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GRD Journals- Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 4 | March 2018 ISSN: 2455-5703

Refuse Disposal Management in PCMC Vijeta Kundalikar Department of Civil Engineering Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic Rutuja Garud Department of Civil Engineering Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic

Ashlesha Tapkir Department of Civil Engineering Pimpri Chinchwad Polytechnic

Abstract Solid waste is the continually growing problem and government of India is searching new innovations to dispose it safely so that it won’t become harmful to human health. This paper presents the case study of Current disposing methods and future plans of Management of solid waste in Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation. This management reflects the immense efforts of PCMC to dispose of the waste effectively. Due to enhanced economic activities and growing population management of municipal solid waste has become an acute problem. Therefore PCMC is giving more attention to dispose this solid waste in most hygienic and safe manner. It is estimated that PCMC generates about 650 tons of waste per day. Currently it is being collected, transported and disposed at Moshi, where combustible material and refuse derived fuel is manufactured. PCMC was planning to decentralise the waste management system and has decided to take its garbage disposal plans to new 23 hectared land in punawale. The transport of waste will be divided in 2 zones. Zone A (moshi, nigdi,akurdi, chinchwad, and others) and zone B (pimpri, chinchwadgoan, ravet, punawale, tathawade and others.). This will also reduce transportation cost. Keywords- Refuse Disposal Management, PCMC (Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation), Metric Tons waste per Day (MTD), Aerated static pile (ASP), Plasma Gasifier

I. INTRODUCTION The city (Pimpri Chinchwad) is governed by the Pimpri a unified unit, make up one of India's largest industrial areas. The population of Pimpri Chinchwad in the last 5 years grew from about 1.75 million to 1.86million. The average increase in population per year is 0.22million. The population forecasted in 2017 is about 2.08 million. PCMC area is generating approximately 646 Metric Tons waste per Day (MTD). Waste generation is directly proportional to the income, population and life standards of people. To maintain the stability of the waste cycle, establishment of an organisation named “swach” was done in 2009-2010. This organization provides door to door collection of waste in its limits. The organization has received IIMM award Unsung heroes in 2016[1], JCB CLEAN EARTH Awarded to both PMC and SWaCH[1], Maharashtra Pradushan Mandal – Short film award 2013[1], and many more awards for their efforts to make the city clean. Solid waste management includes the collection of waste viz. primary or secondary, transporting the waste to transfer stations to avoid nuisance, and then transporting it to the plants for mechanical composting, vermin composting, biodiesel processing, incineration process, and landfilling. These all processes are done at moshi waste depot for the PCMC population. Plastic is the material which is widely used for various purposes. It is a material consisting of synthetic or semisynthetic organics that are malleable and can be moulded into solid objects of diverse shapes. Plastic is typically organic polymer of high molecular mass and non-degradable material. Now a days the use and generation of plastic waste is increased. Plastic waste management is a big question mark in front of world, this problem is solved by pimpri chinchwad Municipal Corporation at moshi where they run a plant of plastic to fuel generation.

II. STUDY OF VARIOUS UNITS IN MSW PLANT – – – –

Mechanical composting unit Biodiesel unit Vermicomposting unit Landfilling

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Refuse Disposal Management in PCMC (GRDJE/ Volume 3 / Issue 4 / 005)

A. Mechanical Composting Unit

Fig. 1: Mechanical Composting Unit

B. Biodiesel Unit 1) Pre-Treatment on Plastic The plastic from MSW is sorted with the help of workers. The collected plastic contains dust and other fine particles on its surface. Such plastic is passed through zhatak(de duster) machine or a vibrator where dust and fine particles are separated from plastic. Above procedure is repeated for several times to get a clean plastic. After getting clean plastic it is passed through shredder machine. It is cut into a small piece before going to post-treatment. These pieces should be dried for some time. 2) Post Treatment on Plastic The dry small pieces of plastic are fed into reactor with some chemical in a reactor cathodic degradation of plastic is carried out. A thick crude oil is the main product from during cathodic degradation and carbon gas and waste water are the bi- products formed. C. Vermi Composting Unit It consist of vermin beds which is covered with polynet for the purpose to prohibit direct sun radiation providing cooling effects and protect earthworms from birds. Agriculture and vegetable wastes are introduced into vermibeds up to 75% of total area of vermibeds. Water is separated over the waste by sprinkling water for half hour per day to maintain moisture level After two days, remaining 25% area of vermibeds is filled with cow dung and 5 to 6 kg of earthworms are released over the waste. After 8 to 10 days some portion of waste is decomposed by earthworms’ .The decomposition is continuous process which reduces the volume of waste. Adding new layers of fresh waste and cow dung can be adopted after reduction in volume of previous waste up to 40 to 45 days to get good quality of fertilizer.

