Page 1

curiosity t h e d e s ig n o f an in t e r n a t io n al s ch o o l o f as t ro n o my & as t ro -t o u r is m ce n t re

G r ae me No e t h


“Those with the courage to explore the weave and structure of the Cosmos, even where it differs profoundly from their own wishes and prejudices, will penetrate its deepest mysteries.�

Sagan, C. 1997

II


Sketch by author. 2014.

III


I hereby declare that the dissertation submitted for the M. Tech Architecture: Professional, at the Tshwane University of Technology, is my own original work and has not been submitted to any other institution. All quoted text are indicated and acknowledged by a comprehensive list of references. Graeme Noeth

IV


Rock formations | Sutherland (photo by author, 2014)

V


The Design of an International School of Astronomy & Astro-Tourism Centre in Sutherland, Karoo

Submitted by Graeme Noeth

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

MAGISTER TECHNOLOGIAE: ARCHITECTURE (APPLIED DESIGN)

In the Department of Architecture

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND BUILT ENIRONMENT TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

Course Co-ordinator: Prof G Steyn Supervisor: Prof J Laubscher

November 2014

VI


SALT Observatory | Sutherland (photo by author, 2014)

VII


THECOSMICLANDSCAPE

SKY

EARTH

VIII


+ Abstract Architecture

represents

the

symbiotic

The

design

approach

focuses

on

the

relationship between earth, man and the sky.

celebration of astronomy and cosmology.

This dissertation explores these connections in

The resultant product is a contemporary

a Cosmic Landscape.

interpretation of pertinent astronomical events.

1

The design proposal is based on available Over the last decade, South Africa (RSA) has

research and experiments, documenting the

experienced a substantial growth in the field

solstices, stars and various cosmic bodies- as

of astronomy and astrophysics. Post 2005,

well as framing these objects in the cosmic

the largest optical telescope in the Southern

landscape.

hemisphere, known by its acronym, SALT, was constructed in RSA. It is expected that by 2024,

The proposed facility is situated at the South

this country will host the largest array of radio

African Astronomical

telescopes in the world, the Square Kilometre

in Sutherland. It is nested within the South-

Array (SKA). It could be argued that RSA is at

west-embankment of the mountain, currently

the forefront of modern cosmological research.

hosting the Southern Africa Large Telescope

Observatory

(SAAO)

(SALT). The resultant design takes on a linear This exponential growth in the field of astronomy

building typology with radial aspects to

has resulted in local astronomical bodies

document astronomical events. The project

and universities falling behind in astronomy

investigates the semi-arid Karoo climate and

education . This provides a unique opportunity

how the resultant architecture reacts to harsh

to strengthen the latter.

environmental conditions.

The aim of this dissertation is to design an International School of Astronomy and AstroTourism Centre. The proposed building aims to introduce a unique facility in the Northern Cape that would benefit the field of astronomy worldwide. The proposed School of Astronomy acts as a light filter, while it investigates the relationship between

architecture

and

the

Cosmic

Landscape.

1

This term refers to man or woman, in a gender neutral society, and is used because of existing restrictions of the English language.

Left: Milky Way | Chile. Source: [Online) http://www. eso.org/public/images/epod-cc-rf18284. [Accessed 27.10.14]

IX


CONTENTS IV DECLARATION VI IDENTIFICATION IX ABSTRACT

(photo by author, 2014)


1

13

47

Introduction

The Landscape

Theoretical

Background

Architecture as Mediator

Precedential

Argument

Light & Materiality

Experiential

Architecture of the Cosmos

Architecture’s role in Education

Dissertation Overview

& Tourism

71

105

Regional context

The cosmic landscape

Development in region

Applied science to site

Client & Funding

History & Site selection

Mapping the stars

Design Focus & Programme

RATIONALE

ISSUES OF CONCERN

THE SITE

COSMIC LANDSCAPE

Meteorological aspects

EXPLORATION

117

CLIENT, PROGRAMME & ACCOMMODATION

Accommodation Schedule

Site analysis

127

171

207

Concept

Plans

Passive design solutions

Sections

Materials

Generators

Elevations

Structural analysis

Design Development

3D

Drawings

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Concept

Development

and

DESIGN RESOLUTION

TECHNE

Model

245

CONCLUSION

248

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

252

REFERENCES


15:15

SAAO Observatories | Sutherland (photo by author, 2014)


01 RATIONALE

Introduction Background State of Astronomy in SA Architecture of the Cosmos Dissertation Overview

1


Locations of the 12 largest optical telescopes in the world. By author, 2014

Introduction The dissertation entails the design of an International School of Astronomy

Located in the Karoo, the objective of ISAATC is to provide a suitable

and Astro-Tourism Centre (ISAATC) for the Institute of Astronomy (IOA) in

facility which documents astronomical events. The following matters are

Sutherland, Karoo, Northern Cape, RSA [32° 22’ 41.88” S 20° 48’37.8” E].

investigated to help arrive at an appropriate design resolution:

The envisaged facility addresses the current need for an educational institute and tourism destination for astronomy in South Africa.

• The night sky as a Cosmic Landscape within the Karoo environment • The relationships between architecture and the Cosmic Landscape

The design product could be described as a contemporary interpretation

• A spatial exploration of the Axis Mundi within the unique setting

of astronomical events with the building celebrating the arrival of the

• Passive environmental design solutions appropriate to a facility

night sky. It strives to act as an Axis Mundi in the Cosmic Landscape, connecting the heavens with the earth. This centre aims to become a place of celebration, education and research, which is open to the public and which could simultaneously be used as a hub for the astronomy community. 2

located in a semi-arid plateau


An astronomical node. The Astronomy Frontiers Programme (AFP) was established in 2005 in

The design will act as one of IOA’s nodes, and aims to address the urgent

response to a series of meetings that were required to identify key factors

need for an educational facility, which aims to achieve the following:

which would lead to a more successful astronomy programme in the country. In the 2009 paper, titled: “A Decadal Strategy for Human Capacity

• Act as a hub for astronomical development in the country

Development in Astronomy and Astrophysics in South Africa”, Bharuth-

• Develop critical mass groups2 in universities and in regions

Ram states that the geographic advantages of RSA unlock unlimited

• Increasing research supervisory and capacity

potential in the field of astronomy. The AFP proposed establishing an

• Strengthening the relationship that exists between universities and

Institute of Astronomy (IOA) with the support of the National Astrophysics

national facilities, so as to further astronomy research and the

and Space Science Programme (NASSP), the National Research

development of high-level skills.

Foundation (NRF) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST ) (Bharuth-Ram, 2011). It was argued that the proposed Institute of

The proposed design should act as a platform for education, research,

Astronomy should focus on tertiary education with several nodes spread

development and potential discovery in the field of cosmology and

across the country.

astronomy.

