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GRANGE PARK OPERA 2014


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GIUSEPPE VERDI

L A TR AVIATA Sponsored by ICAP

P YOT R TC H A I KOV S K Y

QUEEN OF SPADES Sponsored by Bell Pottinger

JULES MASSENET

DON QUICHOT TE Supported by an anonymous gift and The Print Room at the Coronet

BENJAMIN BRIT TEN

PETER GRIMES

Supported by a syndicate: David & Amanda Leathers, Simon de Lancey Walters, Philip & Mary Ling, and an anonymous gift

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A FESTIVAL MUST BE FESTIVE. AND IT MUST POSSESS SOMETHING WHICH IS DISTINCTIVE ... A SPECIAL ATMOSPHERE ... NOTHING OVERWHELMING BUT SOMETHING THAT IS ITS OWN .

E M FORSTER

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ICAP plc

Sandbourne Asset Management

The Linbury Trust

Judith Lawless & Kevin Egan

David & Amanda Leathers

Joanna Barlow

Rosenblatt Recitals

Laurent-Perrier Champagne

The Boltini Trust

Bell Pottinger Private

Franรงois Freyeisen & Shunichi Kubo

Mr & Mrs Ernst Piech

Ruth Markland

Fortnum & Mason

David McLellan

Tom Busher & Elizabeth Benson

Heike Munro

Noreen Doyle

Hamish Parker

Stephen Gosztony & Sue Butcher

Francis & Nathalie Phillimore

Barbara Yu Larsson

Bill & Anda Winters

Mr & Mrs Peter Nutting

Elm Capital Associates Ltd

Trevor & Suzi Swete

Mrs Peter Cadbury

Christopher & Anne Saul

Jeremy & Rosemary Farr

Simon de Lancey Walters

Mr & Mrs Richard Morse

Philip & Mary Ling

LONMART Insurance

and two anonymous donors 3

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FESTIVAL SUPPORTERS Derek Johns Ltd Adair Turner & Orna Ni-Chionna Financial Express Jane & Paul Chase-Gardener Diane & Christopher Sheridan Nexus Group Rothschild Wealth Management Baring Asset Management Quentin Black William & Kathy Charnley Gareth & Janet Davies Nerissa Guest Tessa & John Manser Margaret Rowe & John Schlesinger Christopher Swan Tom & Sarah Floyd David & Simone Caukill Nic Bentley Adam & Lucy Constable Peter & Manina Dicks The Holmes Family Raymonde Jay Mrs T Landon Brian & Jennifer Ratner John & Carol Wates Mr & Mrs Robert Enslow David Laing Foundation Mr & Mrs Grant Gordon Roger & Kate Holmes Anonymous

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SUPPORTING YOUNGER ARTISTS & YOUNG OPERA FANS The Gamlen Charitable Trust The Golden Bottle Trust Mr Damon & The Hon Mrs de Laszlo The Barbara Whatmore Charitable Trust T V Drastik The Dyers’ Company Angus Allnatt Charitable Foundation Lady Shauna Gosling Dr Jonathan Holliday & Dr Gwen Lewis The Christopher Reeves Memorial Trust Margaret Rowe & John Schlesinger

and four anonymous gifts

ADVERTISERS Lime Wood Group Ltd Zolfo Cooper Alfred Homes Ltd Fortnum & Mason The Goldsmiths Company Horris Hill School The White House The National Museum of the Royal Navy Chewton Glen Hotel Glyndebourne Festival Linklaters LLP Hiscox The Financial Times

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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THEATRE & ENDOWMENT FUND 2001 Mr & Mrs Gerald Acher Mr & Mrs David Anderson Mr & Mrs R Atkinson–Willes Anonymous Tom & Gay Bartlam Rupert T Bentley Bernard Cayser Trust Kevin & Corinne Bespolka William & Judith Bollinger Douglas Guest Bollinger James Philip Bollinger Sarah & Tony Bolton Mr & Mrs Paul Brewer Rory & Elizabeth Brooks Mr & Mrs Tony Bugg The Bulldog Trust Sir Euan Calthorpe Bt Christopher & Katie Cardona Nigel & Elisabeth Carrington Sir Peter & Lady Cazalet Mr & Mrs Bernard Cazenove The Chase–Gardener family Pam Clarke Alastair & Tiana Collett Oliver & Cynthia Colman Michael Cuthbert Peter & Annette Dart Mr & Mrs Geoffrey de Jager Sandra & Damon de Laszlo Mr & Mrs Lionel de Rothschild Anonymous Alun & Bridget Evans Iain R Evans Mr & Mrs James fforde Mr & Mrs T Floyd Hamish & Sophie Forsyth The Misses Ismay, Ottilie & Cecilia Forsyth Peter & Judith Foy Mr Mark N Franks Reita Gadkari Janet & John Gaymer Jacqueline & Michael Gee Trust Enrique Biel Gleeson Lady Shauna Gosling Mr & Mrs George Goulding Stephen Gosztony & Sue Butcher Nigel & Diana Grimwood William Gronow Davis Mr & Mrs Charles Haddon–Cave QC Hayden Trust Mr & Mrs Raymond Henley

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Malcolm Herring Mr & Mrs John Hewett Dr Jonathan Holliday & Dr Gwen Lewis George & Janette Hollingbery The Holmes Family Hugh & Tamara Hudleston Nicholas & Jeremy Hunter Mr & Mrs David Hunter Mr & Mrs M J Isaac Hannah Jacobs Harriet Jervis Mr & Mrs J Jervoise Neil & Elizabeth Johnson Andrew & Caroline Joy Mr & Mrs Colin Keogh Dr R Hubert Laeng–Danner Rufford Foundation Mrs T Landon Barbara Yu Larsson Mr & Mrs Malcolm Le May Peter Leaver & Thomas Sharpe Mr & Mrs Adam Lee Jeremy Gardner Lewis Susie Lintott & Louisa Church David & Linda Lloyd Jones Joe & Minnie MacHale Charles & Annmarie Mackay Mr & Mrs Michael Mackenzie Tessa & John Manser J P Marland Charitable Trust Wendy & Michael Max Anonymous Mr & Mrs Peter May Harvey McGregor QC Thomas Monk Martin & Caroline Moore Elizabeth Morison Mr & Mrs Richard Morse Dr & Mrs Julian Muir The Nawrocki family The O’Hea family Sue & Peter Paice Tim & Therese Parker Alexia Paterson William & Francheska Pattisson Mark & Rachel Pearson Nigel Perfect & Peter Tilley The Lord & Lady Phillimore Sir David & Lady Plastow Jan & Michael Potter Bruce & Lizzie Powell Mark & Veronica Powell Benjamin Pritchett–Brown

Mr & Mrs Gary Ralfe Mrs Christopher Reeves David & Alex Rhodes Ros & Ken Rokison Mrs Faanya Rose Mrs Antony Rowe Mr & Mrs John Salkeld Mr & Mrs Anthony Salz Christopher & Anne Saul Mr & Mrs Richard Scopes Mr & Mrs Roderick Selkirk Mrs Christopher Sheridan Lord & Lady Simon of Highbury Edward M Siskind Paul & Rita Skinner Mr & Mrs Martin St Quinton Nicholas Stanley Donald & Rachael Stearns The Steel Charitable Trust The Stevenson Charitable Trust John & Lesley Stuttard Mr & Mrs R H Sutton Anonymous Mr & Mrs Bernard Taylor Gordon & Sue Thorburn The Titchmarsh Family Mr & Mrs Anthony Townsend Wendy & John Trueman Adair Turner & Orna Ni–Chionna The Hon Lucy & Michael Vaughan John & Lou Verrill Lady Jane Wallop John & Carol Wates Miss Clare Williams Hamish & Elisabeth Williams Mark & Jane Williams The Hon Geoffrey & Mrs Wilson The Wolf Family Mr & Mrs C H R Wunderly Caroline Wyld

DONALD KAHN & FAMILY Ronnie Frost & family Geoff & Fiona Squire Lydia & Miles d’Arcy-Irvine Carphone Warehouse The Clore Duffield Foundation Lord Harris of Peckham John & Anya Sainsbury Simon & Virginia Rober tson Anonymous James Cave David & Amanda Leathers Sir David & Lady Davies EFG Private Bank William Garrett Corus Mark Andrews Mr & Dr J Beechey David & Elizabeth Challen Mr & Mrs William Charnley Mr & Mrs Peter Dicks Simon Freakley David Gilgrist & Bobbie du Bois Philip Gwyn Mrs Ian Jay James & Béatrice Lupton Donald & Jill Mackenzie Nigel & Anna McNair Scott P F Charitable Trust Richard & Victoria Sharp Mrs Timothy Syder Richard & Cynthia Thompson Anne Veeder The Band Trust

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GRANGE PARK OPERA DONATED TICKETS TO: The Haven in Wessex Terrence Higgins Trust Royal British Legion Action Medical Research Cambridge BID Chain of Hope British Red Cross Rhys Daniels Trust Save the Children Young Epilepsy MacMillan Cancer Support Cancer Research UK Make-A-Wish Foundation Royal Brompton & Harefield Trust Ronald McDonald House Rays of Sunshine Charlie Waller Memorial Trust Skyball for Treloars Mayor of London’s fund for Young Musicians RCM Soiree d’Or Auction Southampton Children’s Hospital Home-Start Rugby Portobello Trust Multiple Sclerosis Society The YouthLink Network Action Against Hunger’s Philippines Appeal Fastrack The Brain Tumour Charity No Ball’s Ball British Youth Opera Cheriton Primary School

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THE GLASS CEILING SOCIETY 2014 C A H Alexander Stephen & Isobel Parkinson Robin & Anne Baring Sally Phillips & Tristan Wood Nigel Beale & Anthony Lowrey Sir Desmond & Lady Pitcher Peter Bedford The Countess of Portsmouth Christina Benn Chrissie Quayle Mrs Jenny Bland Mr Michael Rice Simon & Sally Borrows Nigel & Viv Robson Anthony Boswood Barry & Anne Rourke Jonathan & Karen Bourne-May Mr & Mrs David Salisbury Consuelo & Anthony Brooke Mr & Mrs John Salkeld Anthony Bunker The Tansy Trust Clive & Helena Butler George & Veronique Seligman Mr & Mrs Bernard Cazenove Mr & Mrs Brigitte & Martin Skan Samantha & Nabil Chartouni Prof & Mrs Peter Sonksen The Hon Sir Christopher Clarke Fiona Squire & Geoff Squire OBE Ian Clarkson & Richard Morris Donald & Rachael Stearns Etienne d’Arenberg David & Fiona Taylor Brian & Susan Dickie Olof & Suzie Winkler von Stiernhielm Kate Donaghy Mr & Mrs Kevan Watts Miss Helen Dorey FSA Noreen Doyle and Martin & Eugenia Ephson six anonymous donors Niall & Ingrid FitzGerald George & Caroline Goulding Mr Barrie Haigh Keith, Maral Charles & James Hann Hilary Hart Rowan Jarvis Mr Anthony Johnson Keith & Lucy Jones Anthony & Fiona Littlejohn Andrew Luff Mr & Mrs Henry Lumley Mrs Sally Lykiardopulo Ian & Marie-Anne Mackie William & Felicity Mather Ian & Clare Maurice Madeleine & Stephen McGairl Roger & Jackie Morris Mr & the Hon Mrs J Ogilvie Thompson Charles Outhwaite Nick & Julie Parker

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THE SCHOOL OF HIPPOCRATES 2014 Batesons Consulting Roger & Liz Kramers Camilla Baldwin Diana & Terence Kyle Maj Gen & Mrs J Balfour Mr & Mrs Peter Leaver Mrs Isla Baring Gerald Levin Mrs Michael Beresford-West Robert Linn Ottley Anthony Bird June, Dyrol & Becky Lumbard Roger Birtles John MacGowan Roy & Carol Brown Kathryn & Sarah McLeland Mark & Rosemary Carawan William Middleton-Smith Julian & Jenny Cazalet Patrick Mitford-Slade OBE Mr & Mrs John Colwell Dr Vivienne Monk Dr Neville Conway Sue & Peter Morgan Giles E Currie Mr Colin Murray The Patricia Baines Trust Mr & Mrs Jeffrey Nedas Simon de Lancey Walters Paul Nicholls Michael & Anthea Del Mar Nicholson Family Michael & Allie Eaton Guy & Sarah Norrie Stuart Errington CBE DL Mr & Mrs Peter Nutting Mr & Mrs Jeremy Farr Liz & Nigel Peace Mr & Mrs James Fisher Mrs Sally Posgate Mr & Mrs Simon P Fisher Dominic & Katherine Powell Mr & Mrs Harry Fitzalan Howard Veronica Powell Tim & Rosie Forbes Hugh & Caroline Priestley Michael & Anne Forrest Shirley & Grant Radcliffe Geoffrey & Liz Fuller Dr Martin Read & Lindsey Gardener Dr Marian Gilbart Read Mr & Mrs Wyatt Gates Hilary Reid Evans Margaret & David Gawler Tineke Dales Peter Gerrard David & Hilary Riddle David & Janet Grenier Dr Angela Gallop Marcus & Susan Grubb & Mr David Russell Mr & Mrs Will Hillary Rati & Dhruv Sawhney Hansgeorg & Leonor Hofmann Tom & Phillis Sharpe Christopher & Jo Holdsworth Hunt Nigel Silby Lucy Holmes & Alexandra Wood Graeme & Sue Sloan Judith & Peter Iredale Mrs Marveen Smith John & Jan Jarvis QC Dr Anthony Smoker Simon & Alison Jeffreys Andrew & Jill Soundy Margi & Mike Jennings Chris & Lisa Spooner Neil & Elizabeth Johnson Sir Nigel & Lady Teare Ralph & Patricia Kanter Mr & Mrs Hugh Tidbury Dr Ingo & Dr Maria Lucia Klรถcker Mr & Mrs John Tremlett

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Kelsey & Rosie van Musschenbroek Mrs Peter Wake DL Chris & Miranda Ward Johanna Waterous CBE Edward Weston Nicholas & Penny Wilson Jonathan & Sue Wood Mr & Mrs Richard J Woolnough Peter Wrangham and five anonymous donors

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THE SCHOOL OF ARCHIMEDES 2014 TBC Aberdare Jackie & John Alexander Dr Richard Ashton Jenny & Paul Aynsley Richard & Jean Baldwin Ray Barrell & Ursula Van Almsick Paul & Janet Batchelor Mrs Rupert Beaumont Peter Bell Richard & Rosamund Bernays Mike & Alison Biden Admirer of Charles Wallach Mr & Mrs David Blackburn Halldora Blair Elisabeth & Bob Boas Longina Boczon Johannes Boecker Mrs Margaret Bolam John & Lillie Boumphrey Graham & Julia Bourne Neville & Rowena Bowen Julian and Maria Bower The Hon Robert Boyle & Mrs Boyle Robin & Jill Broadley Mr & Mrs R Bronks Dorothy & John Brook Maureen Brooking Stuart & Maggie Brooks Nicholas Browne Peter Bulfield Mr & Mrs D M Bullough Mr & Mrs J & M Burkill Burton Family Richard Butler Adams Ann & Quentin Campbell Russ & Linda Carr Max & Karina Casini Sir Peter & Lady Cazalet Mr & Mrs J Chaffer Mr & Mrs Luke Chappell Mr & Mrs Shane Chichester Peter Chittick & Carolyn Fairbairn Julia Chute Mr & Mrs Peter Clarke Diana Clarkson Michael & Angela Clayton Sir Anthony & Lady Cleaver

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Mrs Susie Clegg Liz & Mike Cooper-Mitchell Peter Crisp & Jeremy Crouch Mr Carl Cullingford Clive & Rebecca Cunningham John & Susan Curtis Clifford R Dammers Anne & Jonathan Dawson Sir Jeremy de Halpert Douglas & Pru de Lavison Count & Countess M de Selys Patrick & Nikki Despard Krystyna Deuss Ian & Diana Doherty Dr Barbara Domayne-Hayman Mrs Christine Douse Paul Drury Jenny & Christopher Duffett Mark & Nicola Dumas Nick & Lesley Dumbreck Mr & Mrs Kenneth Eckett Sir Malcolm & Lady Edge Yvonne & Malcolm Edwards Martin & Maureen Farr Rosie Faunch Barry Fearn Esq TD Sian Fisher Michael Fitzgerald Mr & Mrs John Foster Mrs Jillian Ede Gendron Michael & Diane Gibbons David & Anne Giles Mr & Mrs Bruce Ginsberg Michael & Caroline Godbee Dr Richard & Sally Godwin-Austen Mr & Mrs Richard Grant Mr & Mrs Alistair Groom Gerard & Diana Guerrini Max & Catherine Hadfield Andrew Haigh John & Janet Hammond Patrick Harbour Wendell & Andrea Harris Robert & Judith Hart Maureen & Peter Hazell Bill & Jenny Helfrecht Mr & Mrs David Helson Paul & Kay Henderson

Jonathan & Veronica Henty Lady Heseltine Michael & Sarah Hewett Peter & Valerie Hewett Michael & Genevieve Higgin Mr & Mrs Herman Hintzen Diana & Michael Hobson Lady Holdsworth H R Holland Peter & Marianne Hooley David & Mal Hope-Mason Andrew & Kay Hunter Johnston Mrs Madeline Hyde Howard & Anne Hyman Charles & Sarah Irby Peter & Morag James Martin & Sandra Jay Michael Jodrell Caroline & Max Jonas Judi Jones Mr & Mrs Edward Jones Julian G Jones Mr Per Jonsson Pierre & Caroline Jungels Dr Catherine Katzka & Dr Swen Hรถelder Vincent & Amanda Keaveny Mrs Judith Kelley Andrew Kennedy & Lindsay Cornish Capt & Mrs David Kennedy Mrs Dinah Kennedy Mr & Mrs J Kiernan George Kingston Kevin Kissane Mrs Gabrielle Knights Stephen & Miriam Kramer A & Z Kurtz Mr & Mrs Bill Lawes Mr & Mrs Andrew Lax Professor Natalie Lee Ruth & Brian Levy Sonya Leydecker & Steven Larcombe Mrs Roger Liddiard Anne Longden Brigadier & Mrs Desmond Longfield

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Mr Dieter Losse Robin & Jean Mackenzie Ian & Jane Macnabb Mr J J Macnamara Brian & Penelope Matthews Wendy & Michael Max Gill & Doug McGregor Michael McLaren QC & Caroline McLaren John & Janet McLean Carolyn Greenwood & John McVittie Gillian Milton Mrs Jonathan Moore Ian & Jane Morrison Neil & Jane Mortensen Sara Morton David & Angela Moss The Foxley Trust Chris & Annie Newell Mr Mike Newell Richard Nichols Lady (Bridget) Nixon Pamela & Bruce Noble Princess Paul Odescalchi Dr Cecily O’Neill Lavinia & Nick Owen Mr Alan Parker CBE Michael & Amanda Parker Mr & Mrs Erik Penser Richard & Gail Pertwee Mr & Mrs Robin Petherick Jonathan & Gillian Pickering Mr & Mrs J Pinna-Griffith Matthew Pintus & Joanna Ward David & Christina Pitman Mr & Mrs Anthony Pitt-Rivers Mr John Platt Tricia Guild Jane Poulter David & Elizabeth Pritchard M G Pullan Tony & Etta Pullinger Gill & Clive Purkiss Nigel & Elizabeth Reavley Neil & Julie Record Mike & Jessamy Reynolds John & Christine Rhodes Mr & Mrs James Roberts Alex & Caroline Roe Peter Rosenthal David Rosier

Julian & Catherine Roskill Mr & Mrs E J M Ross Zsalya Mr George Sandars Carolyn Saunders Peter Saunders Cara Schulze Peter & Carolyn Scoble John & Tita Shakeshaft Rob & Felicity Shepherd David & Jeni Sieff Mr Julian Stanford Nigel & Johanna Stapleton Rosemary Steen Brian Stevens Mr John Strachan Mr & Mrs Tom Sweet-Escott Max & Valerie Thum Mr & Mrs Wiiliam Tice Prof & Mrs G M Tonge Dr Michael Toseland Sir Tom & Lady Troubridge Sir Michael & Lady Turner Dr & Mrs James Turtle Mr & Mrs Niko Vidovich Richard & Judy Wake Miss Siobhan Walker Kevin & Sonia Watson J. Anthony Wechsler Niels Weise Mr & Mrs Graham J West Jane & Ian White Isobel Williams Mark & Jane Williams Mr & Mrs Patrick J D’A Willis Ginny & Alastair Woodrow David & Vivienne Woolf Jerry & Clare Wright Dr Ian Wylie & Prof S Griffiths OBE Richard Youell and ten anonymous donors

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THE SCHOOL OF PLATO 2014 Rick Abbott Dr Stewart Abbott Mrs Philippa Abell Brenda E Ainsley Miss Rula Al-Adasani Clare Allen Mrs Genie Allenby & daughters Mrs David Anderson John Andrews Phillip Arnold & Philip Baldwin Katherine Ashton Young & Brian D Young M J Askham Nancy Asthalter Chris & Claire Aston Nigel Atkinson Miss Linda Attrell Priscilla & Mark Austen Nick & Audrey Backhouse Roger & Lisa Backhouse Wendy Bailey Neha & Robert Bailhache Alwyn & Peter Bain Mr Michael & Dr Marie Bakowski Mr & Mrs Christopher Ballard Mrs Susan Band Mrs Caroline Barber Oliver & Cara Barnes Mr Robin Barton Val & Christopher Bateman Stanley Bates Tim & Margaret Battcock Liz & Alan Beattie Anne Beckwith-Smith G Bernstein Adrian Berrill-Cox Richard L Berry The Hon Mrs Diana Birtwistle Richard & Jennie Blackburn Mr & Mrs Boardman Lisa Bolgar Smith Alverne Bolitho David & Margaret Bonsall Viscountess Bridgeman Dr & Mrs Douglas Bridgewater The Bridgman/Borkowski family Charles & Patricia Brims John & Amanda Britton Penny & Robin Broadhurst Adam & Sarah Broke Therese Brook George Brown & Alison Calver Hugh & Sue Brown George Browning Finn Bruce

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Mr & Mrs Ken Burrage Mr & Mrs Martin Burton Myrna Bustani Mr Peter Byrne Mr & Mrs Murray Bywater Dr Charlotte Cannon Mr Andrew Carruthers Mr H B Carter Mr & Mrs Nicholas Carter Andrew & Jacqueline Cartwright Mrs Victoria Cash Graham Cawsey & Virginia Korda Dr J D H Chadwick Guy Chapman Dr I H Chisholm Mrs Ann Clarke Jonathan & Jane Clarke Mr & Mrs Trevor Clarke Mr & Mrs Henry Clay Adam & Noreen Cleal Roy & Jackie Colbran Mrs Laurence Colchester Prof Richard Collin Dr & Mrs Peter Collins Anthony Cooke Mr & Mrs Tim Cooper Robert & Morella Cottam John Courage Johnny & Liz Cowper-Coles Heather & Alan Craft Stephen & Julia Crompton Tom Cross Brown David & Peta Crowther A D & J M Cummins Rosemarie Cundy Lady Curtis Mr Antoni Daszewski Christopher & Marigold Davenport-Jones Mr & Mrs J Davidson Mrs Susan Davies Michael R Davis A R G de Groen Michael de Navarro Sir John & Lady de Trafford Bonon W de Traux B Dean Mr & Mrs B J Dennis-Browne Mr Peter Dixon Mr & Mrs M F Dobbs Professor & Mrs T A Downes Philippa Drew Mr & Mrs R H Drury Cathy Dumelow

Nigel & Jane Halsey Jamie Dundas Dr Sally Hanson Mrs Ann Dussek Mr & Mrs Richard Hardman Mrs Dickie Dutton Cynthia Harrap Trust Pauline Eaton Dr Peter Harrison Jennifer Edwards Mr & Mrs Julian Harvey Mr & Mrs Peter Ellis Dr Fred Haslam Michael & Wendy Evans Mr & Mrs Roy Hatch Michael Ewing Mr Andrew Hawkins & Steven F G Fachada Ms Lisa Walsh Alys & Graham Ferguson Helen & Kevin Hayes The Fischer Fund Jamie & Victoria Heath Mr J B Fisher Maggie Heath Andrew & Lucinda Fleming Mr & Mrs Alan Herring J A Floyd Charitable Trust John & Catherine Hickman Sooying Foster Patrick & Sue Higham Lindsay & Robin Fox Mr & Mrs R H T Hingston Mrs Andrea Frears Dr Hinton & Dr Bellenger Lorraine Freedberg Mr & Mrs Peter Hobbs James & Diana Freeland Mark Hodgkinson Mrs Mary Furness Mr & Mrs I F Hodgson Susie Gaunt Daniel & Diana Hodson E S Gauntlett Mr R E Hofer Robert & Ginna Gayner Jacqueline & Jonathan Gestetner Robin Holmes Billy & Heather Howard Mr Alan Gibbins Mr Stephen J Howis Brett & Caroline Gill Mr & Mrs Richard Howorth Lynne Gillon Michael & Virginia Hughes Ian & Edwina Gilroy Robert Hugill & David Hughes James Hogan & Charles Mr & Mrs Nick Humble Glanville David & Sue Humphrey Mrs Susan Glasspool DL G E T & G A Hunt Nigel Goodenough Mrs Juliet Huntley Dr & Mrs Simon Goodison Mr & Mrs B J Hurst-Bannister Mr & Mrs P A Goodson E Hyde Colin & Letts Goodwin Peter & Katharine Ingram John & Cecilia Gordon Tim & Christine Ingram Lady Graham Ramsay Ismail & Peter Granger Boris Stankevich Mrs S M Grant Christopher & Amanda Graves Christopher Jack & Stephanie Sfakianos Mr & Mrs Anthony Green Mrs Allan James The Hon Mrs Jane Green Sally James and Sean McConville Mr Robin & The Hon Mrs Mr & Mrs Charles Jamieson Greenwood Mark Jarrad Barbara & David Greggains Mr & Mrs S Bobasch Mrs Grenfell Bailey Nigel & Cathy Johnson-Hill John & Ann Grieves Mr & Mrs Richard Griffith-Jones Scot & Sally Johnston Barry & Brenda Jones Kingsley Griffiths RIBA Harriet Jones Tom & Sarah Grillo Douglas Jones Mr & Mrs Edmund Grower Prof Heather Joshi OBE Richard & Judy Haes Ali & Jamie Justham Allyson Hall Robin & Annabel Kealy Rodney Hall Tim & Ginny Kempster Mr & Mrs Philipp & Jane Caroline Kennedy Chivers Hallauer

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Michael & Julia Kerby Mark Kerr Mr & Mrs Oliver Kinsey Mr & Mrs N Korban Mr & Mrs Gerald Lambert Rear Admiral & Mrs John Lang Mrs J Langford David & Madi Laurence Sarah Lavers Richard Law Sir Christopher & Lady Lawrence-Jones John Learmonth Dr Nicky Lee Mrs Susan Lee Hilary & James Leek Jan Leigh & Jan Rynkiewicz David John Lentaigne Mr & Mrs Leprince Jungbluth Mrs Rosalind Levin Eric & Pauline Leyns Mrs M Lightfoot Diana Lines Mr & Mrs John Littlewood Henry Lloyd Mrs Linda Lomri Mrs Simon Loup Bertrand & Sarah Louveaux Alan & Virginia Lovell V A Lowings Joe Lulham Donald Campbell Derek Mackay Mrs Tom Mackean Peter & Pamela Macklin John & Vanessa MacMahon Strone & Alex Macpherson Bill & Sue Main David & Mary Male David Mariano M.A. Malcolm Markovitch Mr & Mrs Harry Matovu Anthony May Christopher & Clare McCann Dr T McCarthy Dr T L McClintock Hilary McDermott Mr Paul Megson Eliza Pickering Nigel & Maria Melville Cliff & Sandy Middleton Antony & Alison Milford Dr & Mrs Patrick Mill Mrs Gillian Miller Peter Miller & Hilary Kingsley Richard & Patricia Millett Mr & Mrs Hallam Mills Roger & Sylvia Mills Edward & Diana Mocatta Mr & Mrs P W Mommersteeg

Mr & Mrs David MooreGwyn Jutta & David Morris Mr J Moxon Mrs Lucy Muncey Conrad Murphy Richard & Susie Murray Bett William Nash Anthony & Jenny Newhouse Jane Nicholson Jeremy & Elizabeth Nicholson George Nissen Amelie Noack Hon Michael and Mrs Nolan John & Dianne Norton Lt Col & Mrs Dick Norton W J E Norton Sir Charles & Lady Nunneley Barry & Sue O’Brien The Hon Mr & Mrs Michael O’Brien Roy & Carole Oldham Carol Orchard Janet & Michael Orr Hugh & Elenor Paget John A Paine Mrs Christine Palmer C A Palmer Tomkinson Sir Michael & Lady Parker Nicholas Parkhouse Deborah & Clive Parritt Paul & Vicky Pattinson Mrs Barbara Peacock Mr Michael Pearl John & Jacqui Pearson N Pearson Lucy Pease Penny & Giuseppe Pecorelli Nicholas & Caroline Perry Melanie Petre R B Petre Jeremy Pett Angela Pfizenmaier-Harbott Mr John M Pierce Mr & Mrs Charles Pike Mr Philip Pink Hugh C Podger Mr Michael Possener Dr D K Potter Graham & Virginia Prain Judith Prickett & Raymond Sutton Mrs D E Priestley Mr & Mrs Richard Priestley David & Judith Pritchard Sally & Peter Procopis Anthony Proctor Mr & Mrs Stephen Proctor Penny Proudlock Katherine-Lucy Pumphrey Robin Purchas

Lady Purves Leo Quinn Aviva & Gerald Raingold Dr Susan Rankine Mala & Michael Rappolt Peter & Diana Ratzer Jane & Graham Reddish Mr Byron Rose & Ms Sarah Reed Philip Remnant David Rendell & Ali Smith Anthony Richards Mrs Caroline Rimell Lady Rivett-Carnac Judith Roberts Miles & Vivian Roberts Miss Anne Robertson James & Catharine Robertson R Anthony Robinson Sarah Rose Kate and Tom Rossiter Mr Alan Roxburgh Joan & Lewis Rudd Prof & Mrs D Russell-Jones Alicia & Ray Salter Ian & Wendy Sampson Mr Andrew Sanders Simon & Abigail Sargent John Schofield Lorna & David Secker-Walker Mr & Mrs James Sehmer R Y C Sharp David Sheraton & Kate Stabb Daniela F Sieff Professor David & Mrs Gillian Silverman Mr Andrew Simon Jeremy Simons Sir Jock Slater Amanda & Richard Slowe Russell & Julia Smart Robin & Phyllida Smeeton Mr & Mrs Peter J Smith Dr S L Smith Joe & Lucy Smouha Jean-Philippe Snelling Lady Mary Snyder Ian & Pippa Southward Mr David Spence Peter William Stansfield Dr John Stephens Christopher & Tineke Stewart Jeremy & Phyllida Stoke Geoff & Juliet Stranks Ian & Jenny Streat Toby & Fiona Stubbs John R Sturgis Roger Summers Liliane Sutton Caroline & Phillip Sykes

Mr & Mrs Richard Sykes John Symon Mr & Mrs N Tarsh Helena Taylor Jeremy & Marika Taylor Mrs Patricia Taylor Simon & Alison Taylor Mrs Vivienne Taylor Richard & Lynne TaylorGooby Dr Davina A Tenters Mr & Mrs P M Thomas A J & Mrs V E Thompson Mrs A J Thorman Rod & Jackie Thurman Mr Rupert Tickner Mr & Mrs G W Tindley Martin & Michaela Tod Rachel & David Townsend Brian & Audrey Trafford Clive & Tessa Tulloch Richard Turner Paul Tuvey John Uzielli L C Varnavides X N C Villers Nick Viner & Victoria Boyarsky Mr Tony Walker Sir Timothy & Lady Walker George & Pat Wallace Heather & Andrew Wallis Peter Ward Anne Ware Guy Warrington Kenneth Watters Katherine Watts Colin & Suzy Webster Christian Wells Stephen West & David Tarry Richard & Susan Westcott Mr Roger Westcott Mrs Joy Weston Mr Donald White Tony & Fiona White Mr & Mrs I J Whitting Mr & Mrs Howard Wilkinson David & Jill Williams Prof Roger Williams CBE & Mrs Roger Williams Alyson Wilson Abu Khamis Mr W S Witts Jane Wood Lady Woolf Nick & Sue Woollacott Richard Worthington J P Wotton and 37 anonymous donors

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SUPPORTING PIMLICO OPERA 2014 IN PRISON AND IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS The Monument Trust

The Holmes Family

Capital Group

The Melville Charitable Trust

The Ingram Trust The Band Trust The Batchworth Trust Derrill Allatt Foundation The John Coates Charitable Trust

Tom & Sarah Floyd David & Amanda Leathers Francis & Nathalie Phillimore

Mr & Mrs Rupert Hambro

The Tansy Trust

Anonymous

Noreen Doyle

The Boltini Trust

Jeremy & Rosemary Farr

The Bromley Trust

Anonymous

The Eranda Foundation The Geoff & Fiona Squire Foundation The Overstone Fund Lord Barnby’s Foundation

The Charles Hayward Foundation Mr & Mrs Will Hillary Martin & Jane Houston

The Coral Samuel Charitable Trust

The Ogilvie Thompson Family

The D’Oyly Carte Charitable Trust

Ernst Piech

The Hazelhurst Trust

Simon & Virginia Robertson

Austin & Hope Pilkington Trust

Andrew & Melanie Rose

The Bernard Sunley Charitable Foundation The Dyers’ Company Eleanor Rathbone Charitable Trust The Golden Bottle Trust

and 200 individuals who signed up as Jailbirds Governors & Judges

The Mackintosh Foundation The G C Gibson Charitable Trust Grocers Charity The Saintbury Trust The Walter Guinness Charitable Trust The Friends of Music in Winchester The Garrick Charitable Trust The Glebe Charitable Trust The Hiscox Foundation The Lennox & Wyfold Foundation

PIMLICO OPERA Pimlico Opera aims to use music and drama to advance personal development, particularly with younger people. Artistic excellence is an essential part of achieving this aim. The company was founded in 1987 by Wasfi Kani OBE. It is the sister company of Grange Park Opera

TO DONATE

www.pimlicoopera.co.uk

The Noel Buxton Trust

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PRIMARY ROBINS Primary Robins is a new project. It aims to expand the outlook and enrich the lives of schoolchildren who have little exposure to music. It is probably something that happened in every primary school 40 years ago: the class sitting round the piano . . . learning traditional songs. Since September 2013, 380 children from Hampshire primary schools whose KS2 results fall in the lowest quartile have been given a weekly half hour singing class. The project is star tling in its simplicity and proving to be startling in its effectiveness.

