly robes, vases, gold,

and other valuable presents of Alcinoiis and

his

queen

by a cord of

rope, fastened in a knot "closed with

Circean

This knot of Ulysses became a proverb,

art."

to express

any unsolvable

difficulty, SxoS OSwo-^ws

and a proof of the esteem 7

in

Seir/tJs,

which the ancients held


KNOTS, TIES,

AND

this art, so necessary in the

SPLICES.

absence of locks,

adduced from the Gordian Knot

;

and, in fact,

may be Homer

describes the treasures and other valuable objects as

being kept in the citadel, secured merely by a cord intricately knotted.

Probably we shall never know

how

the Gordian

Knot was tied. Every young gentleman, however, knows the story of Gordius, the Phrygian husbandman, who was promoted to a kingdom by the oracle of Apollo, and how he hung up his plough-traces a? a votive offering

in the

knot, that

it

was

should be king of the knot

temple of Jupiter.

He, how-

one rope of these traces with so cunning a

ever, tied

v/as,

whoever unloosed

foretold that all

Asia.

We

are told

how

it

baffling

and how Alexander the Great, when

he found he could not untie

There are some who would

it.

cut

it

with his sword.

gladl}' follow the

grim

Macedonian's example, and cut the hymeneal knot

which binds them to an unsympathetic or uncongenial partner.

The

old sorcerers used knots,

incantations.

The witches

we

are told, in their

of Lapland sold

"

wind

knots" tied in a rope to their seafaring customers,

who, when they wanted a particular wind, instead of whistling for

it, untied the corresponding knot which had been tied by enchantment. Indeed, in all ages and in all climes knots, with their manifold uses and advantages, seem to have been used by necromancers as a means of mystification in furtherance of their

magic

aits.

The Davenport Brothers were not

the

first


HISTORY AND PHlLOSuFHY OF KNOTS. who showed

Men had

their expertness with ropes

9

and knots.

been tied with cords and put into sacks or

boxes who emerged almost immediately

free of all

and there are scores of tricks published in conjuring books showing some interesting tricks with bonds

;

loops, slip-knots, false hitches,

familiar to those

There

is

who

and other contrivances

use cordage.

one part of the history of knots which has

received but

overlooked

little

in

the

attention,

many

though

treatises

have been published from time

known as â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

it

has not been

on armoury which

to time

;

and these are


III.

HERALDIC KNOTS. The "

knots

u.-.ed

in heraldry are technically called

badges," and have been probably in use from a very

when

early time,

and

we understand

heraldry, as

thing of the future.

We

both

find

in those attributed to the

it,

was a

in Celtic structures,

Anglo-Saxons,

many

curious ornaments formed of interlaced cordage.

have given two small examples

We

(pp. 38 and lOi) which

exemplify the method by which the twists and turns of a piece of rope were

made

into a geometric

and

not unpleasing ornament.

Of and

the heraldic knots that of Stafford

is

the simplest,

used as the badge of the shire as well as of the

noble house

who

knot only (Fig.

first

Probably the oldest

their joint

Wake,

knots (Fig.

it.

is

the

Ormonde

names. it is

used

It is

an open, simple

Wake

KNOT, which is is known by

i).

used also by the

the

is

If this

family,

and

was the badge of Hereward

the most interesting of

all

the heraldic

2).

The next

in

simplicity

is

the

BOUCHIER KNOT

formed of two open "granny" knots, and decorates the mantlings of a nobleman of the (F'g-

3)-

It is

Bouchicr family.

In Westminster Abbey, on the 10

tomb


HERALDIC KNOTS. of another Bouchier, is

it

several times repeated.

is

sometimes shown as cordage, and

and beaded

The

belt

in the

It

at others as cord

combined.

knot

elegant interlaced

to represent a

11

monogram.

(Fig. 4)

It is

robe of the effigy of

Anne

is

supposed

found embroidered

of

Bohemia

in

West-

minster Abbey.

The BOWEN Knot (Fig. 5) is simply a cross formed by four loops with a circular rope, and may have been a rebus like

The Lacy Knot at

(Fig. 6), which is finely sculptured Whalley Abbey, and simply means interlaced and ;

the same, judging from the motto,

The Henage Knot

(Fig.

is

7),

which bears the

legend, " Fast, though untied."

The

so-called

knot of the Harringtons

(Fig.

8)

appears to be only a bit of fretwork from one of the charges.

The badge

of the Dacres (Fig. 9)

is

formed by a

cord entwining an escalop-shell and the ragged

staff

of Nevil, and

It is

is

somewhat

tastefully arranged.

thought to indicate the descent from the Bouchiers or the union of their families, just as Edward, Lord

Hastings (Fig.

10),

entwines the sickle of the Hunger-

fords with the garb of the Peverells.

There are many foreign examples of

One

this device.

of the family of Morvilliers shows the Pythago-

rean 7 (so called because the philosopher made it the symbol of life), entwined with a hitch knot which is

attached to a harrow, which thus forms a rebus on the: 2

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;


KNOTS, TIES,

12

name

AND

SPLICES.

of the French Chancellor at

Elizabeth ruled over England.

the time

when

Pope Leo X. had a House

twisted knot and a band round a yoke, and the

Savoy took a " Figure.of 8 Knot " for their device, it with the motto "Stringe ma non constringe," bends, but constrains not. As far back as 1252 an of

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Order of the Knot was established at Naples.

was

The knot

silk, gold, and upon the arm, and those who were invested with

badge, of

pearls,

made a vow There least

is

to untie

it

;

if

not heraldic,

and many a true lover

for that knot, which, if

On

said to

is

at

anxious

is

the signet ring preserved

Stratford-on-Avon

true lover's knot entwining the letters is

it

once tied by the tongue, cannot

be untied by the teeth. in the birthplace at

in a

at Jerusalem.

one other knot which,

emblematic

tied

is

W.

have belonged to Shakespeare

engraved a S.,

and

(Fig.

this

1 1).

Quaint Sir Thomas Brown surmised that the true knot had its origin in the N^odus Herculaneus,

>lover'S'

a very high and esteemed sacred knot of Hercules,

resembling the snaky complication in the Caduceus or rod of Hermes.

only metaphorical.

These ancient rods were probably Ere, however,

we conclude

our


HERALDIC KNOTS.

13

notices of these fanciful knots, let us point out that

one of the forms of a crest wreath " cat's If,

paw "

however,

we cannot

of knots through

all

its

can scientifically define line,

is

cut, so that

various transformations,

it.

"It

is

flexible

we

an endless physical into a circle.

A

and unextensible, and cannot

no lap of

it

can be drawn through

It is altogether beside

another."

that of a twisted

trace distinctly the history

which cannot be deformed

physical line

be

is

(Fig. 99).

our purpose here to

follow the theories of Listing, or the learned dissertations of

Professor Tait {Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh,

1876), for,

though interesting

they are hardly simple

in a

enough

mathematical sense,

for a " practical

hand-

book."

: .

Bureau Nature

Shfry-


IV.

CORDAGE Looking we must

IN GENERAL.

at the subject simply as a practical one, direct attention to the material generallj

first

Many

used for the making of knots. doubtless,

of whipcord, which in reality in

doing

made of

boys have,

amused themselves by untwisting a piece

so,

is

a miniature rope, and,

must have noticed the use which has been

the original twist of the filaments of

hemp

or

flax to bind the whole together into one continuous

This

line.

is

done by twisting the yarn

directions, so that they bind together. (as

a number of yarns are called) were twisted one

way

only, they

would untwist themselves and part at but advantage is taken of this

the slightest strain

;

tendency to untwist, and the result firm cord, is

in opposite

If the strands

bound together by the

is

that a hard,

friction of its parts,

the result of laying strands together which have

been twisted

in opposite directions.

number of strands and variety of

According to the

twists, the varieties

of twine, cord, marline, ropes, hawsers,

made.

To

join

use either a knot, a

Knots, however, knotted.

The

and cables are

two ends of these together, tie,

are

j-ou

must

or a splice. as

various as the

material

coarse fibres, thongs of hide, or twisted

H


CORDAGE IN GENERAL. intestines of savage nations,

age of various vantage

15

have given place to cord-

and material.

sizes, thicknesses,

Ad-

taken of the natural curve and tendency of

is

vegetable fibre to secure the greatest firmness, strength,

and consequent applied to will bear;

security.

know

The most

rigorous tests are

the exact strain different substances

but whatever the substance, the principle of

manufacture remains the same. The process has been modified as machinery has been brought into use, in order to produce a flexible and tena":ious cord which shall retain the collective strength of every fibre of the

material of which

it is

hemp

common, and,

is

the most

that of Manilla

is

composed. of

Of

these materials

all

kinds of hemp,

the most serviceable, and generally

preferred.

In studying the nature and uses of knots, particu-

splices,

ciples

The

which come under the designation of some knowledge of the mode, and of the prin-

those

larly

on which ropes are made, is essentially necessary.

simplest and most effectual

mode

of obtaining

the united strength of the fibres composing the rope

would be

to lay

together at

necessary length, it

side

each end, as

This plan, even

hence

them

by

side,

in the

and fasten them

Sevagee

(Fig.

98).

hemp were of the would be open to many objections if

the fibres of

was necessary

;

some plan which the rope, and at the

to devise

would give unlimited length to same time preserve its torsion and portability. This has been achieved by the compression and twisting of the fibres in. different directions, until they produce


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

16

SPLIGES.

a compact, hard, and strong rope, neither breaking

them so loose drawn out from the mass on the other,

the fibres on the one hand, nor leaving as to be easily

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; either extreme would be equally and injurious

medium

achieved by

is

fatal

in its results,

to the stability of the rope.

This happy

the modern process of rope-

making, whether by hand or machinery.