Diagram: Establishment of the Institute of Astronomy. By author. 2014.

This term is used when discussing the potential size of groups of astronomy students.

Diagram: Architecture as connector and hub. By author. 2014.

2

3


Current state of astronomy education in South Africa

“The existing supervisory capacity, within South African universities and facilities, is a critical factor limiting the growth of PhD training within this country.� (Bharuth-Ram, K. 2011)

Current trends in astronomy education

Currently, two universities in RSA offer undergraduate programmes in astrophysics: the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the University of Cape Town (UCT). The latter, UCT, is the only Southern African university 4

with a dedicated Department of Astronomy. In 2009, UCT established a Research Centre for Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity to further advance astronomical research (Bharuth-Ram, K. 2011). Research programmes and degrees in advanced mathematics in astrophysics are offered by North-West University, the University of the Western Cape, the University of KwaZulu-Natal, the University of the Free State, the University of Johannesburg, Rhodes University and the University of the Witwatersrand (Bharuth-Ram, K. 2011).

3 2

Bharuth-Ram writes that there is an increasing need to be able to cater for the growing number of astronomy students in South Africa while

1

simultaneously continuing to support international students.

1

Cape Town Observaotry

4

2

SALT

Sutherland

3

SKA

4

Carnarvon

HARTRAO

Hartebeesthoek

Images indicated astronomy infastructure in SA. By author, 2014


current SAAO facilities

Sutherland | Karoo (photo by author, 2014)

5


Professional Astronomers in South Africa

On 1 October 2010, South Africa held the expertise of 101 PhD qualified astronomers, of whom 66 were then residing in the Northern Cape. This number reflects the importance of the geographical region for local astronomical infrastructure. It could therefore be argued that the lack of astronomical education presents an opportunity to propose a dedicated school of astronomy. Furthermore, an international school of astronomy would be ideally located within the Northern Cape.

The National Astrophysics and Space Science Programme. (NASSP) Established in 2003, the NASSP joint venture between local researchers and national facilities identified itself as a post graduate programme addressing the lack of astrophysics research and technical capabilities. Currently, NASSP utilises the facilities of the University of Cape Town, where local and international students study under South African scientists. 29 25 4 8 7 1 2

1

4 1 6

6

7

SAAO UCT Wits UWC UNW Rhodes UNISA UFS UJ UniZul UKZN KAT HartRAO

Upon completing specific undergraduate courses, students are able to enrol for Honours and Master’s degrees at the National Astrophysics and Space Science Programme. The figures below indicated a steady growth in NASSP student numbers for the period 2003 – 2010 (Bharuth-Ram, K. 2011).

Diagram indicates number & distribution of astronomers in SA. By author, 2014

1. Left - (Figures taken from “A Decadal Strategy for Human Capacity Development in Astronomy and Astrophysics in South Africa”, Bharuth-Ram. 2009. Diagram by author, 2013.) 2. Right - Diagrams: Traditional & proposed educational systems. By author. 2014.

6


A response to Growth

During the construction of the Southern

According to Mr. Karel Klein, the current

From the outset, it was evident that the SAATC

African Large Telescope , the SALT Collateral

Education and Logistics Officer at Sutherland

should be designed as a platform that

Benefits Programme was established to target

SAAO, the Sutherland observatories could

provides a place where teachers, astronomers,

the African community. Various projects and

benefit from the following educational facilities:

students, scientists and engineers are able to engage, interact and learn.

programmes were initiated, including school level education, public awareness of science

• Workshops

and socio-economic development (Govender,

• Lecturing rooms

The design provides for the following:

2009:577).

• Bathrooms

• A place for astro-tourism

• Restricted Govender (2009:578) identifies 5 possible

access

to

telescopes

and

conference facilities.

• Educational learning • Facilities necessary to host the NASSP post-

developmental fields in astronomy:

graduate programme. Mr. Klein added that the current Visitor’s

• Education

Centre and the on-site infrastructure struggles

• Research

to accommodate its visitors. He went on to

• Public understanding of science

state that SAAO Sutherland receives about 20

• Partnerships

school visits per annum, with approximately 60

• Job creation.

students per visit. Public tours average about 30 visitors per day/night tour.

- students - private - public

Response to growth: Traditional Learning

Response to growth: Proposed learning

environment

environment

Limited public access

Wider range of access and promotes interaction

7


Architecture of the Cosmos

Early

civilization

was

influenced

by

the

mythological interpretation of the sky and the relationship between the sky and the earth. Human affairs were intrinsically connected to astronomical

events

(StarTeach Astronomy,

2007). Symbols representing the night sky developed over time, spanning generations and cultural divides. To name but a few, the Great Pyramids of Giza, and edifices at Machu Picchu and Stonehenge, all document astronomical events. The earliest construction of this building typology could be dated back 7,000 years ago to Goseck, Germany. Constructed circa 5000 BCE, this circular ruin is believed to be the first structure documenting the winter and summer solstices (Boser, 2006). Present day: On the equinox of each year, the sun rises precisely above the water channel of the SALK Institute. Lesser claims that, much like Stonehenge, the Institute captures these events to inscribe itself on the astronomical scale of time (Lesser, n.d.). Design application: Resultant architecture that documents certain astronomical events.

Left: Orion over pyramids. Source (Online) - https://www. eso.org/public/outreach/eduoff/cas/cas2002/casprojects/italy_betel_1/why.htm [Accessed 16.09.2014)

8

Right: SALK Institue. Source: (Online) - https:// urbanfragment.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/salk-instituteequinox-san-diego-california-us-by-andy-kennelly.jpg. [Accessed 15.09.2014)


SA L K I N ST I T UT E - L IO US K A HN

19:36

9


Road to Observatories| SAAO (photo by author, 2014)

10


Dissertation Overview

The design of a contemporary Stonehenge

The following methods were employed during

as a School of Astronomy and Astro-tourism

the study:

Centre at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in the Karoo will address the need for a tertiary educational facility and National Centre as well as a public destination to increase awareness of astronomy in South Africa.

• Studying

the

spatial

significance

of

astronomical events • Analysing of ancient ruins that document astronomical events • Investigation and applying knowledge gained by studying pertinent precedents

The proposed design explores the linear

• Applying knowledge gained by precedents

building typology as a journey, focusing on

• Conducting an in-depth analysis of the site

a public and private realm to cater for both visitors and professional users. The design facilitates interaction where these users meet.

as a Cosmic Landscape • Establishing the brief, accommodation and programme

As part of the design, the following issues were

• Formulating an appropriate concept

investigated:

• Developing and finalising the design • Reviewing certain of the technical aspects.

• The journey through the landscape • The relationship between astronomical events and the built artefact • Climatic conditions.