Songbooks

A parent remarked that by being taught to sing the final consonant of a word, her daughter’s spelling improved. The most disruptive boy in a class, who wouldn’t even hold the Songbook, ended the term knowing all the songs from memory. Each term the schools sing from a specially prepared Songbook (right) of ten songs, one of which is in another language. The songs are traditional (rather than pop) tunes. The children tell us that they have taken the Songbook home and Granny knew some of the songs and they sang together. The Songbook includes musical notation. It is not intended to teach the children to read music, but some will see the pattern of what they sing and what the dots do. The project has been such a success that Annabel Larard, who set up the project, is expanding the project to Kent and the Durham area. In September 2014 there will be 1,200 children. Drs Sue Hallam and Andrea Creech at the Institute of Education, University of London have been appointed to monitor the project for three years. They set a number of criteria against which to measure the effect on other areas of learning and behaviour. Primary Robins participate at no cost to either the schools or the parents. Pimlico Opera receives no public subsidy. The money is raised from charitable trusts and individuals. With regard to music education, Saint-Saens had three beliefs: •

Music is an emblem of not only civilisation but also the level that a culture has achieved

Everyone can learn music, not just those with specialised talent. It should not be associated with the privileges of class

Knowledge of music can increase one’s intelligence

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SIR GEORGE CHRISTIE 1934 –2014 HIS FATHER STARTED THE ESCAPADE OF OPERA IN THE COUNTRYSIDE AND SIR GEORGE GAVE GRANGE PARK OPERA A HELPING HAND Back in pre-history (winter 2001), Sir George Christie invited my co-founder Michael Moody and me to lunch at the big house at Glyndebourne. Gus (his son) had recently taken the helm and they introduced Ptolemy (another son) who later directed shows for us in prison and on tour. Michael and I had brought with us a homemade model for a new theatre that we planned to build between the 2001 and 2002 seasons. George stood us on his stage and delivered his crucial advice: this is the position from which to assess a theatre. George was generous with his time and he was very open with his advice. He not only gave us his thoughts on the shape of the auditorium but set out a fundraising strategy. He didn’t regard opera as competitive; he wanted to promote the genre collectively. Glyndebourne started the escapade of opera in the countryside and we look on them as friends. It is very, very sad that George died at the beginning of May, at the start of the season. The opera fraternity – in the countryside and the town – has lost a wise man, a generous man and a gentleman. Sir George’s advice – together with a gift of £500,000 from Donald Kahn, who died in August last year - gave us the impetus to build our exquisite theatre. William Garrett chaired the Appeal to raise the funds and for eight festivals chaired the Grange Park Opera trustees. He allowed an independent spirit and gave confidence to aim for the highest quality, pushing the company from strength to strength. Take Bryn Terfel for example: a first for the countryside opera alliance. It was William who, in his dry, super-intelligent way put the case for pursuing such an ambition. William has stepped down as chairman but continues to be involved. Simon Freakley takes the hot seat. Other exciting developments include a BBC radio broadcast of our production of Don Quichotte and a media partnership with the Financial Times. This last centimetre must be used to thank John and Sally Ashburton for everything they do for the opera. WASFI KANI

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Love, life – and holding on to what you’ve got

BRYN TERFEL stars in FIDDLER ON THE ROOF GR ANGE PARK OPER A JUNE • JULY 2015

Ten performances only Register your interest in tickets at http://www.grangeparkopera.co.uk/fiddlerontheroof/ or email info@grangeparkopera.co.uk

Gifts from annual supporters, generous individuals, trusts and commercial organisations allow the festival to breathe deeply and strike out more boldly and with more panache than if we had only ticket money. If you aren’t already part of the family, please consider: CORPORATE SUPPORT starts at £3,200. A NIGHT AT THE OPERA tries to simplify your evening and the ticket price includes a burst of canapés and champagne before the

performance, opera tickets, and dinner in the mansion. INDIVIDUALS can SPONSOR A SINGER or part thereof (from £2,500); or join a PRODUCTION SYNDICATE; or help nurture the next generation with subsidised tickets – METEOR SCHEME – and scholarships for YOUNG ARTISTS. Annual support starts at £210 PLATO – GLASS CEILING. If you have lapsed, now is the time to renew your love for Grange Park Opera.

2015 • LA BOHÈME • FIDDLER ON THE ROOF • EUGENE ONEGIN • SAMSON ET DALILA 19

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HAPPENINGS

A CALENDAR OF OUT OF SEASON GATHERINGS

THE LAST YANKEE by ARTHUR MILLER at THE PRINT ROOM 13 & 20 September 2013 A Grange Park Opera group outing. Preceded by drinks in an abandoned house . . . similar to The Grange . . . but smaller. VERDI's LIFE at 22 MANSFIELD STREET 2 October Conductor Gianluca Marciano talks about the personal and professional life of Verdi with a few arias from Claire Rutter and Stephen Gadd. A FEW DAYS IN VENICE 11 - 15 October Grange Park friends meet up in Venice to savour the many delights of La Serenissima including visits to La Fenice and the island of Murano. There was a lot of jumping into and out of vaporetti. ICAP LUNCH 17 October Michael Spencer hosts his annual lunch for old and new Grange Park friends. MANSION HOUSE DINNER 17 October The Mansion House (c 1740) is the grandest surviving Georgian town palace with elaborate plasterwork, a fine collection of 17th century paintings and chandeliers that can compete with Buckingham Palace’s. Lord Mayor Roger Gifford throws open his doors to Grange Park Opera for dinner and arias. VIOLETTA & TUBERCULOSIS at THE CHARTERHOUSE, EC1 24 October In the chamber where Elizabeth I held court before her coronation, Michael Fontes in conversation with Donald McLeod sheds light on the white death. The 14th century priory was rebuilt as a courtyard house. It “conveys a vivid impression of the type of large rambling 16th century mansion that once existed all round London” (Pevsner).

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A HUGUENOT HOUSE in SPITALFIELDS 29 October A still life drama of a Huguenot silk weaver. “The journey through the house becomes a journey through time; with its small rooms and hidden corridors, its whispered asides and sudden revelations, it resembles a pilgrimage through life itself.” JOURNEYING BOYS in MILTON COURT 8 November A music drama by Iain Burnside spanning two centuries, three continents and two very different creative beings: bad-boy poet Arthur Rimbaud and Benjamin Britten. Milton Court is the Guildhall School of Music & Drama’s new theatre. PATRICE LOMBARDI in CORK STREET 27 November “I work mainly with oil paints and I am constantly experimenting with other media to create fresh and immediate images.” Vibrant dinky toys, butterflies, surprises . . . BENTLEY & SKINNER PICCADILLY 4 December What do diamond experts observe when they peer through the eye-glass? A lecture and some singing in an emporium of museum quality jewellery. By Royal Appointment to Her Majesty the Queen and His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. THE SAVILE CLUB in MAYFAIR 30 January 2014 Clubs don’t generally have ballrooms. The Savile’s ballroom must be one of London’s most exquisite. Conductor Renato Balsadonna offers insights into Massenet's Don Quichotte with Sara Fulgoni and David Stout.

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HAMPSHIRE OPERA COMMITTEE

at OLD ALRESFORD HOUSE 31 January Another ballroom . . . this one in Hampshire. HOC, ambassadors and their guests hear about the 2014 festival with opera from HyeYoun Lee and a burst of canapés. STABAT MATER at SAINT BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT 7 February Its stones are blackened from a thousand years of candles, smogs and burning martyrs, only the choir remains of the great priory church – a fitting interior for Pergolesi’s hymn with maestro Gianluca Marciano, Rosie Bell, Olivia Ray and the Orion Orchestra. ROTHSCHILD ARCHIVE 11 February Lionel de Rothschild and archivist Melanie Aspey have fascinating treasures and give the history of this banking dynasty established in Frankfurt in the 1760s by Mayer Amschel Rothschild, a court Jew to the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel, and his five sons. ADDICTION TO GAMBLING at OLD OPERATING THEATRE, SE1 13 February Writer and actor, Dolya Gavanski, knows a thing or two about the Russian fascination with gambling. She created a modern adaptation of Dostoevsky for BBC Radio 4. DELUSIONS at OLD OPERATING THEATRE 17 March Professor Christopher Thompson is at the forefront of academic debate on mental health. What is delusion? THE METEORS at THE RA PICCADILLY with guest speaker STEPHEN FRY 27 February The new generation gathered at the Royal Academy to celebrate opera with the help of gin and tonic from Sipsmiths. GO TO JAIL WITH PIMLICO OPERA: SISTER ACT IN PRISON 28 February - 9 March HMP Bronzefield, a women’s prison near Heathrow Airport, is one of only thirteen UK women’s prisons. Prisoners signed up to six weeks of full-time rehearsal, led by a professional director and choreographer, with a small number of professional colleagues taking lead roles. The final week of rehearsal took place in the gym, which

is transformed into a theatre with a lighting rig, raked seating and orchestra pit. There were 8 public performances (which prisoner families could attend) and a further two for prisoners and prison staff. 24 women participated for the full seven weeks. It costs the state in excess of £1.25m to keep 24 women in prison for a year. The project costs £190,000. The project chronicler encouraged the women to write and preserve their experience which were included in the end of project report. To be sent a copy contact the office 01962 73 73 60. SPRING EQUINOX at BYRON'S CHAMBERS, ALBANY 19 March Hidden away behind Piccadilly is a secret to all but a few: a threestorey mansion house converted in 1802 to 69 bachelor ‘sets’. Famous residents include Byron, Gladstone and Smirke, architect of the British Museum and part of the Grange. GRANGE PARK OPERA at OXFORD LITERARY FESTIVAL 29 March Wasfi Kani talks about the glamour and grubbiness of the inside world of opera. Soraya Mafi filled Corpus with song. SPANISH WINE & OPERA at BERRY BROTHERS 8 April The tragi-comic hero, Don Quixote, the composer Massenet and eight marvellous Spanish wines are savoured in Berry Brothers’ 300 year old cellars. The company’s history encompasses wines on board the Titanic, supplying smugglers in Prohibitionera America and sheltering Napoleon III in the cellars. ROSENBLATT RECITALS at WIGMORE HALL Monthly Long-time friends of Grange Park Opera, Rosenblatt Recitals are presenting major singers of today and stars of tomorrow. They introduced Juan Diego Florez to London and the series is the capital’s only world-class concert season of opera and song. METEOR SOIREE at CARLISLE SQUARE, SW3 14 May With the start of the 2014 season only a few weeks away, Grange Park Opera's Meteors meet for conversation, drinks and singing at a secluded Chelsea square.

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Have a fantastic time.

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LA TRAVIATA

VIOLETTA VALERY: CLAIRE RUTTER ≈ Mrs Peter Cadbury ALFREDO GERMONT: MARCO PANUCCIO ≈ Noreen Doyle

who is in love with Violetta

GIORGIO GERMONT: DAMIANO SALERNO ≈ Heike Munro

Alfredo's father

FLORA BERVOIX: OLIVIA RAY ≈ Roger and Kate Holmes GASTON: ALBERTO SOUSA ≈ Barbara Yu Larsson BARON DOUPHOL: TIMOTHY DAWKINS ≈ Jane & Paul Chase Gardener Alfredo's rival in love

MARQUIS D’OBIGNY: CHRISTOPHER JACKLIN DOCTOR GRENVIL: MATTHEW STIFF ANNINA: SYLVIE BEDOUELLE ≈ Hard working arms, Mrs T Landon ≈ Legs, David Laing Foundation Violetta's maid

GIUSEPPE: JORGE NAVARRO-COLORADO Violetta's servant

FLORA'S SERVANT: DANIEL HAWKINS MESSENGER: JONATHAN ALLEY DANCERS: PAUL CHANTRY & RAE PIPER

I ATA

FRIENDS OF VIOLETTA supported by Tom & Sarah Floyd Gareth & Janet Davies Adam & Lucy Constable Mr & Mrs Robert Enslow Mr & Mrs Grant Gordon Nic Bentley

Libretto by Francesco Maria Piave based on La Dame aux Camélias (1852), a play adapted from the novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils First performance La Fenice, Venice, 6 March 1853 Performances at The Grange on May 31, June 5, 8, 13, 20, 27, 29, July 2, 5

SPONSORED BY ICAP

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L A TR AV IATA ACT 1 Violetta, under the protection of Douphol, is entertaining guests, among them Alfredo Germont, who has been in love with her for some time. Although unwell, Violetta revels in a hectic social life. Her guests go off to dance and she is seized by a coughing fit. Alfredo finds her and professes his love. She gently discourages his affection and gives him a camellia flower. She tells him to return when it has faded. After the party has broken up, Violetta wonders if Alfredo is her true love. She shrugs off this sentimentality. Abandoning herself to life's hollow pleasures is her only option. ACT II Scene one A country house, three months later Violetta and Alfredo are now living together. He learns from the maid Annina that Violetta is selling her possessions to pay their debts and leaves for town to raise some money. Violetta receives an unexpected visitor: Alfredo’s father, Giorgio Germont. He explains that his daughter’s marriage into a respectable family is at risk because of Violetta’s untidy past. His message is simple: she must leave Alfredo. The idea is impossible; it will kill her. Finally she agrees and sits down to write a farewell letter. Alfredo interrupts her and she rushes away. Alfredo is devastated to read her curt note. Germont attempts to console his son. Alfredo assumes that Violetta has deserted him to return to her old ways.

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LA TRAVIATA

INTERVAL ACT 2 Scene two Flora’s house in town A party is in progress. First Alfredo appears and then Violetta, once again on the arm of Baron Douphol. The two men play cards and Alfredo wins. Violetta sees Alfredo alone and begs him to avoid a fight. In response to his accusations, she pretends that she is in love with the Baron. In a vengeful rage Alfredo summons the guests to witness the repayment of his debts and flings his winnings at her feet. The Baron challenges him. Germont enters in time to witness his son’s outburst and reproaches him. ACT III Violetta’s bedroom, a few months later The doctor tells Annina that Violetta is dying. Violetta reads a letter from Germont telling her that Alfredo, who fled abroad after fighting the Baron, now knows the true story of her sacrifice. He is returning to ask her forgiveness. The lovers are reunited. Germont arrives to give his blessing. It is too late. Violetta dies in Alfredo’s arms.

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IT’S NOT OUR VIRTUES THAT DRAW THEM, BUT OUR FAULTS, OUR EXTRAVAGANCES, OUR OPULENCE MARIE DUPLESSIS

VERDI WAS IN PARIS in early 1852 with his companion, the great Italian soprano, Giuseppina Strepponi, and together they went to see La Dame aux Caméllias, a new play by Alexandre Dumas fils. Giuseppina had supported Verdi both personally and professionally: she had helped him when he lost his wife and his two young children over a short period at the end of the 1830s, and her high opinion of Oberto had given him his first break at the Scala. They had started living together in 1847, and liked occasionally to get away from Italy where their association raised eyebrows: they did not marry until 1859. They both enjoyed the play very much, and Verdi saw in it the subject for a new opera, La Traviata. He soon had Piave working on a libretto. The younger Dumas had known the famous courtesan, Marie Duplessis, intimately, from September 1844 until August 1845, when he wrote to her breaking off their relationship. On returning to France eighteen months later from a trip to Algeria with his father, the author of The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte Cristo, he heard that Marie had died of tuberculosis. His novel was published in 1848 and the play, which was a smash hit, had its first performance in 1852. It presents a picture, not an entirely faithful picture, of the affair between Marie (Violetta) and the author, disguised as the young provincial bourgeois, Armand Duval. Dumas gave his hero his own initials, so Marguerite (Marie Duplessis’s name in the novel) could call him ’Adet’ (the initials AD in spoken French); this had been Marie’s pet name for him. The Venetian censor forced Verdi to put the action back to the eighteenth century, but the play was very much of its time: Violetta is based upon a real person, Marie Duplessis, one of the most famous Parisian courtesans of her day. She was born Alphonsine Plessis at Nonant in Normandy in January 1824 and died of

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tuberculosis in Paris in February 1847. Violetta was only just 23 years old when she died. Alphonsine’s father, Marin Plessis, the result of the local prostitute’s seduction of a Catholic priest, was a drunken brute who had always wanted a son. His work as a wandering pedlar did not bring in much, so Alphonsine and her elder sister, Delphine, often went hungry, and always lacked a stable family life. When Marin was about he frequently beat their mother, Marie. In the end she was forced to leave home, confiding her daughters to the unreliable care of their father. Nonant, now Nonant-le-Pin, is 15 miles east of Argentan, on the edge of the Pays d’Auge, famous for apples, rich milk, and horses. The villages of Camembert, Pont l’Evêque and Livarot are no distance to the north. But not much cheese found its way onto the plates of the little Plessis girls; they were forced to forage for scraps, and spent too much time in the licentious company of fruit pickers and gypsies. Alphonsine became known in the village for her prurient turn of mind, and rumour had it that Marin was sleeping with her himself, and also farming her out for the week-end to an elderly bachelor called Plantier, well before she reached puberty. She emigrated to Paris when she was about 14. She said later that her father, whom she was touchingly reluctant to criticise, had accompanied her; village gossip held that he asked a band of wandering gypsies to take her. Once in the capital she moved quickly up the hierarchy of prostitution. She became a grisette, a companion of students and artists, earning a bed for the night and food and company, in exchange for sexual services. Wages in shops and factories in Paris in the 1830s were low; the girls were assumed to be living at home. New arrivals in the city had to find lodgings, and to supplement their incomes by other means. But the patron of a local restaurant soon took Alphonsine under his wing, renting a smart

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La miseria (1886) Cristobal Rojas (1857-1890)

LA TRAVIATA

furnished flat and installing her there as his lorette, his kept woman. She did not stop there. Soon she attracted the interest of people of more substantial wealth, and became a grande horizontale: the flat summit of the pyramid, where the girls often earned huge sums and enjoyed every sort of luxury. At Number 25, ChampsÉlysées we can still see the town house of the later famous Russian horizontale, La Païva, with its façade by Auguste Rodin. Nowadays the Paris Travellers’ Club, it invites visitors to inspect the horizontale’s bath with its three taps, dispensing water, milk, and champagne. Among the horizontales, Alphonsine soon became queen. Having arrived from Normandy an ignorant illiterate little waif,

she was now, two years later, a sophisticated and polished woman with the manners of a duchess. How she brought about this transformation remains a mystery. Julie Kavanagh, in her recent book on Marie, cites a local legend that her mother was the illegitimate daughter of a local count; the genes of this count, ’a gentleman to his finger tips’, may explain Marie’s innate good taste. We should also consider that although her father was a vicious bully, he had in his youth been magnetically good-looking, and Alphonsine had inherited his magnetism. In Nonant her seductive looks and ready compliance had excited the local boys to a frenzy of lust. They clearly had the same effect on many of the richest men of the capital.

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She came to read widely and although her professional manner could be brazen – she sometimes wore red rather than white camellias to indicate the wrong time of the month – she was a good listener. Refused entry into polite society, she was, nevertheless, one of the few women accepted into a louche group of prominent Parisians, meeting at two or three restaurants and cafés on the Boulevard des Italiens - the Maison Dorée and the Café Riche and the Café de Paris: they included Nestor Roqueplan, editor of Le Figaro, and Dr Louis-Désiré Véron, director of the Paris Opéra. They had their table, and Alphonsine would sit quietly with them. What they and their contemporaries say of her goes a little way to explaining her astonishing success: ’Alphonsine Plessis interests me very much. She is, first of all, the best-dressed woman in Paris. Second, she neither flaunts nor hides her vices. Third, she is not always talking or hinting about money. In short, she is a wonderful courtesan.’

Marie Duplessis Giuseppina Strepponi

Agénor de Guiche, scion of the Gramonts, one of the first families of France, gave her every luxury, and she quickly picked up the aristocratic tone of the family. Despite her position, people admired her delicacy and apparent modesty. Slight in build, she avoided décolleté necklines, preferring to cloak her shoulders in cashmere shawls, and to choose simple dresses of very light-coloured silks which splendidly offset her brilliant black hair. Her old friend, Romain Vienne, the son of the innkeeper at Nonant, came to visit her in Paris and said of her: ’Her elegance is effortless; even dressed in a simple country smock she would have turned heads on the grand boulevards, and put to shame the smartest duchesses and most opulent heiresses’.

’She walked on the muddy floor as if she was traversing the boulevards on a rainy day, raising her dress intuitively . . . Her whole appearance was in keeping with her young and lithesome form; and her face, of a beautiful oval shape, rather pale, corresponded with the charm she diffused around her, like an indescribable perfume.’ ’It seemed as if she illumined all these burlesque, uncultivated beings with a glance of her lovely eyes. She came into the room and moved, her head erect, through the astonished rabble.’

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LA TRAVIATA

She had developed a nice ironic sense too; when asked why she’d changed her name to Marie, she said it was because that was the name of the Virgin. After Agénor de Guiche had been moved out of France by his family, she was adopted in turn by two young bankers, Count Édouard de Perrégaux, whose Swiss bank had been so successful that Napoleon made his grandfather a founder of the Banque de France, and, in her last year, by Count Olympe Aguado de las Merismas, whose father had negotiated the loans for King Ferdinand VII which saved the Spanish state from bankruptcy. Rossini had composed a cantata for Olympe’s baptism. The banker father had bought Chateau Margaux for 1,300,000 francs in 1835. We struggle to compare the value of currencies across national frontiers and historical periods but this price and the fact that French senators of the time earned 30,000 francs a year, put Marie’s estimated income of between 100,000 and 400,000 francs a year into perspective, and give an idea of how superlative she must have been at her profession. In 2014 sterling, we should consider her to have been earning half a million a year untaxed, at the very least. Her taste in luxury defies most modern imaginations. She rationalised it to Vienne: ’Suppose I sell my horses, my carriages, dismiss my staff, take a modest apartment, reduce my spending to a minimum; next day all my “admirers” would be gone. It’s not our virtues that draw them, like moths to a candle flame, but our faults, our extravagances, our opulence; and to renounce all this would be a pointless act of surrender. It’s only with sumptuous clothes, rare jewels, and magnificent horses that we can be confident of hooking the ambitious rich, the degenerate of every kind, and above all the blasé old men who must have both refinement and luxury’. She drew artists and writers like Dumas and Franz Lizst, who described her as ‘the most absolute incarnation of Woman who has ever existed’, but when she talked of blasé old men she may have been thinking of the 76 year-old father of twelve, Gustav von Stackelberg, a hugely witty Estonian count who had been Russia’s representative at the Congress of Vienna. Stackelberg’s Christmas gift to Marie in 1844 was a ring which cost him 4,364 francs, say around £12,000 in 2014 sterling. It was he who was responsible for decking out Marie’s house so that it looked like Cleopatra’s private bower of bliss - the Boulle bed was heavy with carved caryatids and vine leaves. When choosing for herself, Marie showed remarkable restraint, and the good taste of someone who could afford to allow quality to speak for itself: the girl from Nonant knew her Stud Book, and Marie ensured her horses were as smartly turned out as herself, from the embossed leather of their little coronets to their chain-mail breast-plates. She had an agent scouring England for the best blood-lines. Her coiffeur came every day; her pedicurist worked on the Opéra’s leading ballerinas; her glovemaker supplied the Queen and the Empress of Russia. If better could be got, she got it. People said that she finally married Edouard de Perrégaux only so that she could display a coronet on her carriage doors. Not many queens were as royally turned out as Marie. Dumas’s novel throws light on Marie’s lifestyle: rising very late, a ride in the Bois in the afternoon, a visit to the theatre in the evening where she took a box to show her wares, and then dinner. She had several non-paying lovers, the amants de coeur, and she sent out to the best restaurants for dinner for her other friends and for the one in favour. He then had often to expect a literal coitus interruptus, for patrons would knock on the door until as late as

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three in the morning. Marie was too practically minded to refuse her services to the people who paid her bills. Edouard de Perrégaux bought a house for them both at Bougival down the Seine, a country retreat, and the setting for Act II of Traviata. The famous guinguette at Bougival, La Grenouillère, painted so memorably by Monet and Renoir, catered for the crowds of twenty years later, but in Marie’s time there was not much to see other than the great Machine de Marly, the hydraulic engine which pumped water from the Seine to the fountains at Versailles. The character of Germont père has proved an obstacle for anyone trying to suggest that Alfredo is based mainly on Alexandre Dumas fils. Dumas’ own father, the famous author, was a man of enormous appetites of every kind. Frequently forced to flee the country to escape imprisonment for debt, he had been so successful with travelogues of his places of exile that the government asked him to write one on their newly-acquired colony of Algeria. He agreed to do so, as long as they provided him with a warship. They commissioned a corvette for the purpose. The elder Dumas would have been more likely to proposition Marie than appeal to any vestigial sense of honour in either of them. The first symptom of tuberculosis is a cough. Later, and often slowly, the cough becomes chronic and is accompanied by blood-tinged sputum, followed by fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The bacillus spreads gradually but widely in the lungs, causing the formation of hard nodules (tubercles) or large cheeselike masses that break down the respiratory tissues and form cavities. Untreated, the infection can progress until large areas of the lung and other organs are destroyed, bringing on asphyxiation and death. Modern antibiotics can often effect a cure, but in Marie’s day there was no reliable treatment and the disease killed 4% of Parisians every year. It is highly contagious and communicated by infected droplets in a cough or a sneeze. Almost the whole population of Paris was infected, but the disease can lie dormant for long periods, or even be totally latent: only 10% of people infected develop symptoms. It is a disease largely of the poor and undernourished; it declares itself when the immune system is compromised in some way, as was shown by the soaring death rate (up to 7% of the population) consequent upon the four-month siege of Paris by the Prussians in 1870. Life was very hard; the butchers were sent to the zoo to slay the animals, and surviving menus from famous restaurants of the time contain alarming dishes such as Côtelettes de chien aux petits pois (dog cutlets with garden peas) and Salmis de ratons, Sauce Robert (sliced sauté of young rats in onion sauce). It takes a lot to put the French off their food. Until 1882, when the bacillus was identified by Robert Koch, people did not believe that contact with sufferers was dangerous, nor indeed was it when almost everyone was already infected. So in its early stages Marie’s illness did not seriously affect her professional life. Romain Vienne says that Marie’s symptoms were very evident by late 1844, and towards the end of 1846 she was clearly desperate and beyond hope: a constant temperature, terrible choking coughs, no possibility of sleep; several different doctors coming each day with remedies often conflicting and always ineffective; creditors continually at the door. A fortnight before the end, on her birthday, the bailiffs forced entry into the apartment, but Olympe Aguado, who was still a minor, persuaded his mother to pay off Marie’s debts, an act of noble generosity from the Spanish marchioness.

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Music in the Tuileries (1862) Édouard Manet (1832-1883)

LA TRAVIATA

In the last months, Marie saw almost no one other than her faithful maid, Clothilde, and her doctors. Dumas had left her rather gracelessly long since, unable to face the continual sexual competition, and humiliated by his financial inadequacy. Old Count Stackelberg kept away, superstitiously imagining that he had himself infected Marie: three of his daughters had died of tuberculosis. A year before she died, she had finally married Edouard de Perrégaux - a better candidate than Dumas for the original of Alfredo - but that had been in England and so didn’t count under French law. He had left her soon after, suspecting perhaps that she had consented only so that she could call herself a countess

and thereby be accepted by the snobbish Lizst in Weimar. On the rebound Marie had taken up with Olympe Aguado, but that affair was short-lived. The generous Olympe had given her 200,000 francs to lose on the gaming tables, one of her last pleasures. In her final weeks, learning how ill she was, Perrégaux became desperate to see her, but Marie had not forgiven him and Clothilde had instructions to turn him away. That last reunion with Alfredo never took place; only Clothilde and a priest were with Marie at the end. Dumas’s novel and Verdi’s opera present a traviata, a fallen woman, made noble by her selfless rejection of the only man she loved, in order to maintain the respectability of his

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La Grenouillère (1869) Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

little sister whom she had not met. The truth was less dramatic: there was no little sister - Perrégaux’s sister, Adèle, had died, aged thirteen, ten years earlier; Germont père, if he existed at all, was an impersonal Perrégaux family solicitor who came to visit them in Bougival; the only man she had loved was probably Lizst, not Perrégaux, and Lizst was miles away in Weimar with a bona fide countess of his own. Marie died alone and largely deserted. Romain Vienne and only a few others attended the funeral at the Madeleine. A fortnight later Marie’s effects were put up for sale. Delphine, the elder sister, arrived from Nonant in her clogs, to claim what might be left. Duchesses, great ladies, and dandies of all kinds, who had refused Marie the time of day when she was alive, came eagerly prying into her domain now, running a hand over the rich stuffs, an eye over the luxurious private rooms, and their imaginations over the great bed with its elaborate silk hangings. Violetta, the country girl from Nonant, the most fashionable and the most disgraceful woman in Paris, remained, in death, the talk of the town. MICHAEL FONTES was a master at Winchester College for for ty years. He now runs Les Orchidées de Najac, studying and photographing the wild flowers and butterflies of Najac in Aveyron, France. He has been writing for the festival programme every year since 1999.