At

first

the fibres of

hemp

are loosely twisted to-

and form what is technically known as yarn. When two or three yarns are twisted together they form a strand, three strands form a rope, and three gether,

ropes a

cable.

It will

portion of the cable to the cable

itself,

is

be borne

in

mind that each

twisted in an opposite direction

so that advantage

may

be taken of

the tendency to untwist to counteract the like ten-

dency

in

other portions of the cable.

better understood

diagram of a

by a reference

;

B,

This will be accompanying

cable.

Thus A shows the posed

to the

fibres of

which a yarn

is

com-

c shows

the yarns comprising a strand;

the strands forming a rope D, which together form the

cab'.e E.

These

are, in their turn,

subjected to a

variety of processes in order to insure their bearing an

equal strain prior to their being combined into a cable.

As

a broad general rule

it

should be borne

that the loss of bearing power

by twisting

in

is

mind

almost

one-third, but the tighter twisted ropes gain in durability

what they

lose in power.

A twist of

four-fifths

of the length of the component yarns gives one-third

more bearing power than

if

twisted to two thirds of


CORDAGE IN GENERAL.

Fig. 12.

the length, which

The The

is

17

—Analysis of Cable.

the ordinary twist of ropes in use.

larger cables have even a greater twist than this.

various descriptions of line and rope, with their

weights and lengths, are as follows

:

Weight.

Length.

Kinds.

Reefing-twine

24 skeins

8 to 9

Sewing-twine

24

8 to 9

Marline

12

4

..

Log-lines

25 fathoms

Samson-lines

30

I

lbs.

to 3

n I

I'.

Fishing-lines

25

»


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

18

Kinds.

Length.

25 fathoms

Fishing-lines

(9

..

(12

^

lbs,

"

»

...

1^/2,,

)

,,

...

2]^

)

...

3

I

20

...

4

120

...

28

lead-lines

Deep-sea-lines

Weight. ...

23

>'

Hambro'-lines( 6 threads)

Hand

SPLICES.

iy

„ ,.

»

»

»

•••

32

),

"

»>

J)

••

34

»

"

»

»

••

3^-

>>

This is from the computation of Mr. Chapman, the master ropemaker of Deptford Dockyard. In further explanation of the terms used, it should be borne in

mind

that

Kyarn

is

several fibres of

Tivine, or small cord,

Matline

is

is

hemp

twisted together.

two twisted yarns,

three twisted yarns.

A

hawser is a rope formed of three strands, containing from fifteen to twenty-five yarns in each strand.

A

cable

is

hand -twisted

a large

rope,

made from

three or four smaller ropes twisted round a

common

axis.

Laying a rope

the twisting of the strands in a hawser-laid or shroud-laid rope, and of the component is

ropes in a cable.

Serving a rope

is

to cover

spun yarn, to preserve

To

facilitate the

it

it

with smaller cord or

from rolling and from

operation the yarn

friction.

passed two pr three times round the rope, and tightened by a species is


CORDAGE IN GENERAL. of mallet with a con-

cave groove on

the

side opposite to

the

handle,calledaserving

This enables

mallet.

the yarn to be twisted

evenly

and

tightly

round the rope,

in the

same manner

as the

silver

wire

is

twisted

round the fourth, or silver,

a

of

string

violin (Fig. 13).

rope

Parcelling a (Fig. 14)

is

wrapping

narrow strips ofcanvas about

it,

well tarred,

in order to secure

it

from being injured by rain-water lodging be-

tween the parts of the service

The

when

worn.

parcelling

is

put

on with the lay of the rope, with the edges

overlapping.

Worming

a

rope

|Fig. 15) is filling

up

the divisions between

the strands, to give

it

19


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

20

a round and

SPLICES.

appearance prior to parcelling or

full

serving.

A knowledge

of the strength of ropes, and of their

breaking weight,

is

ropes are required.

Club

for

essential in all operations

We

where

are indebted to the Alpine

some valuable experiments on the strength

of ropes used in Alpine excursions.

In the course of

these experiments the weakness of plaited ropes

demonstrated with startling of a plaited rope does not

heavy weights or sudden

effect.

power to bear

in its

lie

but in

jerks,

was

Indeed, the value

wearing

its

when exposed to constant friction, as in sash and clock-lines. The committee of the Alpine properties

Club found,

in the course of nearly a

hundred experi-

ments with various kinds of rope, only four bore the strain of twelve stone falling five feet,

and

all

these

four ropes were made by Messrs. Buckingham and Sons, of 33 Broad Street, Bloomsbury. In the further

experiments one of these ropes

failed.

Of

the three

ropes which remained, they were so nearly equal that

was

difficult to say which was to be preferred. Each of these three ropes (we quote from the report) "will bear twelve stone falling ten feet, and it

"

''

fourteen stone falling eight feet

;

and

it

may be

useful

upon a rope loaded with a weight of fourteen stone, and suddenly checked after to say that

a

fall

the strain

of eight feet,

is

nearly equal to that which

caused by a dead weight of two tons.

None

is

of these

ropes, however, will bear a weight of fourteen stone falling ten feet

;

and the

result of

our experiments

is


GOBDAGE IN GENERAL.

21

that no rope can be made, whether of hemp, flax, or silk,

which

strong enough to bear that strain, and

is

We

yet light enough to be portable.

believe that'

these ropes, which weigh about three-quarters of an

ounce to the

which can be con-

foot, are the heaviest

We

in the Alps.

veniently carried about

append a

statement of the respective merits of the three kinds, of which were

all

made by

pressly for the Club,

thread twisted in the strands

No.

I.

Buckingham ex-

Messrs.

and marked by a red worsted :

Manilla Hemp.—Weight

of 20 yards, 48

ounces.

Advantages.

more

Is softer

and more

than 2 and

elastic

pleasant to handle than 2 or

Disadvantages.

pliable than

When

3.

wet,

is

far

2.

Is

more

3.

— Has a tendency to wear

and fray

at a knot.

No.

2.

Italian Hemp.

—Weight

of 20 yards, 43

ounces.

Advantages.

and

will

Is less

bulky than

probably wear

best,

i

and

3.

Is harder,

being least likely to cut

against rocks.

Disadvantages. untie than

i

handle, and

and is

— 3.

Is

much more

When

wet,

is

stiff

and

difficult to

very disagreeable to

apt to kink.

—Weight of 20 yards, 44 ounces. and more Advantages. — When dry No.

3.

Flax.

easier to handle than

better than

i

and

is

soft,

2,

and

pliable,

will

probably wear

i.

Disadvantages.

—When

wet,

becomes

decidedly


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

22

somewhat weaker, and handle as It

SPLICES.

nearly as disagreeable

is

to

2.

should be borne in mind that a knot weakens a

rope at any time, and particularly

if ill

constructed

:

with a falling weight a knot like Fig. 67, or a loop like Fig. 31,

The

especially to be avoided.

is

best knots

recommended by

Com-

the Alpine

mittee are Fig. 68 to join two ropes, Fig. 29 and Fig. 33 for loops.

These are

all

the knots required on an

Alpine excursion.

A ropes

good formula for calculating the strength of is given by Robison :â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Multiply the circum-

ference of the rope in inches

by

itself,

part of the product will express the the rope will carry.

For example,

inches in circumference,

7i

6x6 = 36,

if

the

and the

the rope be 6 fifth

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the number of tons which such rope The

following simple

weight of cordage of

To

able.

rules

for

fifth

number of tons of which

is

will sustain.

calculating

the

kinds will be found servicefind the weight of a hawser, or shroud-laid all

rope, multiply the circumference in inches

by

itself,

and multiply the product by the length of the rope in. fathoms, and divide by 420, the product will be the weight

in

hundredweights.

Example: To

find

the-

weight of a six-inch hawser-laid rope 120 fathomslong;

6x6=36x120=4,320,

which, divided

gives the weight of the rope, 10 cwt.

Again

:

multiply divide

by

To its

4.

i

qr.

4

by

42c,.

lbs.

find the weight of cable-laid cordage,

circumference in inches

The product

will

by

itself,

and,

be the weight, in hun-


CORDAGE IN GENERAL.

23

dredweights, of a cable 120 fathoms long, from which the weight of any other length

duced.

may

be readily de-

Example: Required the weight of a

12-inch

cable 120 fathoms long; 12 x 12=144, divide by 4, and the product, 36, is the weight in hundredweights. Cotton, silk, and cocoa-nut fibre are sometimes used for cordage

;

indeed, the latter has

one of the greatest of which

is its

ance to the influence of water.

many

advantages,

lightness

Iron

is

and

resist-

now commonly

used for standing rigging of ships, and wire ropes have a deserved reputation. tain to iron in

Knots, however, do not per-

any shape, unless an

iron nodule

the necessary and inevitable exception.

form


V.

SIMPLE KNOTS AND LOOPS. Let

us begin at the beginning.

before us.

We

A

plain rope

is

should remember that a rope, to hold

when tied tight, should always be well stretched. The power of tension in a rope is considerable, and to those who are in the habit of packing goods, or even trunks, this power of giving way is sometimes a source of considerable annoyance, often aggravated by

tight

ill-tied

knots slipping or becoming loose.

nautical world, cordage

and

their strength tested before

to guard against

being used,

any possible danger from

in ordci

this cause.

Fig. 18.

Fig. 17.

Fig. i6.

In the

and cables are always stretched

Taking the plain cord, it may be remarked that all knots are begun by either "loops" or "hitches;" and these

may

be single or double as required.

Thus, Fig. 16

is

a

Simple Hitch,

derhand Loop, and If

we pass

Fig. 18

an

Fig. 17 an

Un-

Overhand Loop.

the loose end through either an overhand

24


SIMPLE KNOTS AND LOOPS. or underhand loop, as

shown

we have

in Fig. 19,

appearance of Fig.

the simplest of

25

all

knots,

which when drawn taut has the

20.