3 A modern day interpretation of a building that documents and celebrates astronomical events e.g. solstices, equinoxes, lunar movements, stars and constellations.

11


Light sensitive area| SAAO Observatories (photo by author, 2014)

12


I S S U E S O F C O N C E R N

02

The Landscape Architecture as Mediator Light & Materiality Architecture’s role in Education & Tourism

13


.01

14

The landscape

(photo by author, 2014)


360km

Map showing route from Cape Town to Sutherland. By author. 2014

Location The proposed site is located 360km from Cape Town, the closest major

According to Maniatidis and Walker (2003:6), rammed earth construction

city. This distance adds strain to the transportation of building materials.

needs a specific soil type that has a high sand/gravel content. Silt and

To overcome these logistical and cost implications, the dissertation

some clay is also needed to ensure good soil compaction.

investigates the use of indigenous building materials, such as: According to the Council for Geoscience, sediments found in this region • Rammed earth construction

are mostly sandstone, shales, siltstones and mudstones (Adams, S, et

• Stone wall construction

al. 2000:94). The study done by the Council for Geoscience indicates

• Timber construction.

that the soil found in the SAAO region is adequate for rammed earth construction.

15


West facing mountain slopes The SAAO is located approximately 1798m above sea level (National Schools’ Observatory, 2013), on a hilltop. The proposed design will be placed on the western slope of the hill, linking the current facilities at the foot of the mountain to the existing observatories at the top.

Napier (2000:9.13), writes that West facing slopes receive additional solar heat after already being warmed through the atmosphere during the day. This could result in excessively hot temperatures during the afternoon.

1. Mountain Topography

SAAO Sutherland | Karoo - contours - landscape - proposed site

16

2. Mountain sectional profile


Climate The Karoo experiences extreme temperature fluctuations during the

According to Mofidi (2007), the environment plays a highly significant

year, with temperatures dropping well below 0°C during winter seasons

part in the survival of life; ancient settlers acknowledged these semi-arid

and reaching up to 40°C in the summer. Precipitation is scarce, with

environments, learned from them, and adapted their buildings and

only 244mm rainfall in an average year, and the average humidity in the

construction accordingly. It could be argued that the climatic conditions

region is approximately 51%.

of a region should play a vital role in the architectural design. Using case studies of buildings in arid and semi-arid conditions, Mofidi determined

In a research paper titled “Passive architectural cooling principles for

design strategies for semi-arid and arid climatic conditions.

arid climates”, Mofidi (2007) explains that most early civilisations were established in arid and semi-arid climate conditions. Three examples of

The resultant architectural design principles could be summarised as

such civilisations are the Indus, the Nile and the Tigris-Euphrates, which

follows:

were all birthplaces of three entirely different cultures, all in semi-arid or arid climatic conditions.

01

MORPHOLOGY &

02

ARRANGEMENT

DENSITY

05

OPENINGS

06

SHADING DEVICES

03

CIRCULATION

04

ROOF FROM

07

08

SURFACE

MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION

All images on this page by author. 2014

17


Aspects to be addressed in the design proposal: • Investigate indigenous building materials to incorporate in building construction. • Address the west facing slope of the mountain and design the building in such a way to reduce the impact of the western sun on the building. • Design the building to contextually fit into its surroundings. • Design a built environment suited for semi-arid conditions. • Use passive measures to respond the prevailing climatic conditions to optimise for human comfort. 18


Radcliffe1.9m Telescope | SAAO (photo by author, 2014)

19


Star trails| SALT

.02

20

Architecture as mediator


Architecture as Mediator The proposed facility seeks to connect the night sky with its users, acting as a mediator between the heavens and the earth. The architecture engages with the sky, bringing the astronomical events or symbols to the foreground. This relationship creates a unique environment for the proposed building, where the vertical plane interacts with the horizontal one. This notion of vertical meeting horizontal is explored through the concept of a world centre or cosmic axis, also known as an Axis Mundi.

Left: Star Trail SALT. Source: http://mcdonaldobservatory.org/ sites/default/files/images/news/gallery/salt.startrails.jpg. [Accessed 13.10.14]

21


A

L

E

X

I

S

P

R

E

L

L

E

R

[Online] - http://www.stephanwelzandco.co.za/Index. cfm?fuseaction=news.start&ID=3416769 (Accessed 13.10.2014]

22


Axis Mundi as an architectural manifestation

During the 1950’s, the renowned South African artist Alexis Preller explored

According to Nel (2013 ),“…part of the shell is cut away to reveal within the

the theme of the Axis Mundi. He investigated the idea of the Cosmic

axis mundi, the still but turning point of the universe, a sacred conception central to many cultures. Within the conical chamber, the cosmic axis passes through various planes of being, here depicted as flat, rotating discs that constitute the multiple levels of creation”.

Axis through his interest in the vernacular. The culture of the Mapogga (Ndebele) people served as inspiration for this period of Preller’s oeuvre. Completed in 1957, the Mapogga Axis Mundi allows the observer insight into a cylinder life enclosure.

A

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S

:

All above images by author. 2014

23


MAPOGGA AXIS MUNDI EXPLORATION:

A study of the Preller painting generated specific spaial construct informing the design process. Amongst others, it includes the following elements:

01

02

ROOF & SHELTER COVERING TAPERING

03

04

OF

05

WALLS

CONSTRUCTION & MATERIALS OPENINGS & INTERIOR DESIGN WALL THICKNESS & SHADING

06

USERS 24

07

&

OBSERVERS WILDLIFE

08

&

ACCESS PATTERNS

&

SHADOWS


AXIS MUNDI AS CONCEPT & DESIGN GENERATOR:

01. AXIS MUNDI AS CONNECTION:

02. AXIS MUNDI AS LINEAR SPATIAL QUALITY:

03. A POINT:

According to Howard Teich (2012) the Axis

The dissertation investigates this point of

The dissertation investigates this point of

Mundi serves as connection between the

connection in an attempt to design the

connection in an attempt to become the

earth and the heavens. This concept could

building which will bethe facilitator where sky

facilitator where sky and earth meets.

be interpreted as the point where the celestial

and earth meet. The notion of connection is

and geographic poles meet. In other words,

further explored by interpreting the Axis Mundi

the point where the earth and the sky collide.

as a spatial element:

Teich (2012) asserts that anything or anyone which finds itself /themselves within the Axis Mundi ultimately becomes a repository of knowledge and potential.

1. The axis mundi consist is a linear aspect that unlocks horizontal and vertical design possibilities 2. and what effects would such an experience

hold for the user?

The final design uses framing as a connecting device to link the horizontal plane (the landscape) and the vertical plane (the cosmic envelope).

