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How do airplanes fly?


WRIGHT BROTHERS SWALLOW GLIDER 1901

WRIGHT BROTHERS FIRST GLIDER 1901

ADER MAXIUMS KITE 1900

KITE GLIDER 1899


WRIGHT BROTHERS FIRST ENGINE POWERD GLIDER 1902

Evolution of planes

The Wright Brothers

first Aircraft

In 1903 Aviation pioneers the Wright Brothers flew the aircraft.


Propellers

The Propeller generatestrust and is what forces the plane forward.

A airfoil is a shape that will gain velocity at right angle to its original velocity, whenit moves through the air. Forcing itself up wards as it moves forwards.

Brake down of an Airplane

There are three main components of a plane that make and help it fly. They are all based on the shape of a airfoil, even the shape of the body of the plane is a airfoil.


Tailfins

The Tailfins stabilises andsteerstheplanein flight.

The Wing generates the lift and it’s what forces the plane off the ground.


Lift is generated by the wings. It is created by the shape of the wing, it redirects and speeds up the airflow to create lift. This force is opposed by gravity.

Gravity is the force of attraction two bodies of mass because of the displacement of space and this is what is forcing the plane to the surface.


Drag is the air resistance acting in the opposite direction of the thrust.

Forces

Flight can only exsist when four forces are expolited There are four main forces in flight. They are Lift, Trust, Drag and gravity. For a plane to take off it must overcome gravity and drag by generating trust and lift.

The propeller must generate the trust to force the plain forward. But aposing this force is drag which will reduce the planes speed.


One way is because it splits the airflow and forces some of the air to travel further around the wing. This will mean it will have to travel further in the same amount of time, this will spread the air out making it less dense on the upper side of the wing. This means the pressure is lower on the top and higher on the bottom of the wing, this forces the wing upward and the rest of the plain with it.

Airfoils Airfoil s shaped wings make planes fly in two different ways. But both are to do with how the shape changes the airflow.

The other way the shape generates lift is because it redirects the airflow downward. This forces the wing upward because of newton’s third law. “Every action has a equal and opposite reaction”. So if the air is redirected downward the wing must be forced upward. Chaining the angle of the wing will generate more lift because it causes the air to travel further over the top and redirects it in a more downward direction. But if the angle is increased too much can no longer stay in contact with the wing and the air will carry on in its original direction. This will also create the a vacuum behind the wing and will causes it to


on the upper side of the wing there are less particles this means there is a lower pressure than on the bottom.

This forces the wing upwards because there are more particles on the bottom than the top of the wing colliding with it. This means that if there is more force being applied to the bottom of wing forcing it upwards


The further you get form the wing the greater until you reach the external velocity. This means the air near to the wing has a changing in velocity the flow is bent towards the surface.

The air sticks to the wing because it has viscosity. This means it will act like a fluid

At the surface of the wing the relative velocity of the particles is zero. Just above the surface the air has some velocity.

Airfoils

and follow the curvature of a surface if it comes in contact with it. Similar to if you were to pour water on the side of the glass and it will follow the curve until it reaches the bottom of the glass. This is because of Newton’s first and Third laws. The first law law means states that the glass will be putting a force on the water. Then because of newtons third law, if the glass is putting a force in one direction then there must be a force in the opposite direction.


Along the length of the blade the airfoil angles change, so it will displace different amounts of air along the blade. This is because when the blades are rotating it moves faster the further you get along the blade.


Propeller The propeeer works in the same way as the wing. It is a airfoil, but it forces the flow of air in a different direction. The blades spin around, the forces the plain forward, just like how the wings force the plane upward.

At the tip in one rotation it will travel more than three times further than at the base. This means it travels a gaiter distance in the same amount of time, therefore it is travailing faster.


They are also very important in landing because the air plane needs to be as level as possible so the back two wheels touchdown at the same time. So they do not cause the plane to swerve on contact with the runway because of unbalanced friction.


The Tail fins also work the same way as the wings. But they have adjustable flaps so they can redirect the airflow. This is important because it steers the and stabilises the plane in flight.



How do planes fly?