The

perfect knot

is

known

as

"Figure of 8 Knot" (Fig. 21), is formed oy an underhand and overhand loop overlapping each other,

the

and the loose end passed through the loop. When tight, as shown in Fig. 22, it bears a close resemblance hence its familiar name. to the Arabic numeral 8 ;

Fig

Fig. 21.

Fig. 20.

Fig. 19.

22.

What may be called compound simple knots are known by the name of Double, Treble, Four-fold, or They

Six-fold Knots.

are in constant use

when

it is

necessary to shorten a rope a few inches, or to increase

Fig. 23.

Fig. 26.

Fig. 25.

Fig. 24.

the size or strength of a holding knot to prevent

passing through an eye or a block.

made by

many shown

passing the end of a rope twice, thrice, or as

times as in

drawing

it

These knots are

may

be necessary, through a loop

(as

the simple knot) previously to "nipping," or it

taut

by

pulling both ends.

Fig. 23

shows

a double knot loosely formed, Fig. 24 when "nipped,"


KNOTS, TIES,

AND

a treble knot nipped,

Fig. 25

In Fig. 27

formation.

open, and

in Fig.

The Five and close folds,

and

is

and

its

open

Fig. 26 its

five-fold knot,

we have a

28

Six-fold

SPLICES.

shown

appearance when nipped.

Knot forms a coil

of

very useful to travellers

handsome

who do

not

wish to cut the precious cords of their baggage when on a journey, and to whom long loose ends are a special abomination. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘

shortenings

"

In the following section

some

which are more easily undone are ex-

but for short lengths, a couple or more of six-fold knots are useful and handy. plained

;

Fig. 28.

Fig. 27.

From

simple knots the

way

is

easy to loops, nooses,

and running knots, which are neither the tant nor the least useful of the knots.

least impor-

To

this class

Tomfool Knot," which proved a puzzle knot for the Davenport spirits, and also the Tyburn Noose, which has ended many a troubled life. The simple Running Knot is made by passing a hitch instead of the end of the rope when making a simple knot (see

belongs the

Fig. 29).

"

The variations

A succession or chain

of this knot are very numerous.

of these running knots form the

single plait or chain shortening, to

have again occasion to

refer.

When

which we shall the loose end

A


SIMPLE KNOTS AND LOOPS.

27

knotted with a simple perfect or double knot,

is

it

forms one of the most useful and easily made loops,

though

its

power of holding

Figs. 31, 52, or 33.

rope to permit

its

When being

not so great as either

is

there let

is

down

sufficient length of

double,

forms a

it

Fig. 31.

Fig. 29.

Fig. 30.

good loop

may 34

for lifting

inanimate objects, as the hitch

be lengthened and then drawn taut, though Fig.

is

more commonly used

for this purpose, as the

pressure and weight of the object tends to tighten the

grasp of the knot. the

"

The

best knot for this purpose

Running Bowline"

(Fig. 40).

passed backwards through the loop excellent shortening knot, but

is

If the B,

it

end a

is is

forms an

not adapted to bear

a hard strain. In

name

its

double shape, the running loop under the

of the

"TOMFOOL Knot"

(Fig. 30),

has achieved

greater renown than perhaps any knot of times.

modern

The Liverpool gentlemen- who introduced

3â&#x20AC;&#x201D;2

it


KNOTS, TIES,

28

AND

SPLICES.

to the Davenport Brothers have been often asked for instruction

how

a simple knot.

running knot

to tie

It is

it.

made

It is

(29), after

a double loop through beginning like the

in the

which the firm end

is

passed

through the open simple knot, so as to form a double Thus,

loop or bow.

if

within the open loops

and the loose ends of handcuffs

is

the wrists or hands are placed

D

c,

and the

tied firm

produced which the

ports could not untie.

The

latter

drawn

tight,

round the centre, a pair skill

of the Daven-

firmness and security of

the knot depends, however, on the rope being well

hands would

stretched, otherwise a person with small

not have

much

releasing himself from

difficulty in

any other knot made on a rope. The common I.OOP Knot (Fig. 31) is tied

this or

the open

Hand Knot (Figs. 62

and

ordinary useful loop of every-day

life.

mental and even stronger loop, which for large cordage,

is

made by

similar to

and forms the

63),

A more ornais

well adapted

the figure 8 knot (Fig.

32).

This loop, like Fig. 31, when once

been subjected to a lengthened In this case there

to untie.

is

made and has

strain, is

very

difficult

nothing better than a

running knot with a check knot, E (Fig. 33), which is a modification of the fisherman's knot, and will be

found eminently serviceable.

knot E use

it

is

In this knot, the simple

tied over the running line, as

may be

easily

drawn

shown.

After

apart, the loop slipped,

and

the knot untied in a comparatively brief space of time.

This

is

a very suspicious knot in

all

conjuring per-


SIMPLE KNOTS AND LOOPS. formances, as effort

it

can be easily unloosed by a slight

of the ankle or wrist

round a chair

it

29

may

;

when the loop

is

carried

be slackened or tightened

an

in

instant.

Fig. 33'

Fig- 32.

There are but few knots which a

new rope

sufficient for a

and then the

more

rest is easy.

man

not give

Speaking as a

rope, the easier the release.

are confined

will

rule,

When two

together, the chances

in

if

the

persons

are largely

creased in favour of the exhibitors, for struggle a

way

to release his hands,

in-

one can

hand through the embarrassing cords he

could release himself and help his fellow.

The

experi-

ments of Messrs. Maskelyne and Cooke prove that the knots can be tied and untied irrespective of either extraneous or spiritual agency, for the knots were sealed


KNOTS, TIES,

30

AND

SPLICES.

with wax, yet the hands were released and rebound again in the course of a few seconds.

One

of the most

common and

useful of running

knots used in commerce, and only applicable to small cords,

the

is

RUNNING NooSE

(Fig. 34).

made on

is

simple

Fig. 35-

Fig. 34-

knot

A

the end of the cord, which

is

then

The running noose known as Crossed Running Knot (Fig. 35), is a useful

simply knotted round. the

knot

in

packing heavy goods, as well as a useful anchor

fastening.

Many

visitors to

a seaport have watched

the tars at work on the outside of their vessels, sus-

pended by a rope whilst they sat comfortably

Bowline Knot

(Fig. 36).

This knot

is

in

a

formed by

passing the loose end through the lower loop of a figure 8 knot,

and "seizing" or tying the end with

small cord or marline.

This can hardly be called the true " bowline

which

is

shown

at Fig. 39.

This

is

called a

"

knot,

Standing


SIMPLE KNOTS AND LOOPS.

Fig- 39.

Fig. 40.

Bowline Knot is

called a

"

31

Fig. 41.

in contradistinction to Fig.40,

which running" bowline knot, and forms a noose


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

32

SPLICES.

Here the loop or eye

to put over anything.

upon the standing part of the rope A other loop at

seems a very It is

use

shown is

difficult

is

matter, but

in Fig. 41,

is

and

is

or, in

of a rope

not so in

easily

man from

in lowering a

it is

at B runs

forming an-

A bowline knot on a bight

c.

rigging of a vessel, Fig. 42

A,

made

;

reality.

its

great

a height, such as the

case of

fire,

from a window.

not calculated to bear the same strain, and

make fast the sheets of small known as the " Midshipman's Hitch,"

principally used to

boat

sails.

and

its

present

It is

construction

two

slip

is

obvious.

clinches,

" seized " instead of tied.

Figs. 37

or open Fig. 38

is

and 38

re-

running knots, used to clinch a

These knots and loops are closely connected with the hitches and bends in shape.

sailor's knot.

Fig. 42.


VI.

SHORTENINGS. The

most handsome knots of any

and which approach nearest

practical value,

to the fancy knots of

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Knots knots that hold the and firm without any loose ends.

history, are Shortening

surplus cord tight

The most simple

shortening for

small cords

known to boys as the Single know as the Chain Knot. It

is

that

but which seamen

all

descriptions of Plait, is

so

made as to be popular with most young people. The first movement is to make the running loop (Fig. easily

29),

then to draw the loose end through the loop as

shown

in Fig. 43,

length

requisite

shortened

;

and repeat the movement of cord

the end

may

has

until the

been taken up and

then be secured by passing a

wood through the loop (see by bringing the end of the rope through the last loop, as shown in Fig. 44. The Twist Knot is by no means so generally known, though it is a very useful shortening, and admirably belaying pin or a piece of Fig. 43), or

adapted

for other purposes.

nary " three is

more

plait,"

Dissected,

is

it

though formed of one

useful than

when formed

The mode

of

33

It

of three separate

pieces of string, for the ends are fastened and

come undone.

an ordi-

piece.

commencing

it

this

cannot

knot

is


KNOTS, TIES,

34

AND

SPLICES.

Fig- 43-

Fig. 44.

shown in Fig. 45. The double loop is held in the left hand the side A is then brought over to B, with a half-turn B is crossed over to A, and the process of an ordinary three plait is continued until the end of the loop is reached, when the loose end is passed through the bight and the knot is fastened and completed as shown in Fig. 46. If well done, it forms a hard, tight, and compact long knot. ;

Closely allied to these knots

Knot

(Fig. 47),

which

knot, easily made,

a twist

in

if

is

the Double Chain

really a pretty

is

the

first

loop

is

form of open

made

secure

by

the rope, as shown in the diagram, and then

pass the loose end through the preceding loop right

and

left until

the knot

is

finished.

This knot admits

of any length of rope being used, whilst the majority

of the other shortenings are only applicable to limited lengths.


SHOR'lENINGS.

Fig. 46.

Fig. 47-

p332S2SS Fig. 48.

Fig. 49,

35


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

36

The Simple Loop

or

SPLICES.