All above images by author. 2014

25


04. A PORTAL:

05. MAPPING THE STARS:

06. PROMINENT EVENTS:

The concept of the building acting as a

Specific astronomical symbols were selected,

Four prominent astronomical events in a year

symbolic portal to the sky was explored through

documented and then incorporated within

were documented by ancient civilisations.

the following aspects:

the design proposal. The angle and times of

These

rising and setting stars became an important

ceremonies or used for ceremonial purposes

design generator in regards to floor plan and

(Hancock. 1999:30). The proposed design

sectional design elements.

documents the following events for educational

• Framing

astronomical

events

through

positioning of architectural forms

• Orientation of building towards the night sky • A practical experiment to understand the

linked

with

religious

Calculations were made to determine the precise location, degree and time a particular

• 21 December: Summer Solstice – Marks the

event takes place, or the location of a particular

longest day in the Southern hemisphere

star.

when the sun reaches its most northerly point in the sky.

framing of astronomical events to help with design development.

were

and awareness purposes:

• Design of spaces that create awareness of stars and the night sky

events

A portal to the symbols in the sky. • 21 March & 21 September: Equinox – Marks the beginning of spring & autumn in Southern Hemisphere with the sun rising and setting precisely due east and west. Night and day are of equal length on this day. • 21 June: Winter Solstice – Marks the shortest day in the Southern hemisphere when the sun reaches its most southerly point in the sky.

All above images by author. 2014

26


Aspects to be addressed in the design proposal. • The building as a connection device between man and earth • The exploration of a horizontal and vertical axis mundi • The placement of the building within the landscape in relationship to the axis mundi • Using advanced computer software, to align significant astronomical events with strategically placed openings in the building • A practical exercise to determine the quality of data yielded by computer software. (Chapter 3, Experiment refers.)

Pathway to Observatories | SAAO (photo by author, 2014)27


.03

28

Light & materiality

Stone dome structure| SAAO (photo by author, 2014)


Light

Light as an architectural medium

The sun, our closest star and source of light and life.

Daylight & Nightlight

The Sumerians, as early as 2000 BC, built stepped pyramids as tributes to served as inspiration for the built form.

The earth’s natural light source is the Sun, a small yellow dwarf star currently moving in the Local Interstellar Cloud which is situated in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy. (Astrodigital.org, 2007)

Architecture should consequently employ light as a design tool. As

Edwards and Torcellini (2002:2) write that buildings before the 1940 were

Bennet (2009:12) states, within this approach light is no longer used solely

primarily lit by natural daylight. Following the invention of artificial lighting,

to brighten up spaces, but additionally, to create a certain atmosphere,

natural light in buildings was supplemented by electrical light. However,

evoke emotion to a certain extent and to alter the observers’ perspective.

energy and environmental concerns renewed the use of natural light in

the moon and sun. According to Major (2005:10) these sources of light

buildings. The proposed SAAO Sutherland site is sensitive to artificial light: Materiality becomes important when light interacts with it. Choosing the

due to the proximity of the observatories, the design proposal embraces

correct material will benefit the effects of light. When light interacts with

natural light, albeit daylight or starlight.

a particular surface, the light may be absorbed, reflected or transmitted (Bennett, 2008:12). The dissertation therefore aims to investigate the importance of materials in regard to lighting, and the way in which atmosphere is influenced through different uses of lighting and materials. 29


A site in the Karoo

Given the remote location of the proposed building, Millet (1996:17) explains that the relationship between light and climate is one of multidimensional interaction. Light and genius loci thus stand in a reciprocal relationship.

20:10 30

Visitor’s Observatory|SAAO (photo by author, 2014)


Defining the Cosmic Dome In astronomical terms, a sunset is: “…defined as the instant in the evening under ideal meteorological

The Cosmic Dome represents the envelope of planets, stars, nebulae,

conditions, with standard refraction of the Sun’s rays, when the upper

pulsars, quasars, black holes and the moon that are visible in the night

edge of the sun’s disk is coincident with an ideal horizon.”

sky. The earth’s atmosphere acts as a telescope through which mankind

peers into the heavens.

http://www.ga.gov.au The sources of light in the night sky form the basis of astronomical studies Once the sun sets below 18°, the Astronomical Twilight starts (http://www.

and ultimately activates the buildings.

ga.gov.au 2013). This ideal horizon initiates the period when the stars’ illumination starts to outshine the sun. In other words, the Cosmic Dome

Millet (1996:135) asserts that by using light to reveal architecture, the

is activated as an envelope of bright symbols above the landscape.

meaning of the building becomes more apparent.

When astronomical twilight starts

Meaning of building through star light

31


1.

Light Major, M. (2005:10) writes that the art of using light combined with architecture can be traced back to the dawn of civilization. Sumerians, as early as 2000 BC, built stepped pyramids as tribute to the moon and sun. Both of which are sources of light.

The following

5 aspects investigates light as an architectural medium

within: 01: Experience and atmosphere 02: Activating time and space 03: As a linking device between exterior and interior spaces 04: Symbolic connections

13:38 2.

05: An intangible architectural material

20:02 3.

32

1. Source: Photo by author. 2014 2. Source: Photo by author. 2014 3.http://www.saao.ac.za/wp-content/uploads/ sites/5/milkyway.jpg

00:12


01. Light – experience and atmosphere “The presentation of a wall to our eyes can change drastically as the light moves over it” - Millet. (1996:47) Millet (1996:15) writes that the quality of light within a room can be greatly improved by making use of images of light found in nature. Light could be manipulated through; colour selection, the introduction of patterns, changing direction, relationship to surroundings or type, and by doing so, create an alternative experience. APPLICATION: The experience of natural light, day or night, is explored in the dissertation. Using the desert environment of the Karoo, man’s experience in relation to natural day light and the proposed architectural intervention is explored.

1

Change of Colour

2

3

Patterns

Shadow Patterns

4

Manipulaton of Shaddow line

Images by author. 2014

33


02. Light – activating time and space

03. Light - as a linking device between exterior and interior spaces.

Days, months, seasons and years represent measurements of time and

Millet (1996:94) considers that light is able to act as a boundary, separating

were all calculated through the presence or absence of light. Ancient

interior from exterior. Therefore, the way in which light behaves in the built

cultures built monuments in favour of light, capturing light’s presence in

environment has the potential to connect architectural elements with

a given time and space (Millet. 1996:26).

one another, or to connect the outside with the inside. This allows the interior space to be a continuum of the exterior space.

According to Millet (1996:6) there are two qualities which encompass light and that are unique to a specific place: • The location - what makes it different from any other place at any given time? • Changes over time – the effects of light on the place over a period of time? APPLICATION:

APPLICATION:

As the proposed site is exposed to harsh desert light during the day and

The proposed design sees to blur the line of exterior and interior spaces

bright, clear skies during the night, these conditions make it unique for

by utilising light as the medium.

observing stars.