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1859 “ORDER 172 RIFLES . . . HAVE THEM EX AMINED BY SOMEONE KNOWLEDGEABLE TO SEE IF THEY WILL SERVE OUR PURPOSE” [TO ARM THE NATIONAL GUARD OF BUSSETO] VERDI 1813-1901 1874 “WE LIVE IN A SCIENTIFIC ER A . THE 19 TH CENTURY WILL GO DOWN AS THE AGE OF STEAM AND ELECTRICIT Y. THE BOOKS OF JULES VERNE ARE KNOWN TO ALL” MASSENET 1842-1912 1886 “OH, HOW NAUSEATING MASSENET IS. THE MOST IRRITATING THING IS THAT IN ALL THIS SICKLINESS I FEEL SOMETHING THAT IS AKIN TO ME” [OF MANON] TCHAIKOVSKY 1840-1893 1840 Verdi (27) had achieved success at La Scala with Oberto but lost his family; his wife, Margherita Barrezzi (26) and two small children had died. 1840 May Pytor Tchaikovsky (PT) born 1842 May Jules Massenet (JM) born 1844 Dumas meets Marie Duplessis (20); 1847 she dies; 1848 Dumas publishes La Dame aux Camélias 1848 May Verdi (GV) travels Milan– London via Paris where he visits Giuseppina Strepponi. “I went to the Opéra. I have never heard more awful singers or a more mediocre chorus. What I saw of Paris I liked very much and above all I like the free and easy life one can live in that country”. June/July GV in London for I Masnadieri at Her Majesty's. “Long live our sun I've been sufffering this fog and smoke which suffocates me . . . ”. “I have had two orchestral rehearsals and if I were in Italy I would know by now whether the work was good or not, but here I understand nothing. Blame the climate. . . It's true that they have offered me 40,000 francs for another opera . . . if I have to come back here I shall ask for much more”. A newspaper reports: ‘the ladies devoured poor Verdi with their opera-glasses’. He declines an invitation to meet Queen Victoria. In response to an offer of a 10 year contract as musical director at Her Majesty's and to compose an opera a year, he replies “I would require the sum of 90,000 francs for each season . . . plus a house

in the country and a carriage.” Nothing came of this. For the next few, though based in Paris with Strepponi, he threw himself wholeheartedly behind the Risorgimento. Writing from Paris “Honour to these heroes! Honour to all Italy, which in this moment is truly great! The hour of her liberation has sounded.” Back in Milan, his priorities are clear: “You speak to me of music! What's got into you?... Do you believe I want to concern myself now with notes, with sounds?… There must be only one music welcome to the ears of Italians in 1848. The music of the cannon!” 1849 April To his publisher Ricordi “I can hardly express my surprise on receiving your statement. Why exchange francs into Milanese lire? To facilitate payment I would have accepted, for each gold napoleon of twenty francs, four silver napoleons plus half a franc – I cannot accept silver napoleons exchanged with Milanese lire at 7.4. I could give you plenty of reasons, but there is no point in talking to you, a businessman . . . It is unjust that I should have to lose money on the exchange . . . You owe me the loss on the exchange of the 150 gold napoleons . . [using the rate] on January 26th, the day the payment should have been made . . .” 1851 GV adds to his holding at Sant'Agata to become one of the largest landowners. He brings the latest agricultural machinery from the Paris Exhibition. His cohabitation before marriage with Strepponi is a scandal.

1852 Feb GV and Strepponi sees Dumas’ play La Dame aux Camélias and are fascinated with the idea of a contemporary subject (qv Anna Nicole). The Venice censor demands the opera is produced in early 18c costumes. 1853 Jan Rome Il trovatore Mar Venice La traviata. GV “. . . fiasco. Was the fault mine or that of the singers? Time will be the judge”. Oct The Crimean War. An underwater electric telegraphy cable connects the Crimea to Varna, Bulgaria. Tolstoy (PT’s “the greatest of all writers and artists ever to have existed anywhere”) commands a battery of guns on the Fourth Bastion at Sevastopol, the most dangerous point in the city's fortifications. 1855 The Grand Crimean Railway up and running in 3 weeks. The full 11 km of track complete a month later. After the war the track is sold to the Turks; five coaches, goods wagons and at least two steam engines to the new Buenos Aires Western Railway in Argentina. 1857 Tolstoy witnesses a public execution in Paris that would mark the rest of his life. “The State is a conspiracy designed not only to exploit, but above all to corrupt its citizens . . . I shall never serve any government anywhere.” 1858 Aug The first transatlantic cable reduces communication between North America and Europe to minutes (Transmission speeds are slow, but speedier than the 10 days by sea).

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1860 Paris, Hamburg, Dresden, Berlin, Vienna, Warsaw are linked but by rail but Italy and Russia lag behind. The St P’burg–Moscow railway has reduced the 10 day road journey to 15 hours. St P’burg asks GV for an opera. He suggests Ruy Blas; they settle on Forza. 1861 Feb At the request of the new Prime Minister Camillo Cavour, Verdi enters the country’s first parliament. He serves for four years, travelling to Turin as required. The letters VERDI are an acronym for Victor Emanuele Re D’Italia - the King of Sardinia who takes the throne of a nation unified for the first time since the 6th Century. Mar Tsar Alexander II decrees that landowners can no longer sell serfs, transfer them to other estates or remove their children. In 1857 Tolstoy had offered his serfs freedom on the following terms: each serf household is given 1.35 acres at an annual rent of 5 roubles for 30 years. after which they would then be given 10 acres. His serfs were reluctant to embrace this change and plan shelved until 1861. Mar Paris première of Tannhäuser. Massenet meets Wagner. Wagner meets Rossini. Sep PT's first trip to Europe. “Life in Paris is extremely pleasant”. Nov GV travels with Strepponi Busseto–St P’burg via Paris. It takes 12 days. Giuseppina had sent in advance large quantities of wine, pasta, cheese and salami. 1862 Jan The première of Forza is delayed until the autumn. Travelling Moscow–Paris via Berlin “appalling cold from Dunaberg to Kovno. We travelled three or four miles in an open train in 33 deg of cold - even the wine turned to ice.”

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Apr Paris Grand Hôtel: electricity, lifts, ice-making machines. Sep GV returns to St P’burg for Forza. Tsar asks to meet GV. 1862 JM wins Prix de Rome. 1863 Feb-Apr PT attends Wagner concerts in St P’burg 1864 Wooden bridge over the Po replaced by iron to allow express trains Berlin–Rome 1865 Sep GV resigns his seat, ensuring his successor was a liberal politician and an honest man. Dec GV in Paris and admires Hausmann's changes “I roam through the length and breadth of Paris and I examine the new part which is truly beautiful. How many boulevards, how many avenues, how many gardens. . . I have heard the Overture to Tannhäuser by Wagner. He's mad!!!” He hears the whole opera in Vienna in 1875 1866 PT Symphony no1 1867 GV to his foreman at Sant'Agata “I leave tomorrow for Paris and I repeat once again the orders given, to see if for once I can't make myself understood and obeyed: 1. You will watch over the horses and the coachman in whom I have little confidence in the matter of orders. Let him exercise the horses every two days without going to Busseto. 2. You will tell Gerino that he was wrong to hand over the key of the engine [machinery which could be used if GV was present] that now he must clean it and lock it up until further orders. 3. You will repeat to the gardener what I said to him. The garden closed: no one must enter, nor must the people in the house go out, except the coachman for the short time needed to exercise the horses. If anyone goes out, he can stay out for always . . . Take note that I am not joking” 1868 The railway arrives in Monte Carlo which was to play an important part in JMs life. Verdi 56; Massenet 27; Tchaikovsky 29 1870 Jun GV stipulating the terms for Aida requires “the sum of 150,000 francs, payable in Paris at the Bank of Rothschild at the moment when I consign

the score to you”. After Aida, he writes only two more operas over 30 years. He had a substantial income from royalties. Jul JM serves in the Franco-Prussian War. “A dismal date for my poor country. I tried to write during the short moments of rest that guard duty and military exercises left us” Dec Paris zoo’s 200 animals killed and eaten. It is predicted food will run out on Jan 20 10 May 1872 Much honoured Signor Verdi, On the second of this month, attracted by the sensation your opera Aida was making, I went to Parma. Half an hour before the performance began I was already in my seat, No. 120. I admired the scenery, listened with great pleasure to the excellent singers, and took great pains to let nothing escape me. After the performance was over, I asked myself whether I was satisfied. The answer was in the negative. I returned to Reggio and, on the way back in the railroad carriage, I listened to the verdicts of my fellow travellers. Nearly all of them agreed that Aida was a work of the highest rank. Thereupon I conceived a desire to hear it again, and so on the forth I returned to Parma. I made the most desperate efforts to obtain a reserved seat, and there was such a crowd that I had to spend 5 lire to see the performance in comfort. I came to the following conclusion: the opera contains absolutely nothing thrilling or electrifying, and if it were not for the magnificent scenery, the audience would not sit through it to the end. It will fill the theatre a few more times and then gather dust in the archives. Now, my dear Signor Verdi, you can imagine my regret at having spent 32 lire for these two performances. Add to this the aggravating circumstance that I am dependent on my family, and you will understand that his money preys on my mind like a terrible spectre. Therefore I address myself frankly and openly to you so that you may send me this sum. Here is the account: Railroad, going: 2.60 Railroad, returning: 3.30 Theatre: 8.00 Disgustingly bad dinner: 2.00

Twice: 15.90 Total: 31.80 In the hope that you will extricate me from this dilemma, I am yours sincerely, Bertani Note: Verdi agrees to pay the sum less the dinners on the grounds that he could have brought them from home. 15 May 1872 I, the undersigned, certify herewith that I have received the sum of 27.80 lire from Maestro Giuseppe. . . At the same time it is agreed that I shall undertake no trip to hear any of the Maestro's new operas in the future, unless he takes all the expenses upon himself, whatever my opinion of his work may be. Bertani, Prospero PT works as a critic, and is out of step with public taste. “My fellow citizens passed me by with laughter as they hasten to drink their fill for the hundredth time of the inspirations of maestro Verdi” 1874 JM sees staging of Jules Verne’s Round the World in 80 Days in which Phileas Fogg travels through Suez JM later collaborates with Verne. 1875 Puccini (17) walks Lucca–Pisa to see Aida Dec Berlin PT sees Round the World in 80 Days 1876 Jan Paris PT hears Carmen Dec In Moscow, Tolstoy is delivering chapters of Anna Karenina to his publisher. He calls by the conservatoire to meet the composer that everyone is talking about. “He went to see me at my flat several times . . . I am terribly flattered and proud about the interest which I awaken in him” PT avoids conversation on music as Tolstoy is of the view that Beethoven was untalented. 1877 Apr JM Roi de Lahore at the new Palais Garnier. Within 5 years it was given in St P'burg, Buenos Aires, Rio di Janeiro, Budapest, Munich, London. Massenet is a celebrity. Apr–Sep PT (37) hectic courtship, marriage, separation. He is given financial support by Nadezhda von Meck, a widow whose husband had

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Salle Garnier, Monte Carlo 1879

Verdi's staff at Sant'Agata

made a fortune from the railways. He had died of a heart attack on hearing that his youngest child was not his. 1878 JM Elected to Académie des Beaux-Arts in favour of Saint-Saëns with whom JM commiserates: “My dear colleague, the Académie has just committed a grave injustice”. SaintSaëns replies: “I entirely agree with you”. Jan PT writes to Sergei Taneyev from San Remo “Aida . . . is so far removed from me, I am so little moved by her unhappy love for Radames Dec PT is staying near Florence “I got hold of Verdi's Giovanna d'Arco . . . In the first place, it does not follow Schiller, and in the second, it is extremely bad .. . . I have bought Massenet's Roi de Lahore . . damn it all, these Frenchmen have such taste, such style . . . I have been to the theatre. Nadezhda sent me a ticket. In the interval I watched her through my binoculars with mixed feelings of curiosity, affections and surprise.” NvM left Florence before PT “I feel an emptiness and a great longing for her. I walk part her empty villa with tears in my eyes . . . I had grown so used to being in daily contact with her, watching her every morning with all her company and what at first used to embarrass and confuse me has now become the object of the most sincere regret. . . . I suffer from a disease which the Germans call railway fever. For several days before the journey I always fuss about and get bothered and all because I hate travelling in a crowded train” 1879 Jan Monte Carlo’s 524 seat opera house, the Salle Garnier, is completed. Feb JM's Roi de Lahore produced at La Scala. Corticelli, the Sant'Agata bailiff, shows GV the rapturous press clippings. GV suggests a commemoration stone: “In the year 1879 a foreign composer came here and was greeted with huge festivities and a banquet attended by the Prefect and the Mayor. In 1872 a certain Verdi came in person to produce his Aida and was not even offered a glass of water” Later that year it is discovered that Corticelli has embezzleed the savings of the cook and the maid Maddalena with whom he was having an affair. He is dismissed and attempts to drown himself in the canal at Milan. He survives and it is said Verdi bases Falstaff on him. Mar Première of Onegin Moscow. PT to NvM “I know that you do not care very much for Massenet. [Roi de Lahore], however, has captivated my by its rare beauty of form, its simplicity and freshness of ideas and style, its wealth of melody, its dinstinction of harmony” Verdi 66; Massenet 37; Tchaikovsky 39 1880 Jul NvM engages Debussy (18) as music teacher for her children. From Interlaken she writes to PT “He is a pupil of Massenet's in theory, so of course Massenet is his hero . . he is preparing to be a composer and writes very nice little things. . . He is now writing a trio, also very good, but redolent of Massenet.” 1883 Feb Wagner dies.

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GV “Sad. Sad. Sad! Wagner is dead! When I read the news yesterday I was horrified! Let us not discuss it. It is a great individual who has disappeared! A name that leaves the most powerful imprint on the history of art!” Later that year GV writes “I think that life is such a stupid thing and what is worse, a useless thing. What do we do? What shall we do? Taking it all together, there is only one answer, humiliating and extremely sad: NOTHING! ” PT recalls Tristan in Berlin. “I have never been so bored . . . It is the most wearisome, vacuous rigmarole with neither action nor life”.

Apr Paris. PT “Today I went to the famous Grand Prix. It was the first time in my life that I had seen a horse race. It was very boring and I will never again be lured to any such time-wasting activity. What's more it poured with rain.” 1886 PT writes “Back home I played Manon. Oh, how nauseating Massenet is!!! And the most irritating thing is that in all this sickliness I can feel something that is akin to me” Oct PT to NvM “I always remember two people who have a hostile attitude towards opera — you and Lev Tolstoy — and swear that I shall not write any more operas, but then an irresistible attraction to the theatre always gains the upper hand, and I feel that as long as I can hold a pen in my hand I will nevertheless write

more operas than symphonies or string quartets.” 1887 GV Otello after a gap of 16 years. 1888 PT receives life annuity from the Tsar. He makes his first conducting tour of Europe. “My life in Berlin was sheer torture. I didn't have a minute to myself. Do you recognise travelling round Europe the same man who only a few years ago hid from social life and lived in solitude?”. Feb / Mar Paris. "I found many glories but little money" He calls on Massenet who is out. PT bemoans lack of recognition at home “Nobody reads about me in the papers in Russia. It is a great pity. The point after all is not that I personally have been favoured with the attention of the European public, but that in my person attention has been paid and honour has been accorded to the whole of Russian music, to all Russian art.”

The staircase at L'Opéra Garnier (1877) Louis Béroud (1852-1930)

1884 Feb In Paris PT hears Manon “I had expected something more. It is very elegant, very polished, but there isn't a single moment capable of moving, captivating, or striking one. Massenet is starting to become colourless and boring, although he has invested a lot of effort . . . he always has the orchestra playing whenever something is spoken, the effect is ultimately quite exhausting.”

“I was so bored that I only just about managed to sit there until the end. At the same time, though, I wasn't able to suppress a feeling of envy. What a staging, what magnificent playing from the orchestra, what first-rate singers! ”

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Nov GV “I see that the newspapers are talking about a jubilee!! Lord, have mercy on me! Of all the useless things in the world” [to mark the 50th anniversary of his first opera Oberto] GV begins planning the Casa di Riposo per Musicisti (Musicians Retirement Home) in Milan. 1889 Mar Eiffel Tower completed as entrance to the World Fair. Mar - Apr In Paris. PT concert at Châtelet “Success. Backstage . . . Massenet's enthusiasm”. In London “When I walked to the rehearsal this morning it was about as foggy as it gets in Petersburg. . . I left St James's Hall at 12.30 in the afternoon it was absolutely dark, like 8 on a moonless evening in Petersburg. I find London quite dreadfully disagreeable . . I feel deep down as if I were sitting in a dark underground prison.” 1890 Jan PT to Florence to write Queen of Spades. Dec Premiere in St P'burg. 1891 Apr PT by steamship to America. “New York is a very distinctive city . . . single-storey houses alternating with buildings of nine storeys”. Nov PT Voyevoda is a flop in Moscow. He destroys the score. ”A hoary old ancient ought either to move onwards (and even that is possible, because Verdi is still developing and he is getting on for eighty) or he ought to maintain that level which he has already achieved”. 1893 Jan JM Werther: 43 performances in Paris. Feb GV Falstaff. GV Writes to the Minister “I read an announcement that the title of Marquis is to be conferred upon me. I call on you as an artist to do all you can to prevent this”. Nov PT dies in mysterious circumstances. 1894 Oct Verdi receives top level Legion d'Honneur. Massenet sulks “with a passing illness” Nov JM visits GV at Palazzo Doria, Genoa. JM recalls “I shall always see him bare-headed and upright beneath the scorching sun, showing me the iridescent town and the golden sea beneath us with a gesture as proud as his genius and as simple as his beautiful artist's soul. It was almost an evocation of one of the great Doges, stretching over Genoa his powerful and beneficent hand.”

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THE ERA OF THE AUTOMOBILE Dec The Paris Salon du Cycle includes two cars. France has 20 cars in use. Jun The world’s first automobile race (average speed of 15 mph) won by Levassor. Jul The first automobile journey in the UK in a Daimler-engined Panhard– Levassor, shipped across the channel; transported by train to Micheldever station where Evelyn Ellis (1843-1913) took delivery on the platform and drove to Datchet.

1896 Mar Milan 24 performances of PT Sleeping Beauty. In St P'burg JM La Navarraise (Massenet absent) 1897 Paris. Blériot makes the world’s first automobile headlamp. The profits of his showroom finance his interest in aviation and cine photography. May Bazar de la Charité was held in a 80x13m wooden shed, in which a fantasy medieval street of wood, cardboard, cloth and papier-mâché was created. Aristocratic women posed as shop girls and wealthy men made purchases – all in aid of charity. In a cubicle the Lumière brothers presented moving pictures. Their equipment caught fire and the blaze killed 126 people, mostly aristocratic women including Sophie of Bavaria the former fiancée of Ludwig, Wagner's patron. Survivors included Massenet's daughter, Juliette (29), and Lucy Arbell (14), the first Dulcinée in Don Quichotte. Nov Sant'Agata. Streponni dies. Her will asks for a simple service in the chapel at Sant'Agata. Her coffin was carried to Fiorenzuola, with Verdi following it, bare headed, and by rail to Milan to the municipal cemetary. “I

came poor into this world and I want to leave it the same way.” GV “Great grief asks for silence, isolation, I would even say, the torture of reflection.” 1898 1st Paris Motor show. 1900 May GV makes his last will. Special provision was made for the Casa di Riposo including Treasury Bonds and all Italian and foreign royalites. “I ask my residuary legatee to keep up my house and garden at Sant'Agata and the fields around the garden all just as they are today. I wish my funeral to be extremely simple and to take place either at daybreak or at the hour of the Ave Maria without either music or song. I do not desire publication of any of the conventional death announcements. On the day after my death, 1000 lire should be distributed to the poor of the village of Sant'Agata” 1901 17 Jan GV's last letter is a receipt for royalties. 27 Jan GV dies in the Grand Hotel, Milan at 6.30am (where he had spent Christmas in his usual suite). He is buried next to Strepponi in the municipal cemetery. On 1 Feb at La Scala there is a solemn commemoration. On 28 Feb at 8am, the two coffins are taken to the Casa di Riposo. 200,000 people line the black-draped streets of Milan and Toscanini conducts a choir of 800 in Va pensiero. On hearing of his death, Massenet, suffering from a severe gripe, excuses himself from the funeral “it seemed too much of a risk”. THE ERA OF AVIATION 1901 Prince Albert of Monaco agrees to stage JM's Le Jongleur de NotreDame. Oct Alberto Santos-Dumont, flies around the Eiffel tower in a dirigible. 1905 Feb Extra carriages are added to the Paris–Monte Carlo Rapide for people travelling to the première of JM’s Chérubin. JM Paris “A situation demanded the immediate assistance of my librettist . . . I wrote forthwith to the Minister of Posts, Telegraphs & Telephones and ask him to grant me an almost impossible thing: to place a telephone in my room before four

o'clock. Naturally the tone of my letter reflected that of a deferential petition. How could I have hoped for it? When I returned from my affairs, I found on my mantel a pretty telephone apparatus which was quite new. The Minister had felt bound to interest himself in my capricious wish on the spot. He had sent a crew of twenty men with everything required for a rapid installation. . . Hello!... Hello! At the first attempt I was very clumsy of course. All the same I managed to hold a conversation. I also learned, another useful kindness, that my number would not appear in the Annuaire. Consequently nobody could call me up. I was the only one who could use the marvellous instrument.” Aug JM “I was walking pensively under the pergola of our house at Égreville, when suddenly an automobile horn woke the echoes of that peaceful country. Was not Jupiter thundering in the heavens? . . . For a moment I could believe that such was the case, but what was my surprise—my very agreeable surprise—when I saw get down from that thundering 60 miles an hour two travelers . . . One was the director of the Opéra, Gailhard, and the other the architect of the Garnier monument.” 1906 The first flight of over 100m. 1908 Paris Motor Show gives a section to aircraft. Gandhi (39) and Tolstoy (80) correspond on the independence of India and other suppressed people. 1909 Jul Blériot flies over the Channel Sep First Paris Air show at the Grand Palais; 100,000 visitors; 380 exhibitors. 1910 Feb Paris flooded. JM takes Paris–Monte Carlo train for première of Don Quichotte. Afterwards a grand ball in the atrium of the Casino, with a lottery for charity and festivities until 4am. A month later, the celebrations to inaugurate Albert’s Oceanographic Museum. (Cousteau was director 1957 – 1988) include a water ballet with ships and galleys. Aug JM has abdominal surgery 1911 Paris. 68 performances of Don Quichotte. Jan First Monte Carlo Rally.

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Dec The Aero-Club de France establishes a fund to erect a monument to the glory of French aviation. For the occasion Massenet wrote Salut solennel aux aviateurs. More than half a dozen pioneer aviateurs had died in pursuit of airborne travel. 11 July 1912 JM Posthumous Thoughts : I have departed from this planet and I have left behind my poor earthly ones with their occupations which are as many as they are useless; at last I am living in the scintillating splendor of the stars, each of which used to seem to me as large as millions of suns. Of old I was never able to get such lighting for my scenery on the great stage at the Opéra where the backdrops were too often in darkness. Henceforth there will be no letters to answer . . . Here there are no newspapers, no dinners, no sleepless nights. Ah! if I could but counsel my friends to join me here, I would not hesitate to call them to me. But would they come? Before I came to this distant place where I now sojourn, I wrote out my last wishes. I had indicated that above all I wanted to be buried at Égreville, near the family abode in which I had lived so long. Oh, the good cemetery in the open fields, silent as befits those who live there! I asked that they should refrain from hanging black draperies on my door, ornaments worn threadbare by use. I expressed the wish that a suitable carriage should take me from Paris: the journey to begin at eight in the morning. An evening paper (perhaps two) felt it to be its duty to inform its readers of my decease. A few friends—I still had some the day before—came and asked my concierge if the news were true, and he replied, ‘Alas, Monsieur went without leaving his address.’ At lunch acquaintances honored me with their condolences, and here and there in the theaters they said “Now that he is dead, they'll play him less, won't they?”

Paris flooded 1910

8 August 1912 Massenet 70 taken to hospital. He dies Tuesday 13 August at 4am. On Friday the body was blessed by the vicar of Saint–Sulpice and taken in a motor van to the family vault at Egreville

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First Paris Air Show 1909

29 May 1913 Paris riot at the première of Rite of Spring. 22 November 1913 Lowestoft. Benjamin Britten born a century after Verdi.

1951 “I AM AN ARROGANT AND IMPATIENT LISTENER; BUT IN THE CASE OF A FEW COMPOSERS, A VERY FEW, WHEN I HEAR A WORK I DO NOT LIKE I AM CONVINCED IT IS MY OWN FAULT. VERDI IS ONE OF THESE COMPOSERS”

BRITTEN 1913–1976

LINKS https://www.britishpathe.com   90,000 historic clips http://mikes.railhistory.railfan.net   Rail travel before 1935 YouTube has footage of Tolstoy   ADONAIS9991

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TC H A I KOV S K Y

QUEEN OF

BOURNEMOUTH SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CONDUCTOR ∙ GIANLUCA MARCIANO ≈ anonymous DIRECTOR / DESIGNER ∙ ANTONY MCDONALD ASSISTANT DESIGNER ∙ HIROKO MATSUO MOVEMENT ∙ LUCY BURGE REVIVAL DIRECTOR ∙ PETER RELTON ASSOCIATE ∙ LAUREN COLLINS REVIVAL CHOREOGRAPHY ∙ PAUL CHANTRY LIGHTING DESIGN ∙ PAUL KEOGAN SOUND DESIGN ∙ SEBASTIAN FROST

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COUNT TOMSKY ∙ GOCHA ABULADZE ≈ Mr & Mrs Ernst Piech

QUEEN OF SPADES

HERMAN ∙ CARL TANNER ≈ Francis & Nathalie Phillimore PRINCE YELETSKY ∙ STEPHEN GADD ≈ Legs: The Holmes Family; Arms: Raymonde Jay SURIN ∙ TIMOTHY DAWKINS TCHEKALINSKY ∙ ANTHONY FLAUM ≈ Diane & Christopher Sheridan LISA ∙ GISELLE ALLEN THE COUNTESS ∙ ANNE-MARIE OWENS ≈ Christopher & Anne Saul Her grandmother

POLINA ∙ CAROLYN DOBBIN TCHAPLITSKY ∙ STUART LAING ≈ Peter & Manina Dicks NARUMOV ∙ MATTHEW STIFF ≈ John & Carol Wates GOVERNESS ∙ SARAH CHAMPION MASCHA ∙ CHRISTINA PETROU ≈ Brian & Jennifer Ratner THE EMPRESS ∙ INGE HUNTER

O F S PA D E S Libretto by the composer's brother, Modest Tchaikovsky based on a shor t story by Alexander Pushkin First performance St Petersburg, 19 December 1890 Performances at The Grange on July 6, 8, 10, 12

SPONSORED BY BELL POTTINGER

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QUEEN OF S PA DE S ACT 1 St Petersburg. In the park, Surin and Tchekalinsky discuss the strange behaviour of fellow officer Herman. He seems obsessed with gambling, watching all night, though never playing. Herman appears with Count Tomsky, and admits that he is in love with a girl whose name he doesn’t know. Herman is shocked to learn Prince Yeletsky is engaged the girl. Her name is Lisa. Lisa's old grandmother, the Countess, lived in Paris, and was known as the “Venus of Moscow”. She won a fortune at the gambling table with the help of “the three cards,” a winning combination she learned from the Count of Saint-Germain. She only ever shared this secret with two other people. There is a prophecy that she will die at the hands of a third person who will force the secret from her. The men laugh but Herman decides to learn the Countess’s secret. Lisa and her friends pass the time singing. When she is left alone, she thinks about her ambivalent feelings for her fiancé and the impression Herman has made on her. To her shock, he suddenly appears on the balcony. He claims that he will kill himself if she marries another man and begs her to have pity on him. Lisa gives in to her feelings and confesses that she loves him. ACT 2 Yeletsky has noticed a change in Lisa’s behaviour toward him. During a ball he assures her of his love. Herman has received a note from Lisa, asking

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Portrait of A N Protasova (1900) Boris Kustodiev (1878-1927) Portrait of D M Solsky (1908) Boris Kustodiev (1878-1927)

QUEEN OF SPADES

him to meet her. Surin and Tchekalinsky tease Herman that he will be that "third person". Lisa slips Herman the key to a secret door to her room which is through the Countess’s bedroom. Herman insists on coming that very night. INTERVAL In the Countess’s bedroom, Herman is fascinated by a youthful portrait of her. He senses that their fates are linked: one of them will cause the other’s death. He hides as the old lady returns from the ball, and she falls asleep in an armchair. She wakes and Herman demands to know the secret of the cards. The Countess refuses to talk; Herman threatens her and she dies of fright. Lisa rushes in. Horrified at the sight of her dead grandmother, she realises that Herman’s only interest was the Countess’s secret. ACT 3 Herman is descending into obsession. In his barracks, he reads a letter from Lisa asking him to meet her at midnight. He recalls the Countess’s funeral and her ghost appears, telling him that he must save Lisa and marry her. The ghost says that his lucky cards will be three, seven and the ace. Lisa waits for Herman by a canal, wondering if he still loves her. When he at last appears, she says they should leave the city together. Herman refuses, replying that he has learned the secret of the cards and is on his way to the gambling house. Lisa realises that she has lost him and kills herself. The officers are playing cards at the gambling house. They are joined by Yeletsky who has broken off his engagement to Lisa. Herman enters and immediately bets 40,000 roubles. He wins on his first two cards, a three and a seven. For the final round, he bets on the ace. He is certain he will win. However, the third card is the Queen of Spades. Horrified, he kills himself. Pushkin ended Herman's life in Room 17 at the Obukhov hospital muttering repeatedly Three – seven – ace Three – seven – queen

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IN

ALPHABETICAL HONOUR

OF THE QUEEN OF SPADES, FIONA MADDOCKS TOSSES HER CARDS IN THE AIR AND SEES WHERE THEY LAND – IN FACT, FICTION, ART, LIFE OR SOMETIMES OPERA

The Card Players (c1894) Paul Cezanne (1839–1906)

The House of Cards (c1735) Jean-Siméon Chardin (1699-1779)

A for ACE From the Old French or Latin ‘as’ meaning a unit, it referred to the side of dice showing one mark before its use in playing cards. Its low numerical worth became associated with bad luck, until it acquired the high-value it has in most European card games. In Poker and Blackjack, the player can call whether the value is low or high. B for BRIDGE The heroine in Edith Wharton's The House of Mirth loses her money at bridge. Maggie in Henry James’s The Golden Bowl watches her husband and step-mother, scheming secret lovers, play. Modern Bridge rules were established by Harold Vanderbilt, a US multi-millionaire railroad executive and champion yachtsman. His mother, Alva Belmont, was a suffragette-socialite and pioneering patron of the Metropolitan Opera, New York. C for CARMEN or CHEAT In Bizet’s opera, Carmen’s death is foretold in the cards. Other operatic card games include Verdi’s La Traviata and Prokofiev’s The Gambler. In Puccini’s Fanciulla del West the heroine Minnie hides some cards in her stockings and wins at Poker. Cheat is a game of deception in which players aim to get rid of all their cards – also known as I doubt It, Bluff and Bullshit. The Russian version is Verish' Ne Verish' (Trust, don't trust). D for DIRECTION OF PLAY The direction of play varies between regions and nations. In most of Asia and South America the play is anti-clockwise, in North America and Australia, clockwise. Europe, as in so many cases, is divided, with the north mostly clockwise (including France, Germany, Poland, Russia), the south anti-clockwise (including Spain, Italy, Romania, Turkey). E for ECARTÉ A French game for two players from the word ‘discarded’ and using the ‘piquet’ set of 32 cards. The king is the highest card. Madame Bovary’s

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QUEEN OF SPADES

husband plays it. It features in Wilkie Collins’s The Woman in White, and in Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story, The Hound of the Baskervilles. Operatically, the Duchess of Plaza-Toro boasts of her skills in Gilbert & Sullivan’s The Gondoliers. “At middle-class party, I play at écarté, and I'm by no means a beginner". F for FARO or FULL HOUSE Faro, a popular late 17th century French gambling game, seals Herman’s fate in The Queen of Spades. A full house is a category in Poker, above a flush and below a four-of-a-kind. In bingo it is the set of numbers required to win. At the opera it means a theatre full to capacity. G for GAMBLER’S FALLACY Also known as the Monte Carlo fallacy, the Gambler’s fallacy is the unfounded belief that if something happens with abnormal frequency, it will happen less frequently in the future. It can occur in any aspect of life – coin tossing (after many heads, there must be a run of tails), childbirth (after five boys, surely a girl is due). In a casino in Monte Carlo on 18 August 1913, the ball fell in black 26 times in a row. Gamblers lost millions betting against black, assuming that a series of red would surely follow. H for HOUSE OF CARDS A structure built by stacking cards on top of each other. On 21 April 1992, Bryan Berg of the United States broke records with a 75-storey structure. Since the 17th Century the expression has been used to describe an argument built on a shaky foundation. At least four films and, based on Michael Dobbs’s novel, a UK series (starring Ian Richardson) and a USA TV series (starring Kevin Spacey) have borrowed the phrase as a title. I for INDIAN RUMMY Indian rummy, which uses 13 cards and two decks, is almost indistinguishable from any other kind of rummy, but originated from the South East Asian game of Rhuk. The Indian legislature has declared it a game of ‘skill or mere skill’, therefore not subject to the restraints of gambling or betting. Extremely popular at parties and gatherings, it is also a favourite for long Indian train journeys. J for JOKER Thought to come from Jucker, the original German spelling of Euchre the Joker first joined the regular deck of cards around 1860, as the highest trump card. It quickly became associated with the Fool – which also appears in the Tarot pack – and is portrayed as a court jester. Opera has its own hunchbacked court jester in Verdi’s Rigoletto. The best joke about cards was made by King Farouk of Egypt who said: “Soon there will be only five Kings left - the King of Spades, The King of Clubs, the King of Hearts, the King of Diamonds and the King of England” K for KNAVES The rogue royal servant, the lowest of the face cards. “He calls the knaves jacks, this boy” notes Estella disdainfully of Pip in Great Expectations. In old French packs the ‘J’ or ‘Kn’ is ‘V’ for valet. In Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland, following the Queen of Hearts’s great domestic bake-off, the greedy Knave of hearts “he stole those tarts”. Boston composer Vartan Aghababian’s opera Knave of Hearts was premiered in 2013.