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Refuse Disposal Management in PCMC (GRDJE/ Volume 3 / Issue 4 / 005)

D. Landfilling This procedure is done at least 3 m above the ground level and water level. 3m packing clay is placed at the bottom of 20 layers of 60 mm each to form a very tight impermeable barrier. Polyethylene high density sheet welded to each other is laid. Another 300mm clay is spread and compressed on synthetic liner on top of layer crushed stone is spread to aid to leachates collection and to house the leachates collection pipe system. Waste subjected to landfilling is compacted into thin layers and is covered with the minimum of 10 cm of soil at the end of each working day. After completion of landfilling a final cover of barrier soli layer compressing of 60cm of clay is laid. On top of barrier soil is place of 15 cm layer and then final layer of soil is placed at the top of 45cm is laid to support to the plant to growth and prevention of soil erosion. 1) Land Filling Contain Following Layers Layer1-Vegetation layer Layer2-soil layer Layer3-protection layer Layer 4-filter layer Layer 5-drainage layer Layer 6-geomembrane Layer 7-gas vent layer

III. CHARACTERIZATION OF WASTE Table 1: Characterization of Waste paper 38.1% Yard waste 13.4% metals 7.7% plastics 9.4% Food wastes 10.4% glass 5.9% wood 5.2% other 9.9%

IV. COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION OF MSW A. Collection Collection, segregation and transportation were the major issues which created nuisance in the area. This problem is solved by adopting various methods of waste collection. The methods include curb service, alley service, set back set out service, backyard service, commercial-industrial collection services i.e. hauled container system, stationary container system, etc. These methods solved the collection problem. B. Segregation After their attempt to sustain segregation of wet and dry garbage failed, the Pimpri- Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) has now decided to bring a new garbage collection system into place. Under this new system, the citizens will have to segregate waste into dry, wet, hazardous (sanitary napkins, diapers) and e-waste categories. This trash would be collected in hopper rickshaws. Licensed operators would be appointed to collect the waste. [2]

V. ISSUES WITH EXISTING GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE – – – – – – –

Insufficient dedicated engineering staff for monitoring processing plants and to plan new projects for future. Motivational level of field staff is low. Daily door step collection is inadequate Source segregation is limited Overdependence on landfill leading to environmental and social issues. Shortfall in treatment capacity because of inadequate land Extent of recyclable waste collection system is limited.

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Refuse Disposal Management in PCMC (GRDJE/ Volume 3 / Issue 4 / 005)

VI. ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF MANAGEMENT A. Plasma Gasification Plasma gasification is an outrageous warm process utilizing plasma which changes organic matter into a syngas which is essentially comprised of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A plasma torch controlled by an electric curve, is utilized to ionize gas and catalyze organic matter into syngas with slag staying as a result. It is utilized commercially as a type of waste treatment and has been tried for the gasification of Municipal strong waste, biomass, modern waste, perilous waste, and strong hydrocarbons, for example, coal, oil sands, petcoke and oil shale.

Fig. 2: Plasma Gasifier

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1) Advantages A few procedures are intended to recuperate fly ash, base slag, and most different particulates, for 95% or better redirection from landfills, and no unsafe discharges of dangerous waste Potential production of vitrified slag which could be used as construction material Preparing of natural waste into ignitable syngas for electric power and warm energy Air discharges can be cleaner than landfills and a few incinerators.

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2) Disadvantages Operational expenses are high in respect to that of burning. Little or even negative net energy creation.