Framing certain events at specific times

34

Using light to extend the landscape


04. Light – symbolic connections

05. Light - an intangible architectural material

“Symbolic light extends further than metaphorical light in that it represents a generally well-known idea or concept.” - Millet. (1996:146)

“The poetic use of light adds new qualities to a given place” - Millet (1996:15)

Light can become symbolic when captured in a certain way. The

By exploring the effects of light:

summer, and winter solstices and equinoxes are examples of light that

• Can the perception of the designed element change?

can be captured through the built environment.

• Explore spatial awareness implication light has on architecture

APPLICATION:

APPLICATION:

Light is captured by framing astronomical events, thus connecting man

This notion is explored through physical models representing specific

to a cosmic event. While the architecture during the day seems passive,

spatial conditions of the proposed design. The exploration deals with the

with various framing units and portals bathed in the Karoo sun, these

perception of light within a space.

framing units will in turn activate the designed spaces during the night.

Gain meaning through framing of events

35


LIGHT&SHADOWMODELS

36


Experiencing materials through light. “Architecture appears for the first time when the sunlight hits a wall. The sunlight did not know what it was before it hit a wall.” – Louis Kahn. Materials and surfaces are the essential

Educational

media

when experiencing light in and on

enhanced under natural light. The proposed

architecture. Materials dictate how light will

design will focus on indirect light to create a

react, contributing to the eventual genius loci.

soft ambience within the building.

Certain spaces require certain levels of attention

• Reflection occurs when the material gives

to be illuminated, and this greatly depends on

back a certain amount of the light which is

the use of the space (Michaelidou, 2012).

received on it s surface.

For example: Day light

Daylight Noon

and

exhibition

areas

are

• Transmission takes place when the material LUX

130, 000

Overcast Day 1000

allows the light to pass directly or partly through it • Opaqueness occurs when a material has a high specular value and acts more like a mirror, directly reflecting the source of light

Golden hour 400 • Transparent material with a high specular value will allow light to travel straight Night light

through it. This material allows for a clear vision through it, and is typically used when connecting inside and outside spaces

Full moon 0.27 Moonless Night 0.002 Only starlight 0.0001

• Diffusion occurs when material is able to diffuse light, usually with a matt finish; these materials are able to reflect light received on their surface(s) equally, in all directions.

Examples of required light in spaces

Classrooms 240 Laboratories 360 Bedroom/Study 250

Above figures - Sources : 1. : http://wolfcrow.com/blog/notes-by-dr-optoglass-howto-read-light-for-exposure. 2. http://www.worldofthought.com.au/store/pages/ Designing-With-Light.html.

(photo by author, 2014)

37


Material Palette & Exploration In order to understand how specular and diffusing materials or layers affect a space, is important to understand how they interact with direct or indirect natural light.� - Katerina Michaelidou (2012: 26)

CONCRETE

After having completed the initial reading on light in architecture, the effect of different light sources on specific materials was explored: The resultant table summarises the investigation the effects of light on a specific material. This was investigated to gain an understanding of

RAMMED EARTH

the relationship between the light source and the material. Ultimately, this led to a Case Study investigation and the use of natural light in interior spaces.

STONE Material Palette References: 1. (Online) - http://markjongman-sereno.com. [Accessed 19.09.2014) 2. (Online) - http://www.archdaily.com/516205/ sancaklar-mosque-emre-arolat-architects. [Accessed 19.09.2014) 3. (Online) - http://www.architectslist.com/cities/ Phoenix/firms/148-Rick-Joy-Architects/projects/1478Tucson-Mountain-House. [Accessed 19.09.2014) 4. (Online) - http://tanglefootmasterbuilders.com/ rammedearth.html. [Accessed 19.09.2014} 5. Photo by author. 2014. 6. n.d 7. (Online) - http://mnemonigram.blogspot. com/2011/12/hiroshige-ando-museum-kumakengo.html. [Accessed 19.09.2014) 8. (Online) - http://www.dezeen.com/2011/03/10/ spanish-design-in-wood. [Accessed 19.09.2014] 9. (Online) - http://www.sanyoukensetsu.co.jp/news/ images/847.jpg. [Accessed 19.09.2014] 10. (Online) - http://www.archdaily.com/429385/ index-ventures-garcia-tamjidi-architecture-design. [Accessed 19.09.2014]

38

TIMBER

SOFT SURFACES


1

2

SMOOTH - DIRECT LIGHT

TEXTURED - INDIRECT LIGHT

3

4

TEXTURE - DIRECT LIGHT

SMOOTH - INDIRECT LIGHT MOUNTAIN STONE - DIRECT LIGHT

5

6

QUARRY STONE - INDIRECT LIGHT

7

8

SLATS - DIRECT LIGHT 9

FACING - INDIRECT LIGHT 10

PLASTERBOARD - INDIRECT LIGHT

39 PLASTERBOARD - DIRECT LIGHT


(photo by author, 2014)

Aspects to be addressed in the design proposal. • Exploring natural light as an architectural medium through real time models. • investigating the night sky as an integral part of an astronomy building. • Using light as connector between outside and inside. • Investigating the relationship between light and the specific materials. • The different effects of light on certain materials • A Case Study into the relationship of natural light in interior spaces.

40


LIGHTING

CASE

STUDY

//hapo Museum | FREEDOM PARK

The case study that was done was to investigate and document the use of natural light within the //hapo Museum and The Gallery of Leaders. The study will document how natural light penetrates the interior volumes, the quality of the light within the spaces and whether or not the design is successful.

FULL CASE STUDY REPORT ONLINE

http://graemenoeth.wordpress.com

(All photos by author, 2014)

41


16:58

Visitor’s Centre| SAAO Sutherland (photo by author, 2014)

.04

42

Architecture’s role in education & tourism


The education environment

Natural light & education

The rapid expansion of the technological age

The dissertation investigated different spatial

Robbins (1986:4-13) states that the different

has once again highlighted the shortcomings

arrangements

opportunities

spectrums obtained from various light types

of passive learning.

for

The

of

directly affect people psychologically and

accommodations and subsequent spatial

physiologically. These include mood, fatigue

Since 2008, the Shuttleworth Foundation and

layouts

levels and eye strain, amongst others.

the Open Society Institute (OSI) have funded

an attempt to create an active learning

and driven the Cape Town Open Education

environment. Workspaces, so-called smart

The aforesaid contends that the use of light in

Declaration.

classrooms, student lounges, open auditoria

architecture plays a critical role in the creation

and communal study areas are used to

of learning environment spaces.

to

collaborative were

create learning.

consciously

list

analysed

in

The term “open education” has several possible

promote and facilitate interaction between

interpretations, with its origin in the Montessori

students, educators and the public.

teaching method.