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The Schwartz Family (1908) Boris Kustodiev (1878-1927)

The Cardsharps (c1594) Michelangelo Mensi da Caravaggio (1571-1610)

L for LUCK Luck, which entered the language in the Middle Ages, may be good or bad. Its defining feature is that it is outside our control. For some it’s a form of superstition, for others it doesn’t exist, except as a term used after a series of events, positive or negative, which seem improbable. Herman was decidedly unlucky. He might have fared better humming “Luck be a Lady Tonight”, sung by Guy Masterson in Guys and Dolls (1950) when he wanted to win a bet. M for MISÈRE A bid in Solo (a Whist variant of Bridge, Euchre, Ombre and Skat) called by a player who expects to win no tricks – hence the cry ‘misery’. The opposite bid is Abundance, where a player hopes to score nine. Not to be confused with ‘Voi ma misère’ from Saint-Saens’s Samson et Dalila or with the Miserere in Verdi’s Il Trovatore. Or Allegri’s Miserere, or Les Misérables come to that. N for NINE OF DIAMONDS Known as the “Curse of Scotland”, legend has it that the order for the Massacre of Glencoe was written on the back of one. Another version tells how, playing cards on the eve of the Battle of Colloden, the Duke of Cumberland ordered “no quarter’ to the Jacobites and wrote it down on a Nine of Diamonds. Others say the diamonds relate to Mary Queen of Scots or that it represents the Pope. All are probably nonsense.

Major-General Pavel Shevelev (1903) Boris Kustodiev (1878-1927)

O for ONE-EYED ROYALS

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All the court cards are shown full face except for the Jack/Knave of Spades and Jack/Knave of Hearts, plus the King of Diamonds, only seen in profile. The King of Diamonds, with an axe behind his head, and the King of Hearts with a sword at his neck are called the ‘suicide kings’. P for PIQUE DAME or PIQUET Pique Dame is the common name, except in English-speaking countries, of Pushkin’s novella Pikoyava Dama. Mr Hurst and Mr Bingley play Piquet - two players and 32 card in Pride and Prejudice. Other card games played at the Bingley residence are vingt-et-un (blackjack) and commerce. Brazilian Nelson Piquet is former Formula One World Champion.

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The Cheat (c1635) Georges de La Tour (1593-1652)

QUEEN OF SPADES

Q for QUEEN In an English deck the Queen of Hearts is associated with Elizabeth of York, wife of Henry VII. In a French pack, the Queen of Spades is linked with Athena, goddess of wisdom. In a Russian pack she has no particular significance. But for Herman in Tchaikovsky’s opera she spells doom. Instead of the winning Ace, as dictated by the Countess’s ghost, he has the Queen of Spades. He kills himself. R for RAPE OF THE LOCK The most detailed card game in poetry. Pope’s mock-heroic poem, a sharp satire published 300 years ago this year, Belinda plays Ombre with two male admirers. All turns on the final trick, fully reported by Pope: "An Ace of Hearts steps forth: The King unseen / Lurk'd in her Hand, and mourn'd his captive Queen. / He springs to Vengeance with an eager pace, / And falls like Thunder on the prostrate Ace". Belinda triumphs. S for SPADES, ACE OF, QUEEN OF The Ace of Spades, or spadille, alone in its large, decorative presentation, is sometimes known as the ‘death card’. It can also be the

highest trump. The Queen of Spades holds a sceptre and is nicknamed the ‘bedpost queen’ but more often, as befits Tchaikovsky’s opera, the Black Lady or Black Maria. In modern warfare the Ace of Spades has been used as a symbol of good luck, painted on soldiers’ helmets. Some take it instead as a bad omen. T is for TRUMP The word derives from ‘trionfi’ meaning triumph. In bridge, whist, and similar card games, a trump is a trick-winning card of a suit chosen to rank above the others. In Tarot, which has five suits instead of the usual four, the Major Arcana is a suit of 22 permanent trump cards. Donald Trump’s family name was originally Drumpf. In an early memoir he capitalized on his name by titling it “The Art of the Deal” (1987). The suit that was filed against him last year, alleging he had defrauded more than 5,000 people at his Trump University, had nothing to do with cards. U for UGLY This unfortunately named game was invented in the 1980s by the Committee for the Advanced Research into Deck Statistics

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V for VALUES Usually the value ordering for playing cards is 2 to 10 numerically, followed by Jack, Queen, King and Ace in each suit. In some games, suits are ordered too, from low to high Clubs, Diamonds, Hearts, Spades. Qatar purchased Cezanne’s The Card Players for a record-breaking $250 million. This is another way of valuing cards. There are four other Cézanne Card Players, in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Musée d’Orsay, the Courtauld, and the Barnes Foundation. Qatar is therefore in a smart club with only five members. W for WINNING Everyone understands winning. ABBA’s “The Winner Takes it All’, inspired by a divorce in the Swedish group, was voted Britain’s ‘Favourite Break-up Song”. As it was a chart hit worldwide, and was used in the film Mamma Mia! it undoubtedly won the performers a good deal of money. In the 1980s Jimmy Tarbuck hosted a TV gameshow called Winner Takes All. Losers took home a Filofax, though later this was changed, sadly, to a T-shirt. Graham Greene’s Monte Carlo novel Loser Takes All, about a gambler who really wins only when he loses, is more rewarding.

Maslenitsa (1919) (Maslenitsa is the Eastern Or thodox equivalent of Carnevale) Boris Kustodiev (1878-1927)

(CARDS), a group of bored Australian students. Apparently it is played in Canberra, Perth and elsewhere though this is hard to verify. The Seven of Diamonds is called the Ugly card, the Seven of Clubs the Charm card. To describe it in further detail here would be to test the patience (or Patience) of even the most avid cartophile.

X for XO_KÎN A Kurdish trick-taking game played in the eastern and south-eastern parts of Turkey. It closely resembles the American three-handed, double deck game of Pinochle (or Binocle, from the French ‘eyeglass’), derived from Bézique. Reportedly this game is played by Turkish workers in the German city of Düsseldorf. Y for YELETSKY Prince Yeletsky is engaged to Lisa, the countess’s granddaughter in The Queen of Spades, with whom Herman is in love. The Prince’s house is the scene of the Act II ball at which Lisa fatefully slips Herman the key to the Countess’s bedroom, which gives access to her own. In the last scene of the opera, Yeletsky – now himself a gambler after the loss of Lisa – seeks vengeance on Herman and challenges him to the bet that destroys him. Z for ZENER OR Z(S)CEPTIC Zener cards were used to test Extrasensory Perception (ESP) and clairvoyance. Designed in the 1930s, they are named after the perceptual psychologist, Karl Zener. After instances of suspected cheating (eg identifying the boldly patterned cards by seeing them reflected in a person’s cornea, or glasses) Zener cards were devalued. Herman might have benefited from a set of Zener card or ESP or both to escape his fate. FIONA MADDOCKS is Music Critic of the Observer. Her book on Harrison Bir twistle, "Wild Tracks - A Conversation Diary" has just been published by Faber.

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Maslenitsa (1919) (Maslenitsa is the Eastern Or thodox equivalent of Carnevale) Boris Kustodiev (1878-1927)

QUEEN OF SPADES

CASINOS

ARE FOR LOSERS

AN EXTRACT FROM A LECTURE BY DOLYA GAVANSKI When a player has a good run of wins, the casino manager will often change the croupier. The casino model is predicated on losers. How can losing money be fun? Why is the gambler so key in Russian culture? Some say Russians are fatalists . . . sitting back . . . letting fate take its course. The gambler, however, doesn’t stop. It is hard, dangerous work. Whilst researching my radio drama, a contemporary take on Dostoevsky’s The Gambler, I went to an exclusive members–only casino near Hyde Park set in a beautiful early 19th century building with a magnificent staircase, a library created by the Florentine wood carver Barbetti, a concierge service and tight security. I had to send my passport 24 hours in advance to be cleared. The Gambler (1867) is a story of Russians abroad. In fictional Roulettenburg gather characters from varying backgrounds and nationalities. Each is obsessed with money, pride and one another; none is immune to the seductive charms of chance, euphoric wins and massive losses. London is not a bad place to explore this hysteria. Prokofiev created an opera on The Gambler. In common with Dostoevsky, he had a passion for gambling. Pushkin also loved the game. Tolstoy gambled in his 20s and sold some of his estate to cover the cost. Chekhov played enthusiastically

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in Monte Carlo. He lamented "How much Russian money is lost in Monte Carlo?!" How much Russian money is lost in London today? The floor manager told me his biggest customers were no longer Russians but Middle Eastern and Chinese. No place in Russia can rival Macau. On one table was an imposing woman, covered in diamonds, surrounded by a big male entourage. She was the only woman player there. I was told she was an Eastern princess. She played for high stakes and was enjoying herself. For her, losing money was fun. Gamblers have both a rationale for playing and a way of playing. On the roulette table was a man playing with a particular focus; throwing down his chips as if he didn’t care. Another man played two tables at once; calculating, measuring something. Their manner of play revealed something about each character; their relationship towards money, the way they tried to influence fate and the unpredictable. Gamblers apply theories on how to play. They range from complex mathematical models through to divine signs. The wheel is spinning . . . slowing down and in these last moments some gamblers move their bets as if a greater power from above spoke. In the gaming rooms there were no windows nor clocks. Time stops: gambling is committed to the present. Players step out of their ordinary life; the possibility of ‘the other’ is explored; identity is negotiated. Alexei, the tutor in The Gambler, tries to understand his addiction “Maybe after so many experiences, the soul needs stronger and stronger sensations.’ Commitment to the present allows a form of heightened experience of oneself, perhaps of completeness and ecstasy. Throughout the novel there are allusions to life and death in relation to gambling. The granny babushka bets on zero, on nothingness . . . death . . . gambling gives her life. Throughout 19th century Europe gambling was a prominent feature in literary depictions of the upper classes. But the Russian intelligentsia, with their sense of moral mission and social responsibility, seized upon the image of the gambler with particular intensity:

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his tormented consciousness, restless mind, vivid imagination and strong passions. In Pushkin's St Petersburg, the government exercised controls over education, publishing, and all manifestations of public life. Gambling was of, course, forbidden. Describing St Petersburg society a contemporary wrote: . . . from 10 in the evening, seven out of ten men in St Petersburg play cards . . . A need for the game is so widespread, that in some circles without further enquiries people’s dignity is judged by the words: he plays, he does not play. . . people that usually would not be able to enter these social circles are accepted because they play hard. Note the qualities praised: determination and courage of the player, the gambler’s willingness to take risks. The gambler plays hard. He confronts his luck, as well as his fate. Alexei believes that when he gambled he dared to play, he dared to see life and death, to be a man amongst man. The gambler is also an outsider. Both Alexei and Herman in The Queen of Spades desire to achieve social status and endorsement. Alexei is just a tutor, Herman an ethnic German officer in the Imperial army, Alfredo in La Traviata a bourgeois from the provinces. In an unfinished work Pushkin suggested how gambling challenged class barriers: In there, yesterday’s servant is permitted To be with his master on equal terms. And he that was unlucky from the day of birth, Can often find within the game his recompense. Money is dirty; a morally corrupt activity. Money “comes out” in gambling (Martin Holbraad). The gambler fulfils the natural destiny of money: to be spent. Dostoevsky calls this act ‘destroying money’. In Traviata’s climatic gambling scene, Alfredo wins and humiliates Violetta by throwing money in payment for her services. In The Gambler, Polina spends most of the novel urging Alexei to gamble for her. At the end she also throws the money in his face. In both cases the money ends up on the floor. The gambler represents the man who “takes his destiny in his hands” (Holbraad). The

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Vsevolod Meyerhold (1874–1940)

Gambling was forbidden in the Soviet Union. It stood for what the revolution stood against. It was seen as an idle, bourgeois pastime, incompatible with the true spirit of the proletariat. Vsevolod Meyerhold (1874–1940) made a profound impact on Russian culture of the 20th century, influencing theatre practitioners, conducting, and composition. His 1935 staging of The Queen of Spades was considered by many, including Shostakovich, the greatest achievement in the musical theatre.

QUEEN OF SPADES

gambler is not subjected to money: he makes money move around. Money exists external to the self. It burdens the heart. It fosters anxiety and misery. It is the core symbol of capitalist domination.

Meyerhold believed Pushkin’s thoughts were obscured in the libretto and so co-wrote a new version aiming to reveal the ‘subtext’ of the score. He reasoned that Tchaikovksy had fallen prey to the dictates of the Imperial Theatre management. Meyerhold made cuts to the score aiming to tighten the link between Pushkin and Tchaikovsky. The press wrote extensively about the production. Critics saw in the image of Herman ‘an archetypal 19th century man, who has big powers but cannot realise them’, a solitary, driven and passionate conqueror of life. It was an image they condemned as bourgeois. By the end of the 1930s the avant-garde movement was brutally supressed with the growth of Stalinism. Meyerhold was questioning the very essence of Russia’s culture and its Europeanised identity. He was proclaimed enemy of the people and killed on 3 February 1940. Casinos and McDonald's symbolised the end of socialism. In 1989, the Soviet government lifted its ban on gambling. I remember as a teenager in the early 90s in Moscow, a nightclub with a casino was one of the few places to go out. Foreigners, mafia and prostitutes would mingle. Since the break up of the Soviet Union until 2006 the Russian Federation was ranked among the world’s fastest-growing casino and slot machine markets. The popularity of gambling was not solely restricted to Russia. In Serbia and Montenegro there are betting shops and casinos on every corner. Where social mobility is dependent upon a combination of talent, effort and connections, games of chance provide an alternative road to fortune. But gambling is also about anti-savings. Perhaps gambling here is a type of social protest,

Lissitzky's design for Meyerhold's unrealized 1929 production "I want a child" by Sergei Tretyakov

against capitalism, an act of defiance against money (Holbraad). Gambling became illegal in Russia in 2009, except in four remote areas. The government was concerned with (a) health of society (b) money laundering (c) uncollected taxes. Illegal casinos have sprung up everywhere. Gambling is hard and sometimes dangerous work. DOLYA GAVANSKI created a two par t radio drama The Russian Gambler for BBC Radio. As an actress she has recently finished filming Our Kind of Traitor starring Ewen McGregor. Dolya has a PhD on Russian theatre and opera.

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MASSENET

DON QUIC BBC CONCERT ORCHESTRA CONDUCTOR ∙ RENATO BALSADONNA ≈ Trevor & Suzi Swete DIRECTOR ∙ CHARLES EDWARDS ≈ Stephen Gosztony & Sue Butcher SET DESIGNER ∙ CHARLES EDWARDS COSTUME DESIGNER ∙ GABRIELLE DALTON MOVEMENT ∙ LYNNE HOCKNEY ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR ∙ KAROLINA SOFULAK LIGHTING DESIGN ∙ PAUL KEOGAN

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DON QUICHOTTE

DON QUICHOTTE ∙ CLIVE BAYLEY ≈ Ruth Markland SANCHO PANZA ∙ DAVID STOUT ≈ Jeremy & Rosemary Farr LA BELLE DULCINÉE ∙ SARA FULGONI ≈ Derek Johns ADMIRERS OF DULCINÉE PEDRO ∙ PRUDENCE SANDERS ≈ Christopher Swan GARCIAS ∙ SYLVIE BEDOUELLE JUAN ∙ ALBERTO SOUSA ≈ Adair Turner & Orna Ni-Chionna RODRIGUEZ ∙ JORGE NAVARRO-COLORADO TÉNÉBRUN, CHIEF OF THE BANDITS ∙ JONATHAN ALLEY BANDITS ∙ JOE MORGAN, ALEX HAIGH, DAVID BOOTH, SIMON CHALFORD GILKES PARTY GUESTS ∙ BROCK ROBERTS, JONATHAN ALLEY

I C H OT T E Libretto by Henri Caïns based on the 1605 novel by Miguel de Cervantes and a 1904 play Le chevalier de la longue figure by Jacques Le Lorrain First performance Opéra de Monte Carlo, 19 February 1910 Performances at The Grange on June 14, 19, 22, 28, July 4, 9

SUPPORTED BY AN ANONYMOUS GIFT and THE PRINT ROOM at the Coronet

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DO N Q U IC H OT TE An elderly composer prepares to present a public showing of his latest opera to his friends in his salon . . . ACT 1 Four hopeful admirers of Dulcinée serenade her from the street. Dulcinée appears and explains that being adored is not enough, 'Quand la femme a vingt ans'. She withdraws and the crowd acclaim the arrival of an eccentric old knight and his squire, Don Quichotte and Sancho Panza. Delighted to be recognised, Don Quichotte tells Sancho to throw them money. The crowd leaves and Don Quichotte serenades Dulcinée, 'Quand apparaissent les étoiles' but he is stopped by Juan, a jealous admirer of hers. A sword fight follows, interrupted by Dulcinée herself. She is charmed by Don Quichotte's oldfashioned attentions and chides Juan for his jealousy. The old man offers her his devotion and a castle. She suggests that he might instead retrieve a pearl necklace of hers taken by bandit chief Ténébrun. He agrees, and Dulcinée rejoins her friends. ACT 2 Quichotte is composing a love poem. Sancho delivers a bitter tirade against their expedition, against Dulcinée, and against womankind. 'Comment peut-on penser du bien de ces coquines'. The mists disperse revealing a windmill that Quichotte takes for a giant. To Sancho's horror, Don Quichotte attacks it, only to be caught up in its sails.

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DON QUICHOTTE

ACT 3 Don Quichotte believes they are getting close to the bandits. Sancho goes to sleep while Don Quichotte stands guard. The bandits suddenly appear and after a brief fight take the knight prisoner. Surprised by the defiance of the old man, the bandits give him a beating and intend to kill him, however Don Quichotte's prayer 'Seigneur, reçois mon âme, elle n'est pas méchante' moves Ténébrun, to mercy. Don Quichotte explains his mission 'Je suis le chevalier errant', and the necklace is returned to him. The bandits ask for the blessing of the noble knight. ACT 4 A party is in progress, but Dulcinée is melancholy, 'Lorsque le temps d'amour a fui'. Rousing herself, she sings for her guests 'Ne pensons qu'au plaisir d'aimer'. Dulcinée and her friends retire to dinner. Sancho and Quichotte arrive. Sancho asks for his reward to which Don Quichotte responds with promises of an island and a castle. Dulcinée and the guests greet the knight and he returns the necklace to everyone's amazement. However when he asks her to marry him he is met with derision. Taking pity, Dulcinée tells the others to leave, apologizes 'Oui, je souffre votre tristesse, et j'ai vraiment chagrin à vous désemparer' but explains that her destiny is different from his. But the guests return to make fun of the old man. Sancho upbraids them, 'Riez, allez, riez du pauvre idéologue'. Cervantes (above) could claim an ancestry of genuine knights-errant extending far back, and, knowing true chivalry, had strong feelings about the mock chivalry of the old romances. He also had experience as a soldier and of real adventures. He was proud of having lost the use of his left hand fighting for Don John of Austria at the Battle of Lepanto, and he had been captured by Algerine pirates and kept prisoner for five years; his family had had great trouble raising the ransom money.

ACT 5 The old man is dying. He remembers his promise to Sancho of an island and offers him an isle of dreams, 'Prends cette île'. Then he sees a star shining brightly above and hears the voice of Dulcinée calling him to another world. He collapses as Sancho weeps.

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THE SEARCH FOR LUCY ARBELL THE SEARCH FOR LUCY ARBELL, real name Georgette Wallace, the first Dulcinée in Massenet’s Don Quichotte, and the composer’s muse, starts in Manchester Square, the home of the Wallace Collection. Lucy, born in 1878, was the illegitimate daughter of EdmondRichard Wallace, himself the illegitimate son of Richard Wallace, who donated the Collection, himself the illegitimate son of Richard Seymour-Conway, 4th Marquess of Hertford. Illegitimacy ran in the family. Not much of Richard Wallace’s great wealth passed down to Lucy, his granddaughter, but the family had lived in France for many years and Parisians appreciated the old man’s gift of fontaines Wallace, elegant drinking fountains designed by Wallace himself and erected all over Paris during the rebuilding of the city in 1870, after the Prussian siege. There’s even a token example in Manchester Square. The fountains provided free clean water throughout Paris. The family was very well liked in France, and Lucy owned a smart villa, La Favourite, which still stands, at St-Aubin, on the Normandy coast, close to Ouistreham. She was a stylish contralto and a lively character and she became the guiding spirit of Massenet’s late years. Very hardworking and prolific, Massenet, the leading operatic composer and teacher of his time, wrote eight operas with her in mind at the end of his life; she created the roles of Perséphone (Ariane), Thérèse, Amahelli (Bacchus), Dulcinée (Don Quichotte), Posthumia (Roma), Colombe (Panurge). She was due to sing the leads in Amadis et Cléopâtre, according to the terms of the composer’s will, but Ninon, Massenet’s widow, had turned against her by then and found someone else, saying that Lucy was no longer a leading lady, though she would always remain a leading cow; Lucy sued and won. Relations between the two women had not always been so strained. Massenet was famous for rising at four in the morning and composing entirely in his head, not at the piano. He worked fast and he never attended

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performances of his own works. He installed a telephone in his house in 1906 and spent hours discussing his music with Lucy. It was Lucy, for instance, who suggested to him that he include passages of speech in his songs and operas, like the speaking role of Ténébrun, the bandit chief, in Don Quichotte. He was ailing from about 1905, beginning to show the symptoms of the stomach cancer which killed him in 1912. When Massenet was unwell, Ninon, conscious that she was herself often away at some spa, was the first to advise that he should go to convalesce with Lucy at St Aubin. The sea air would be good for him. This gives the hint of a lie to the theory that Lucy and Massenet were intimate from an early stage in their friendship. Lucy is interesting on how exacting Massenet could be as a teacher: I’ll try to give an idea of what it’s like working with Massenet. Oh dear! It’s often far from easy, because the master, when he brings in a new work, expects the singer immediately to project the part, its power, its subtleties…everything. He can’t abide the least hesitation; you’d think it was the day before the dress rehearsal… From the singer’s first sight of the music he demands nothing short of perfection. But once he feels you’ve responded to him and the work, what a change! He’s delighted and grateful; he’s generous and overwhelms you with praise. Over-the-top at the start…over-the-top at the finish. Yet everything seems to end in smiles, and the master so loves his singers that he admits them into the heart of his family. How we singers adore him, admire him, revere him! Don Quichotte, composed in 1909, was the fourth and most successful of the six operas commissioned by Raoul Gunsbourg for the Opéra of Monte Carlo. Chaliapin was Quichotte for the premiere and was roundly ticked off by the composer for bursting cavernously into tears in rehearsal at the end of the fourth act. None of that until you’re back in your dressing room, the great Russian bass was told. Massenet didn’t like

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Lucy Arbell (1882-1947) Jules Massenet date unknown Fontaines Wallace, Paris

DON QUICHOTTE

Chaliapin’s performance at all, probably because he acted and rumbled too much and sang too approximately, as his recordings illustrate. Most audiences found him riveting. Massenet liked the ladies and liked composing for the female voice. Rather surprisingly he did write one opera without a female lead, The Juggler of Notre-Dame, in 1902, but the Scottish soprano Mary Garden, Debussy’s Mélisande, fell in love with the part of the Juggler, written for a tenor, and turned him into a sort of principal boy, singing the role up an octave. An agreeable legend has it that for the opera she trained the monastery donkey to lift his ears when she sang, and lower them when anyone else did. In his memoirs Massenet tells us that he was suffering from acute rheumatic pains in 1909 when Cain, his librettist, brought him an outline based upon a play by a shoemaker from Bergerac called Jacques Le Lorrain. A very minor poet, born in 1856, Le Lorrain, determined to leave his father’s trade, got himself a little education at Montpellier university, and went rambling penniless for twenty years round Spain and Germany, his head full of elaborate dramatic dreams. By the time he returned to France he strongly resembled Don Quixote in appearance and in cast of mind. Finally settling in Paris, he set up another shoemaker’s shop, but that failed almost at the same time as he found someone to put on his play. He was by then too ill to enjoy its considerable success, and died in 1904, not long after the first performance. Like Jacques Le Lorrain, Massenet identified with Cervantes’ hero. He was attracted by the opportunity to write some music with Spanish colour, and in his old age he saw Lucy as his Dulcinée and his inspiration. The opera enabled him to pay a very personal tribute to her. In Cervantes’ book Don Quixote has been inspired by the sight of a young peasant girl, Aldonza Lorenzo, from the neighbouring ramshackle village of El Toboso, and translates her in his imagination into Dulcinea del Toboso, a name, to his mind, musical, uncommon, and significant, like all those he had already bestowed upon himself and the things belonging to him. Cervantes’ Dulcinea is in the great comic tradition of the person spoken about but never

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seen: Elizabeth Mainwaring, Hyacinth Bucket’s son Sheridan who is at “a polytechnic of university standard”, studying Tapestry Design & Advanced Needlework with his room-mate Tarquin, Maris Crane in Frasier, all derive from this model. Dulcinea nearly appears on two occasions in Cervantes; each time some device prevents her. In the first case, the priest intercepts Sancho’s mission to deliver a letter to her. In the second, Sancho can’t find her, and explains to Don Quixote that she must have been enchanted.

Don Quixote & Sancho Panza (1850) Andreas Achenbach (1815-1910)

Quixote’s feelings for Dulcinea are chivalrous rather than erotic – one can’t help feeling that a long forgetfulness has overtaken that part. No long forgetfulness had overtaken that part in Massenet however, and, oblivious to the loss of Cervantes’ sublime ironies, he was delighted to find that Le Lorrain had brought Dulcinea out of the milking parlour, to provide him with a female role for Lucy: The thing which decided me to write this work was the splendid idea of Le Lorrain to substitute for the vulgar serving wench, Cervantes’ Dulcinea, a ‘Belle Dulcinée’ at once both original and colourful. This excellent idea had escaped the most famous French playwrights. It brought to our opera the allure of a beautiful woman, and the relish and high poetry of our Don Quichotte dying of love, of real love this time, for a ’Belle Dulcinée’ clearly worthy of this passion to the highest degree.

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Massenet and his leading ladies

DON QUICHOTTE

Reading his memoirs, which were published at the very end of his life, Ninon can have been left in little doubt as to her husband’s feelings for La Belle Lucy.

the reliability of his imagined sources, cruxes in them, and conflicts between them, enable the playful ambiguities and ironies which abound in the work.

Massenet had no qualms about setting famous works. His last opera, Panurge, is based on the greatest comic character in classic French literature, the agreeable shambling giant from Gargantua and Pantagruel, who spends a large part of the book consulting various more or less disreputable authorities on whether or not he should get married.

Cervantes wrote his book in two parts, the second in response to the appearance of a rogue second part by one Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda (a pseudonym), who was trying to exploit the enormous popularity of Cervantes’ first part. Avellaneda’s work is very poor stuff compared to the real thing, but we can be grateful to him for spurring Cervantes, always a slow writer, into extending his great work. Cervantes enjoys inventing devices to discredit Avellaneda, who becomes the object of many jibes in the true Part 2. Although we never meet him, Don Quixote and Sancho comment on how they have been made to behave in his book. Don Quixote is outraged to hear that he’s been portrayed as no longer in love with Dulcinea and decides to repay the spurious author by not going to Zaragoza for the jousts, as he had planned, because he is described as doing so in Avellaneda. When one of Avellaneda’s characters, Don Alvaro Tarfe, appears in Cervantes’ Part 2, Quixote makes him swear an affidavit declaring that he has never before met the true Don Quixote.

Le Lorrain alters Cervantes’ Quixote beyond recognition. Dulcinea loses her mystery. In the book, Quixote has encounters with robbers much troubled at how to deal with his battiness, but there’s no question of his charming them and taming them. The death scene, the most affecting part of the opera, is remote from Cervantes. In Cervantes, Quixote dies three times. This is a luxury afforded the author by his fictional triple authorship – Cervantes, the narrator, says he is editing for the reader a Spanish translation of an account by a Moorish historian, Cide Hemete Benegeli (Sir Praising AubergineEater). These various layers of authorship, and the way the narrator can comment on

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When, as the unread part of the book becomes slim in your right hand, you learn that Don Quixote has renounced chivalry, you know finally that this death of the spirit must foretell actual physical death, insofar as death can come to someone existing at so many levels and commenting so freely on the part he is playing in the story. Don Quixote is killed by the collapse of his dreams, by the sudden realisation that he has been deluded from the beginning of the book. He is killed by his own sudden surprising lucidity, something entirely foreign to his nature, and by the attendant realisation that he has been no more than a character in a book of knight errantry, which is now coming to its end. This is for the reader a moment of deep empathy with the hero; we realise that it has been only through our own belief that Quixote is deluded that we have found life in the book. No longer crazy, he is no longer Don Quixote. Regretfully we sense the fantasy recede as both the hero and Cervantes consign us to a more ordinary world. It is one of the book’s great moments of heartbreaking irony. The final death scene in the opera has a different point of focus. Sitting at the base of a tree in a wood, Don Quichotte muses on his life and adventures. As he fails, he presents Sancho with the island he promised him long ago. He hears the voice of Dulcinée behind the clouds: Ah! Our days of love are gone! Where has our happiness gone? Farewell, happiness, farewell! The opera lacks the epic, Wagnerian, scale of the book, which is about two-thirds as long as the Bible; we don’t experience the same sensation of a great shared journey coming to an end, but through the music we feel the importance of the scene to Massenet himself: the old composer, conscious of his great achievements, his twentyfive operas, his successes and his accolades, realising that death is near, pays a poignant musical tribute to the beautiful singer who has enlivened his old age. In doing so, he creates a moment of magic for any great singing-actor. The opera has been revived often, and lives in the repertory not just because it rides on the wings of Cervantes’ masterpiece. It doesn’t actually take much from Cervantes other than the names of the characters and certain traits of personality. But the part of Don Quichotte has

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Poster for the first Paris production of the opera Georges Rochegrosse (1859-1938)

DON QUICHOTTE

excited great basses down the generations: Boris Christoff, Nicolai Ghiaurov, Samuel Ramey, José van Dam, and recently the great Italian bass Ferruccio Furlanetto have all eagerly followed Chaliapin’s memorable example. Furlanetto speaks warmly of Don Quichotte: “I will keep singing the role of Don Quichotte for the rest of my career because he is without any doubt a wonderfully accomplished character. Vocally it is such a splendid promenade. It would be impossible to find a more involving part; the satisfaction that comes from it is overwhelming. It is a role that gives me a few hours of total happiness, quite a privilege in these times.” We can easily see why Ninon could not think of Dulcinée without spitting, for the final scene of Don Quichotte is a deeply touching expression of Massenet’s feelings at the very end of his life for Lucy, thirty-six years his junior, his last great love. MICHAEL FONTES was a master at Winchester College for for ty years. He now runs Les Orchidées de Najac, studying and photographing the wild flowers and butterflies of Najac in Aveyron, France. He has been writing for the festival programme every year since 1999.

All Europe read Don Quixote. The moment the book came out, in 1605, the public demanded extra editions. Pirated versions became common. It has sold more than 600 million copies worldwide, second only to the Bible as an all-time bestseller. The appearance of a spurious second part provoked Cervantes into producing his own second part in 1615, and there the joke is expanded as Quixote and Sancho meet people who have read the first part and who discuss it with them. Quixote reacts with amazement on learning that a book has been written about him. In the encounter with the Bachelor Sansón Carrasco, a student at the university of Salamanca, in chapter 3 of part II, Cervantes boasts of the book’s popularity: “there are more than twelve thousand copies in print. And if you don’t believe it, just ask around in Portugal, Barcelona, and Valencia, where they were printed. There’s even a rumour that it’s being printed in Antwerp, and it seems to me that there will be no nation or language that will not have its own translation.”