B. Aerated Static Pile Composting Aerated static pile (ASP) composting alludes to any of various frameworks used to biodegrade natural material without physical manipulation during fertilizing the soil. The mixed admixture is generally put on perforated piping, giving air course to controlled air circulation. It might be in windrows, open or secured, or in shut compartments. With respect to many-sided quality and cost, circulated air through frameworks are most ordinarily utilized by bigger, professionally managed composting facilities, in spite of the fact that the strategy may extend from little, simple systems to large capital escalated, modern installations.

Fig. 3: Aerated Static Pile Composting

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Refuse Disposal Management in PCMC (GRDJE/ Volume 3 / Issue 4 / 005)

C. Land Farming Land farming is an ex-situ waste treatment process that is performed in the upper soil zone or in bio treatment cells. Tainted soils, silt, or slimes are transported to the land farming site, joined into the dirt surface and occasionally turned over (worked) to circulate air through the mixture. Land farming generally utilizes an earth or composite liner to block draining contaminants and avert groundwater pollution, nonetheless, a liner isn't an all-inclusive requirement. [9]

Fig. 4: Land Farming

– – – –

– – – – –

1) Advantages Best in treating oil hydrocarbons Above the ground bioremediation is typically constrained to heavier hydrocarbons, as the lighter, more unpredictable contaminants have a tendency to be dealt with all the more effortlessly by in situ innovations. As a dependable guideline, the higher the atomic weight (and the more rings with a PAH), the slower the debasement rate. Likewise, the more chlorinated or nitrated the compound; the more troublesome it is to debase. Can be utilized to treat diesel fuel, No. 2 and No. 6 fuel oils, JP-5, sleek muck, wood-preserving waste (PCP and creosote), coke waste, and certain pesticides.[10] 2) Limitations More space required The conditions profitable for natural corruption of contaminants are to a great extent uncontrolled, which builds the required period of time until finish debasement, especially for refractory mixes Inorganic contaminants are not biodegraded The capability of a lot of particulate issue discharged by operations The presence of metal particles might be harmful to microorganisms and may drain from the sullied soil into the ground.[10]

VII. CONCLUSION Municipal solid waste contains lots of hazardous matter which if ill-treated can cause adverse impact on environment. For now the daily produced 650 TPD of waste is recycled and used as compost. Mechanical composting, windrow composting, vermin composting have proved themselves in increased yield in farms. In this way each waste thing is recycled in this MSW plant. Various methods are used for reusing the waste. There is an improvement in system continuously. Certain problems occur but they are resolved by some or the other way. Plastic the non-biodegradable material can now be used as fuel. There is no use of carbon. The areas around Landfilling become heavily polluted but the landfill which is properly managed can capture methane, produced by underground decomposing material which can be used as fuel too. Land farming can also be adopted which can conserve the natural resources.

REFERENCES [1] [2]

https://swachcoop.com/about/awards/ https://punemirror.indiatimes.com/pune/civic/now-pcmc-puts-new-system-in-place-for-waste-segregation/articleshow/58863290.cms

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Refuse Disposal Management in PCMC (GRDJE/ Volume 3 / Issue 4 / 005) [3] [4] [5]

City development plan for Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation CPCB(Central Pollution Control Board) management of MSW NOVATEUR PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIONS IN ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY [IJIERT] VOLUME 2, ISSUE 9, SE [6] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/Pimpri-Chinchwad-Municipal-Corporation-to-give-freebins-for-better-waste management/ articles how/ 22529960.cms [7] giapjournals.com/index.php/gctl/article/download/gctl.2017.311/410 [8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerated_static_pile_composting [9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landfarming [10] http://learnbioremediation.weebly.com/landfarming.html [11] http://www.hawaii.edu/abrp/Technologies/landfar.html

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Refuse Disposal Management in PCMC  

Solid waste is the continually growing problem and government of India is searching new innovations to dispose it safely so that it won’t be...

Refuse Disposal Management in PCMC  

Solid waste is the continually growing problem and government of India is searching new innovations to dispose it safely so that it won’t be...

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