Edwards and Torcellini (2002) in an article titled “A Literature Review of the Effects of Natural Light on Building Occupants” list the following

During

the

1900’s

Italian

physician

benefits:

and

educator, Maria Montessori, argued that the learning environment should stimulate

• Overall increase in attendance by both

the learner’s senses, thereby instilling natural

teacher and student

curiosity.

• Enhancement of the student’s general development

Montessori proposes a learning environment

• Reaching higher achievement rates.

that encourages spontaneous activity. By emphasising

cognitive

learning,

learners

The article claims that natural lighting is

become more creative and intuitive (Bloom,

beneficial to student health, counteracting

2004:191-196). The built environment within

factors leading to fatigue. According to

which learning takes place could assist in this

Edwards et al, natural light contributes positively

cognitive learning process.

to the environmental experiences of corridors, classrooms and gymnasiums.

Building assisting in learning.

Student lounges and study areas.

Natural light to aid the learning environment

43


The age of astro-tourism For the purpose of this dissertation, an Astro-Tourism Centre is defined as a place that allows tourists to experience astronomical events by providing the following activities and functions: • General exhibition spaces • Interactive exhibition spaces • Dark spaces for specific art installations (e.g. Blind Astronomer)* • Landscape exhibition spaces • The facility should frame astronomical events, allowing the visitor to view stars and the cosmic landscape • It should facilitate amateur astronomers and their equipment.

(Online) http://amazingsky.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/mt-kobau-milky-waypanorama-equirectangular.jpg. [Accessed 13.10.14]

44


A catalyst for Astro-Tourism SALT and SKA not only have a significant impact on scientific education but have the potential for scientific “niche tourism” according to Ingles (2010). Consequently, the DST expressed its desire “to support the public understanding of and engagement with science” (2007:23). Ingle is convinced that supporting projects could act as catalysts for the AstroTourism industry, creating such a niche within South Africa (Ingle, 2010). The Astro-Tourism Centre aims to fulfill this need, connecting Cape Town, Sutherland and Carnarvon via an Astro-Tourism route. The proposed Centre will act as the first nodal point of such a route.

233km

360km

ASTRO-TOURISM ROUTE 45


46

Milky way over SALT | SAAO


03 EXPLORATION

Theoretical Precedential Experimental

01:43

(image by author, 2014)

47


“ Explore the world. Nearly everything is really interesting if you go into it deeply enough." - Richard P. Feynman

48


THEORETICAL

(Online) - http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-mEQzShKBqVk/Uu3wF_c5xKI/AAAAAAAAIRw/ yL6MjuL3wA8/s1600/5D304857_Goseck.jpg[Accessed 19.09.2014] 49


Casa Rinconada Approximately 1500 BCE, the Anasazi people of the American South West constructed great astronomical observatories such as the great Kiva of Casa Rinconada. This ancient civilisation built massive settlements that held up to 800 rooms, with a vast network of roads spanning well over 600 kms (Roberts, 2003). Casa

Rinconada

observed

the

Summer

Solstice on 21 December and the Equinoxes on 21 March and 22 September. On December 21, the sun pierces through a window on the Photo view

South-West periphery, illuminating a niche on the North-East periphery wall. The double event of the Equinox was celebrated by the sun piercing through to doors aligned to East and West (Mickle, 2005). Nested within the landscape, this built artefact highlights man’s early attempts to connect the sky with the earth.

Section

4

50

Kivas are traditionally round shaped subterranean structures built by the Pueblo Indians (Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2013).


Above: Casa Rinconada. [Online] - http:// rocksontheroadraquelrhodes.blogspot.com/2012/07/chacoculture-nationalhistorical-park.html. [Accessed 13.10.14]

51


Stonehenge

Probably the best known of all astronomical buildings, Stonehenge was built approximately 5000 years ago. This monolithic stone structure is often described as one of the finest examples of human understanding and accomplishment. Its

radial

design

documents

several

astronomical events. The most prominent of these is the Winter Solstice, corresponding with the Summer Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere: on 21 June each year with the sun rising above the heel stone, it pierces through the monolithic stones to frame this rare event precisely (Royal Astronomical Society, 2009). The radial layout of Stonehenge and the manner in which it documents astronomical events directly influenced the design proposal.

52


Above: Stonehenge. [Online] - http://www.maxisciences. com/stonehenge/wallpaper. [Accessed 13.10.2014]

53


VLTs

PRECEDENTIAL


The Eastern Southern Observatory Residencia By Auer und Weber Architecten Introduction The Atacama Desert in Chile, South America, hosts one of the world’s most sophisticated telescopes. The 8.2m diameter Very Large Telescope (VLT) was constructed in 1999, on the Cerro Paranal Mountain approximately 120km away from the nearest settlement of Antofagasta. Operated by Eastern Southern Observatory (ESO) the VLT houses almost 120 astronomers, engineers and staff members working at the facility. On a yearly basis , the facility hosts nearly 8000 weekend visitors.

Catering for the increased demand, the partnership Auer und Weber Architecten was appointed to design a 120 room hotel, located some 2000 meters away from the VLT. The design conformed to the following requirements: •

Concept and accommodation

Respecting the telescopes

Designing with light

The Atacama Desert

Design

Materiality.

Residencia

(Online) - http://eng.archinform.net/projekte/13970.htm [Accessed 13.10.14]

55


1

2

3

Soruces:

56

1. (Online) - http://www.eso.org/public/images/eso0838c. [Accessed 10.10.14] 2. (Online) - http://cosmicdiary.org/fpatat/2009/01/19/x-shooter-goes-on-skyagain-and-again-nights-2-3-and-4. [Accessed 10.13.14] 3. (Online) - http://www.eso.org/public/images/residencia_12-mar2002/. [Accessed 13.10.14]


Concept & Accommodation Phillip Auer used the subterranean dwellings found in the Loess belt of China and the cliff houses of the Hopi Indians in the Mesa Verde as his inspiration. The large L-shaped underground building houses the following: •

120 bedrooms

Swimming pool

Fitness centre

Restaurant

Library

Lounge areas,

The dissertation draws inspiration from Auer’s concept while the hotel’s accommodation served as the basis for this dissertation.

Respecting the telescopes & designing with light In an attempt to limit light pollution, ESO required that the entire facility not emit more light than that of a simple 100W light bulb. Werner Lampl designed the illumination system for the building. Using cylindrical wall mounted lights, sky lights and hidden ceiling lights, he created soft light surfaces. Since the proposed facility would have to consider the sensitive telescopes above the mountain, the envisaged design aims to investigate and incorporate lighting design techniques used by the Residencia. The building responds to the harsh climate of the Atacama Desert in an almost contradictory way. In creating a relaxing environment it permits researchers to escape from the technological aspects surrounding the telescopes. The Sutherland region shares characteristics with the Atacama. The facility should create a relaxing environment for its future users and potential visitors.