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I N A V I LL AG E I N L A M A N C H A , W H OS E N A M E I DO N OT C A R E TO R EC A LL , TH E R E DW E LT N OT SO LO N G AGO A G E NTLE M A N O F TH E T Y PE W H O K E E P S AN UNUSED L ANCE, AN O LD S H I E LD, A S K I N N Y O LD H O R S E , A N D A GREYHOUND FOR CO U R S I N G CERVANTES

Don Quixote’s physical and mental frailty result from excessive reading, lack of sleep and poor diet. Cervantes contemporary Juan Sánchez Cotán gives the humble vegetable a profound spirituality, making a virtue of a necessity

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My father Jose Maria de Navarro (Toty) was born in 1896 and the composer’s godson.

heard it on paper and was pleased that he had to make no corrections.”

Massenet (1842-1912) was a friend of my grandfather, Antonio (Tony) de Navarro (1860-1932). Tony’s father, Jose Francisco, was a first generation Spanish immigrant to New York, who, after an up and down career as an entrepreneur, ended his business life with sufficient money so that neither of his sons needed to work. A gifted amateur pianist and writer, Tony spent summer 1887 in Paris studying with Massenet. They became firm friends. and thereafter Massenet sent him signed “de luxe” editions of opera piano scores, usually inscribed “à mon fidèle ami” and a musical quotation.

This was part of Massenet’s own "legend making" as someone to whom composition came easily. In fact he made a number of alterations to Manon over several years after the première. Donald McLeod on Radio 3 remarked that Massenet pretended not to have a piano – but in fact had one disguised as an ordinary piece of furniture.

In 1890 Tony married American actress Mary Anderson (1859-1940) and before settling in New York, they were in Europe. Around 1893 they were staying at St Raphael near Frejus when Massenet and his wife came to see them. Mary was taken aback by Massenet’s beard and showed her surprise. Massenet announced “I grew it for my barber in Paris – one must take back some little surprise for one’s barber”. The next day he reappeared with no beard. Mary describes him (beardless) as “a slender man with bright hazel eyes and sensitive features, far better looking than in any of his photographs”. Mary told him how much they loved his oratorio Marie Madeleine (1873 – his first great success). “He immediately began to play, a cigarette between his finely chiselled lips, light suede gloves on his hands; despite the gloves, he played magnificently, with many orchestral effects. When he had finished he became silent and walked to the window where he stood looking at a large star, which was making a track of light on the sea. Marie Madeleine had affected him as much as it had us.” Mary had many other stories. She was told by Massenet that he “wrote his operas without any instrument . . . he had never heard a note of Manon until the first rehearsal; he had only

DON QUICHOTTE

THE GODFATHER

Mary recounted how Massenet “had stood in the wings with Bizet on the first night of Carmen in Paris; it was received in a very hostile manner and he had to support poor Bizet to keep him from falling when the hissing was heard”. Writing 24 years after Massenet’s death Mary remembered “his vitality and joyousness of spirit which were so great that I still think of him as living and always the gayest of the gay.” 6 February 2014 Michael de Navarro

Tchaikovsky 21 July 1880 I have studied a work by Massenet which I didn't previously know: MarieMagdeleine. At first it seemed to me a very bold idea to have Christ singing arias and duets with Mary Magdalene, . . . I started playing it through with certain misgivings. But soon these were dispelled. This work contains excellent things, and the duet between Christ and Mary Magdalene is a little chefd'oeuvre.

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B R IT TE N

P E TE R G R I BOURNEMOUTH SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CONDUCTOR ∙ STEPHEN BARLOW ≈ Tom Busher & Elizabeth Benson DIRECTOR ∙ JEREMY SAMS DESIGNER ∙ FRANCIS O'CONNOR ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR ∙ ALEXANDRA SPENCER–JONES LIGHTING DESIGN ∙ PAUL ANDERSON VIDEO DESIGN ∙ ANDRZEJ GOULDING SOUND DESIGN ∙ SEBASTIAN FROST

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PETER GRIMES

PETER GRIMES ∙ CARL TANNER ≈ François Freyeisen & Shunichi Kubo a fisherman

ELLEN ORFORD ∙ GEORGIA JARMAN ≈ David McLellan a widow

CAPTAIN BALSTRODE ∙ STEPHEN GADD ≈ Mr & Mrs Richard Morse

retired merchant skipper

AUNTIE ∙ ANNE-MARIE OWENS landlady of The Boar

TWO NIECES ∙ SORAYA MAFI & ROSIE BELL ≈ Hamish Parker main attractions of The Boar

BOB BOLES ∙ ANDREW REES ≈ David & Simone Caukill

fisherman & Methodist

SWALLOW ∙ CLIVE BAYLEY ≈ Arms sponsored by Tessa & John Manser

a lawyer

MRS SEDLEY ∙ REBECCA DE PONT DAVIES ≈ Margaret Rowe & John Schlesinger

a widow

REV HORACE ADAMS ∙ NIGEL ROBSON ≈ Hamish Parker NED KEENE ∙ GARY GRIFFITHS ≈ Judith Lawless & Kevin Egan sells addictive potions

HOBSON ∙ MATTHEW STIFF carrier

RIMES JOHN, GRIMES' APPRENTICE ∙ CARTER JEFFERIES MASTER ∙ STEVEN EAST YOUNG GRIMES & YOUNG ELLEN ∙ CHARLIE BOYD & PHOEBE VENTURI SEA INTERLUDES DAWN ≈ Nerissa Guest STORM ≈ Quentin Black SUNDAY MORNING ≈ William & Kathy Charnley MOONLIGHT ≈ The Boltini Trust

Libretto by Montague Slater adapted from George Crabbe First performance Sadler's Wells, London, 7 June 1945 Performances at The Grange on May 30, June 7, 11, 15, 18, 21

SPONSORED BY A SYNDICATE DAVID & AMANDA LEATHERS; SIMON DE LANCEY WALTERS; PHILIP & MARY LING; AN ANONYMOUS GIFT

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PE TE R G R I M E S PROLOGUE Peter Grimes is questioned at an inquest over the death of his apprentice. The people make it clear that they think Grimes is guilty and deserves punishment. Although the coroner, Mr Swallow, determines the boy's death to be accidental and clears Grimes without a proper trial, he advises Grimes not to get another apprentice. As the court is cleared, Ellen Orford, the schoolmistress, attempts to comfort Grimes as he rages against what he sees as the Borough community's unwillingness to give him a true second chance. ACT 1 The people sing of their weary daily round and their relationship with the sea and the seasons. Grimes claims to be in desperate need of help to fish, and his friend Ned Keene finds him a new apprentice from the workhouse. Nobody will volunteer to fetch the boy, until Ellen – whom Grimes would like to marry – offers. Ellen brings John, the new apprentice, to Grimes at the pub and he immediately sets off despite the terrible storm. INTERVAL ACT 2 On Sunday morning, while most people are at church, Ellen talks with John. She is horrified to see a bruise on his neck. Grimes is brusque and claims it was an accident. Agitated by Ellen's mounting concern and interference, he strikes her and leaves for his hut. First Ned Keene, then Auntie,

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Frank Sutcliffe (1853–1941) was born in Leeds, married the daughter of a bootmaker, and worked as a por trait photographer in Whitby. These photographs date from around 1890

PETER GRIMES

then Bob Boles, then the whole village group together and the mob marches off to Grimes's hut. Ellen, Auntie, and the nieces sing sadly of the relationship of women with men. In the hut, Grimes impatiently commands John to change from his Sunday clothes and into fisherman's gear. Grimes loses himself in memories of his previous apprentice, reliving the boy's death of thirst. The mob jolts him back to reality. He stands defiant and gets ready to set out to sea, telling John to be careful climbing down the cliff to his boat. The boy falls to his death. When the mob reaches the hut Grimes is gone. Nothing is out of order so they disperse. ACT 3 Night time. Mrs Sedley tries to convince the authorities that Grimes is a murderer. Ellen and Captain Balstrode confide in each other: Grimes has returned after many days at sea, and Balstrode has discovered a jersey washed ashore: a jersey that Ellen recognises as one she had knitted for John. Mrs Sedley overhears this, and with the knowledge that Grimes has returned, she whisks up another mob who once again set off after Grimes. John's death has driven Grimes to insanity. Ellen and Balstrode find him. Balstrode encourages Grimes to take his boat out to sea and sink it. Grimes leaves. The next morning it is as if nothing has happened. There is a report from the coast guard of a ship sinking off the coast. The report is dismissed by Auntie as ‘one of these rumours’.

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I AM NATIVE, ROOTED HERE IN 1941 BENJAMIN BRITTEN was kicking his heels just outside San Diego, California. He and Peter Pears were having a rather uncomfortable time holidaying with the Robertsons, a British piano duo. Britten had some work on hand and had taken to locking himself away in the tool shed, to get away from the noise of the Robertsons’ pianos and, whether it was the tool shed, or California, or sheer overwork, he had begun to feel trapped. He told his sister Beth that he didn't think he would ever succeed in America, ‘(a) because I am English . . . (b) because I'm not American’ and he wrote to another friend, ‘I am homesick, & really only enjoy scenery that reminds me of England’. Unfortunately going back to England was not an easy option. Britten had left the UK before war was declared, but his continued absence had been noticed, and there had been a spate of bad tempered letters about him in The Times. Returning as a conscientious objector could hardly help matters, quite apart from the fact that U Boat packs were scouring the North Atlantic. Yet, suddenly, in July 1941 he cheered up, he wrote to an American friend, ‘We've just re-discovered the poetry of George Crabbe (all about Suffolk!) and are very excited - maybe an opera one day!’

Britten came from Aldeburgh himself and, as he read the article a wave of homesickness overcame him – he looked up from the article and said to Pears – ‘We’ll have to go…’

What had happened? George Crabbe the 18th century clergyman poet, who wrote plain, meticulous, verse about the poor, seems an extraordinary person to have lifted the spirits of a homesick young composer. The answer probably lies in the phrase ‘all about Suffolk!’. Some time that June, Britten had seen an article on Crabbe by E M Forster: a wonderful piece, with long quotations from Crabbe's poetry and a fine description of the poet’s home town, ‘George Crabbe was born at Aldeborough on the east coast of Suffolk. It is a bleak little place; not beautiful. It huddles round a flint towered church and sprawls down to the North Sea…’

But more went into the libretto than Britten and Pear's personal dilemma; the opera is soaked with Britten’s earliest recollections, his affection for the Suffolk coast, and the peculiar topography of Aldeburgh. And in this he simply links hands with other great Suffolk artists, all of whom appear to have carried the Suffolk landscape in their hearts for their entire working lives.

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So back they went. Back via a boring, dangerous, voyage in a Swedish cargo ship where Britten sweated away in his tiny cabin, writing carols and roughing out a scenario based on a Crabbe poem, Peter Grimes. Their homecoming turned out to be a low key affair, it seems that nobody in the Government wanted to be responsible for gaoling England’s most promising young composer, and Britten and Pears were left alone. Britten settled down to compose the libretto he had hammered out in the cargo ship and, in doing so, began to dig deep into his own experience. One aspect of Grimes' dilemma was painfully real to him, the sense of alienation. During an early period of composition, Britten wrote: ‘At the moment Grimes is just a pathological case... He's got to be changed a lot.’ He and Pears called in poet Montagu Slater to write the libretto and, between them, Crabbe’s brutal fisherman disappeared; his place taken by an outsider, a violent, baffled, man who lashes out as his neighbours close ranks against him.

Its not completely obvious to a non–Suffolk person why this should be. In the 1930s Britten took a very indifferent snap shot of the view from his bedroom window in Aldeburgh. It shows a vast flat expanse of shingle, with the North Sea beyond. E M Forster's words,

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Mr and Mrs Andrews (1750) Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788)

PETER GRIMES

from the article that affected him greatly, come vividly to mind, ‘Aldeburgh’ Forster said, ‘sprawls down to the North Sea – and what a wallop the sea makes as it pounds the shingle! Near is a quay, at the side of an estuary, and here the scenery becomes melancholy and flat; expanses of mud, saltish commons, the marshbirds crying.’ That seems to be a very exact description of the Suffolk coast and, in spite of the wallop the sea makes, its leading features seem to be marsh, estuary and wide expanses of mud. Inland the landscape becomes unemphatically rural, and it is this very ordinariness that so powerfully affects Suffolk artists. Thomas Gainsborough, for example, is chiefly remembered for his portrait paintings, but he started life staring at the clumps of trees in Sudbury. He said later that there was no ‘hedgerow, stone or post that, had he known he could use a pencil, he could not have perfectly delineated.’ He discovered his talent while still

a schoolboy and got into deep trouble forging sick notes for school, so he could go on drawing expeditions round the countryside. John Constable said after a visit to Ipswich, ‘It is a most delightful country for a painter. I fancy I see Gainsborough in every hedge and hollow tree.’ Constable too was born in Suffolk, East Bergholt, and he returned to the scenes of his boyhood with an obsessive passion for the rest of his life. ‘I love every stile and stump,’ he said, ‘every lane in the village, so deep rooted are early impressions…’. His Haywain, though painted in London, is loaded with Suffolk associations. Willy Lott’s house stands on the left (a regular character in Constable paintings), the wain is a genuine Suffolk built cart but, greater even than the sense of locality, is the texture of the picture. The ford shimmers under changing light and the paint glistens on the wain and posts as Constable revels in the mud, slime and rotten wood surrounding the water. He wrote to his friend

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Fisher in 1821, ‘How much I wish I had been with you on your fishing excursion… the sound of water escaping from mill dams, willows, old rotten planks, slimy posts and brickwork – I love such things!’

Crabbe was familiar with the river that winds its way behind the coast of Aldeburgh, and he placed Grimes on its muddy waters. Like Constable, Crabbe describes the posts, the plants and the battered river craft of the water way, but he does so with acid distaste. His hero drifts along the Alde idly noticing ‘. . . the mud half cover'd and half dry; The sun-burnt tar that blisters on the planks, And bank-side stakes in their uneven ranks; Heaps of entangled weeds that slowly float, As the tide rolls by the impeded boat.’ Even so, Crabbe's verse rises to sombre power as Peter skulks out of sight:

The Hay Wain (1821) John Constable (1776-1837)

George Crabbe would have recognised the feeling, as one of the few poets in the English language who actually celebrates mud. Crabbe lived a poor and not very happy life on the Suffolk coast before he escaped and got himself an education. He returned a clergyman and remained to the end of his long life a detached observer of his neighbours. He was unsentimental about the poor (whom he disliked) and sardonic about the rich, but he caught an English mood, an English type and a peculiar kind of English scenery.

‘There anchoring, Peter chose from man to hide, There hang his head, and view the lazy tide In its hot slimy channel slowly glide… Here dull and hopeless he'd lie down and trace How sidelong crabs had scrawl'd their crooked race, Or sadly listen to the tuneless cry Of fishing gull or clanging golden-eye . . . He nursed the feelings these dull scenes produce, And loved to stop beside the opening sluice; Where the small stream, confined in narrow bound, Ran with a dull, unvaried, sadd'ning sound.

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PETER GRIMES

In spite of the revulsion, the minuteness of Crabbe's observation suggests that he too had rowed the Alde's channels, as attentive as Peter to the sounds and sights in the mud.

The Hay Wain (1821) John Constable (1776-1837)

Crabbe wrote at a time when the sea itself had become a subject for painting and one great painter, not Suffolk born, turned his attention to the East Anglian coast. Turner's Lowestoft painting takes the picturesque subject of a storm at sea and turns it into a scene of uncomfortable realism. His view point is higher than the sailors but, even so, the painting heaves with the swell of the sea and places the observer firmly in a nearby boat. Ruskin homed in on this naturalism when he described the picture as showing the ‘…hour before sunrise in winter. Violent storm with rain.’ This is a depiction of men rowing for their lives and the presence of the Lowestoft’s lighthouse simply makes the scene more desolate. In spite of the beacon, the men’s ship has foundered and, though Lowestoft was the home of the world's first effective lifeboat, it is not in evidence here. Doubtless the inhabitants of Lowestoft have taken a pragmatic view on the chances of a successful rescue. (The chorus in Peter Grimes are similarly realistic when Grimes’ boat sinks far out at sea) Constable was as interested as Turner in cloud and seascape, but he painted flat coastal mud under the raging skies. And it is this juxtaposition of dramatic seascape with ordinary country life that informs Britten's opera. Of course the sea and its storms are important: Britten himself said, in an introduction to the opera, ‘My parent’s house in Lowestoft directly faced the sea, and my life as a child was coloured by the fierce storms that sometimes drove ships on to our coast and ate away whole stretches of the neighbouring cliffs…’ Cliffs only exist to be eaten away in Suffolk; the village of Dunwich has lost nine churches to the encroaching sea and Aldeburgh has no cliffs at all - in spite of the surprise appearance of one in Act 2. (But that's only there for the Apprentice to fall off.) The drama in Suffolk is all in the sky and the waves, underneath is the enduring mud. Peter Grimes is embedded in that mud, full of the sense of home and coast and river, and the hero surely speaks for Britten when he says he cannot leave: I am native, rooted here. By familiar fields, Marsh and sand, Ordinary streets, Prevailing wind. SARAH LENTON is a writer, lecturer and broadcaster on opera and theatre history. She is a programme contributor and lecturer for the Royal Opera House, ENO and Glyndebourne Festival Opera and is a frequent contributor to BBC Radio 3 podcasts, CD Review and live broadcasts of opera. This ar ticle first appeared in a Royal Opera House programme.

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Benjamin Britten (left figure in white shir t) at Sutton Hoo 1976

G R E S H A M ' S SC H OO L It all seems a very long time ago and memory is fragile – especially at my age. I joined Gresham’s School in the summer of 1944 aged 13. At that time it was evacuated from Holt in Norfolk to Newquay in Cornwall. It went back to Holt in early 1945 and I was there until 1949. Britten is now of course a distinguished alumnus. I only recollect from my time at school, about 18 years behind Britten, a more ambiguous feeling about him. At that time, and for some time afterwards, his departure to the US in the war was seen as somewhat questionable. Indeed pacificism in almost any form was definitely not the zeitgeist. At the time Britten was not a subject to greatly disturb the consciousness of teenage schoolboys such as myself. There were many other things on our minds, from mathematics exams to the feeling that we were living through a new ice age in East Anglia as viewed from the last hill before Siberia. It was also unclear how well Britten had fitted into the more traditional regimes and ethos of music as it was then taught at Gresham’s. Teaching him, it was said, was a somewhat disconcerting experience. Walter Greatorex, the head of music around Britten's time, composed “Woodlands”, the tune for that old war horse of a hymn “Lift up your hearts”. The contrast with the sound world of Britten’s could hardly be starker. Iain Burnside’s “Journeying Boys” at the Milton Court Theatre gave an interesting snapshot of Britten when he was not long out of Gresham’s. It also made me conscious again of how very strange those times must seem to those – now the vast majority – who did not live through them. Indeed now they seem strange to me too. Michael Forrest

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S U T TO N H O O Nigel Maslin remembers meeting Britten at the 1967 excavations. ‘The Misses Copinger Hill, were identical twins, Biddie and Rhoisie. They were in their fifties and lived, they said ‘in the ugliest house in Saxmundham’. Park House was actually a gabled treasure trove of family heirlooms and fine carpets. They spoke knowingly of how it was not right these days to have a private income, but that it was ‘very nice’. They were charmingly and delightfully old school, always bringing homemade treats to the excavation. They seemed to regard the ship trench as almost holy ground, and meticulously cleared the surrounds and made tea. ‘Benjy would love this,’ they said one day. So ‘Benjy’ duly came out in the white open-top Alvis and climbed, appropriately frontways, down the ladder into the ship, for a guided tour.

Ernst Haeckal (1834-1919) German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor and ar tist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, and promoted Charles Darwin’s work in Germany.

A LONG TIME AGO . . .

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Ernst Haeckal (1834-1919) German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor and ar tist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, and promoted Charles Darwin’s work in Germany.

PETER GRIMES

THE BOROUGH Now is it pleasant in the Summer-eve, When a broad shore retiring waters leave, Awhile to wait upon the firm fair sand, When all is calm at sea, all still at land; And there the ocean’s produce to explore, As floating by, or rolling on the shore: Those living jellies which the flesh inflame, Fierce as a nettle, and from that its name; Some in huge masses, some that you may bring In the small compass of a lady’s ring; Figured by hand divine - there’s not a gem Wrought by man’s art to be compared to them; Soft, brilliant, tender, through the wave they glow, And make the moonbeam brighter where they flow. Involved in sea-wrack, here you find a race Which science, doubting, knows not where to place; On shell or stone is dropp’d the embryo-seed, And quickly vegetates a vital breed. George Crabbe The Borough 1810

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OLIVER T WIST 'THAT BOY WILL BE HUNG,' said the gentleman in the white waistcoat. 'I know that boy will be hung.' . . . a bill was next morning pasted on the outside of the gate, offering a reward of five pounds to anybody who would take Oliver Twist off the hands of the parish. In other words, five pounds and Oliver Twist were offered to any man or woman who wanted an apprentice to any trade, business, or calling. [. . .] Mr. Gamfield smiled, too, as he perused the document; for five pounds was just the sum he had been wishing for; and, as to the boy with which it was encumbered, Mr. Gamfield, knowing what the dietary of the workhouse was, well knew he would be a nice small pattern, just the very thing for register stoves. So, he spelt the bill through again, from beginning to end; and then, touching his fur cap in token of humility, accosted the gentleman in the white waistcoat. 'This here boy, sir, wot the parish wants to 'prentis,' said Mr. Gamfield. 'Ay, my man,' said the gentleman with a condescending smile. 'What of him?' 'If the parish vould like him to learn a right pleasant trade, in a good 'spectable chimbleysweepin' bisness,' said Mr. Gamfield, 'I wants a 'prentis, and I am ready to take him.' 'Walk in,' said the gentleman in the white waistcoat. Mr. Gamfield having lingered behind, to give the donkey another blow on the head, and another wrench of the jaw, as a caution not to run away in his absence, followed the gentleman with the white waistcoat into the room where Oliver had first seen him. 'It's a nasty trade,' said Mr. Limbkins, when Gamfield had again stated his wish.

they lit it in the chimbley to make 'em come down again,' said Gamfield; 'that's all smoke, and no blaze; vereas smoke ain't o' no use at all in making a boy come down, for it only sinds him to sleep, and that's wot he likes. Boys is wery obstinit, and wery lazy, Gen'l'men, and there's nothink like a good hot blaze to make 'em come down vith a run. It's humane too, gen'l'men, acause, even if they've stuck in the chimbley, roasting their feet makes 'em struggle to hextricate theirselves.' The gentleman in the white waistcoat appeared very much amused by this explanation; but his mirth was speedily checked by a look from Mr. Limbkins. [ . . . ] and the members of the board, having resumed their seats and their solemnity, Mr. Limbkins said: 'We have considered your proposition, and we don't approve of it.' 'Not at all,' said the gentleman in the white waistcoat. 'Decidedly not,' added the other members. As Mr. Gamfield did happen to labour under the slight imputation of having bruised three or four boys to death already, it occurred to him that the board had, perhaps, in some unaccountable freak, taken it into their heads that this extraneous circumstance ought to influence their proceedings. It was very unlike their general mode of doing business, if they had; but still, as he had no particular wish to revive the rumour, he twisted his cap in his hands, and walked slowly from the table. 'So you won't let me have him, gen'l'men?' said Mr. Gamfield, pausing near the door. 'No,' replied Mr. Limbkins; 'at least, as it's a nasty business, we think you ought to take something less than the premium we offered.'

'Young boys have been smothered in chimneys before now,' said another gentleman.

Mr. Gamfield's countenance brightened, as, with a quick step, he returned to the table, and said,

'That's acause they damped the straw afore

What'll you give, gen'l'men? Come! Don't be too

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PETER GRIMES

hard on a poor man. What'll you give?' 'I should say, £3 10s,' said Mr. Limbkins. '10s too much,' said the gentleman in the white waistcoat. 'Come!' said Gamfield; 'say £4, gen'l'men. Say £4, and you've got rid of him for good and all. There!' '£3 10s,' repeated Mr. Limbkins, firmly. 'Come! I'll split the diff'erence, gen'l'men,' urged Gamfield. ''£3 15. Not a farthing more,' was the firm reply of Mr. Limbkins. 'You're desperate hard upon me, gen'l'men,' said Gamfield, wavering. 'Pooh! pooh! nonsense!' said the gentleman in the white waistcoat. 'He'd be cheap with nothing at all, as a premium. Take him, you silly fellow! He's just the boy for you. He wants the stick, now and then: it'll do him good; and his board needn't come very expensive, for he hasn't been overfed since he was born. Ha! ha! ha!' Charles Dickens Oliver Twist 1838

Swallow Still we of Swallow as a monster speak A hard bad man, who preys upon the weak Ellen Orford The parish aid withdrawn, I look’d around, And in my school a bless’d subsistence found My winter-calm of life: to be of use Would pleasant thoughts and heavenly hopes produce; I loved them all; it soothed me to presage The various trials of their riper age, Then dwell on mine, and bless the Power who gave George Crabbe The Borough 1810

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PATRON Lord Ashburton KG TRUSTEES GRANGE PARK OPERA Simon Freakley Chairman

Joanna Barlow Iain Burnside Emma Kane Hamish Forsyth Wasfi Kani Mark Baring

GRANGE GROUNDS

PRODUCTION MANAGER

TRAINS

TECHNICAL STAGE MANAGER Snell; painted by Adam Cutts Declan Costello Traviata Construction Souvenir painted by Chris Clark DEPUTIES Sylva Parizkova Quichotte Construction /

Richard Loader Gavin Collins John & Victoria Salkeld SWEET PEAS David Manston TENTS Michael Sennett

Steve Penn / Gordon King

FRONT OF HOUSE Jill Hardy Manager

Fergus Cross George Gadd

Alison Ritchie

Niall Mulcahy James Pitkin John Sherrard

STAGE TECHNICIANS

CHIEF EXECUTIVE

Wasfi Kani

Lizzie Marshall Tom Perkins Anthony Bobb-Semple Alex Perry

Heike Munro Wasfi Kani Mark Lacey Marie Veeder

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

HEAD OF LIGHTING

PIMLICO OPERA Mark Andrews Chairman

FINANCE OFFICER

ENDOWMENT FUND William Garrett Chairman

Michael Moody

GENERAL MANAGER

Helen Sennett Annabel Ross

John Derrick Fiona Maddocks Ian Maurice Shirley Radcliffe

SYSTEMS & DATABASE MANAGER

HAMPSHIRE OPERA COMMITTEE Emily Fisher Chairman

Caroline Sheahan

Rosemary Alexander Fiona Alsop Francesca Ashby-Rudd Julia Chute Gail Taylor Alistair Groom Natalie Burnand Rebecca Lamont Vanessa MacMahon Sally Reid METEOR BOARD

Carolina Lane Samuel Atiko Arthur Kay George Meagher Fred Gifford Belle Lupton Kitty Vaughan Jack Gardener

Chris Campbell

BOX OFFICE MANAGER ARTISTIC ADMINISTRATOR

Dan Last

LIGHTING PROGRAMMER

Sarah Brown

LIGHTING HIRE

White Light

DEPUTIES

OFFICE MANAGER

LIGHTING HIRE

Rebecca Thomas

PRESS & PRIMARY ROBINS

Annabel Larard

COMPANY OFFICE ASS’T

Rosanna Sutcliffe

BOX OFFICE & DINING

Charlotte Pomroy Louise Tipping LONG MARQUEE

Diana Hargreaves

White Light STAGE MANAGERS Jude Cound Traviata Laura Deards Grimes Cornelia Rehm Quichotte Laura Deards Spades

COSTUME SUPERVISORS Caroline Hughes Grimes Deborah Andrews Quichotte Yvonne Milnes Traviata Nicola Fitchett Spades Lydia Crimp Deputy Assisted by Ruth Young Grimes COSTUME WORKROOM

WIGS & MAKE-UP

Darren & Pav Stalmach-Ware Grimes / Traviata Campbell Young Quichotte Helen Keelan Wig Mistress Sinead Kennedy Deputy WARDROBE MISTRESS

Alyson Fielden Assisted by Rebecca Hopkins DRESSERS

Agnieszka Dudzik Adrienne Honie

DEPUTY STAGE MANAGERS Kim Battistini Grimes Jennifer Hunter Traviata Erin Shepherd Quichotte Samantha Kerrison Spades

Cosprops Angels Costumiers National Costume Hire

ASMs

COSTUME MAKERS

COMPANY STAGE MANAGER Eleanor Bailey Grimes James Woods Traviata Bernard Davies Jean Hally Spades MUSIC CONSULTANTS Gwennan Taylor Quichotte Phillip Thomas Quichotte/Traviata David Gowland Grimes/Spades EGG CUPS volunteers Angela Larard COMPANY SECRETARY CHORUS MASTER Sue Paice Jeremy Farr Maite Aguirre Sue Brown Michael Young Assistant FOUNDING CHAIRMAN Katherine Sellon Sir David Davies REPETITEURS Caroline Perry Jeremy Cooke Grimes Inge Hunter THE RESTAURANT Kylie Los Traviata Jo Seligman Emily Grafton Manager Sergey Rybin Spades Di Threllfall Natasha Sennett Deputy Charlotte Forrest Quichotte Pru De Lavison Owen Farr Wine manager Benjamin Woodward Chorus Henrietta Cooke KEARNEY’S EVENT CATERING Steve Dean LANGUAGE David Kearney Susie Lintott Sergey Rybin Spades Marcel Taylor Jane Powlett Alexia Mankovskaya chorus Champagne Laurent-Perrier Florence Daguerre de Hureaux Clare Read Wine Stone Vine & Sun Jane Chisholm Quichotte Décor Alexander Creswell Lisa Axworthy Béatrice Lupton Quichotte Marelize de Beurs

098_GPO - Staff Page.indd 1

PROPS

Jessica Sharville Lizzie Marshall

Kim Jones Cutter Josie Thomas Maker Harry Siggers Pooja Malhotra Student Sewer CHIEF ELECTRICIAN Ticiana Fabrizio Student Sewer Pete Coxall Adam Johns Tom Ivison

CREATIVE & VISUAL DESIGN

painted by Visual Scene Spades Construction Set Up painted by Chris Clark

FOLLOW SPOT OPERATOR

Scott Cooper Emma Neal

SCENERY Grimes Construction Adrian

COSTUME HIRE

Elsa Threadgold Mark Wheeler Traviata masks / hats Sue Pearl Pat Cooper Adrienne Honie Maureen Cordwell Karen Crichton Roxy Cressy Sue Long David Plunkett Keith Watson Anne Nichols Hilary Marschner Jane Grimshaw Kirstie Robinson

PRINTING

Cantate Communications

13/05/2014 10:08


GOCHA ABULADZE Tomsky Spades Was born in Georgia and studied at the Balanchivadze in Kutaisi and Tbilisi State Conservatoire. Recent engagements include Masetto Giovanni (Montpellier) and Mozart’s Figaro (Magdeburg). Conservatoire roles include Papageno, Onegin and Figaro Barbiere. He sang Figaro Barbiere and Germont Traviata (Tbilisi), the latter also in Ferrara. In 2012 he sang Silvio Pagliacci (Verona with Franco Zeffirelli). Festival appearances include Autumn Tbilisi, Tbilisi International Festival of Chamber Music and ArtGeni organised by the Patriarch of all Georgia Ilia II. In 2011 he won the Citta di Ferrara vocal competition and received the Daniele Barioni prize. In 2012, he added the Critics’ Prize at the Zandonai competition in Riva del Garda. MAITE AGUIRRE Chorus Master Is a Spanish conductor and concert pianist. Music Director  of the British Spanish Society and  conductor of the choirs  Legal Harmony, BLP and AMVoices. Maite completed her Masters at GSMD and is a fellowship holder at RAM. Maite is currently mentored by Christine Croshaw. She is a scholar of the Georg Solti Accademia and is featured in the BBC documentary Maestro or Mephisto; the real Georg Solti. She has worked with the BBC SO as Chorus Master and has conducted amongst others, Milton Keynes Orchestra, Kammerphilarmonie Graz, Latin Chamber Orchestra, British Spanish Chamber Ensemble and Orpheus Sinfonia. She has played all over Europe and recorded both for TV and radio including Spanish National Radio (RNE) and BBC Radio3. GISELLE ALLEN Lisa Spades Was born in Belfast and studied at GSMD and RAM. Her varied repertoire includes Marie Wozzeck (Canadian Opera), Martha The Passenger (ENO), Ellen Orford Peter Grimes (Opera North and in Aldeburgh Festival’s award winning production on the beach, recorded for CD and DVD), Miss Jessel Turn of the Screw (Glyndebourne and Opera de Lyon) and Senta Der Fliegende Holländer (Northern Ireland Opera). Appearances on the concert platform include Beethoven 9 (Philharmonia), Glagolitic Mass with Mark Elder (Hallé) and Sieglinde Act III Die Walküre with Sir Andrew Davis. Next season Giselle sings Miss Jessel (Opernhaus Zürich) and Salome (Northern Ireland). JONATHAN ALLEY Messenger Traviata, Ténébrun /Party guest Don Quichotte / ensemble Trained at the Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University. He is also a graduate of RNCM and in 2011 he won the prestigious Joyce and Michael Kennedy Award for the Singing of Strauss. Roles include