Bend Shortening

(Fig. 48)

a

is

expedient for stout rope, and has the

plain, useful

merit of not injuring the rope by any unnecessary the fibres of the hemp.

strain, or crossing

struction

is

we have a quickly made known as the Knot Shortening.

an ordinary knot

It is

adapted to stand a heavy

must be of vast use is

simply

the middle of a rope in which a

in

double bend has previously been made.

strain

con-

shortening,

In Fig. 49 generally

Its

evident.

strain,

but from

It is its

is

security

where the

to travellers in cases

not direct on the knot, which

not

the case in

the lashing of waggons and in the tying of packages this,

unlike Fig. 48, can only be

of the rope are

When

SHANK," or,

29)

made when both ends

For thick ropes

both ends of the rope are

shortening

as

is

is first

sometimes

it is

used.

shown by

that

free.

The

in the

rope

the running loop, which

end of the bend

is

called, the

is

;

not adapted. the

"SHEEP-

"Dogshank"

and most secure form

A simple

Fig. 50.

made

best

it is

fast,

is

running knot (Fig.

a bend

is

pushed through

then drawn taut

;

the other

fastened in a similar manner, and

when complete. Fig. 50. much more simple "dogshank"

forms,

A

Fig. 51.

In this a simple loop

is

the hitch or bend placed through

but

is

is

made it.

that

in

shown

in

the rope, and

It is easily

made,

hardly to be depended on without being tied or

seized as Fig. 48.

If there

is

time to do

this, it

forms

a safe and excellent shortening. In Figs. 52,

S3,

and 54 are shown three loop shor-


SHORTENINGS.

37


KNOTS, 11E8,

38

AND

SPLICES.

tenings,

which can only be made when one end of the

rope

free.

is

To make

Fig. 52

we ought

to form a

simple knot, and whilst open pass the loose end of the rope through the loop, and the shortening can then be

made

of the desired length,

of the hitch

by a

and fastened

similar simple knot.

improvement, inasmuch as the strain

at the

Fig. 53

is

end

is

an

more equally

borne by the various parts of the rope.

It is

formed

by placing the rope

in the position of Fig. 45,

turning the loose end

first

round the upper end of the

lower,

and fasten by bringing the

hitch,

and then the

end through the loop which remains. of Fig. 54 consists in the fact that at will,

by taking out

it

The advantage can be loosened

the marlinespike or

wood

AN ORNAMKMTAL SHORTENING FROM THE CROSS OF TF.RMONFECHIN.

then

pin.


VII.

KNOTS FOR UNITING ROPES. The knots life

most common

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;those

in use in

everyday

are those which are used in uniting two separated

ends of ropes

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; are

" shortenings "

on a single

not those used as stoppers or line,

but are used for uniting

the ends of two separate pieces of rope.

Fig. 56.

Fig- 55-

Fig- 57

When two simple loops or hitches (Fig. 16) are crossed together (Fig. 55), they form the commencement of the famous Sailor's Knot, a variation of the Reef

Knot

(Fig. 57),

which

loosely formed in Fig. 56.

is

In this knot the two ends

lie

close together,

the ropes are of equal thickness

it

and when

forms one of the

simplest and best knots for uniting two pieces of rope

or cord, and can be easily untied as a reef knot.

If,

thicknesses, the knot will slip Fig. 58,

;

and hence

its

use

however, the cords be of unequal

and part company. 39

and form a loop

If the

as in

ends are not laid


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

40

SPLICES.

parallel to the rope, as in Fig. 59,

di

Granny Knot. On

it

becomes the False

a comparison of Figs. 60 and

57, where the two knots are shown drawn

ference in neatness

apparent.

The

and compactness

may

reef knot

be

taut, the dif-

be at once

will

made

under

either

hand or overhand, as may be most convenient. is

If

it

necessary to use ropes of different thicknesses, then

the ends of the sailor's knot must be wrapped or tied to the cord, as useful

On

not an object.

Knot

shown

in Fig. 61,

which shows a very

and neat method of joining two is

ropes,

the other hand, the "

one of the quickest made

;

time

if

it

has also the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

recommendation of never slipping or untying remains firm it

is

but

;

more apt

other knots.

if

a great strain

is

it

is

thick, heavy,

whether tied to the right or

open formation from the view when drawn

Fig.

left.

front,

and

;

for thread

crossed, as Fig. 64,

end

thumb and (a) is

it

is

S^i its

back

Knot

is

per-

incomparably the best

The two ends

are taken and and both cords are held between

The

forefinger of the left hand.

then looped back over the

brought under the thumb, where the right-hand end

(b) is

the knot (Fig. 66)

is

right-hand cord.

of the

taut.

knot, and easiest made.

the

many

and clumsy, 62 shows its

Fig.

For small cord or twine the Weaver's haps the best

it

put on the rope,

to break at the knot than

Besides,

is

Open -HAND "

it

is

left

held

rfght

end and

fast,

while

slipped through the loop at c

then formed by tightening the

If cord thicker than thread

the end B must be held between the

is

thumb and

used, finger


KNOTS FOE UNITING ROPES. of the left

hand

whilst the knot

is

41

being drawn taut,

as in Fig. 67.

The " Fisherman's." or, as it is sometimes called, the "Englishman's" Knot, is of quite another cha4


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

42

racter.

SPLICES.

formed of two simple knots

It is

front appearance

its

To

useful knot.

shown

is

anglers

it

invaluable, as

between them as a

"

B,

it

may be

so as to

dropper," in

In joining gut-lines the same knot,

fly-fishing. little

line

very

It is a

at Fig. 69.

is

separated by taking hold of the ends A,

admit a third

(see Fig. 70)

When drawn taut

slipped over each cord, as in Fig. 68.

left

a

apart and the intermediate opening wrapped or

whipped with

silk,

forms one of the strongest and most

reliable fastenings

known. Mr. Cholmondeley Pennell,

who

subjected this knot to a series of experiments,

found that the line snapped sooner at any other part than at this knot. for

It

is

also very useful to join ropes

temporary purposes only, as

it

is

firm

and may be

easily untied.

The ropes,

" is

Ordinary " Knot shown

in Fig. 71.

or Tie, for uniting large

It

has

all

the advantages

of the open-hand knot, with the additional recommendations that

it

is

easy to make, very strong, and does

not strain the fibres of the rope.

It is formed by first making a simple knot (Fig. 70), and then interlacing the other cord in the manner shown at Fig. 71. When drawn taut it has the appearance of Fig. y2. However

great the strain,

it

does not injure the rope, which

keeps also in a straight

line,

which

it

the open-hand knot. Figs. 62 and 63.

will

not do with

If the ends are

whipped with twine, as shown in Fig. 61, it is really a neat and handsome as well as a useful knot Another knot, which may be termed a Shortening Tie, is shown at Fig. 74. It is a handsome knot, and


KNOTS FOR UNITING ROPES. is

used when there

is

too

much

rope,

43

and where

it

is

necessary to use a large knot for the purpose of pre-

E

bo

venting loop. at the

its

It

is

running too far through an eye,

ring, or

formed by making the figure of 8 knot

end of a rope

(Fig. 73),

which

is

a double knot

4â&#x20AC;&#x201D;2


AND

44

KNOTS, TIES,

and then

interlacincj the other

Fig. 26.

When drawn

taut

SPLICES. rope through

it,

as in

has the appearance of

it

Fig. 7?It is

sometimes necessary to join hawsers, as well

some temporary or permanent purpose, and for this some special contrivances have to be made. The simple Hawsf.R Bend (Fig. 76) is so easy

as ropes, for

Fig.

76.

as to be constantly adopted

purpose has to be served. a loop. reliable

when only a temporary

It is

a simple hitch within

The Garrick Bend is stronger and more (Fig. 76=^). What is known as the BOWLINE

Fig. 76.*

Bend

(Fig. 77)

is

perhaps the strongest of

knotted hawser bends.

Knots, one

It is

crossing the loop of

diagram gives a good idea of

all

the

formed of two Bowline ,

the other.

this bend.

The


KNOTS FOR UNITING ROPES.

45

Fig. 77.

The Half-Hitch and Seizing Bend takes

more

time,

and

is

require to be joined for a long period is

(Fig. yy*)

used on hawsers which ;

formation

its

evident

Fig. 77*.

These are

all

the knots, properly so called, used for

the purpose of uniting two pieces of rope which have

simple ends.

The knots

are very different

rope has a temporary or permanent loop these are elsewhere given,

A KNOT TRICK.

;

when one some of


VIII.

SPLICES. Hawsers,

and even ropes sometimes

cables,

quire uniting in such a

manner

re-

that there should be no

obvious difference in their diameter, and no substantial

weakening of

their strength.*

This can only be

accomplished by means of "Splicing,"

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

is,

putting

the ends of ropes together by opening the strands

and placing them meter

is

into one another;

or, if

equal dia-

not essential, by putting the strands of the

end of a rope between those of a

A Short

Splice

bight.

(Fig. 82) is not difficult,

only used where there

is

not

much

and

is

strength required,

and time does not permit of making the long splice, which is far the best. Open the ends for a short distance (Figs. 78, 79), and place them together as shown in

the diagram

(Fig.

strand well, and lay ing

them

80)

;

grease the ends of the

them one within the

other, draw-

as hard as possible to each other.

the end of one rope and the three strands which

from the opposite rope

fast in the left

rope be large, stop them

down

to

it

hand,

Hold come

or, if

the

with rope yarn

;

then with a marlinespike (Fig. 81) open the strand, and * A splice weakens a rope about one eighth.

46


SPLICES.

47

push down the middle strand of the other end, and by raising alternate strands

the strands as shown, Fig. 82.

It

it

on both ends, and working

in

assumes the appearance of

must not be forgotten that the

first

strand

must be passed over the strand which is first next to it, and through under the second, and out between the second and third next to operation, the strands

from

it,

In the subsequent

it.

must be passed over the third

and under the fourth and through. Only one-

half the strand need be passed the second time, and

the other cut off to taper the splice.