57


6.

1.

5. 4. 2.

3.

1 - Guest Rooms 2 - Communal Mess Hall 3 - Kitchen & Storage 4 - Entrance 5 - Garden & Pool area 6 - Storage

RESIDENCIA GROUND FLOOR PLAN 10

58

20

50

100m


Design Mugan writes how the facility has achieved a symbiotic relationship with its surroundings, contrasting with the high-tech telescopes atop the hill (n.d.). Using translucent polycarbonate panels, the curved 35m diameter transparent steel skeleton dome is the only element that pierces the landscape. Auer remarks that: “The structure itself looks like a natural plateau, set free after a long period of erosion by the desert winds,‌â€? The design proposal aims to fit comfortably into the natural landscape, complementing the environment while respecting the telescopes.

Materiality The location of the site necessitated the careful selection of materials while keeping constructability in mind. Auer opted to use concrete extensively, although water used had to be transported to the site. A ferrous oxide add mixture resulted in the concrete surfaces blending with the landscape. The design proposal should incorporate local building materials. The harsh Karoo climate should be integrated with a passive environmental design.

5. 4.

1.

59


Will Bruder The Byrne Residence and Feigin Residence by Will Bruder serve as suitable examples of buildings. Elements of this investigation included: • Using the contours to position a design against a mountain slope. • Climatic design choices and appropriate material selection within a desert environment.

The proposed design should nest itself in the

C

o

n

t

o

u

r

s

natural landscape and mountain slope while incorporating

passive

environmental

design

choices to help sustain the building in the harsh Karoo climate.

1.

F l o o r p l a n

BYRNE RESIDENCE

NOT TO SCALE S 60

e

c

t

i

o

n


Sources: 1. (Online) - http://byrneresidence.com/category/projects. [Accessed 13.10.14] 2. (Online) - http://worksbureau.com/works/feiginresidence. [Accessed 13.10.14]

C

o

n

t

o

u

r

s

2.

F l o o r p l a n

FEIGIN RESIDENCE

NOT TO SCALE S

e

c

t

i

o

n 61


Boyden Observatory originally

In South Africa, the facility is known for its

Boyden’s spatial layout is scattered on a

founded by Harvard University in 1889. From

accessibility and its multi-functional approach.

hill close to Maselspoort Resort. The on-site

its initial location in Peru, South America, this

The observatory offers both an educational

location of the mostly aging accommodation

observatory was moved to South Africa in 1927

and a research programme, with:

forces the user to interact with the landscape

The

Boyden

Observatory

was

and natural elements.

to its current location, approximately 20km North-East

of

Bloemfontein

(Astronomical

• Several telescopes as well as astronomical equipment

Society of Southern Africa, 2013).

• The Boyden Science Centre Auditorium • Research and Administrative offices • A library • Resident Astronomer’s house • Lecture rooms

Access

Observatories

Auditoria Main Building Library

Science Centre

60” Telescope

BOYDEN OBSERVATORY SITE PLAN 62

15

45

75

140


1.

2.

1. (Online) - http://old.assa.saao.ac.za/html/boydenair. html. [Accessed 10.13.14] 2. (Online) - http://www.houseandleisure.co.za/ bloemfontein-city-snapshots. [Accessed 13.10.14]

63


EXPERIMENTAL

64


Documenting the Equinox In an attempt to translate theory into practice, a temporary structure was erected by the author to capture the sunrise at the September Equinox. The aim of this experiment was to frame the rising sun whilst plotting the precise position of due East and West. The construction made use of commercially available 38 x 38mm SA pine timber battens fixed to a pre-manufactured base plate that was anchored with rocks available on site. This

experiment

resulted

in

the

author

gaining greater insight into a solar event whilst correlating it with computer generated software. There was a sense of time almost being amplified during the event.

South Africa

Mpumalanga

Verlorenkloof Esstate GPS: 25° 25’ 25.02’’ S 30° 16’ 45.00’’ E

All images by author. 2014

65


14:21

1

14:24

2 4

66

14:30

3

14:51


1. Assembly of materials 2. Construction of framing unit 3. Bracing frame to ground

15:39

4. Assembly of framing unit 5. Final framing unit

All photos by author. 2013

67


68


V

I

D

E

O

http://graemenoeth.wordpress .com

0 6 : 0 5 A M 2 2 S E P T E M B E R 2 0 1 3 E

Q

U

I

N

O

X

69


Photo by author. 2014


04 T H E S I T E

Regional Context Development in Region History & Site Selection Meteorological Aspects Site Analysis


Regional context While the Northern Cape of South Africa is the largest province in South Africa, it is also the most sparsely populated. As mentioned earlier, the focus area is situated on the western mountain slope at the SAAO facility 14km east from Sutherland. Of relevance to

this

intervention

is

the

astronomical

development taking place in the Northern Cape, especially in the Southern region of the province.

NORTHERN CAPE

32°22’42.54”S 20°48’29.11”E

LOCALITY PLAN 72


SALT

Hostels Residential

Visitor’s Centre

SOUTH AFRICAN ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY

Residential

SITE LOCATION 73 ENTRANCE / EXIT


Development

S

A

in

the

L

region

T

Also known as Africa’s Giant Eye on the Universe, the Southern African Large Telescope is the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. With construction completed in 2005, SALT became operational in 2011. It is currently observing distant objects in the Universe (http://www.salt.ac.za ).

74

(photo by author. 2014)


Development

in

the

region

MeerKAT+SKA The MeerKAT array of radio telescopes in the Karoo is destined to become the largest and most sensitive collection

of

radio

telescopes

in

the

Southern

Hemisphere. The expected completion date of the SKA is 2024, with a total surface area of approximately one square kilometre (www.ska.ac.za). This advancement of radio telescope technology in South Africa plays a key role in the future development for the technology used by SKA. These telescopes seek to answer some of science’s most difficult questions. They could assist in explaining how stars and galaxies are formed, how they evolve, and encourage research into other forms of life in the universe (www.ska.ac.za).

SKA impression| Carnarvon

[Online] - http://www.techcentral.co.za/meerkattelescope-in-high-demand/18327.[Accessed 13.10.14]

75


SAAO Site History SAAO was originally established in Cape Town

The aforementioned development contributed

in 1820. After the Royal Observatory in Cape

to on-site, built infrastructure. Currently the site

Town combined with the Republic Observatory

houses:

in Johannesburg, the two observatories found a new operational base on a koppie (low hill) in the Karoo (SAAO, 2013).