Captain Onegin (Grange Park Opera), Mr Gedge Albert Herring and Morales Carmen (RNCM), Dulcamara L’elisir d’amore (Mananan Festival), Aeneas Dido & Aeneas (ABC National Broadcast). He performed with Opera Australia, Opera Queensland and Ozopera, singing the role of Ricardo The Sound Garden (Montgomery). PAUL ANDERSON Lighting Designer Grimes & Traviata Opera credits include Rape of Lucretia (GFO); Don Giovanni (ENO) and A Dog’s Heart (Complicité, ENO and La Scala). He also works extensively in UK and internationally where his recent credits include A Small Family Business, A Taste of Honey, This House and Amen Corner (National Theatre, Olivier); The Mouse and His Child, Julius Caesar, The Tempest and A Servant to Two Masters (RSC); The Master and Margarita (Complicité, Barbican, Paris); Shun Kin (Complicité/NYC); Two Into One, Candide and Proof (Menier Chocolate Factory). He was nominated for the 2013 Olivier Award for Best Lighting Designer for The Master and Margarita and received Drama Desk and Lucille Lortell awards for Mnemonic (Complicité). RENATO BALSADONNA Conductor Don Quichotte Was born in Venice, studied piano and composition at Milan Conservatory and philosophy at Padua University. He regularly conducts RPO, has conducted ROH Orchestra, Orchestra of the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia Rome, NDR Philharmonie and South Bank Sinfonia. He conducted Don Quichotte (COG at QEH) and will conduct a new I due Foscari (ROH). Chorus Director at ROH since 2004, he has worked with conductors such as Semyon Bychkov, Colin Davis, Mark Elder, John Eliot Gardiner, Daniele Gatti, Bernard Haitink, Charles Mackerras, Antonio Pappano, and Simon Rattle. He has conducted the BBC Singers, Chorus of Frankfurt Opera, Netherland Radio Chorus, Chorus of Accademia Santa Cecilia Rome and Grant Park Festival Chorus, Chicago. He has worked as pianist repetiteur and assistant chorus master in Basel, Chorus Director at La Monnaie 1995–2004, assistant to Norbert Balatsch at the Bayreuth Festival 1999–2000. He has recorded with EMI, DGG, Decca, Sony Classical, Chandos, Opera Rara and OpusArte. STEPHEN BARLOW Conductor Grimes Studied at Trinity College‚ Cambridge and GSMD and was a co-founder of Opera 80. Current Artistic Director of Buxton Festival, recent and future projects include Jacobin, Barber of Baghdad, Intermezzo, La Colombe and La Princesse Jaune (Buxton); Boheme, Falstaff‚ Norma, Capriccio‚ Rusalka, Tristan und Isolde, Queen of Spades and Carmelites (Grange Park Opera); Les Contes d'Hoffmann (Beijing); Carmen, Faust and Nabucco (Australia); Bluebeard’s Castle (Auckland Philharmonia); Rake’s Progress (Reisopera); Otello (Birmingham) Rape of Lucretia (Irish Youth Opera) and Midsummer Night’s Dream (Guildhall). He has appeared at Glyndebourne, ROH, ENO, Opera Northern Ireland, Scottish Opera and Opera

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North as well as conducting his own opera King (Canterbury Cathedral) and his Clarinet Concerto with Emma Johnson and Ulster Orchestra. He has conducted most of the major orchestras worldwide.  Recordings include Joseph James’ Requiem with Sumi Jo and his own composition Rainbow Bear with his wife‚ Joanna Lumley‚ as narrator. OLIVIA BARRY ensemble Completed her PGDip at Birmingham Conservatoire where she studied with Christine Cairns. She now lives in London and studies with Arwel Treharne Morgan. Credits include Ulrica A Masked Ball and Mercedes Carmen (Opera Up Close), Maid The Imaginarium (Petersham Playhouse; Secret Productions) cover Milkmaid Messiah (Unexpected Opera), cover Sorceress Dido and Aeneas (Porcupine Productions), cover Filipyevna Onegin (Ryedale Festival), chorus The Gondoliers (International G&S Festival) and chorus Bartered Bride (BYO). As oratorio / concert soloist performing across the UK, she looks forward to touring India and Sri Lanka in August. CLIVE BAYLEY Don Quichotte Don Quichotte Swallow Grimes Born in Manchester, Clive sings regularly with the major opera companies in repertoire from Monteverdi to Ligeti. 2013/14 includes Claggart Billy Budd (Gothenburg Opera), Daland Holländer (Royal Danish Theatre),  Doctor Wozzeck (Metropolitan Opera), Gesler William Tell (WNO), Dosifej Khovanshchina and General The Gambler (Frankfurt Opera), Sir Walter Raleigh Gloriana (Hamburg and ROH). Previous appearances include Vodnik Rusalka, King of Clubs Love for Three Oranges, König Marke Tristan und Isolde and Gremin Onegin (Grange Park Opera); Arkel Pelléas et Mélisande, Ulisse, Titurel Parsifal, Sylvano La Calisto, Geronte Manon Lescaut and Achilla Giulio Cesare (Bayerische Staatsoper); Fasolt Rheingold (Opera National du Rhin) Claggart (Frankfurt). Clive made his ROH debut as 2nd Prisoner Fidelio and has since appeared there in the world-premiere of Harrison Birtwistle's Gawain, as Biterolf Tannhäuser, Colline Boheme, Hans Foltz Die Meistersinger, Carbon Cyrano de Bergerac, Thoas Iphigénie en Tauride, Sylvano and Hunding Die Walküre. He also works regularly at Glyndebourne, Opera North and WNO. SYLVIE BEDOUELLE Annina Traviata, Garcias Don Quichotte & ensemble Opera appearances include Madelon Fortunio (Grange Park Opera), Third Boy Zauberflöte (Metz), Frugola Il Tabarro (Arcola Theatre), Volusio Cajo Fabrizio (Handel Festival), Sorceress Dido and Aeneas (Westminster Opera), Cenerentola (OperaUpClose), Sesto La clemenza di Tito (Hampstead Garden Opera). Sylvie trained at GSMD where she performed Mère Marie Dialogues des Carmélites, Elisa La Spinalba and Mrs Herring Albert Herring.

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ROSIE BELL 2nd Niece Grimes Read philosophy and literature at University of Edinburgh before postgraduate vocal studies at TCM. Recent engagements include Second Woman Dido & Aeneas (Vignette Opera), Angela Angela (Third Hand Opera), Carlotta (1st cover / played) and Mme Giry (2nd cover / played) Phantom of the Opera UK tour, Musetta Boheme (Opera Up Close at the Soho Theatre), Kate Pirates of Penzance (Raymond Gubbay), Princess Ninette L’amour des Trois Oranges, Shepherd Tosca, Page Rigoletto (Grange Park Opera), Micaela Carmen (Pimlico Opera), Leila Iolanthe (G&S Opera Co, Buxton), The Soprano A Man of Feeling (Minotaur Music Theatre), Contessa Figaro (Vignette Productions), Mabel Pirates of Penzance (Charles Court Opera), Dorabella Così (Opera UK), Monkey, Journey to the West (Théâtre du Châtelet and ROH). Forthcoming projects include Mrs Gobineau The Medium (Operaview at the Grimeborn Festival). LARISSA BLACKSHAW ensemble Studied as a child at Royal Academy of Dance, then read music at Bristol and took a postgraduate diploma at TCM. Appearances include Rose Maybud Ruddigore (Buxton Opera House), soprano soloist in Messiah (Merry Opera) and chorus in Eugene Onegin & I Puritani (Grange Park Opera). DAVID BOOTH Bandit Don Quichotte / ensemble Is a graduate of RAM and TCM. Since graduating he has performed in Thursford's Christmas Spectacular, played the role of a wedding singer in The Threepenny Opera (RFH and Théâtre du Champs Elysées) alongside world renowned bass-baritone John Tomlinson and international cabaret star Meow Meow, created the role of Anthony in a workshop on a new musical, The Perfect City, and has appeared on stage at the Dr Who 50th Anniversary Prom (RAH). LUISE BREYER-AITON ensemble Is Anglo/German and recently covered Flora and Annina in Jonathan Miller’s La Traviata (DOF) with Phillip Thomas and sang a Lay sister Suor Angelica. Luise gave her Berlin debut as Junge Robbe in the world premiere of Susanne Stelzenbach’s contemporary opera Die Unterwasser Oper in 2011. She has sung in masterclasses with Barbara Bonney, Sir Jonathan Miller, Diana Montague, David Rendall, AnneMarie Owens, Rosa Mannion, Gerd Uecker, John Streets, Ian Partridge, Linda Esther Gray. Luise is a qualified Massage Therapist, established the unique VoiceRelease Massage and the Opera company OperaTunety & Independent Opera Studio.

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FELICITY BUCKLAND ensemble Received her 1st Class BMus Hons from RNCM and completed ENO’s Opera Works course in 2013. Opera appearances include Eugene Onegin & Falstaff (OHP), Cunaide Iernin (Surrey Opera), Una Kiss Me, Figaro! (Merry Opera), Mercedes Carmen (CoOpera Co), cover Milkmaid A Pastoral Messiah (Unexpected Opera), cover Jill-All-Alone Merrie England (Opera South), cover Glascha Katya Kabanova and La Libellule L’Enfant et les Sortilèges (RNCM). Felicity performs and records as a consort singer. DAWN BURNS ensemble Recently completed the MA Opera course at RWCMD under Suzanne Murphy. She was the 2012 winner of the NI Opera Festival of Voice and has since worked with NI Opera in L’Elisir d’amore and Flying Dutchman. She worked with Grange Park Opera in 2012 in Queen of Spades. Roles include Dido Dido and Aeneas, Marcellina Figaro and Third Lady Magic Flute (Opera’r Ddraig). SARAH CHAMPION Governess Spades & ensemble Trained at RCM, McGill University, ENO Opera Works, is a Britten-Pears Young Artist and a Malcolm Martineau Crear Scholar. She has performed as a soloist and recitalist throughout North America, UK and Europe with performances at Kings Place, the Snape Maltings, London Handel Festival, Iford Arts, Buxton Festival, San Francisco Early Music Society, Boston Early Music Festival, Banff Centre, Aldeburgh Festival, National Arts Centre Orchestra of Canada under Trevor Pinnock and Little Baroque Company under Laurence Cummings.  PAUL CHANTRY Revival Choreographer Spades Trained at Central School of Ballet and danced for numerous ballet, opera and contemporary companies including Sadler’s Wells, Javier De Frutos, ENO, Scottish Opera, Grange Park Opera and ETO.  Paul now works in choreographic partnership with Rae Piper (who has assisted him during this production) and has created work for RFH, Bristol Old Vic, Birmingham Stage Company, Pimlico Opera, Opera Danube, Bath Theatre Royal, Les Enfants Terribles and ETO. With Rae, Paul is co-Artistic Director of Chantry Dance Company. CDC has created works including the Out of Bounds UK tour, a triple bill in collaboration with Ronald Corp OBE and choreography for the Chinese Calligraphy Concert (Sadler’s Wells main stage).

GABRIELLE DALTON Costume Designer Don Quichotte & Spades Work includes: La fanciulla del West, Ruddigore, Joshua, Les Noces, La Voix Humaine / Dido & Aeneas, Carmen, Let ‘em Eat Cake and Of Thee I Sing (Opera North); A Doll’s House (Young Vic / West End / BAM New York), Carmen (Salzburg Festival), Idomeneo and Rusalka (Grange Park Opera), Carmen (De Vlaamse Opera); Turandot, Rheingold, Die Walküre, Siegfried and Götterdämmerung (Nationale Reisopera), Magical Night and The Red Balloon (ROH2 and tour), Eugene Onegin (Los Angeles, ROH, Finnish National Opera), Joe Turner’s Come & Gone (Young Vic), Three Water Plays (Almeida Opera Festival), Le Nozze de Figaro (Opera National de Bordeaux, Genoa, Tel Aviv, Champs Elysées Paris, Barcelona), A Chain Play (Almeida Theatre), (Reisopera) Barber of Seville (Savoy Opera). TIMOTHY DAWKINS Baron Douphol Traviata Surin Spades Studied at RCM (scholarship). He joined GFO and was awarded the Erich Vietheer Award. He has sung with Scottish Opera, Opera North and ENO. Recently he sang Superintendent Budd Albert Herring (ETO), Maître André Fortunio (Grange Park Opera) and understudied in Otello (Opera North). Tim sings regularly with Grange Park where roles include Sparafucile Rigoletto, Angelotti Tosca, Der Haushofmeister Capriccio Badger/Parson Vixen and Ashby Fanciulla. Other opera roles include Graf Dominik Arabella (GFO), Colline Boheme, Don Fernando Fidelio, Quinault Adriana Lecouvreur and Tom Ballo in maschera (OHP); Leporello Giovanni (Batignano), Le Spectre Hamlet (COG), Speaker Flute (USA tour) and roles in Fairy Queen (EBF). Recordings include roles in Goehr’s Arianna for the NMC label. REBECCA DE PONT DAVIES Mrs Sedley Grimes Highlights this season include Mrs Sedley Grimes (Opera North), Auntie Grimes (ENO) and a return to the Théâtre du Châtelet for Jack’s Mother Into the Woods. In future seasons Rebecca will return to ROH and ENO. Recent engagements also include Mother Wagner Dream (WNO), Old Lady/Elaine Sunday in the Park with George (Théâtre du Châtelet) Auntie (Deutsche Oper Berlin) and Geneviève Pelléas et Mélisande (Aalto Musiktheater, Essen). CAROLYN DOBBIN Polina Spades Is from Carrickfergus and studied at RSAMD. Previously for Grange Park Opera: Maddalena Rigoletto. Engagements elsewhere include Hannah The Passenger and Scipio Caligula (ENO), Teodata Flavio and Bradamante Alcina (ETO), Dorabella Così (Samling Opera), Nicklausse

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Tales of Hoffman (MWO), Andronico Tamerlano (Capella Cracoviensis), Emilia Otello (Dorset Opera), Janet Doctor’s Tale (ROH2), Ottavia Poppea, Concepcion L’heure espagnole, Orlofsky Fledermaus, Irene Theodora, Meg Page Falstaff (OHP); Carmen and Dido. During 2010 she was Associate Artist at WNO, singing Mercedes and Second Lady. On a two year contract in Luzern she sang Annio Clemenza di Tito (Luzerner Festival), Flora Traviata and Penelope Il ritorno d'Ulisse (Luzerner Theater), Tisbe Cenerentola, Bradamante and Carmen. Future engagements include Dream of Gerontius (Portsmouth), Emilia Rossini’s Otello (Buxton Festival) and the title role Rape of Lucretia conducted by Stephen Barlow.

Barcelona, Vienna, San Francisco, Bastille), Faust (ROH, Monte-Carlo, Lille, Trieste) and Werther (ROH, Bastille); A Midsummer Night’s Dream (ENO, Moscow), Katya Kabanova (ENO, Warsaw, Lisbon), Lucia di Lammermoor (ENO, Göteborg, Washington, Canada), Jenufa and Markopoulos Affair (ENO, Prague); Norma, Tosca (Opera North); La Gazza Ladra (Frankfurt); Verdi Triple Bill (Hamburg); Peter Grimes (Karlsruhe); Jenufa (Houston); Wozzeck (Dallas, Chicago); Katya Kabanova and Macbeth (Houston, Chicago); Il Trovatore (Metropolitan Opera, Chicago, San Francisco); Billy Budd, Markopoulos Affair (Chicago). Forthcoming designs include Gianni Schicchi (Opera North).

ALEXANDER DULIBA Burgess Grimes & ensemble

FAE EVELYN ensemble

Graduated from GSMD & RCM. Previous engagements include Albert Herring and Euridice (BYO) La Forza Del Destino (OHP), Dancairo Carmen (CoOpera). In 2012 performed at Grange Park Opera as Prince Yamadori and covered Sharpless Madama Butterfly. Most recent performances are Perichaud (Go Opera), Pimpinone (Woodhouse Opera) and chorus Maometto II (Garsington Opera).

Is from South Africa and studies with Graeme Danby. She completed her MMus Solo Performance (distinction) at RNCM in 2011. Highlights of last year include singing Second Niece Peter Grimes (Elemental Opera), and Countess Figaro (Associated Studio’s Showcase)

MATTHEW DUNCAN Burgess Grimes & ensemble Studied at RNCM. Roles include Hobson Peter Grimes (Nottingham Philharmonic Orchestra), Bourgeois Fortunio (Grange Park Opera), Schaunard Boheme (Opera Up Close), Baron Traviata (Opera UK and Merry Opera). He has also sung with Bury Court Opera, Tête-a-Tête Opera Festival and Opera South. STEVEN EAST Burgess Grimes & ensemble Played Dulcamara, Capellio I Capuleti e i Montecchi and The Hackney Coachman in the ballad opera The Lottery  (Bury Court) this year. He was bass soloist in  Elijah  (St John’s Smith Square) and  Israel in Egypt  (St Albans Cathedral). In 2013, he played Sparafucile, Sarastro, Sacristan, Leporello, Publio Clemenza di Tito, Zaretsky Onegin and joined the ENO chorus for Fidelio. Steven is a Robinson Hearn Scholar at Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance. CHARLES EDWARDS Director/Set Designer Don Quichotte Trained as a designer at London’s Central School of Art and Design. He is now known for both directing and designing productions including Idomeneo (Grange Park Opera), Joshua, Rigoletto and Oedipus Rex (Opera North), Elektra (ROH), Così fan tutte (Mid-Wales Opera), The Sea and its Shore (Almeida) and Maria di Rohan (Wexford). Designs include Adriana Lecouvreur (ROH,

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ADRIANA FESTEU ensemble Completed her Masters at RAM Opera Course. She studies with Lillian Watson. Adriana made her opera debut for the Romanian National Opera as Fidalma Il matrimonio segreto. Roles include Carmen, Cenerentola and Rosina Barber of Seville, Suzuki Madama Butterfly, Isolier Count Ory, Sorceress Dido and Aeneas and Composer Ariadne auf Naxos. Adriana is the winner of the Song Prize at the 2013 Emmy Destinn Competition. JOHN FINDON ensemble Is from Manchester and currently a postgraduate student in vocal studies and a scholarship holder at GSMD, under John Evans. Previously he studied at RSAMD, under Kathleen McKellar Ferguson. In Glasgow, John appeared as soloist in numerous oratorios, including The Creation, Saint-Saëns’ Oratorio de Noël and the requiems of Brahms, Maurice Duruflé and Fauré. He played the soldiers in L’incoronazione di Poppea and was in the chorus of War and Peace and Maxwell Davies’ Tavener (RSAMD). JOHN FISHER ensemble Sang as a teenager for ENO and The Handel Opera Society. After a degree in Retail Marketing, he continued his vocal studies at RWCMD. He developed his talent for comic singing and performed for a year with D'Oyly Carte. Roles include Antonio Figaro (Court Opera); Marchese Traviata (Dorset Chamber Opera); Sacristan Tosca and Dancairo Carmen (South Coast Opera); Ferrando Trovatore (Vision Opera) and Papageno Flute (Village Opera).

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ANTHONY FLAUM Tchekalinsky Spades

STEPHEN GADD Balstrode Grimes & Yeletsky Spades

Studied at RAM where he graduated with distinction in Musical Theatre and currently studies with Ryland Davies. During 2012/13, he was a member of NOS, sponsored by ENO, where he was awarded the Nicholas John Fellowship for Outstanding Merit and received generous support from Grange Park Opera. He sang Lensky Onegin (Grange Park Opera Rising Stars), Valjean Les misérables (Pimlico Opera), Rodolfo Boheme (OperaUpClose) and his current engagements include Nemorino L’elisir d’amore (NI Opera and OTC, Dublin), Henrik A Little Night Music (Opera Project) and Macduff Macbeth (Scottish Opera).

Born in Berkshire, Stephen Gadd won the Kathleen Ferrier Memorial Scholarship, and was a finalist in the inaugural Plácido Domingo Operalia Competition. For Grange Park Opera, he has sung Sharpless Madama Butterfly and Kurwenal Tristan und Isolde. Elsewhere, he has appeared at Baden Baden, Buxton, Glyndebourne, Lucerne and Salzburg festivals, and at ROH, ENO, OHP, WNO, Dallas Opera, Netherlands Opera, Den Norske Opera, Paris Opera, Opéra de Metz, Opéra national de Montpellier, Opéra de Nantes, Opéra national du Rhin and Opéra de Rouen. He has sung in concert with major orchestras throughout the UK and Europe, and his engagements this season included Mr Redburn Billy Budd (GFO - also at BBC Proms and Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York), Father Hänsel und Gretel (GoT) and Marcello Boheme (Finnish National Opera).

SEBASTIAN FROST Festival Sound Designer Trained at GSMD. Theatre designs include Drunk (McOnie Company), The Witches (Chichester Festival Theatre), The Good Person of Sichuan (Colchester) James and The Giant Peach (UK tour), The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe (Kensington Gardens), Annie (West Yorkshire Playhouse), Decade (Headlong), Great Expectations (ETT), Antony and Cleopatra (Liverpool Playhouse), Little Shop of Horrors (Birmingham Rep), Riff Raff (Arcola), A Christmas Carol (West Yorkshire Playhouse/Birmingham Rep), All the Fun of the Fair (Garrick/ UK tour), The Common Pursuit and Total Eclipse (Menier), Glass Menagerie (Apollo), Sunday in the Park With George (Menier/Wyndham’s), Carnival (Venice), Trainspotting (UK tour), Tonight’s the Night (Victoria Palace), Boy Band (Gielgud), Kat and the Kings (Broadway & Vaudeville), Summer Begins (Donmar), Colour of Justice (Victoria Palace) and Fame (UK tour). In 2008 he received the first ever Best Sound Design of a Musical Tony Award nomination for Sunday in the Park with George on Broadway. SARA FULGONI Dulcinée Don Quichotte Has performed a huge variety of repertoire worldwide. Her roles include Adalgisa Norma, Clairon Capriccio, Brangäne Tristan und Isolde, Suzuki Butterfly, Polina Queen of Spades and Mere Marie Carmélites (all Grange Park Opera); Carmen (Santa Fe, Toulouse, ENO, WNO, Valencia, Geneva and Beijing); Béatrice Béatrice et Bénédict (Nederlandse Opera, WNO); Waltraute Götterdämmerung (ENO, Vlaamse Opera); Kundry Parsifal (WNO); Penelope Il ritorno d’Ulisse (Bayerische Staatsoper); Hänsel, Amando Le Grand Macabre (San Francisco); Judith Bluebeard’s Castle (Canadian Opera, Liceu, WNO); Sorceress Dido and Aeneas (ROH and La Scala). Sara created the title role in the world premiere of Tobias Picker’s Thérèse Raquin (Dallas Opera, also recorded for Chandos). Plans include the title role in Rossini’s Otello (Buxton Festival), the world premiere of Shell Shock (La Monnaie), and Dalila (Grange Park Opera).

ROBERT GARLAND ensemble Is a Northamptonshire-born baritone and studied at RWCMD. Recent opera performances include Guglielmo Così (Opera’r Ddraig at Edingburgh Fringe); he created the role of Mufty in Thomas Floyd’s MICROmegas (Tête-à-Tête). Robert also covered Papageno Magic Flute (Nevill Holt Opera) and was in the chorus of Der fliegende Holländer (Northern Ireland Opera) ELEANOR GARSIDE ensemble Was born in Oldham. An alumnus of the University of Manchester, she went on to postgraduate study at RNCM with Thomas Schulze and Caroline Crawshaw. She has performed the roles of Belinda Dido and Aeneas, Atalanta Xerxes, Miss Wordsworth Albert Herring, Yum Yum Mikado and Mabel Pirates of Penzance. She won the Frederic Cox Award, the Claire Croiza Award for French Song and 2nd prize in the Patricia Routledge Prize for English Song. Most recently Eleanor has been a member of the chorus at Wexford Festival Opera and Grange Park Opera. SIMON CHALFORD GILKES Bandit Don Quichotte / ensemble Studied at RCM with Dinah Harris as a Cuthbert Smith Scholar supported by the Richard Carne Charitable Trust and graduated with distinction with a Masters in Vocal Performance last year. In opera, Simon has performed as a principal and covered for a number of companies including ETO, Scottish Opera, Sydney Chamber Opera, Tête a Tête Opera, Size Zero Opera in roles such as Peter Quint Turn of the Screw, Grimoaldo Rodelinda, Arnalta L’incoronazione di Poppea, and Schoolmaster Cunning Little Vixen.

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JAKE DAICHI GILL ensemble

GARY GRIFFITHS Ned Keene Grimes

Studies with Robert Dean at GSMD. Chorus projects include Peter Grimes (Aldeburgh Festival), Offenbach’s Fantasio (OAE), Berlioz’ Romeo et Juliette (LSO). Roles include Guglielmo Così, Figaro, Masetto Don Giovanni and Aeneas. Recital work includes City of London Festival and Schubert partsongs with Graham Johnson (Wigmore Hall).

Was a finalist in the 2013 BBC Cardiff Singer of the World competition. He studied at GSMD where he won the Gold Medal awad. At WNO, where he began as an Associate Artist, his roles include Guglielmo Così, Masetto Don Giovanni, Claudio Béatrice et Bénédict, Schaunard Boheme and Cecil Maria Stuarda. Most recently he sang Mozart’s Figaro (New Zealand). Recent concerts include Les Troyens (LSO), Mozart’s Requiem (WNO) and Belshazzar’s Feast (Barbican). A committed recitalist, he has appeared this season in Llandudno, Beuamaris, Fishguard, Harrogate and St David’s Hall, Cardiff. In recording, he appears on Catrin Finch’s Lullabies CD (Deutsche Grammophon). Gary is the recipient of the WNO Chris Ball Bursary, the WNO Sir John Moores Award, the Elizabeth Parry Family Bursary and is supported by the Joseph Strong Frazer Trust. He is a Samling Scholar and studies with Robert Dean.

SOPHIE GOLDRICK ensemble London-born Sophie grew up in Sydney, Australia. She holds a Bachelor of Dramatic Art from UWS and a Master of Music from RNCM. Roles include Alcina Orlando Paladino, Arsamene Serse, Nancy Albert Herring and title role Carmen. Apart from music, Sophie’s other great loves are baking and yoga. ANDRZEJ GOULDING Video Designer Grimes Trained in Set and Costume design at Central Saint Martins. Video Designs Include: Union (& set design - Lyceum, Edinburgh); Hannah (Unicorn); Sane New World (& set design - Ruby Wax UK Tour); Fanciulla Del West, Joshua (Opera North); Coriolanus (Donmar); From Morning To Midnight (National); Groove on Down The Road (ZooNation); The Machine (Manchester International Festival) Relative Values (Theatre Royal Bath); Othello (Singapore Rep); Carousel (Châtelet Theatre/Barbican); Silent Night (Philadelphia Opera/ Minnesota Opera); Our House Concert (Savoy); Amadeus (Maltz Jupiter Theatre, Florida); Peter Pan (Sherman, Cardiff ); Mass Observation (Almeida Festival); DNA (Hull Truck, Tour); Maria (Wexford); Orlando (Scottish Opera); Enlightenment (Hampstead); The Last Witch (Lyceum, Edinburgh); Speed the Plow (Old Vic); Varjak Paw (Linbury Studio, UK Tour). Video Animation Work: Ghost the Musical (Manchester Opera House, Piccadilly Theatre, UK Tour); Love Never Dies (Adelphi Theatre); Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (ROH). LUCILLA GRAHAM ensemble Graduated BMus from University of Glasgow where she studied with Wilma MacDougall. She completed her Master’s at RNCM under Louise Winter. Principal roles include Angelina La Cenerentola and Amastre Xerxes. In opera scenes Lucilla has portrayed Pierotto Linda di Chamonix, Hermia Midsummer Night’s Dream, Tisbe Cenerentola, and Meg Page Falstaff. Lucilla has taken part in public masterclasses with Felicity Palmer, Ann Murray and Malcolm Martineau. She performs in concerts, performances of new works and oratorio. In August Lucilla will perform the Scottish premier of Lotti’s Missa vide Domine laboreum meum at the Edinburgh Festival.

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ALEX HAIGH Bandit Don Quichotte / ensemble Studied at TCM with Lynton Atkinson and Linda Hirst, graduating with a MMus (distinction). He has completed the ENO Opera Works course and is continuing his studies with Markus van den Akker. Alex performs with Apollo5, the sister group to VOCES8 and has recently been signed with Edition Peters Artist Management. He has sung with ENO, RPC, BBCSC and in venues such as RAH (proms), St Paul’s and RFH. Previously for Grange Park Opera: Fortunio. DANIEL HAWKINS Flora’s Servant Traviata /ensemble Is a Postgraduate student at GSMD, studying with Rudolf Piernay. Opera experience includes John Shears Paul Bunyan (BYO), Tarquinius Rape of Lucretia, Figaro Barbiere and Schaunard Boheme (Guildhall opera scenes), Caspar Genoveva (University College Opera) and Marquis Traviata (Brent Opera). He was a finalist in the Mid-Somerset Festival and Thelma King Award. Other stage and concert experience includes Snowy in Iain Burnside’s Barbican premiere of A Soldier and a Maker and soloist in Rachmaninov’s The Bells (University College Symphony Orchestra and Chorus). WILLIAM HELLIWELL ensemble Graduated MA from RWCMD Opera Performance course, suppor ted by the Leverhulme Trust, studying with Janet Price and Michael Pollock. He also gained a position on the Live Music Now scheme. Recent performances include Monk and Pit Chorus Wagner Dream and cover Mosquito and Cockerel Vixen (WNO), Eisenstein Fledermaus (OperaUpClose), Orpheus Orpheus in the Underworld (Opera Ddraig), Keller The Sleeper (WNYO/Tête a Tête),

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external cover Inkslinger/Slim Paul Bunyan (WNYO), Leonard Bernstein’s MASS (BBC NOW at the Proms), soloist Future for Beginners (LiveArtShow), Remendado Carmen (St Magnus Festival), Basilio/Don Curzio Figaro (Winterbourne Opera) and Paris Judgement of Paris (Opera Chilmark). MAE HEYDORN ensemble Is Swedish-German and graduated from the GSMD with distinction in 2012. The same year she made her solo debut at GFO and Wexford. Prizes include the Philip and Dorothy Green Award in association with Making Music and first prize in the British Schubert Society’s Song competition. In 2013 Mae covered the role of Bianca Rape of Lucretia (GoT) and was shortlisted for the Wessex Glyndebourne Award. She is covering the role of Polina Spades and has been selected to compete in the 50 th s'-Hertogenbosch International Vocal Competition 2014. LYNNE HOCKNEY Movement Director Don Quichotte Trained at Royal Ballet School. Her choreographic career has encompassed opera‚ theatre‚ film and TV‚ working with directors as diverse as James Cameron‚ Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sir Peter Hall.  Her work has been seen at repertory theatres throughout the UK and USA and film credits include The Village‚ Titanic‚ True Lies‚ Town & Country‚ Wild‚ Wild West and Rocky & Bullwinkle.  Recent engagements include her own production of La Cenerentola (Erfurt), Hall’s La Cenerentola  (Glyndebourne and Berlin) and Otello (Castleton Festival) both as Revival Director;  Der Rosenkavalier (Bolshoi); Giulio Cesare (Erfurt); Traviata (Magdeburg); Don Quichotte (Nederlandse Opera); Tancredi‚ Iolanta‚ Francesca da Rimini and Orfeo ed Euridice (Theater an der Wien); Otello and William Tell (Graz); The Maiden in the Tower (Buxton Festival); Jenufa (Glyndebourne); Jenufa, Boheme and A Little Night Music (Malmö) and Eugene Onegin (Opéra de Lyon and Grange Park Opera). MATTHEW HOWARD ensemble Completed his studies at TCM and enjoyed success in competitions, winning the John Ireland Duo Competition and was a finalist in the English Song Competition, Ella Kidney Early Music Competition and Elizabeth Schumann Lieder Competition. Matthew sings with Stile Antico, I Fagiolini, Tenebrae, Hanover Band, Eric Whitacre Singers, Retrospect Ensemble and Brabant Ensemble and with choirs such as Westminster Abbey, Westminster Cathedral, St Paul’s Cathedral, St Bartholomew the Great and All Saints, Margaret Street. Matthew has sung with BYO and ENO (workshop production).