To know how

to

make

a

Long Splice

useful in every condition of hfe in

just the

tively as strong.

same

You

as a

new

most

which cordage

used, as a long-spliced rope will reeve

any block,

is

is

and run through

rope,

and compara-

unlay the ends of two ropes to

a distance three or four times the length used in a


KNOTS, TIES,

AND

short

SPLICES.

splice,

and

splice

them

within one another in the same

Unlay one strand

for

a considerable distance, and

fill

manner.

up the

interval

which

it

leaves

with the opposite strand from the other rope, and twist

the

ends of these two ropes together.

Then do the same with two more strands. The two remaining strands are twisted together

where they

place

in the

first

The general appearance

crossed.

shown

in Fig. 83.

in progress,

which are

of the splice

is

â&#x20AC;&#x17E;'

The ends

o

here shown short, are cut and

passed through as in the short Before cutting, the rope

splice.

should be got well on the stretch.

A

chafed strand

unsightly whilst the

may

be

is

not only

but weakens a rope, two remaining strands

perfectl}-

sound.

It is

sometimes desirable to put a new strand

in,

and

this

is

done by

cutting off the chafed strand for

some

distance,

a strand

laying the

it

and then taking

from a new rope and into the score in

damaged

one

lay

which before.


SPLICES.

Lay

it

up

just as in a long splice, cut half,

half-strands,

the splice

and the repair

is left

stick the

When

thicker than the ordinary rope,

Cut Splice

make

and

accomplished.

is

termed a Pudding Splice, and

A

49

(Fig. 84)

a loop in a rope.

To

is is

form

it

is

used on emergencies. frequently useful to it

the rope

is

cut in

Fig. 8s

Fig 84.

two,

and the ends are unlaid as

for a short splice.

Place the ends of each rope against the standing part

of the other, forming an oblong eye of the size you

wish

(as in Fig. 84),

then pass the ends through the

strands of the standing parts in the in the short splice,

An Eye splice

and the operation

Splice

(Fig. 85)

is

same manner is

as

complete.

used by seafarers to

round a block, deadeye, or thimble, and

formed by unlaying the end of a rope

is

for a short


KNOTS, TIES,

50

AND

SPLICES.

and laying three strands upon the standing form an eye. Put one end in the strand in it the same manner as the short splice, put

distance,

part, so as to

next to

the next end over that strand and through the second,

and put the remaining end through the third strand on the other side of the rope taper them, divide the ;

strands,

and put them

in again.

Fig. 86.

A

Fig. 87.

Shroud Knot

(Fig. S6)

ropes, as in a short splice,

within the other

;

one rope (see Figs.

is

another method of

You open up

joining two ropes.

the ends of the

and place the strands one

then single 172, 174)

of the other against the lay

"

wall

"

the strands of

round the standing part ;

taper the ends

off,

and

serve over.

The

best

method of making a French Shroud

KNOT(Fig.89), which

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The

is

neater,

may be thus

described

strands are placed as in a short splice

;

they


SPLICES.

51

Make

are placed closely, as in Fig. 87.

strand

A

;

of A, as C of strand strand is

D

a loop of the

pass the end of strand B through the bight ;

make

a loop of strand D, and pass the end

A through

it,

as at

D

;

then pass the end of

through the bight of strand

complete.

B,

Care should be taken that

and one side all

the ends

should be passed through the loops or bights, for this is

"walling."

Follow the same plan with the three

strands on the other side, and taut,

when

the knot will be

then draw

shown

all

ends

as in Fig. 88.

The

ends of the strands must then be tapered on each side,

marled, and served over, and

when complete

look as Fig. 89.

Fig. 88,

Fig. 89.

will


IX.

OTHER MODES OF UNITING Occasions constantly occur both on in fair

weather and

foul, to

sea and land,

unite ropes on the bight,

or that are fitted with eyes or other loops.

we show the

simplest of

knot fastened

in the

ROPE.

all

In Fig. 90

these knots, a running

There are many

eye of a rope.

Fig. 90.

modes of fastening a simple end to a ring, loop, eye, and these will be found fully illustrated in

Other or

Section

XI devoted ,

to moorings

and anchor

fasten-

ings.

The Wedding Knot is

one

to join

lashing

is

then tied

"Rose Lashing," two rope-ends, both having eyes. The (Fig. 91), or

passed successively through both eyes, and in

the centre.

52


OTHER MODES OE UNITING ROPES.

«*

Fig. 91,

Fig. 92.

Fig. 93-

Fig. 94.

53


KNOVS, TIES,

54

Fig. 92

AND

SPLICES.

by a spherical shell, each loop figures, and surrounding the ball of

a joint

is

being made as in wood technically called a shell. The Deadeye Lashing (Fig.

quent use it

93)

one of

is

fre-

forms on board full-rigged ships;

in various

admits of easy adjustment to the strain of the ropes.

The ram blocks are fastened in the eyes, which here made by simple lashings, and tightened by

the

lanyards (A A), which pass

in

the

deadeye, so as to tighten or slacken the rope at

will.

The ends of

through

holes

the lanyard are fastened

to the

are

main

These deadeyes are frequently seen fastened

rope.

to the point wherever

it

is

necessary to strain the

cordage.

In Fig. 94 are shown three methods of joining cord-

age

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;A

The

is

what

is

termed a Belaying-Fin Splice.

belaying-pin, which

is

here

shown stopped on the

end of the rope, and served with yarn,

is

passed

through the eye of the rope, and at the other end a loop

is

formed. Through this loop or bend a

by

secured to the rope (b) the double junction

a single knot,

is

" button,''

passed, and

complete, and has the advan-

is

tage of being separated in an instant.

Loops and eyes

in

ropes are in constant use for a

variety of purposes.

mode is

of

shown

In the previous

making an "eye''

(Fig. 84), as well as the

(Fig. 85).

The

latter,

section,

in the centre of

however,

is

the

a rope

"eye and splice" not so strong or

durable as

An Artificial Eye (Fig. 95), which is made more in


OTHER MODES OF UNITING ROPES. manner of

the

Take

a long splice.

and unlay one strand

;

lay the

55

the end of a rope

two

strands back to the standing part of the rope

;

pass the strand which

has been unlaid over the end and in

the

until part,

it

intervals

returns

and

lies

the strands

;

round

down

the eye,

the standing

under the eye with

then divide the strands,

taper them down, and serve them

over with spun yarn. " eye," or loop,

This

shown

is

the Fig. 95-

at Figs. 90,

91, 94, served over.

A rope

Flemish Eye is

at first

(Fig. 96) is thus

formed

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The

whipped, and the strands unlaid to the

s^TTy ft

,>

J\a

1 Fig. 96.

whipping and opened

Take a

piece of

out, separating each rope yarn.

wood the

between, and along

it

size of the intended

lay three or

eye

{a)

more stops (bbbb);


AND SPLICES

KNOTS, TIES,

56

and tie with overhand knot (as c), somewhat seize the ends, and worm

hitch over the yarns,

crossing tliem

;

them between the strands at the shoulder then marl all down, parcel, and serve the ends. The Throat Seizing (Fig. 97) is more rapidlymade. The end is only partially opened, and lashed with yarn in the manner shown. ;

Fig. 97*.

Fig. 97.

Fig.

97* shows one of a variety of rings now but

seldom used, but through

in

still

Another ring

is

other

ropes

occasionally on

land.

to

useful

the rigging, and

pass

formed by lashing the two ends of a

short piece of rope to the side

-of

a long one, giving

the requisite loop.

A

Grommet

(Fig. 98)

is

a spliced ring so useful

that no boat or vessel should be without them.

They

are used to lengthen ropes, to play at quoits on board foreign ships

and steamers. They are made to furnish

handles to chests, and a variety of other purposes at sea

;

but are but

little

known on

shore.

It is

formed


OTHER MODES OF UNITING ROPES.

57

of a single strand of rope, which, after you have

formed your ring of the in its turns, twice

size

lowing the lay until the ring

an overhand knot

them

in,

you may

require,

round the ring in the is

is laid,

crevices, fol-

Finish with

complete.

(Fig. 55), divide the yarns,

and

stick

as in a long splice.

Fig. 98. Fig. 99.

A SevageE round

a bight,

to the "

is

a ring of rope yarns laid round and

and marled down

Flemish Eye."

They

manner

in a similar

are strong, exceedingly

and are used, like the grommet, for blockas straps to go round a spar, for a tackle and straps, to be hooked into for hoisting. useful,

One

of the readiest

for hoisting,

is

made

the Cat's

of these loops, to be used

Paw

(Fig. 99), where,

twisting the rope against the run, either side,

which

is

it

by

forms a twist on

sufficiently strong to

hold hooks

or tackle to carry considerable weight.

S


X.

TIES. Ties are the popular embodiment of knots in The old saying of "being tied to your

general.

mother's apron-string," has a broader meaning attached to

than the mere technical idea of a

it

There are home

are so various.

The

tions.

be tied

puts a

when too,

;

Then

ties

of the affec-

when they were so equally won. The young wooer wishes

cricketers tied

matched that neither to

tie.

ties, ties

and, to facilitate that desirable event, he

handsome

tie

about his neck

about his spotless

The

tie.

is

ducing dislocations (Fig. 104), for

very particular,

surgeons, also, use

amputation (Fig.

ties for arteries in

and the parson,

;

about to tie the nuptial knot,

it

102),

and

for re-

holds firm, and

does not tighten when pulled. Shopkeepers are adepts at tying, for they

have to

in the course of a year.

tie

up innumerable parcels

Their idea of tying

is

really

a combination of particular knots, though the fastening

is

The model

the only technical

tie

of tradesmen

the

tie

Stationer's

Knot

is

(Fig. 100),

either right or left-handed.