RICHARD HUDSON Designer Traviata Was born in Zimbabwe and trained at Wimbledon School of Art. Opera designs include Glyndebourne, ROH, Metropolitan Opera, La Scala, Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, ENO, Scottish Opera, Kent Opera, Opera North, Wiener Staatsoper, Munich, Chicago, Copenhagen, Athens, Bregenz, Amsterdam, Zurich, Barcelona, Madrid, Brussels, Houston, Washington and Rome. He has also designed for Aldeburgh Festival, Royal Ballet, RSC, National Theatre, Royal Court, Almeida and Young Vic. He won an Olivier Award for a season of plays at the Old Vic and a Tony Award for The Lion King. In 2003 he won the Gold Medal for set design at the Prague Quadrenniale, and in 2005 he was given an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Surrey. Recent work includes Nutcracker (American Ballet Theatre), Romeo and Juliet (National Ballet of Canada), Coq d’Or and Bayadere (Royal Danish Ballet), Rheingold and Walküre (Teatro Massimo, Palermo), Versailles (Donmar). PHOEBE-CELESTE HUMPHREYS ensemble Holds a BMus (Hons) University of NSW. Recently completed an MMus at GSMD. Performances include Dame Joan Sutherland's 83rd Birthday Concert and Sir Richard Bonynge's 80th Birthday Concert (Angel Place); Soprano Nelson Mass, Dominican Vespers and Silver Jubilee service of Serenade to Music (UNSW Collegium Choir); LSO’s song day for Brahm’s Requiem. Roles include: cover Pamina Zauberflöte (Ryedale Fesitval); Elvira L’italiana in Algeri and Mimi Boheme (GSMD scenes); Friday Boy Montag aus Licht (Netherlands Opera Young Artists); Lauretta Gianni Schicchi (Summertime Opera); Zerlina Don Giovanni (UNSW). Phoebe was awarded the prestigious Dame Joan Sutherland Scholarship chosen by Richard Bonygne. CHRISTOPHER JACKLIN Marquis d’Obigny Traviata & ensemble Trained at the RCM and ENO’s OperaWorks, subsequently covering Curio Julius Caesar and Papageno Magic Flute (ENO). Other credits include Narrator Paul Bunyan (BYO), Grosvenor Patience (RCMIOS, Musée D’Orsay), Servilio Lucio Papiro Dittatore (London Handel Festival), Oreste Iphigénie en Tauride (Somerset House), Dr Grenvil Traviata (Iford Opera), Marcello Boheme (Silent Opera), Figaro Barber and Belcore L’Elisir d’amore (OperaUpClose). Performances of contemporary opera include Peter Cowdrey’s The Lovely Ladies (Buxton Festival), Luis Soldado’s Hotel Suite (Lisbon Contemporary Music Ensemble), Keith Burnstein’s Manifest Destiny (OperaUpClose) and the premiere recording of Cowdrey’s The Mad Duchess.

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GEORGIA JARMAN Ellen Orford Grimes This season Georgia makes her company debut as Manon (Malmö Opera) and makes her role debut as Gilda Rigoletto (Caramoor Festival). In concert she sings Lukas Foss’s Time Cycle and Barber’s Knoxville: Summer of 1915 under Francesco Lecce-Chong. Further ahead Georgia makes her company debut as Musetta Boheme (Opéra National de Bordeaux). 2012/13 season highlights included her role debut as Maria Stuarda (Washington Concert Opera). Georgia has given many distinguished performances in bel-canto repertoire throughout the USA and recently sang all four heroines in The Tales of Hoffmann (ENO). STEPHEN JEFFERY ensemble Graduated from Birmingham Conservatoire and RCM. He has since worked with many opera companies, both home and abroad including Grange Park Opera, Opera de Baugé, New Sussex Opera, Stanley Hall Opera, Blackheath Halls Opera  and Wexford Festival Opera. His recital work has seen him tour throughout Europe,  America and Asia. DANIEL JOY Burgess Grimes & ensemble Daniel studied at Durham University, RCM and GSMD. Roles include Albert Herring (GSMD); Kozak Statkowski's Maria, Gherardo Gianni Schicchi and The Poor Horn Player A Village Romeo and Juliet (Wexford); Duca Rigoletto and Goro Madama Butterfly (Opera Brava). Daniel has covered roles for GFO, Garsington, Grange Park Opera, Scottish Opera and Opera North. Future plans include Verdi’s Requiem RAH with RPO. FELIX KEMP ensemble was born in Kent and read music at the University of Manchester. During his studies he performed extensively as a solo pianist in concert and recital. Felix began his vocal studies under Neil Baker in 2011 and received a scholarship from New London Opera Players to participate in master classes with Wendy Dawn Thompson and Amanda Echalaz and has been awarded a place on BYO workshops this August. Recent engagements include the roles of Pilate in Bach's St John Passion in Sandefjord, Oslo; the Thief in Grieg's Peer Gynt with the BCS and most recently concerts in London and Hamburg with Andris Nelsons and Jeffrey Tate respectively with the Philharmonia Chorus.

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PAUL KEOGAN Lighting Designer Don Quichotte & Spades Recent theatre credits include: A Streetcar Named Desire (Liverpool Playhouse), Twelfth Night (Liverpool Everyman); The Risen People (Abbey Dublin); Afterplay (Sheffield Crucible); A Tale of Two Cities (Theatre Royal Northampton); The Epic Adventure of Nhamo, the Manika Warrior and his Sexy Wife Chipo (Tiata Fahodzi/Tricycle); Molly Sweeney (Gate Dublin); Mixed Marriage (Lyric Belfast). Recent opera credits include: Maria de Buenos Aires (Cork Opera House); I Puritani, Dialogues des Carmélites, Eugene Onegin, Idomeneo and Queen of Spades (Grange Park Opera); La Boheme and Wake (Nationale Reisopera); Thérèse/La Navarraise, Christina, Regina di Svezia, Snegurochka, Der Silbersee, Rusalka, Transformations, Pénélope and Susannah (Wexford Festival); Markopoulos Case, Ballo in Maschera and Fliegende Holländer (Opera Zuid); The Lighthouse (Montepulciano); Queen of Spades, L’Elisir d’amore, Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk, The Silver Tassie and Dead Man Walking (Opera Ireland) and Pierrot Lunaire (Almeida Opera). Recent Dance credits include: No Man’s Land (ENB), Hansel & Gretel (Royal Ballet). MATTHEW KIMBLE ensemble Was born in Bedford and trained at GSMD. Roles performed include Albert Herring, Tamino Zauberflöte, Don José Carmen, Orpheus Orpheus in the Underworld, Beppe Pagliacci and Gastone Traviata. He has worked with many companies and festivals including OHP, Aldeburgh Festival, Bregenz Festival, Carl Rosa, Chelmsford Opera, International G&S Festival, Hampstead Garden Opera and Grange Park Opera. His concert experience includes Verdi’s Requiem, Messiah, Petite Messe Solennelle, Carmina Burana. HARRIET KIRK ensemble Is from Berkshire and holds a Masters from GSMD. Harriet recently completed the ENO Opera Works programme and was selected in summer 2013 for the London Masterclasses at RCM and for a course at NOS. Opera roles include Rosina Barbiere, Tisbe Cenerentola, Third Lady Zauberflöte and Sorceress Dido and Aeneas. Harriet studies with Rodolfo Albero in Madrid where she recently performed Boccherini’s Stabat Mater. STUART LAING Tchaplitsky & MC Spades / ensemble Is an Australian singer equally at home in opera, concert & recital repertoire. Since graduating from the GSMD where he received critical acclaim for his portrayal of the Stage Manager in Our Town, he has sung with GPO, Bury Court Opera and Wexford Festival Opera among others.

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AMY LYDDON ensemble

SIMON MARSH ensemble

Studies at RCM. A former chorister at Bath Abbey and student of the Junior RAM, Amy studied Linguistics, French & Spanish at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating in 2012 with first-class honours. She is kindly supported by the Josephine Baker Trust, Kathleen Trust, and Mario Lanza Foundation. Her opera roles have included Nancy Albert Herring (Shadwell Opera at OHP), Idamante Idomeneo (RCM scenes), Hermia A Midsummer Night's Dream, Cherubino and Angelo Custode Rappresentatione di Anima et di Corpo.

Was born and educated in Devon and studied with Ian Comboy before joining the National Youth Choir. At Trinity Laban his teachers were Lynton Atkinson and Helen Yorke. Opera performances for TL include Dialogues des Carmélites, Rake’s Progress, The Saint of Bleeker Street, Tamino Magic Flute, Peter Quint Turn of the Screw, Stephen McNeff ’s The Last King of Scotland and Mercury Orpheus in the Underworld. Simon was part of the Industrial Revolution sequence at the London 2012 Olympics Opening Ceremony.

KRYSTAL MACMILLAN ensemble

ANTONY MCDONALD Director/Designer Spades

Is an Australian soprano whose repertoire includes opera, oratorio and song. She has a BMus (Performance) from Edith Cowan University in Australia and an MA (Vocal Performance) from RAM. Krystal is currently living and working as a freelance singer in London.

is a Royal Designer for Industry. Part of the British Team of Designers winning the Golden Triga at the 2003 Prague Quadrennial for Ballo in maschera (Bregenz Festival), and in 1991 for the 1989 production of Hamlet (RSC). Winner of Set Design Award for Opera - International Opera Awards 2013. Work as Director/Designer: Wonderful Town, Rusalka (Grange Park Opera); Tristan und Isolde (Opera national du Rhin,) Lohengrin (WNO, Polish National Opera); Gerald Barry’s The Importance of Being Earnest (Northern Ireland Opera), L’Enfant et les Sortilèges, (Bolshoi), Ring Cycle, 2009-2012, Manon and King Priam (Nationale Reisopera), Maria Stuarda (Opera North); The Knot Garden, Aida, Samson and Delilah (Scottish Opera). Current and recent opera designs: La Finta Giardiniera (Glyndebourne); Markopoulos Case, (Frankfurt), The Gambler (ROH); Cunning Little Vixen (Netherlands Opera); Billy Budd (Frankfurt, Amsterdam); Julietta, (Paris, Geneva, ENO) all with director Richard Jones.

SORAYA MAFI 1st Niece Grimes Was born in Lancashire and studies at RCM. Soraya is the winner of the 2014 Maggie Teyte Prize and recipient of many other awards. Roles have included Franzl Cunning Little Vixen, Ida Die Fledermaus and Maria West Side Story (RNCM); La Virtù L'Incoronazione di Poppea, Le Feu and Le Rossignol L'enfant et les Sortilèges (RCM); and title role Arianna in Creta (London Handel Festival). She sang Peep-Bo The Mikado (Gilbert & Sullivan Opera Company at Buxton Opera House), 2nd Witch Dido and Aeneas (BBC Radio 3) and 2nd Woman Dido and Aeneas (Silk Opera). Last season Soraya sang Constance Dialogues des Carmélites (Grange Park Opera). Soraya will make her ENO debut in Pirates of Penzance. GIANLUCA MARCIANO Conductor Traviata & Spades Has been increasingly in demand since his opera debut with Croatian National Opera in 2007. Praised in the Sunday Times for his “unfailingly theatrical and idiomatic conducting”, Marcianò has strong ties with the opera houses in Zagreb, Minsk, Sassari and Prague, and within the UK, ENO, Grange Park Opera, Longborough Opera and the ECO. He is currently Musical Director/Principal Conductor of the Tbilisi State Opera & Ballet (Georgia) and Artistic Director of the Al Bustan Festival in Beirut. Recent highlights include  a major new production of Turandot (Ópera de Oviedo); Madam Butterfly (ENO); La Forza del Destino, Nabucco, Il Trovatore, and Aida (Tbilisi); Madama Butterfly, I Puritani, Eugene Onegin, and Tosca (Grange Park Opera); and Die Zauberflöte, Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan Tutte and La Traviata (Longborough Festival Opera).

SARAH MINNS ensemble Trained at RAM and RWCMD. Roles include: Bianca/Gabriella La Rondine and Sprite Fantastic Mr Fox (OHP), Musetta Boheme (OperaUpClose/ WO), One ...and the Crowd (wept) (Tête à Tête), Gretel/Sandman/ Dew Fairy Hansel and Gretel (Opera in Space/RWCMD), Carolina Il Matrimonio Segreto, Karolina The Two Widows, Fox Cunning Little Vixen (RWCMD), Miss Wordsworth Albert Herring (WNYO), title role Eleanor Vale (Wedmore Opera), Verity Jago (broadcast on BBC Radio 3), Violet The Invited (Opera Room). Opera on record includes: Flower girl/Forest creature The Poisoned Kiss (Chandos Records). JANE MONARI ensemble Hails from Philadelphia and recently graduated from the MA programme at RAM with Distinction and a DipRAM. Jane graduated from the Juilliard School with a BMus in Voice Performance with Scholastic Distinction.

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JOE MORGAN Bandit Don Quichotte / ensemble Graduated from GSMD. Previous roles include First Officer Carmelites and Lieutenant d’Azincourt Fortunio (Grange Park Opera); Nemorino L’elisir d’amore, Jupiter Semele (Opera in Space), Alfredo Traviata, and Tamino Magic Flute (Merry Opera); cover First Armed Man Flute (Garsington Festival Opera), Dr Caius Falstaff (Opera Berbiguieres), Pinkerton Finding Butterfly ( Opera Machine) and Un Pescatore (Wexford Festival Opera). This autumn Joe returns to Opera Minima for Il Tabarro. JORGE NAVARRO-COLORADO Giuseppe Traviata Rodriguez Don Quichotte / ensemble Graduated from the Opera Course at GSMD, studying under David Pollard. He is a Britten-Pears alumnus and a Samling Scholar. He has worked with William Christie, Laurence Cummings and Stephen Barlow amongst other conductors, and has sung and understudied principal roles with Scottish Opera, GFO, Garsington and COG. Jorge has performed as a soloist in oratorios and recitals in Italy, France and Spain, as well as in Barbican Hall, LSO St Luke's, St. John's Smith Square, Symphony Hall, Birmingham and other venues in UK. GRAHAM NEAL ensemble Read music at University of Surrey, winning the Robert Naylor prize. He continued his studies on the Knack opera course at ENO and as a postgraduate at TCM. Graham has performed the roles of Don Ramiro Cenerentola, Don José Carmen, Ferrando Così, Belmonte Entführung, Sextus Julius Caesar and Worldly Glory Pilgrim's Progress, as well as chorus for ENO, Aix-en-Provence and L’Opéra Comique. Most recently, Graham performed the role of 2nd Foreigner Orango (Shostakovich - UK premiere) for the Philharmonia at RFH and Damon Acis and Galatea (Iford Arts). FRANCIS O’CONNOR Designer Grimes Trained at Wimbledon School of Art. Productions include Midsummer Night’s Dream, Love’s Labours Lost and Written on The Heart (RSC); Beauty Queen of Leenane, Translations, The Cripple of Innishmaan, The Silver Tassie (New York and Broadway). He is a frequent collaborator with Garry Hynes, Druid Theatre, Gate and Abbey in Ireland. Opera designs: Fortunio, Eugene Onegin, Capriccio, Fanciulla del West, Magic Flute, Don Giovanni, South Pacific & Iolanthe (Grange Park Opera); Entführung, Périchole, Turco in Italia, Midsummer Night’s Dream (Garsington); Maria di Rohan, Luisa Miller (Buxton); Noye’s Fludde (Lowestoft); Rusalka (Nürnberg and Monte Carlo); Pinocchio (Bonn), Moses (St Gallen); Silent Night (Minnesota); Flying Dutchman

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and Wut (Bern); Benzin (Chemnitz). Other designs include for Opera North, ENO, Strasbourg, Berlin, Switzerland and USA. Awards include two Irish Times Awards, Boston Globe and Critics Circle Award. His designs for the opera Pinocchio were nominated for Faust Prize, Germany. NICOLE OPPLER ensemble Previous roles include Mother Madama Butterfly (Grange Park Opera), cover Amneris Aida and Sabine Fledermaus (Opera de Baugé), Suzuki Butterfly and Annina Traviata (Park Opera), Novice Suor Angelica (Fulham Opera), Cherie Blair as Counsel for the Defence Trial by Jury: A Footballer's Tale and the Witches Dido & Aeneas (Minotaur Music Theatre); Emilia Otello (Vox Lirika), Mercedes Carmen (West London Opera), Lady Angela Patience, Lady Sangazure The Sorcerer, Duchess of Plaza-Toro Gondoliers and Katisha Mikado (New London Opera Group). Nicole was awarded the Gil-Rodriguez Scholarship from Opera de Baugé and currently studies with Paula Anglin. ALEX OTTERBURN Burgess Grimes / ensemble Currently a postgraduate at RAM under Mark Wildman and Jonathan Papp, Alex read Economics at the University of Manchester and started singing only halfway through his degree. Since then he has performed widely on the opera stage and in concert across the UK and Ireland. His roles include Papageno, Father Hansel & Gretel, Jupiter Orpheus in the Underworld, Frank Fledermaus, Gaspar Rita and Bartley Riders of the Sea. He is generously supported by the Josephine Baker Trust. ANNE-MARIE OWENS Auntie Grimes & Countess Spades Was born in South Shields, and studied at GSMD before joining ENO in 1985. She has performed many roles including Aszucena Il Trovatore, Amneris Aida, Brangäne Tristan und Isolde and Jezibaba Rusalka on opera stages throughout the world. Her recent appearances include Fricka Rheingold and Walküre and Brangäne (Nationale Reisopera), Mrs Sedley Peter Grimes (Hamburg), Mrs Herring Albert Herring (Toulouse), Mrs Grose Turn of the Screw (Glyndebourne), Marcellina Figaro (Warsaw) and Judith Wier’s Miss Fortune (ROH and Bregenz Festival). A familiar face on the concert platform she has recently performed Mahler’s 8th Symphony with Lorin Maazel (Porto), Beethoven’s 9th (Philharmonia) and a concert performance of Turn of the Screw (Konzerthaus, Vienna). A regular visitor to Grange Park Opera, past appearances include Jezibaba Rusalka, Princess Clarice L’amour des Trois Oranges, Madame Larina Onegin and Madame de Croissy Dialogues des Carmélites.

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MARCO PANUCCIO Alfredo Germont Traviata Has performed roles including Rodolfo Boheme (La Fenice, Cleveland Opera and Belle-Ile Festival), Des Grieux Manon (Lyric Opera of Chicago), Candide (Münchner Philharmoniker), Duca Rigoletto (New Orleans Opera), Electrician in Adès’ Powder Her Face (Bologna and Lugo), Don José Carmen (OHP), Edgardo Lucia di Lammermoor (Cincinnati Opera, Florida Grand Opera), Harbison’s The Great Gatsby (Ensemble Parallèle), Manrico Il Trovatore (Portland Summerfest), Alfredo Traviata (Michigan Opera Theatre) and Don Ruiz Maria Padilla (COG), as well as collaborations with conductors such as James Conlon and Emmanuel Villaume. For Grange Park Opera he has performed Duca Rigoletto and Pinkerton Madama Butterfly. Highlights of the 2013/14 seasons include Verdi Requiem (Richmond Symphony Orchestra, USA), Carmina Burana (Atlanta Symphony Orchestra) and concerts appearances at RAH and Barbican Centre. CHRISTINA PETROU Mascha Spades & ensemble Completed her BMus(hons) at GSMD in 2008 and currently studies with Sarah Pring. Recent roles: Norina Don Pasquale (Clapham Opera Festival) Maid The Crocodile (Age of Anxiety for Tête a Tête) Lauretta Gianni Schicchi (Christine Collins Young Artists Programme, OHP) Giovanna Rigoletto (Bury Court Opera), Bubikopf Emperor of Atlantis (Dioneo Opera) and Adina L’elisir d’amore (Pavilion Opera). Chorus work includes: Eugene Onegin and I Puritani (Grange Park Opera); Francesca da Rimini and La Forza del Destino (OHP); Treemonisha (Pegasus Opera); The Rake’s Progress (Aldeburgh Festival) and La Rondine (BYO). EMILY PHILLIPS ensemble Trained at RWCMD after completing a Music & Media degree at Sussex University. Recent opera roles include 2nd Nenella I Gioelli della Madonna (OHP), Belinda Dido & Aeneas (Barefoot Opera), First Boy & cover Papagena Zauberflöte (Longborough Opera Young Artists), Julia Bertram in Dove’s Mansfield Park & Barbarina Figaro (Hampstead Garden Opera). 2014 includes performances of Bastienne Bastien & Bastienne and Dew Fairy Hansel & Gretel (Pop Up Opera). LINDSAY POSNER Director Traviata Opera credits include: Rigoletto & Roberto Devereux (OHP); Giulio Cesare (ROH); Love Counts (Almeida); Jenufa (Opera Theatre Company, Dublin); Dada: Man and Boy (Almeida & Montclair Theatre); Tosca (GPO). Theatre credits: Other Desert Cities (Old Vic); Little Hotel on the Side (TRB); Relatively Speaking (TRB & WE); The Winslow Boy (Old Vic/ Roundabout); Noises Off (Old Vic/WE/Tour); Abigail’s Party

(Menier/TRB/WE); Uncle Vanya, Ideal Husband (Vaudeville); Richard III (Old Globe, San Diego); A View from the Bridge (Duke of York’s); Carousel (Savoy & Tour); Fiddler on the Roof (Sheffield Crucible & Savoy); Fool for Love, A Life in the Theatre (Apollo); Turn of the Screw, House of Games, Romance (Almeida); Butley, The Birthday Party (Duchess); Oleanna (Garrick); Power, Tartuffe (NT); Sexual Perversity in Chicago (Comedy); Twelfth Night, The Rivals, Volpone, Taming of the Shrew (RSC); American Buffalo (Young Vic); Death and the Maiden (Royal Court, two Olivier Awards). OLIVIA RAY Flora Bervoix Traviata Studied at RNCM, ENO’s The Knack and GSMD, receiving a fellowship to Aspen, Colorado to study with Susanne Mentzer. She currently studies with Robert Dean. Her opera roles include Enrichetta di Francia I Puritani & Soeur Mathilde Dialogues des Carmélites (Grange Park Opera); Curra Forza del destino, Mrs Fox The Fantastic Mr Fox, Suzy/ Lolette La Rondine and Alisa Lucia di Lammermoor (OHP); Juno Orpheus in the Underworld and Olga Eugene Onegin (Scottish Opera); Rosina Barber (Stanley Hall Opera); La Périchole (Opera South); Angelina Cenerentola (London Opera Productions); Carmen (Pavilion Opera); Esmeralda Bartered Bride and Mother Tales of Hoffmann (Mid Wales Opera), Irene Theodora & Pulcheria Riccardo Primo (Opéra de Baugé). ANDREW REES Bob Boles Grimes Recent and future engagements include Youth Die Frau ohne Schatten (ROH), Macduff Macbeth (NI Opera) and Raffaele Stiffelio (Bergen National Opera). Important past engagements include Eisslinger Meistersinger, Edgar Ludd and Isis, Doctor Anna Nicole, Froh Rheingold (ROH), Kudryash Kat’a Kabanova (WNO)‚ Steva Jenufa (New Israeli Opera), Spoletta Tosca (NI Opera), Jonathan Dove’s Swanhunter (Opera North)‚ Melot Tristan and Isolde‚ Goro Butterfly and Tchaplitsky Spades (Grange Park Opera), Melot (Nationale Reisoper) and Siegmund Walküre (Longborough Opera). On the concert platform Andrew appeared in Tristan and Isolde and Tannhäuser with Donald Runnicles (BBCSSO) and roles in Parsifal with Mark Elder (Halle Orchestra at the Proms). PETER RELTON Revival Director Spades Last year he directed the revival of Satyagraha (ENO) where he previously revived Barber of Seville. He revived Tosca and Rigoletto Grange Park Opera Rising Stars programme. He has directed Boheme, Falstaff and La Rondine (Opera North); Cavalleria Rusticana and Pagliacci (Festival de la Vezere); Voix Humaine (Les Azuriales); Cenerentola and Tosca (Opera Brava); The Pearl Fishers and Nabucco (Northern Opera); Marriage of Figaro, Traviata, Magic Flute and Tosca (Opera Nova). He has directed scenes at RCM and RAM. As an assistant director he has worked at ENO, ROH, Opera North, Scottish Opera, GFO and RNT, assisting directors such as Phyllida Lloyd, Rufus Norris, Phelim

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McDermott, David Pountney, Deborah Warner, Ian Judge, Jonathan Miller, Jeremy Sams, Philip Prowse, Tim Albery and Francesca Zambello. As a revival director he has worked in Austria, Holland and Germany. BETHANY KALLAN REMFRY ensemble Was born into an athletic family; her father is Olympic silver medalist Keith Remfry. Bethany studied as an undergraduate at GSMD and as a Masters student at the RAM and RCS. Whilst a student at the RCS Bethany joined the GFO chorus and understudied Clara Betrothal in a Monastery (Scottish Opera). Bethany recently performed the role of Isabel in SO & D'Oyly Carte's Pirates of Penzance. Bethany is supported by The Countess of Munster Musical Trust and The Simon Fletcher Charitable Trust. BROCK ROBERTS Party guest Don Quichotte / ensemble Brock Roberts recently completed his Masters at Birmingham Conservatoire. He started his music career working with Dayton Opera in the USA and soon after moved to Germany where he worked regularly as a soloist in both Munich and Hamburg before coming to the UK to further his studies.  His recent roles include Gherardo  Gianni Schicchi, Sam Kaplan Street Scene and Johnny Inkslinger Paul Bunyan. NIGEL ROBSON Rev Horace Adams Grimes Was born in Argyleshire and studied with Alexander Young and Gustave Sacher. He is well established as one of Britain's most versatile lyric tenors with an opera and concert repertoire ranging from Monteverdi to contemporary of compositions, and is particularly well known for his interpretations of Britten. Recent highlights include Idomeneo (La Monnaie), Goehr’s Promised End (ETO), Ulysses (ENO at The Young Vic) and Dialogues des Carmélites (Grange Park Opera). At the 2005 Enschede Festival he premiered a project entitled The Tenor Man’s Story. At its centre is a poem written by his father about returning to Campbeltown to see the grave of his sister who died there, aged two. The work is a multimedia recital with integrated audio and visual projections using the works of Britten, Dufay, Cage and the Beatles, as well as piano improvisations by Howard Moody and audio compositions of his own. RYAN HUGH ROSS ensemble The Dutch/American baritone holds degrees from Southwest Minnesota State University, California State University-Long Beach, and Wales International Academy of Voice where he studied with tenor Dennis O’Neill.  Future engagements include Germont Traviata and Marcello Boheme at the Barga Bel Canto Festival, Italy.

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CLAIRE RUTTER Violetta Valery Traviata Was born in South Shields and is one of the UK’s leading sopranos, regularly appearing with major orchestras and opera companies throughout the UK, Europe and North America. For Grange Park Opera she has previously sung Norma, Elvira Puritani, Cio-Cio-San Madama Butterfly and Tosca. Her London appearances as Lucrezia Borgia and Aida were televised by Sky Arts, and the latter is now available on BBC DVD. She has worked with orchestras including the BBCSSO, CBSO, ECO, LSO, Philharmonia, RLPO, RPO, SCO and Ulster Orchestra, and her recording of Elgar’s The Kingdom with the Hallé Orchestra won a 2011 Gramophone Award. This season, she has also sung Donna Anna Don Giovanni (Finnish National Opera), Tosca (Theater Basel) and Turandot (Scottish Opera). DAMIANO SALERNO Giorgio Germont Traviata Was born in Siracusa, and has appeared in most of major European opera houses performing the main baritone roles under renowned conductors and stage directors since his debut as Melitone Forza del Destino (Busseto)  in 2001. He was invited to sing Germont Traviata and Albert  Werther  after winning AsLiCo Competition in 2004. He has achieved huge success in the roles of Rigoletto, Marcello Boheme and Sharpless Madama Butterfly amongst others. Recent and upcoming engagements include a concert at Wigmore Hall in London as part of the Rosenblatt Recital Series, Riccardo  I Puritani  (Grange Park Opera), Francesco I Masnadieri  (Teatro Regio, Parma), Duca di Nottingham Roberto Devereux  (Tenerife), Rigoletto (Grange Park Opera and Staatstheater St Gallen) and Marcello (Oviedo). JEREMY SAMS Director Grimes Directed: Fledermaus (Metropolitan Opera), Wizard of Oz (West End & Toronto); Educating Rita (West End); Sound of Music (West End and Toronto); 13 (Broadway); Little Britain (London & UK tour); Noises Off (RNT and Broadway); Passion; Wild Oats; Marat/Sade; Enter the Guardsman; The Wind in the Willows; Two Pianos, Four Hands; Spend Spend Spend; Benefactors. Lyrics: Amour (Tony Nominated); Translations: Indiscretions, The Miser and Mary Stuart (RNT); The Rehearsal; Beckett; Figaro’s Wedding, La Boheme, Magic Flute, Wagner’s Ring Cycle (ENO); Merry Widow (ROH). As composer: Wind in the Willows, Arcadia (RNT); Merry Wives of Windsor (RSC); The Mother (BBC); Enduring Love (Pathe, Ivor Novello Award); Hyde Park on Hudson and Le Weekend (Film 4); Persuasion (BBC Films, BAFTA Award). As adaptor: Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (London & New York), The Enchanted Island (Metropolitan Opera).

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PRUDENCE SANDERS Pedro Don Quichotte and ensemble Studied at GSMD. Roles include Musetta Boheme, Adina L'elisir d'amore, Violetta Traviata (Opera UpClose) Governess Turn of the Screw and Cunegonde Candide  (Cambridge Philharmonic), Soprano soloist Mittwoch aus Licht  (Birmingham Opera), Elsie Yeoman of the Guard (Buxton G&S Festival) and Bianca Rondine (Go Opera). JOANNA SOANE ensemble Studied singing and clarinet at TCM and RCM and was originally a mezzo-soprano. Soprano roles include Barbarina Figaro (Raymond Gubbay, Savoy Theatre), title role Iolanthe (Buxton Opera House), cover Governess Turn of the Screw (Budapest) and Una Novizia Suor Angelica (Talent Unlimited at St. James, Piccadilly). Chorus work includes seasons with OHP, NI Opera and Raymond Gubbay. ALBERTO SOUSA Gaston Traviata & Juan Don Quichotte Studied at Solti Te Kanawa Accademia di Bel Canto, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal and GSMD. Recent débuts include Prince A Dinner Engagement (Wexford Festival) and Sir Bruno Robertson I Puritani (Grange Park Opera). Previous engagements include Eric in the world première of Coleridge-Taylor's ‘missing’ opera Thelma (Surrey Opera), Almaviva Barbiere (Pavilion), Ernesto Pasquale (Euphonia Works), world première of Spilt Milk by Timothy Burke, and Boy 1 Trouble in Tahiti (Grimeborn Festival), Orfée Orfée aux Enfers (Teatro de Aveiro, Portugal), and Macheath Die Dreigroschenoper (Ópera Norte, Portugal). Plans include Pasquale Orlando Paladino (PURPUR). AMY SPRUCE ensemble Studied voice at Melba Conservatorium of Music and Melbourne Opera Studio. UK credits include Isabel Pirates of Penzance, Bertha Grand Duke, Gondoliers, Princess Ida and Iolanthe (Buxton/Harrogate), Annina Traviata excerpts (OperaCoast) and Ivor Novello: The Great British Musical. Other roles include Gretel, Papagena Magic Flute, Belinda Dido & Aeneas and Valencienne Merry Widow. MATTHEW STIFF Doctor Grenvil Traviata, Hobson Grimes, Narumov Spades Studied music at the University of Huddersfield where he received a BMus and MA in performance. He went on to GSMD where he took the Postgraduate Diploma in vocal training and graduated for the Opera Course

with distinction in 2011. He has sung for companies including Scottish Opera, Opera North, Grange Park Opera, Mid Wales Opera, Iford Arts Festival, Clonter Opera, British Youth Opera and Chelsea Opera Group. Roles include Gremin Onegin, Lord Walton I Puritani, Marquis de la Force and Jailer Dialogues des Carmélites, Polyphemus Acis and Galatea, Kecal Bartered Bride, title role and Antonio Nozze di Figaro, Charon Euridice, Ashby Fanciulla del West, Dulcamara L’elisir d’amore, Don Magnifico Cenerentola, Marchese d’Obigny Traviata, King Rene Iolanta, Togno Spinalba, Superintendent Budd Albert Herring and Pietro de Visantis L’assedio di Calais. DAVID STOUT Sancho Panza Don Quichotte Has rapidly established himself as one of the UK’s most versatile young baritones, Opera roles include Dr Falke Die Fledermaus, Ping Turandot, Papageno Die Zauberflöte, Konrad Nachtigall  Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Le Dancaïre Carmen  and Schaunard  La Boheme  (WNO); Schaunard  La Boheme and Zaretsky Eugene Onegin (ENO); Angelotti Tosca, Nikita Das Portrait and Mick Playing Away (Bregenz Festival); Flemish Deputy Don Carlos (ROH); Don Juan From the House of the Dead  (Palermo);  Harašta Cunning Little Vixen  and Papageno (Grange Park Opera) and Marullo Rigoletto (OHP).  Concerts have included Beethoven 9 with Sir Colin Davis, Handel’s  Messiah  and Brahms’ Requiem (Hallé Orchestra), Vaughan Williams’ A Sea Symphony (RPO), and Bach’s St John Passion (Polyphony at St John’s Smith Square). CARL TANNER Peter Grimes Grimes & Herman Spades Opened the 2013/14 season at Pittsburg Opera as Radames Aida, his signature role and one he has also sung at the Metropolitan Opera, Staatsoper Hamburg, Bayerische Staatsoper Munich, Edmonton Opera, Deutsche Oper Berlin and Semperoper Dresden. Recent successes include  Dick Johnson La Fanciulla del West  (Opéra Royal de Wallonie) and Cavaradossi Tosca (Deutsche Oper Berlin), a role he also sang in his debut at ROH. Mr Tanner appeared at the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow as Calaf Turandot, and in both Florence and Tokyo with Zubin Mehta, as well as before an audience of 100,000 at the Metropolitan Opera’s Opera in the Park in Central Park. Future appearances include return engagements to Dallas Opera, The Metropolitan Opera and ROH. MATTHEW THISTLETON ensemble A recipient of The Riga Heesom Award, is studying for an MMus in solo performance at RNCM with David Lowe. Matthew made his opera debut in Il Ritorno d’Ulisse in Patria (RNCM) and has since performed in an abridged concert of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg under Sir Mark Elder. He was a soloist in Bach’s Easter Oratorio under David Vickers and premiered Lebab at the Sound Histories project at the British Museum, devised by Steve Berry. Matthew has recently played Snug the Joiner Midsummer Night’s Dream (Sheffield Winter Garden).