It

final

properly so called-

which

may

be tieu

always remains firm,

and can be instantly untied by pulling the loose end.

To

tie

it,

a running loop or noose

of the string, direction;

and

it

the cord

is

tied at the

end

crosses the parcel in a vertical is

then carried crossways round 58


TIES.

59

the package, and fastened as seen in the sketch.

knot can be made by three movements of the

The

fingers,

so mechanically as to appear to be tied without an

Fig. 100.

efifort.

This

parcels, is

but

tie is is

only adapted for small cordage and

one of the most useful of

inserted here for

its

general

its class,

and

utility.

Ties vary in form according as the object to be fastened

is

Thus the

loose, tall, or short.

ties

used to

secure timber vary from the ties which secure a boat or a ship to a pier or a post (Section XL), and these

again vary from those which are useful to secure the rope round a mast, or pole, or

The commencement

tree.

of a simple knot round a tree,

mast, or other solid substance,

is

shown

at Fig. loi;

5-2


KNOTS, TIES,

60

Fig. loi.

AND

SPLICES. the knot, which

is

in

reality a reef knot,

shown

is

finished

at Fig. 102.

The Timber Hitch is

(Fig.

one of a

103)

series of

knots which depend their

firmness

upon the

friction of

for

the

parts.

so firm,

greater the

the tighter Fig 102

to

allied

it

the

is

Clove Hitch,

or

Knot

Builder's (Fig.

104).

knot

is

This

used

by

to secure

builders

scaffolding,

their

and

comes. Fig. 103.

in

is

constant

use

on shipboard.

The

friction

cient

to

is suffi-

hold the

rope firm on a perfectly

smooth pole a heavy

against lateral

pressure.

Fig 104.

It

that

is

the

strain it

be-

Closely


TIES.

61 Fig. 105.

The

clove hitch

used

is

by surgeons

in cases of disloca-

tion of the

thumb,

to assist the opera-

When

tion.

the

ends are knotted, the builder's knot

becomes the Gunner's

Knot.

Double

Knot

is

The

Builder's

shown

at

Fig. 105. Itis,how-

seldom

ever,

but

used.

The value

of

Fig 107

these knots

is

so great, that

a

little

time

spent in prac-

tising the loops

neces-

sary to use

it

instantaneously onapier or post will be

amply repaid in the course

of a year. Fig. 108.


KNOTS, TIES, Fig

AND

SPLICES.

109.

The Double Single

and

Bow Bow

Knots are the most common and most of

useful

They

menced and

all

knots.

are both comas

Fig.

loi,

bow made by

the single

(Fig. 106)

is

doubling one of the loose ends

ming is

Fig

must

no

easy to untie.

Fig. III.

be taken

in this,

as in the

double bow (Fig. 107)

or

rosette

knot, to keep the

simple knot taut until the

knot

ends

must

straight,

is

The

complete.

as

lie

in

the reef knot, or otherwise

become

it

will

the false

knot known as the

when

Fig. 102;

"granny," Fig 112.

it

for-

thus

Care


TIES.

63

which should always be avoided. In small cords, where considerable tightness is required, a twist knot

may or,

be used, either

in connection

with the

as in larger cordage, in a Double-twist

109).

The commencement

is

shown

bow

knots,

Knot

(Fig.

at Fig. 108.

In

Fig. 113.

small cords this knot

mon knot

(Fig. 102)

and no assistance the second

drawn

is

is

may

be finished as

when extra

tautness

near to hold the

completed.

first

in the is

com-

required,

knot

until

(The diagrams are purposely

loose, so that their construction

may

be more

easily seen.)

The knot shown

at Fig.

no

is

one that can be


KNOTS, TIES,

64

recommended travel

much.

to

who have

all

It is

AND

SPLICES.

to

occupy tents or to

made by

a simple loop

joining the

two ends of the rope with a fisherman's knot

(Fig. 68)-

This admits a short cross-bar or wooden pin, and will

it

enable the traveller to suspend clothes, or any

round a tent-pole. The cord may also be used for a " toggle " when two pieces of wood have to

articles,

be joined together.

A common shown

in Fig.

form of running knot, with two ends,

in.

It is

to divide the rope.

used when

Unless the ends are at

could not be used round a mast slipped round a pier.

;

but

it

It is frequently

Check Knot

(Fig.

liberty,

can be easily

114).

Knot

(Fig.

The two

knots cannot be tied unless the ends are loose

they cannot

it

checked by a

bow, as at Fig. 112, or by the Flemish 113), or the

is

inconvenient

it is

last

and be untied without assistance from a

marlinespike or somf, similar contrivance.

;


XL MOORINGS, RING KNOTS, AND FASTENINGS. There reef knot

is

is

when

Jack,

a popular fallacy about sailors' knots.

a true saijor's knot.

is

hitches,

but this

sailor's knot.

called a true sailor's knot has

two or more

which

may

we have two

one

line

in

be reversed.

straight whilst

two

is

In Figs. 115 and

varieties of sailors' knots,

hitches.

for the painter of a

An

A

deftly

but half a

;

116

round

know how

ashore, ties his black silk neckerchief with

a running hitch

What

We

the end

is

showing

simply twisted

These are good mooring knots

wherry or other small boat.

excellent temporary fastening of the end of a

and one that can be cast off in a moment, is at Fig. 117; and in this respect it is the reverse of the more permanent stoppered loop at Fig. 118, For rapidity of unmooring, Fig. 119 has by far the rope,

shown

advantage.

It is a simple

boat knot, with only one

turn in the ring; the loose end in the engraving.

is left

longer than shown

This boat knot sometimes catches

the ring, and sailors prefer

The Lark Boat Knot (Fig. 120), which is fastened by a wooden pin. This knot admits of the instant release of the boat.

65


66

KNOTS, TIES,

AND

SPLICES.

gs»ja>a3sa '^^^^'vV"^'^C .'


MOORINGS, RING KNOTS, FASTENINGS.

67

ESESSSS^


KNOTS, TIES,

68

AND

SPLICES.

Another simple but useful knot

emergency

object on a sudden at Fig. 121,

speak.

which

is

an incipient running knot, so to

is

Instead of the line running through the loop,

a small piece of wood or other object it

any shown

for securing

the boat knot

and the

loop,

and

is

so held

is

passed between

fast.

Simple and crossed running knots are shown at Figs. 122

and

The simple running

123.

but chafes

(Fig. 122) is not so secure,

crossed

running knot (Fig.

place to the

Even

123).

fastening

than the

less

this

gives

more elaborate

Capstan Knot

(Fig.

124),

which

a species of

is

figure of 8 fastening.

The Lark's Head Knots are far more secure, and are more generally used for anchor fastenings. Fig. 125 shows the ordinary form of is

The double-looped

simply crossed.

it

is

is

shown

Fig. 129.

at Fig. 128,

The tying

and the

27

when

lark's

head

admit of against

in his "

pilfering

to

at

sufficiently

meet Captair

form a constant guard

of the

waggons when on a journey

seem

is

head

Art of Travel," that they

sufficient variety to

the

1

treble lark's

of these knots

obvious, and their variety would

Galton's suggestion

Fig. 126

this useful knot.

the same form of knot stoppered, and Fig.

rations

and

(see Section

various forms of ring knots are

still

luggage

XVI.)

The

further extended

by the

Backhanded and

Sailor's Knots, shown at Figs. 130

131.

Slip Knots, stoppered, are shown by Figs.

132, 133.


MOORINGS, RING KNOTS, FASTENINGS.

69


70)

KNOTS, TIES,

AND

SPLICES.

F'g-

Fig-

34 shows

1

secured

13s

by a

slip

This

part

subject

clincli.

of

the

may

be

appropriately con-

cluded by a check connecting

knot,

two rings together. It is called

by gun-

ners a Delay Knot,

and

it

is

one

of

those knots which are ornamental as

well as useful.

Fig. 133-

Fig. 134

Fig I3S.


XII.

HITCHES AND BENDS. In the foregoing chapters a great number of hitches have been shown

in

and

Those included

fastenings.

connection with the various knots in this

chapter are

of the greatest practical value in the every-day

life

of

the builder, timber hauler, and warehouseman, as well as to those

engaged

in the

docks and seafaring

life.

Fig. 136.

What is known as the Blackwall Hitch is

the simplest.

Its strength is

derived from the

tion of one rope crossing the other. 71

(Fig. 136) fric-


72

KNOTS, TIES,

AND

SPLICES.

Fig. 137.

The Timber Hitch or hauling timber.

(Fig. 137) is

It consists of

used for towing

the simple timber

hitch (Fig. 103), with an additional hitch higher

up to

give additional purchase to the rope.

Fig. 138.

The Clove Hitch,

so universal,

is

also used for

the purpose of hauling in heavy cables or chains

two or more men

(Fig. 138).

by


HITCHES AND BENDS. The Chain Hitch

(Fig. 139) is

73

another and more

powerful method of attaching a small rope to aid in

Fig. 140

Fig- 139-

pulling in a larger, or of hauling a vessel

the shore.

When

it is

to

necessary to use a lever as a

handspike, the fastening 140 that occasions will arise

by a warp

is

uSed.

It is

obvious

when room cannot be found 6


n

KNOTS, TIES,

for the ordinary hauling

AND SPLICES then this

;

mode

of fastening

necessary.

is

The Rolling Hitch for

(Fig. 141)

attaching a rope to an

scaffold-pole.

It

double knot (Fig.

is

a

is

used principally

upright stay, spar, or

modification of the builder's

105).

Fig. 142.

Fig. 141.

The Magnus Hitch numerous hitches

Sail Bend hitch

When

is it

shows one of the

for holding spars,

and the STUDDING

(Fig. 142) another.

Frequently another

taken round the spar for greater security. necessary to hold another tackle

is

same rope is

(Fig. 143)

useful.

to a spar, the

The end

is

ROBAND HiTCH

by the

(Fig. 144)

secured on the other side, as

in Fig. 142.

Amongst

the most useful methods of using cordage,

that of Slings

is

the most general.

Millers, sailors,


HITCHES AND BENDS. and stevedores are well acquainted with simple sling

is

75

A

their use.

merely an extension of a sevagee,

Fig. 143-

described on page 57, or

which

it is

an endless piece of rope,

quickly passed round a

is

ca.sk,

sack, or

box

Fig. 145.

Fig. 144.

(Fig. 145)

and hoisted

or waggon. other,

The hook

and the

aloft, is

or let

down

into the hold

slipped from one loop to the

rising tackle carries the sling with

6â&#x20AC;&#x201D;2

it.


KNOTS, TIES,

76

Fig. 146

AND

SPLICES.

shows another mode of slinging casks with

A

a piece of rope, with the head closed.

running

Fig. 146.

noose

is

placed round one end, and the rope

is

passed

along the top of the cask, and then slipped round the

Fig. 147.

other end hitches, as

but

is

of

the

shown

cask and in Fig. 116.

used when a sling

is

fastened with reverse^

This

is

not so rapid,

not at hand.

When

the


HFICHES AND BENDS. head of the cask

mode mine when ready

is

open,

it is

77

slung as in Fig. 147

of raising an injured

man from a

The

other appliances are not at hand.

bight of the rope, or "whip,"

bowline knot, and

is

fastened best

frequently another hitch

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

well or

is

by a put

round the cask nearer the head.

Sometimes

it

is

necessary to put a stopper on a

rope to prevent another slipping, or for other pur-

This

poses.

best accomplished

is

by

Fig. 150.

A

Turk's Head Knot, which

is

worked upon a

rope with a piece of small line (Figs. 148, 149,

Take a

150).

clove hitch slack with the rope, with the line

round the rope then take one of the bights formed by ;

the clove hitch and put

it

over the other, pass the end

under, and up, and through the bight which

neath

;

underneath.

make

under-

then cross the bights again, and put the end

and up through the bight which After this follow the lead, and it will

round again, under, is

is

a turban of three parts to each cross.


XIII.

FASTENINGS. Nothing is so astonishing to the eyes of a landsman on his first voyage as the facility with which the large steamer

is

crowd of other

warped out of dock from amidst a

vessels,

and the ease with which

it

is

Fig. 154

moved

to the pier

by the simple

twisting of the cable

round a post or the huge cleats which are fastened into the sides of the vessels or

on the pier-head.

The simple stoppered loop (Fig. 151) is and when the end of the rope can be

all,

used no other fastening

is

required.

78

It

familiar to

constantly

happens

fre-


FASTENINGS.

79

quently that either the end of the rope

is

not stoppered

or the middle of the rope must be used, then the

Fig. I55.

Fig. 152.

Waterman's Knot is

(Fig. 152)

similar to the clove hitch,

moment by

and

may be it

used.

can be

made

This in a

placing two loops on the rope, as shown

in Fig. 153.

Fig-

I S3


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

80

A lark's head there

SPLICES.

made

can be easily

over a post

a running noose or knot, as at Fig.

is

The bend

at Fig. 155

power of a twisted

54.

an example of the holding

is

rope,

1

when

which

is

mentioned

in con-

nection with the stopping of the balloon in the intro-

duction to these sections.

The Chain Fastening

(Fig.

156)

is

of a

more

Fig. 156.

permanent character, and likely to

used when the vessel

way

is

It is also useful in agri-

work when the end of the rope would be

cultural

the

is

remain some time.

in

of the waggon, machinery, or men.

Occasionally square moorings or sheaves are used for the

mooring of

vessels.

In these cases the fasten-

ings vary. Fig. 157

is

a double chain fastening to sheaves.


FASTENINGS. In Fig. 158

may

81

a loop fastening to sheaves, which

is

be tied or untied without untying the loop

itself.

Fig 157.

This knot holds loops

itself.

A, B, C, D, E,

It

is

as shown,

made by

passing the

and then placing the

Fig. 158.

loop F over the head of the right-hand post of the sheaves. will

again

When slip

slackened, the loop of the cable F

over the head of the post, and the turns

are then reversed.

There

is

a more simple fastening

by wrapping the cable round the angle

of the sheaves.


KNOTS, TIES,

82

Ii?

Figs.

AND

SPLICES.

159 and 160 there are two examples of a

Fig 159.

crossed and square fastening, which sufficiently ex-

Fig. 160.

plain themselves.

The ends

stoppered to the cable.

are

secured

by being


FASTENINGS. The ends

83

of small ropes are secured round a belay-

ing-pin, as in Fig. i6i, or

on a

cleat (Fig. 162), the

crossing several times repeated.

Fig. 162.

Fig. 161.

The holding

together of ropes or hawsers by bands,

ligatures, or ties,

has been before alluded

termed the NECKLACE TiE

(Fig. 163)

is

to.

What

is

an example

Fig. 163.

where the ends of the yarn are secured by a reef knot, It is a safe knot, after being passed over the band. and the greater the strain the tighter the knot becomes.


KN0I8, TIES,

A end

useful (b)

method rod.

is

band

is

AND

shown

SPLICES.

at Fig. 164.

drawn through by a turn

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

The second very useful

of securing the ligature of a fractured fishing-

Perhaps a better plan, but not always practi-


FASTENINGS. fastened

by a

85

reef knot on the surface, and at others

the ends are hitched through each other and drawn

back, and not

left straight

as in Fig. 164.

The Portuguese Knot, used as a lashing for sheave legs.

This knot

is first

a plain band round the legs

when placed close together the legs are then opened and the ends secured between them, as shown in ;

Fig. 163.

Packing Knots together. at A,

are

used for binding timbers

In Fig. 165, the knot

and B the knot complete.

means of a packing-stick,

c,

is

shown commenced It

which

the knot, and then twined round

shown.

A

quicker plan

is

is is

tightened by twisted under

and secured as

two toggles, similar to

the one shown in Fig. 166, and after twisting the sticks round, tie the

two ends of the

Fig. 166.

sticks together.


XIV.

THE ENDS OF ROPES. If ropes, hawsers, or cables are

left

with their ends

unguarded, they are sure to become untwisted or otherwise unmanageable.

The same

a lesser

true, in

is

These can

degree, of lanyards and smaller ropes. easily be secured with a fine whipping,

and the smaller

yarns and threads by a single overhand or other knot.

The ends

of ropes at sea are variously treated

;

in

some

instances they are finely tapered to a point, to pass easily through a block or ring.

The it

usual

method of pointing a rope

is first

to stop

with a whipping (see Fig. 167), and then unlay the

end of

it.

Take out

and twist each yarn yarns,

as

many

in two.

and twist them

Take two

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

The

parts of different

tight into " nettles

four yarns twisted together small.

yarns as are necessary,

rest of the

yarns

if

"

the rope

may

*

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; three or

is

not very

be combed down

with a knife, and the rest put back upon the rope. Pass three turns of twine like a timber hitch taut

*

A " nettle " is

finger

made of two or three yams laid up with the and thumb, keeping the lay on the yarn, and is left-handed

stuff.

86


THE ENDS OF ROPES. round the part where the the twine, which

is

87

nettles separate,

called the warp.

backwards and forwards each time.

whipped and snaked with twine, or the over the warp and hauled tight.

and hitch

Lay the nettles The ends may be nettles hitched

The upper

seizing

Fig. 167.

Fig. 168.

must be snaked.

A

upper part

weak

the end called

is

is

too

piece of stick

for pointing,

terminated by

an eye

put in

is

if

the

and frequently

a small eye, as in Fig. 168,

splice.

Snaking a Seizing

is

done by taking the end


AND

KNOTS., TIES,

SPLICES.

under and over the outer turns of the seizing

whipped

alter-

The whole may be

nately, passing over the whole.

also with small twine.

Fig. 169.

The ends of a secured. The end

four-stranded is first

brought down over the end together (Fig. 170);

brought down as

may

whipped as at

and the four strands are opened

tied

rope

be thus

A, Fig. 169,

out.

They are then

in loops,

and the strands

or they

in Fig. 171,

may be simply

and bound to the cable

with twine,

A

three -stranded

Simple

cable

Wall Knot

may

(Fig.

interlacing of the strands

be finished by the

172),

which shows the

When When a

one within the other.

these are drawn taut the knot

is

finished.


THE ENDS OF ROPES.

89

,^'â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

single. wall

is

"crowned," as

laid over the top of the

knot

first,

is

termed, one end

the second end

is

is

laid

Fig. 172.

the third over the second and through

the bight of the

first (Fig. 173).

Fig- 174.

Fig. 173-

A Double Wall Knot making the

;

Fig. 171.

Fig. 170.

over the

it

single wall

first,,

(Fig. 174)

is

formed by

and not hauling 7

it

taut.


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

90

Then take one end and bring of the first walling next to

the

same bight

(Fig.

other strands, pushing If

made

thus

it

will

174).

it,

SPLICES. underneath the part

it

and push

Do

the

it

up through

same with the

them up through two

bights.

have a double wall and a single

crown.

Fig. 175.

Fig. 176.

A double wall double crowned The strands

Fig. 177.

is

Fig. 174 continued.

are laid by the sides of those of the single

crown, pushing them through the same bight in the single

crown and down through the double walling,

and the knot

is

completed (Fig.

175). Fig. 176 shows one method of finishing a single wall by cutting off the

strands and tying

them with twine

crowned wall knot

may by finished by a Lark's Nest

;

and the double

by interlacing the loose strands one within another by a requisite number of turns over the (Fig. 177),

padding.