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AIMEE TOSHNEY ensemble Scottish soprano Aimee studied Music & Languages at Glasgow University and RNCM receiving prizes for Music, French and Italian. Roles include Susanna Figaro (Young Opera Venture), Carmen (Focus Opera), Romilda Serse (RNCM), Young Tree Paul Bunyan (BYO), Alison Wandering Scholar (Opéra les Fauves). Recital experience includes Leeds Lieder and Wexford Festival and performances around the world as a singer of Scots song. Plans include the Glamis Castle Musicale 2014. DANIELLA VARADI ensemble Born in Sheffield, she was awarded an EMI Music Sound Bursary for a short course at NOS. Engagements include ensemble Onegin, Puritani, Carmélites (Grange Park Opera); Baba the Turk Rake's Progress (OperaCoast 2013); Terynka Cunning Little Vixen, Lay Sister Suor Angelica, Sorceress Dido & Aeneas, Jennie Hildebrand Street Scene. In the CBSO Chorus she performed with Bryn Terfel, Sir Anthony Hopkins, Michael Seal. Featured artist BBC2 Drama Line of Duty (2012). Chorus member Bartered Bride (BYO); Dancer Opening Ceremony London 2012 Olympics. NIKKI WOOLLASTON Movement Director Traviata As director, assistant director, rehearsal director, credits include Ballroom to Broadway Tour 2014; West Side Story (Pimlico Opera); She Loves Me (Chichester); Madama Butterfly (Grange Park Opera); Shoes (Sadler’s Wells). Choreography credits include Porgy & Bess (Copenhagen), King’s Speech (Wyndhams / UK tour), Backbeat (Duke of York’s/ Toronto/Los Angeles); Rigoletto (OHP); Tosca and Carmélites (Grange Park Opera); Oklahoma! (Chichester); Wuthering Heights (UK tour); Marguerite (Haymarket / Japan); Kismet (ENO); King And I (UK tour); Nymph Errant (Chichester) and The Vivien Ellis Awards (Her Majesty’s). As a mass movement choreographer, credits include Opening & Closing Ceremonies, Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games, Opening & Closing Ceremonies, London 2012 Olympic / Paralympic Games; Ajyal Youth Film Festival, Doha and The Big If (Hyde Park). Nikki was associate choreographer for ITV drama Breathless.

C H I LDR E N Peter Grimes Charlie Boyd Hari Bravery Alice Claisse Astra Cornforth Matthew Dodd Carter Jefferies James Munnery-Tyler Charlie Nall George Nall Phoebe Venturi

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Queen of Spades Dan Adlam Jessica Adlingotn Emily Bell Zara Boucher Vivien Canadine George Canadine Archie Cliffe Clemency Fisher Fay Gaule Tom Mason

Hugo Mayne Hermione Mitchell Sasha Parker Joss Richardson Hugo Richardson Arthur Ritchie Ella Shaw Harry Sowton Olivia Steel Tom Stone Lexie Wilson

BBC CONCERT ORCHESTR A La Traviata & Don Quichotte VIOLIN 1 Charles Mutter (leader) Rebecca Turner Peter Bussereau Chereene Allen Helena Casey Lucy Hartley Caroline Bishop Patrick Roberts Sebastian Rudnicki Samantha Wickramasinghe Cormac Browne Jamie Hutchinson Hayley Pomfrett VIOLIN 2 Michael Gray Matthew Elston Marcus Broome David Beaman Daniel Mullin Sarah Freestone Rustom Pomeroy Anna Ritchie VIOLA Timothy Welch Robin Del Mar Nigel Goodwin Helen Knief Jacqueline Lloyd Judith Webberley Mike Briggs CELLO Benjamin Hughes Katharine O'Kane Matthew Lee Josephine Abbott Ben Rogerson DOUBLE BASS Dominic Worsley Stacey-Ann Miller Andrew Wood FLUTE Ileana Ruhemann Lianne Barnard Sophie Johnson PICCOLO Sophie Johnson OBOE Bethany Akers Rebecca Wood Anne Glover Victoria Walpole

CLARINET Derek Hannigan Neyire Ashworth Duncan Ashby BASS CLARINET Duncan Ashby BASSOON Gavin McNaughton Kim Murphy Jane Sibley HORN Mark Johnson Tom Rumsby Richard Dilley David Wythe TRUMPET Catherine Moore David McCallum John Blackshaw Edward Hobart TROMBONE Mike Lloyd Matthew Knight Stephen Turton BASS TROMBONE Daniel West Samuel Freeman CIMBASSO Sasha Koushk-Jalali TUBA Adrian Miotti TIMPANI Stephen Webberley Scott Bywater PERCUSSION Alasdair Malloy Stephen Whibley Timothy Barry Jeremy Cornes Sacha Johnson HARP Andrew Knight PIANO/CELESTE Charlotte Forrest (Don Quichotte)

COR ANGLAIS Victoria Walpole

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BOURNEMOUTH SYMPHONY ORCHESTR A Queen of Spades & Peter Grimes VIOLIN 1 Amyn Merchant (leader) Ben Buckton Mark Derudder Kate Turnbull Karen Leach Magdalena GrucaBroadbent Jennifer Curiel Tim Fisher Julie Gillett-Smith Kate Hawes Laura Kernohan VIOLIN 2 Carol Paige Matthew Ward Nikki Gleed Penny Tweed Sophie Cameron Anne Maybury Vicky Berry Lara Carter Rebecca Clark Janice Thorgilson Eluned David VIOLA Helen Kamminga Martin Humbey Jacoba Gale Eva Malmbom Nigel Giles John Murphy James Pullman Michael Smith CELLO Jesper Svedberg Roger Preston Philippa Stevens Calum Cook Stephanie Oade Orsolya Kadar DOUBLE BASS David Daly Nicole Boyesen David Kenihan Nickie Dixon Jane Ferns FLUTE / PICCOLO Anna Pyne Owain Bailey Jenny Doyne

OBOE / COR ANGLAIS Edward Kay Rebecca Kozam Jessica Mogridge CLARINET Kevin Banks Christine Roberts BASS CLARINET Mike Huntriss BASSOON Tammy Thorne Harry Ventham Emma Selby CONTRABASSOON Rosemary Cow HORN Nicolas Fleury Ruth Spicer Robert Harris Kevin Pritchard Edward Lockwood TRUMPET Chris Avison Peter Turnbull Hannah Bishop TROMBONE Kevin Morgan Robb Tooley BASS TROMBONE Kevin Smith TUBA Andy Cresci TIMPANI Geoff Prentice PERCUSSION Matt King Gerald Kirby Alastair Marshallsay HARP Eluned Pierce CELESTE Alistair Young ORGAN/PIANO Jeremy Cooke (Grimes) Sergey Rybin (Spades)

GRANGE PARK OPERA

2014 MUG £10 Available from The Box Office tent & Long Marquee

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Seventeenth century plasterwork of the gallery at The Grange in 1970. Note the view to the staircase shown on page 128. National Monument Record

THE NUTT

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Each Christmas, the great squirrel Viscount Norwich sends a Cracker – a collection of odds and ends. This Nuttery is inspired by (and stolen from) John Julius. The photographs appear in The Grange, published by Grange Park Opera, available for sale in the restaurant and the box office tent.

WA RTI M E 1942

TO LADY DIANA COOPER (1892-1986) FROM CONRAD RUSSELL (1937-2004)

T T E RY

I travelled from Paddington with a Lance-Corporal who quoted Juvenal to me in Latin and alluded lightly to Plato’s Republic. The conversation must have continued at a high level, as he certainly mentioned the following people – Confucius, Buddha, Bernard Shaw, Gandhi, Dreyfus, Roger Casement, Voltaire, Rousseau and many others. He told me that before the war he was a prizefighter and acrobat. I don't think I have ever spoken to a prizefigher before. They seem to be highly cultivated men.

1943

BY DR HARRIET WALFORD

In summer 2000 I took my godmother Nancy Morland (née Blake) (1926–2004) to The Mikado in the old theatre at The Grange. She was reminded of her escapades there during the War. The Grange was then owned by industrialist Charles Wallach. Nancy had a friend who lived in Swarraton and they would visit US soldiers who were based at The Grange. She told me they would canoodle with them in the long grass in the Park. The US Army arrived in 1943 so she would have been around 17 years old. Nancy had been shyly amused by their exploits but it all sounded very innocent. Nancy married Dr Joe Morland (1923–1988) who practised as a GP for many years in Tadley where Nancy had run the local Red Cross office. When the branch surgery of Tadley Medical Partnership opened in 1989 it was named after them. The Morland Surgery still exists. Joe Morland delivered me in the snow of 1963. I was a junior doctor working the in Emergency Department when he became suddenly unwell before he died. Such strange symmetry. I still use his old leather medical bag.

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THE DORIC SPIRIT All opera fans will know that a visit to Grange Park is a feast for the eyes as well as for the ears, not least in its architecture. But some might think it is more for lovers of historic than of Modern architecture. A thread can be drawn, however, from the architecture of The Grange to some of the most challenging architecture of the Modern Movement. That thread might be labelled the Doric Spirit. The Grange is possibly the earliest house in the revived Greek Doric style of architecture in Europe, designed by William Wilkins in 1804. Its splendid and dramatic massing addresses with great power the valley which it faces, its portico reaching out to the landscape in a manner worthy of its Hellenic models. Ancient Greek architecture, especially in its most austere form of Doric architecture, was felt through most of the

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nineteenth century to embody the highest ideals of the rational thought and democracy characteristic of Greek culture. This feeling persisted through that century into the next, persuading the young Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, the novice Swiss architect – better known as Le Corbusier – to spend months visiting Greece in 1911 communing especially with the Parthenon, the supreme monument of Doric, in which the stubbiness of earlier Doric columns is replaced by a slenderness more characteristic of the Ionic style. In 1923 his Towards an Architecture, compiled from earlier articles, became the manifesto of Modern architecture. A whole chapter is devoted to extolling, in the most high-flown terms, the architecture of the Parthenon. Provocatively, he compared the evolution of motorcars from 1907 to 1921 to that of

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Doric from the temples of Paestum to the Parthenon, on which he conferred the ultimate accolade as a ‘machine à émouvoir’ (machine to excite emotion). He extolled ‘the Doric spirit’ and ‘Doric morality’, and Purism – the style of painting he evolved in the same years with Amédée Ozenfant – depicted mugs and glasses fluted like Doric columns. The acute response which Le Corbusier had for the qualities of Doric architecture, and especially for the relationship between the ruined Parthenon and the mountainous landscape around it, informed his architecture throughout his career. In 1920 a young Hungarian aspirant to architecture, Ernö Goldfinger, arrived in Paris and started to prepare for admission to the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He was immediately in touch with the most avant-garde circles, and his successful submission for entry in 1922 was a design for an Entrance to the Catacombs – in the Doric style. Eleven years later, by now French secretary of CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne), he attended – with Le Corbusier – the famous 1933 conference at Athens and was photographed by his colleagues in front

of the Parthenon and the Doric temple at Sounion (though he had also visited Greece earlier). The same year he married an English art student in Paris, Ursula Blackwell, and towards the end of the following year they moved to London. Amongst his circle were the architectural writers Nikolaus Pevsner, John Summerson, and J M Richards. In 1961 he joined with them in the unsuccessful campaign for the preservation of the Euston Arch, the most impressive single monument of Greek Doric in England. Designed in 1837 as a suitably grand gateway to the new station for the LMS railway, architect Philip Hardwick perhaps sensed an affinity between Greek Doric and machine forms as Le Corbusier was later to do. Ursula Goldfinger told me there existed photographs of them standing with placards in front of the ‘Arch’ - or Propylaeum as it should strictly be called. Amongst others who campaigned were his young friends the architects Peter and Alison Smithson, who subsequently wrote a book about it. The Grange of course suffered its own brush with demolition in 1972 but one from which it was narrowly saved. Though Goldfinger, from 1923 onwards, was

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a committed Modern architect, he nevertheless always regarded himself as a ‘classical’ one. He was a regular visitor to Ledoux’s Salines du Roi at Chaux of 1775 with its massive portico of unfluted Greek Doric columns. Formal proportion and symmetry found a place in his work where they did not in that of most of his contemporaries. It might be argued that the rhythms created by the powerful brackets supporting the access balconies on his Trellick Tower of 1968 in North Kensington echo the rhythm of triglyphs on a Doric entablature. I was privileged to work for him in his office in Trellick Tower in 1973-1975 and to hear directly from him the importance to him of these factors. The ‘massive’ quality of Doric forms might be calculated to appeal, maybe inspired, the massive character of the late Modern architecture of Le Corbusier and Goldfinger – sometimes referred to as ‘Brutalism’. Certainly these massive forms give such buildings enough weight to enter into dialogue with space, with the landscape around them – one of the key ideas in Modern architecture – in a way that the Parthenon and The Grange both do. The Greek Doric order was comparatively little used in England at any time. It is found in the work of Sir John Soane. The Scots can boast fine examples such as the Royal Scottish Academy, in Edinburgh, where they even set about building a complete full-scale replica of the Parthenon on Calton Hill in 1822 to commemorate the dead of the Napoleonic Wars. Money ran out well short of completion and the fragmentary monument is unfairly known as ‘Scotland’s Disgrace’. Let us hope the campaign to rebuild the Euston Arch can succeed, using in large part the original stones now lurking in the River Lea (www. eustonarch.org). The cost in the context of HS2 would be small, the shades of Goldfinger and Le Corbusier would both be pleased, The Grange would gain a companion, the Doric Spirit would get a boost, and we should all gain something more to inspire us – especially on our journeys north. JAMES DUNNETT is an architect who was one of the last to work for Ernö Goldfinger in the 1970s and has since divided his time between practising architecture, teaching, and writing about the Modern Movement in general and Goldfinger in par ticular

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TO SAVE OR NOT TO SAVE? BY MARCUS BINNEY The Euston Arch, the first great monument of the railway age, was demolished in 1961. The Grange, one of Britain’s most celebrated neo-classical stately homes, was also in the shadow of the wrecking ball ten years later. This time, the outcome was a victory, thanks to a group of passionate believers – and two timely exhibitions. They not only helped save The Grange, but formed the campaigning group, SAVE Britain’s Heritage, which has since succeeded in preserving many buildings. HISTORIC HOUSES Barlaston Hall, Staffordshire Belford Hall, Northumberland Benham Park, Berkshire Bispham Hall, Lancashire Boringdon Hall, Devon Brough Hall, Yorkshire Clarendon House, Wiltshire Cullen House, Banffshire Ecton Hall, Northamptonshire The Grange, Hampshire Harleyford Manor, Buckinghamshire Hazells Hall, Bedfordshire Hellaby Hall, Yorkshire Highcliffe Castle, Dorset House of Gray, Dundee Hylands Hall, Essex Ingress Abbey, Kent Llangoed Castle, Powys Mavisbank, Midlothian Moat Brae, Dumfries Revesby Abbey, Lincolnshire Seafield House, Ayr (ongoing) Shaw House, Newbury, Berkshire Stocken Hall, Leicestershire Trevor Hall, Clwyd Yeaton Pevery, Shropshire

Ss Peter & Paul, New Brighton, Birkenhead Clifton United Reformed Church, Bristol Holy Trinity, Tunbridge Wells Holy Trinity, Maidstone Unitarian Church, Ringwood Congregational Church, Winchester Countess of Huntingdon’s Chapel, Worcester INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE Battersea Power Station, London Bankside Power Station, London Boathouse 4, Portsmouth Historic Dockyard Bournemouth Station Cressbrook Mill, Derbyshire Farnborough Royal Aircaft Establishment, Hampshire Langley Station, Buckinghamshire Paddington Station – Span 4 Rodborough Carworks, Guildford CITIES AND TOWNS Old Billingsgate Fish Market, London Berkhamstead Town Hall Buckingham Town Hall Oldham Town Hall Boar Lane, Leeds Burnley Weavers’ Triangle Derby Railway Village Lancaster Canal Quarter The Lyceum, Liverpool National Westminster Bank, Piccadilly [Curtis Green 1926-28] Jubilee Hall, Covent Garden Shepherdess Walk, Hackney, London Smithfield General Market, London (ongoing) Peninsula Barracks, Winchester Saltaire Mills, Bradford

CHURCHES

SAVE campaigns contributed substantially to saving these major houses complete with their contents:

All Souls, Haley Hill, Halifax Bethesda Chapel, Stoke-on-Trent St John’s, Reading St Francis Xavier, Liverpool

Calke Abbey, Derbyshire Fyvie Castle, Aberdeenshire Tyntesfield, Somerset Dumfries House, Ayrshire

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The vast amount of publicity generated by the V & A show prompted me and a group of colleagues including Simon Jenkins and Dan Cruickshank to found SAVE Britain’s Heritage, a new campaigning group dedicated to publicising the plight of endangered historic buildings. 629 houses had gone and we were determined to apply the brakes. This was 1975, European Architectural Heritage Year, and it opened with an application to demolish an entire listed model village of 200 railway cottages. Soon SAVE found it was not enough just to protest in the press. Legal action was needed to prompt government and local authorities to use their powers to secure action. More than this it was necessary to show how endangered historic buildings could be put to viable new uses. To this end we bought for a pound Grade I listed 18th century Barlaston Hall in Staffordshire which was falling into a coal mine and repaired the fabric, putting on a new roof and restoring the remarkable octagonal ‘Chinese Chippendale’ windows. We sold it to James and Carol Hall who restored the wonderful rococo interior. SAVE led the campaign to stop the demolition of Battersea Power Station, obtaining the

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first planning permission for leisure use. At the same time we proposed its not-so-little sister Bankside Power Station on the Thames opposite St Paul’s should become an art gallery. Our dream came true when it opened in 2000 as Tate Modern and became the most visited modern art gallery in the world. Forty years on we are marking The Destruction of the Country House with a pop up exhibition during London Design Festival Week in September 13-21. The exhibition is on display on the staircase in the mansion this evening. Among the many rescues and revivals of historic houses over the last forty years, The Grange stands out as being saved by the nation in every sense, by national public outcry, by formal guardianship as an ancient monument, and by a substantial investment of public money from ministers and since 1984 by English Heritage. It is the more remarkable for keeping something of the romance of a ruined classical temple in an Arcadian landscape, coming alive on summer evenings for the opera. Almost every visitor to the Grange must ask ‘how did the building come to be in its present baffling state, full of rooms without ceilings and vistas up to the roof beams?’ Yet at the same time so much is well preserved, notably the magnificent giant Doric portico modelled on the Theseion, the most complete ancient temple in Athens and the Ionic conservatory, now the auditorium. The answer is that the saga of the Grange is one of the closest run battles in the history of country house conservation. Permission to demolish had been granted by the County Council and dynamite was the method chosen. In July 1972 a pre-demolition sale of fixtures and fittings took place. The main staircase was stripped out and sold, marble wall linings, doors, chimney pieces and chandeliers of the entrance hall all went. By September the slates on the roof were being removed. It took an article in The Sunday Times, which the editor Harold Evans elevated to the front page, to draw attention of the public to the imminent demolition. It was a fortunate moment. The Council of Europe’s great exhibition The Age of Neoclassicism was due to open at the Royal Academy the next week. The Secretary-

Ceiling of the double height Entrance Hall of The Grange in 1970. National Monument Record

The public outcry sparked by the news that the demolition of The Grange had begun in September 1972, was a prelude to the landmark exhibition at the Victoria & Albert Museum two years later, The Destruction of the Country House. It was commissioned by the museum’s new young director Roy Strong and curated by John Harris and myself. By the time of the opening on October 8, 1974 we had compiled a list of 629 notable historic country houses demolished since the end of World War Two. The exhibition opened just two days before a general election in which the new Labour Government swept to power with promises of a swingeing new wealth tax and greatly increased inheritance taxes. To the newly formed Historic Houses Association it appeared that everything that had been achieved in preserving historic houses and opening them to the public was about to be lost. Their petition, which attracted 1.5 million signatures, persuaded the Government to grant concessions which prompted many more great houses to open to the public.

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General of the Council wrote an anguished letter to the new Prime Minister, Edward Heath, the man who was to take Britain into the Common Market, asking him to secure a reprieve for the Grange, which was included in the exhibition. The next year, in a fine public-spirited gesture, agreement was reached on placing The Grange in the guardianship of the Ministry of Public Works. A roofless country house was very different from the medieval castles and abbeys which made up the overwhelming majority of monuments in care, but in November 1975 the Ancient Monuments Board agreed repair works of ÂŁ103,500. Before anything could happen a government moratorium on major capital projects put a stop on repair. By early 1979 the estimated cost had risen to between ÂŁ490,000 and ÂŁ535,000.

National Monument Record

The man who had kept a constant eye on the state of The Grange was the architect John Redmill, a member of the SAVE Committee. Stirred by his ever more alarming reports, SAVE wrote to the Labour Secretary of State for the Environment, Peter Shore, demanding an immediate assurance that his department would immediately take all necessary steps to preserve the building from further decay during the winter. Ministers had solemnly undertaken to carry out repairs and to open the Grange to the public. They had done nothing of the sort so we were threatening a writ of Mandamus. This is a judicial order obliging a minister to carry out his statutory duties. Civil servants repeatedly requested more time and it was only when we threatened to serve the court papers the next day that on February 22nd 1979 we heard that Shore had authorised his department to proceed with repairs.

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Scaffolding had risen halfway up the building when a general election was called in June 1979, followed by a bombshell in the form of a press notice from Michael Heseltine, the new secretary of state, saying he was reviewing the whole matter. One proposal was renovation ‘to a state where it could be adapted as an art gallery or a museum.’ In response SAVE issued a lightening report ‘Ten Days to Save the Grange’, tied to the closing date of November 31st, which Michael Heseltine had allowed for representations. Fortunately the sheer volume of representations persuaded Michael Heseltine to proceed with essential repairs which would cost around £1m. Today, part of the fascination of a walk round the outside of the Grange, is to find the brick carcass of a grand 17th century house built by the architect William Samwell for Robert Henley. William Wilkins, the architect who transformed the Grange into a Greek temple, simply recased the Charles II house. Samwell’s brick carcass was the saving of the building. The construction is supported by massive vaulted basements and thick, solid brick structural walls. Even when water began to soak into the tops of the walls and push the Roman Cement away from the brick the essential structure remained sound. (The 17th century writer John Evelyn had praised the 'well turned arches' at Samwell’s house in the basement of the Prince of Wales in Newmarket.) The Grange was repaired without resort to new steel work or concrete foundations and ring beams. Lead-coloured aluminium was used for re roofing. The soffit of the portico, originally formed on traditional lath and plaster had been brought crashing down by water sitting on top of it. This was replaced by fibreglass, though this is not visible to the naked eye below. No house in England more dramatically portrays how close many great country houses came to complete destruction. Hundreds of houses were not so lucky. MARCUS BINNEY CBE was the principal founder of SAVE Britain's Heritage, architecture correspondent of The Times, former editor of Country Life, author In Search of the Perfect House, director of the Railway Heritage Trust and a trustee of HMS Warrior.

Entrance Hall of The Grange in 1970. National Monument Record

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THE 2014 QUIZ PART ONE Each group of four general knowledge questions lead to answers, which (either in whole or in part) taken together suggest an opera or the title of an opera. (OPERA)

• • • •

Which long-running US sitcom, which ran from 1994 to 2004, was originally entitled Insomnia Café? Which book of the bible follows The Acts of the Apostles? Countdown conundrum - which English word can you make from all the letters of MY NOCTURNE? Who famously left in his will “to my Wife, my second best bedstead”?

(OPERA)

• • • •

• • •

..................................... by (COMPOSER) ...............................................

The capital of which island, an Australian dependency, is Flying Fish Cove? Which woman was fashioned from the rib of her husband? If water = 273K, Ether = 157K and glycerine = 264.8K, what is the point of this question? Which measure, now only used as a non-scientific measurement of height, is 4 inches?

(OPERA)

• •

..................................... by (COMPOSER) ...............................................

Which is the only European country (other than the Vatican) to have a square flag? Which record label was created by and for the Beatles? Which Formula 1 team ran from 1978 to 2002, attracting Derek Warwick and Damon Hill as drivers, before going bust? What relation was William IV to George III?

(OPERA)

• • •

..................................... by (COMPOSER) ...............................................

Which king is the subject of an opera by Michael Tippett? Whose face “launched a thousand ships”? Which Virgilian hero is a leading character in an opera by Purcell? What is the first name of the composer of this round?

(OPERA)

..................................... by (COMPOSER) ...............................................

Which actor created the role of Indiana Jones? Which former editor of the Daily Mirror was a judge on Britain’s Got Talent? Which former England football manager is now in charge of Derby County? Which virtuoso violinist premiered the Elgar violin concerto?

(OPERA)

• • • •

..................................... by (COMPOSER) ...............................................

..................................... by (COMPOSER) ...............................................

Of which Order is the motto: “Honi Soit Qui Mal Y Pense” ? Which is the only river originating in Switzerland whose waters end in the Black Sea? The most famous city on the river, from which the city takes its

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B A S E D O N TH E C E LL A O F TH E TE M PLE AT B A S S A E , COC K E R E LL PRO D U C E D O N E O F TH E M OS T E LEG A NT A N D SC H O L A R LY ROO M S O F TH E W H O LE G R E E K R E V I VA L . TH E CO LU M N S W E R E A N E X PE N S I V E LU X U RY: TH E E S TI M ATE F O R TH E S H A F T S C A M E TO £118 . 2 s . 6 d ., £45 F O R TH E W H ITE SC AG LI O L A C A P ITA L S . DAVID WATKIN

Charles Cockerell’s Dining Room, The Grange, 1970 The doors and marble columns were sold in the 1972 sale. National Monument Record

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• •

name, is in the Austrian Tyrol. Which car company acquired both Jaguar and Aston Martin in the 1990s? Which four-letter word can mean both “web-site” and “server”?

(OPERA)

• • • •

..................................... by (COMPOSER) ...............................................

In a two-man bobsleigh, how is the person who sits at the back, behind the driver, referred to? What name covers any one of a number of different small parrots, typically having a long tail, but also including the budgerigar? What bird, also known as the Landrail, has the Latin name Crex Crex? Who painted Beer Street and Gin Lane?

PART TWO Each pair of answers conceals (in order) the name of a composer and at least one of his operas QUESTION 1

• •

What is the name of Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical that is the sequel to Phantom of the Opera? Which area of London includes Little Venice, some BBC recording studios and an eponymous Bakerloo line underground station?

QUESTION 2

• •

Which feature of Grange Park Opera’s theatre were designed by Marston? Which novel by Virginia Woolf deals with a transsexual hero/heroine, who lives for many centuries?

QUESTION 3

Which dish comprises a cut of beef, pan-fried in butter, served on a crouton, and topped with a hot slice of fresh whole foie gras. The dish should be garnished with slices of black truffle and finished with a Madeira demi-glace sauce? In which establishment in which city was Oscar Wilde arrested, as commemorated in a poem by John Betjeman?

QUESTION 4

• •

Who was the author of The Imitation of Christ? Precisely what cut of beef is meant to be used in the dish mentioned in Question 3?

QUESTION 5

• •

Which Hollywood actor was married to Natalie Wood at the time of her death in 1981? Which novel provided the title for one of Kate Bush’s Number 1 hits?

QUESTION 6

• •

What plant gives Earl Grey tea its distinctive flavour? What is the capital of the last state to join the USA?

QUESTION 7

What was Sweeney Todd’s profession?

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Which classical musician competed in the giant slalom at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics?

QUESTION 8

In which work do Tweedledum and Tweedledee appear?

Who was the husband of Nefertiti and the likely father of Tutankhamun?

PART THREE Quick-fire opera trivia (warning: some lateral thinking required. To provide help – and eliminate ambiguity – the answers are in a systematic order) • Which king is (implausibly) the subject of operas by Arne, Donizetti, Dvorak and Flotow? • Which number from the Tales of Hoffmann is most likely to be sung by a gondolier? • Who bids adieu to his overcoat in an aria? • Which opera composer is half Handel, with links to Ireland and America? • To what time of year does Santuzza’s hymn relate? • Which Verdi opera starts forte and ends fortissimo? • Who is 21’s father-in-law? • How long does Ponchielli’s dance NOT last? • What flower might you expect to find in Mascagni’s garden? • Who was a cunning little opera composer? • What is 10’s alliterative opera title? • Which composer’s commedia is finita in less time than many other operas • Who is the first Mrs Pinkerton? • What was Bellini’s Major success? • Which (soon to be) Roman emperor is also a Strauss heroine? •Which Mozartean heroine causes her ma pain, in a way……? • . . . and who is 16’s ma? • Which eponymous operatic heroine doesn’t have a leg to stand on from the middle of the first act? • Which eponymous operatic heroine might be “RAM” or “IDE”? • Which eponymous operatic heroine is the answer to her own third question? • Which fictional place forms part of the title of the penultimate G&S collaboration? • Which Verdi heroine asks her lover (in Act 1) to bring her back a flower (with thanks)? • “We get excited with Ring seat” – who would they be? • On which day of the year is Act 2 of La Boheme set? • Which of the Gilbert & Sullivan operas could not be described as Pointless? • To whom is “La ci darem la mano” sung? RICHARD MORSE is an investment banker specialising in energy and infrastructure. In his spare time he sets crosswords and quizzes, and in his even sparer time he enjoys playing and listening to music.

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Entrance Hall of The Grange 1979 This is how it looked when Wasfi and Michael star ted Grange Park Opera in 1998 National Monument Record

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I NTR I G U E D? TH E G R A N G E B OO K I S O N S A LE I N TH E R E S TAU R A NT A N D TH E B OX O F F I C E

S AV E B R ITA I N ' S H E R ITAG E TH E I R P O P U P E X H I B ITI O N I S PR E S E NTE D O N TH E R E S TO R E D S TA I RC A S E (a joint proje c t of G r a nge P ar k O pe r a & E nglish H e r i t a ge , co m ple t e d 2 0 0 8)

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GRANGE PARK OPERA 2014

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Grange Park Opera Programme 2014  

Read in depth about the 2014 season with operas: Poulenc's Les Carmelites, Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin, Bellini's I Puritani with Joseph Cal...

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