This forms a knot at the end of the rope.


THE ENDS OF ROPES. The knot known formed as at Fig.

as the

Matthew Walker

The whipping

178.

the strands are opened

;

91

one strand

is

the rope ana through

its

own

bight, then the next

strand underneath through the bight of the

through

its

own

When

;

taken round

Fig. 179.

Fig. 178.

neath.

is

put on

is first

first

and

bight, and the third strand under-

taut

it

has the appearance of Fig. 179.


XV.

KNOTS AND THEIR APPLICATION. In Section

I.

we sketched some

uses to which a knowledge of knots

every-day

life.

travel,

localities

may be

put in

not every one that goes to sea,

upon the

or lives even

who

It is

of the various

sea-shore, but there are

many who

many

"out-of-the-world"

in

live

where artizans are scarce, but where rope or

Fig. i8o.

some

twine, or civilized

or rope

life,

is

substitute for

it,

may be

found.

In

as in primitive regions, a piece of string

a carpenter's chest of tools, a saddler's shop'

a ladder, straps, buckles, and half a hundred other things besides, which are not dreamt of in the philo-

sophy of common men.

Who

has not seen a poor

fellow wearying along with his pack sluiig over a stick, or in his

hands,

when a couple 92

of slings

shown


KNOTS AND THEIR APPLICATION. in

Fig.

145 would enable him,

to the proper length, to put

loops and carry

his

if

he shortened

?

more easy than

make

to

If a buckle

it

arms through the

as a knapsack, easily

it

unnecessary fatigue

93

is

and without

wanted, what

is

a two-grommet, or rings of

Fig, 181.

rope, as in Fig.

1

80

.''

and by inserting a piece of wood

between them an extempore buckle the

same manner a swivel

is

is

produced.

In

frequently wanted in the

The blacksmith may be away from home, we may be far away from such an individual, with

country.

or

Fig. 182.

a chance of being benighted. the

" knot-tyer,''

A lucky thought strikes

and by the aid of a

wood he produces

little

of

the swivel (Fig. 181), strong and

useful, if not ornamental.

Another mode of producing

a useful swivel, in a rough and ready manner, at Fig. 182.

bit

is

shown


AND

KNOTS, TIES,

94

SPLICES.

These simple contrivances, which have been culled from books of travels, will show how much a know-

may be put and

ledge of the uses to which ropes tied

useful to

is

mankind.

An

puffin gatherer on the northern

Alpine climber, or a

cliffs,

without a know-

ledge of a bowline knot would be a lost lost,

the

himself,

bowHne if

alive,

man

in a bight would enable

and be

lifted

knots

;

him

and,

if

to seat

up by strong hands

Fig. 183.

above

;

or, if

dead, the running bowline, or

some

of

the running loops before described, would enable his friends to raise his body.

are

made

to bind

The modes

bamboos together

in

which ropes

in the

East

is

suggestive of what might be done nearer home. There is

a hitch which Captain Galton,in his "Art of Travel,''

the Malay Hitch, He shows how easily by

calls

for it,

are at hand, a shelter can be

injuring the boards,

want of a better term.

when planks

or boards

made without

and so quickly that a

nails or

part}'

could


KNOTS AND THEIR APPLICATION. be housed

few minutes.

in a

Fig. 183

it

the cord

is

Yet by a glance

be seen how simply

will

it

may

only twisted once as each board

between them, and they are held together tight for

95

at

be done

is

inserted

sufficiently

any temporary purpose.

Fig. 184.

Take, again, the rude weaving apparatus shown Fig.

A knowledge

184.

was common

Yet

in

plentiful,

on many a farm. use

is

thus given

Take two and

drive

at it

home, now that

The mode A and

into the

B,

A

B.

A

of

its

is

construction and

about 15 or 18 inches long,

ground so as to be

standing about a foot out of piece of

coir twine

might be used with advantage

:

pegs,

them

of weaving

every farmhouse half a century ago.

in

wet summers

cheap and

mode

of such a

in

wood and

lash

row of pegs

at

it.

firm,

Then take a

and

stick or

it

across the upright stakes at

C

may now

be driven into the


KNOTS,

96

ground

parallel to

AND

TIES,

A

SPLICES.

at equal distances apart

B,

Two

distance should not exceed 6 inches. strings are then tied

to the stake

tied to the stick or staff

D

E,

A

One

B.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

sets of set

is

and the others have their

loose ends placed into clefts or notches on the pegs,

numbers,

D E

staff

i,

D

E,

11,

5, 7, 9,

3,

strings,

A

then the odd

must be attached

and the even numbers,

;

the cross staff

ing

dozen

If there are a

at C.

By alternately raising and

B.

to

the

2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,

to

depress-

and placing a handful of straw or rushes

between the strings at each movement, and making

them mat

lie

is

close

by

made by

ing, easily

pulling

this

them with a

a good

rough and simple mode of weav-

and rapidly, and when

purpose, the string,

stick,

if

necessary,

it

may

has served

its

be recovered.

The mats may be trimmed and joined together, if thick and clumsy, by what is known as the cobbler's or by tying the string ends together.

stitch,

The

art of plaiting, or, as

called at sea, " sennit"

it is

making, should be cultivated. Shortenings,

In the section on

we have given some illustrations of plaitThe loose and tight drummer's plait

ing on one cord. is

given

;

and

in

Captain Alston's " Seamanship," the

necessity of cultivating the

making of straw

straw

consequence of the variety

plait, is inculcated, in

of purposes to which the art

making

of hats to the

only a few of the

may

making of

many

sennit, or

be put, from the

baskets.

These are

uses to which this knowledge


KNOTS AND THEIR APPLICATION. may

be put

in

every-day

life.

be multiplied ad infinitum.

97

The examples might

Still,

the uses of

common

things are too apt to be forgotten or overlooked in these busy days.

Those curious

in

the

many

uses

found for knots will be interested in the next section.

AN HERALDIC KNOT.


XVI.

AN ALPHABET OF KNOTS. There not

felt

is

scarcely a traveller or explorer

the want of

who

has

some simple and ready means

of

communicating a message apart from the usual pen

and

ink.

Many

persons have suggested a series of

knots for this purpose, apparently in ignorance that

such a scheme of knot writing was introduced for the use of the blind

many

years ago, by a teacher

named

David Macheath, of the Edinburgh Blind Asylum, and a scholar named Robert Mylne. their " string alphabet," as they

string alphabet

is

it,

describe

thus

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The

formed by so knotting a cord that

made upon

the protuberances their

They

term

it

may

be qualified by

for

signifying the

and situation

shape, size,

elements of language.

The

letters of

this

alphabet

are distributed into seven classes, which are distin-

guished by certain knots or other marks.

comprehends four

letters,

prehends but two.

except the

The

first,

or

A

last,

Each

class

which com-

class, is distin-

guished by a large round or treble knot (Fig. 185).

The

second, or

E

class,

by

line; the third, or I class,

a knot projecting from the

by the 98

series of links

known


AN ALPHAS KT IN The

as the " drummer's plait."

a simple noose;

the

fifth,

or

Q

KNOTS.

fourth, or class,

99

M

class,

by a noose

by

witli

bli

a line

drawn through

it;

the sixth, or

noose with a net knot cast on

Y

class,

by

a twined noose.

it;

U

class,

by a

and the seventh, or


KNOTS, TIES,

100

The

first letter

of each class

simple characteristic of

by the

characteristic

by the

the third

respective class,

common knot common

B

;

close to

it

and so

;

it

is ;

Thus

it.

C

is

a large round ;

and

common knot an

inch

The knotted

on.

A

a large round knot

knot half an inch from

a large round knot with a

is

and a

it,

common knot

and the fourth by the charac-

it,

knot with a

from

the second

and a common knot close to

simply a large round knot

with a

by the

distinguished

and a common knot an inch from

teristic

D

its

SPLICES.

is

characteristic

half an inch from

is

AND

string

it

is

wound

round a vertical frame, which revolves and passes from the reader as he proceeds.

Of the

general character of the string alphabet the

inventors say that the

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

must readily occur to every one

" It

employment of an alphabet composed

manner which has been explained sarily tedious

there

but

should be borne in mind that

it

same

thought that

objection.

.

is .

.

not more or less liable to

There can scarcely be

any system of tangible signs which difficult either to learn or to

of ordinary intellect

may

for ever.

that

it is

it

would be

less

remember, since a person

easily acquire a thorough

knowledge of the string alphabet it

in the

be neces-

no supposable system of tangible figures

is

significant of

the

;

will ever

in

an hour and retain

Yet the inventors can assure

their readers

impossible for the pen or the press to convey

ideas with greater precision.

Besides the highly impor-


AN ALPHABET IN

KNOTS.

101

tant properties of simplicity and accuracy which their

scheme it

unites,

and

in

which

advantages, in which

late

For example,

is

it

equalled by anything of "

it

minor,

possesses various

its

its tactile

has not been surpassed,

nor yet

presumed

at a trifling expense, their construction is

it

cannot be

kind.

representations of articu-

sounds are easily portable.

which they are constructed

inconsiderable

may

The

materials of

always be procured

and the apparatus necessary

extremely simple.

for

In addition to

the letters of the alphabet, there have been contrived arithmetical figures, which utility, as

the

it is

hoped

will

remembrance of numbers

peculiarly difficult.

is

be of great often found

Palpable commas, semicolons, &c.,

have likewise been provided, to be used when judged requisite."

These

it

has not been deemea necessary to give, in

consequence of their uselessness

manner

in

in the

only practical

which these knots might be of service

that of conveying a message in a strange countryi

where pens,

ink, or pencil

were not at hand.


nilNTED BY

WOODFALL

AlSXt

KINDER, LONG ACI4E


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1884 knots ties and splices  

1884 knots ties and splices  

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