• 14 housing units for permanent staff members • A hostel accommodating 24 visitors

Since 1974, the site has continued to acquire

• An 875m² visitor’s centre (this facility is

astronomical equipment. The installation of

inadequate in terms of school visits and

various telescopes has allowed the technology

curriculum requirements)

at SAAO to remain competitive and in 2005, South Africa commissioned the SALT telescope (SAAO, 2013).

Hostels| SAAO 76 (photo by author, 2014)

• A recreational facility (gym) for staff members only • Workshop areas.

15:39


Site Selection Criteria Location • The facility must be situated in the heart of astronomical development in the country • It must be close to existing research facilities • It requires a solar and astronomical orientation • It must be climatically responsive. Services • It must be situated far from any main city and would be 14km away from nearest town • In close proximity to existing infrastructure and specialised staff • Requires access to loading areas and deliveries for maintenance and service. Public • Can public access the research and development facility? • Ease of access for public to reach facility? • Architecture to encourage citizens to visit facility? Infrastructure • Is the design situated within the region of astronomy development? • Is the site sufficient to house a research and developme • Can existing infrastructure collaborate with the facility?

77


Site selection investigation

S I T E S E L E C T I O N

The existing infrastructure formed the basis of a possible location of the new building facilities on the existing site. It was argued that the existing infrastructural investment should be respected. Three possible sites were identified for the intervention and a SWOT analysis was compiled for each site.

SALT

01 • North Eastern site. SAAO Facilities

• Good Solar radiation • Furthers away from Observatories

m

0 62

• Counter weight to current infrastructure

450

m

02

400m

480m

• South Eastern site. • Good Solar radiation

Observatories

• Counter weight to current infrastructure.

03 • North Eastern site. • Good Solar radiation • Furthers away from Observatories • Counter weight to current infrastructure.

Access Road SITE SELECTION 78

50

150

250

500m


S I T E S E L E C T I O N

SALT

04

Chosen Site

None of the identified sites proved suitable.

SAAO Facilities

Upon further analysis and investigation, an alternative (fourth) site was selected, meeting most of the identified criteria.

Characteristics:

• Link between Observatories & current infrastructure.

Observatories

• Incorporating current movement paths on site • Close to current infrastructure. • Close to observatories. • Proximity to current site infrastructure allows users to experience natural elements rather that moving via vehicle

Access Road FINAL SITE SELECTION 50

150

250

500m

79


T

H

E

S

I

T

E

Situated on the western embankment of the mountain, linking observatories to the visitor’s centre, hostels and residential units.

V

I

E

W

80 (photo by author, 2014)

O

F

S

I

T

E


14:38

SI TE

81


Opportunities and Constraints

Constraints • Site is isolated far from any major city • Site located on a western slope of the hill • Shape of site predominantly west facing • Semi-arid climatic region. Opportunities • Site is located at the heart of astronomical research • Site is situated in a natural landscape • Integration with existing facilities • Introduce a more publicly accessible facility • Explore design solutions for climatic response • Establish a more integrated facility between existing observatories and local amenities • Exploration in creating awareness of the cosmic landscape.

Solar Observatory| SAAO (photo by author, 2014)

82

14:05


Sun Study

A site sun study to observe the effect of the sun on the site over a period of 24 hours was conducted. The following images showcase sun movement and the consequent shading on the site. This assisted in determining how the design proposal should shield itself against the western solar radiation.

0 8 : 0 0 A M

1 2 : 0 0 P M

Shadows on western embankment

No shadows

1 5 : 3 0 P M

1 7 : 0 0 P M

Hotest time of day Minimum shadows

Shadows on eastern embankment 83


Topography analysis

S I T E S E L E C T I O N

The identified site, with an approximate developed size of 550m x 60m, rises almost 100m over a distance

of 450m; this incline

(1:4.5.) is used in the design proposal and parts of the building are almost sunken into the existing mountain.

SAAO Observatories Existing Hostels & Visitor’s Centre

84


Meteorologial aspects

Maximum

26 ° C

Average

11 ° C

Minimum

3°C

244mm per annum 11km/h

N-S in summer and

N-W in winter

51% Humidity

Snow is common in winter

Total 35,98km² Semi-Arid climate 1790m above sea level Total 2, 836 Density 79/km²

Milky Way| Proposed site (image by author, 2014)

01:37 85


P

A

N

sdafsdgfgff

O uih

R uihdfu

A

M

A

djaslhdlhsdh

aldhasjkdalshdlahdasjdhlad

E

SALT

86 (image by author, 2014)

S

PROPOSED SITE

MAIN ACCESS ROAD


00:43

W

N

COSMICLANDSACPE Author’s impression of the Milky Way encapsulating the Cosmic Landscape at the SAAO site.

VISITOR’S CENTRE, RECREATIONAL FACILITY & WORKSHOPS

HOSTELS

87


S I T E A N A L Y S I S

V I E W F R O M S I T E


13:43

(Photo by author, 2014)


S

Botterboom Tylecodon Paniculatus

Halfmense Pachyoidium Namaquanum

EXISTING CONTEXT 90

50

150

250

500m

Vygies Mesembryanthemageae

I

T

E

A

N

A

L

Olifantspoot Dioscorea Elephantipes

S

I

S


S

Doekvoetjies Bunolagus Monticularis

Springbok Antidorcas marsupialis

De Winton’s Golden Mole Cryptochoris Wintoni

Girdled Lizard Cordylus Catapharctus

I

T

E

A

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S

Barlow’s Lark Certhilauda Barlowi.

91


S

I

T

E

A

N

01

02

PH YS ICAL

PATHWAYS

Residential Housing

Visitor’s Centre,

Hostel’s

Pathway &

for perminant Staff

Giftshop & Admin

International & Local

Drainage Way

High density Fynbos

Rocks & Fynbos

Existing Plateau

within Plateau region

covering plateau

area on mountain

region

06 P L AT E AU

Abundant stones and rocks

05

C H AR AC T E R CONTEXT APPRAISAL 92

A

50

150

250

500m

Karoo bos

L

S

I

S


S

I

T

E

A

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S

03 TECHNE Southern African Large Telescope

National & International Observatories

04 EDGES Rock formation defines natural edges

93


Observatories| SAAO 14:21 (photo by author, 2014)

94


S

I

E XI ST I N G I N F R A ST R U C T U R E

PROPOS ED INFRAS TRUCTURE

- Visitor’s Centre

- New Site Reception

- Hostels

- Staff Housing

- Storage

- Storage

- Public Observatory

- Cafe for Staff

T

E

A

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S

PROPOSED UPGRADES 50

150

250

500m

95


S

T

E

E XI ST I N G P R I VATE MOVE ME N T

PROPOS ED PRIVATE MOV EMENT

- Residential

- New Reception / On-site Housing

- Hostel

- Proposed ISAATC Building

- Observatories

- Observatories - SALT

PROPOSED MOVEMENT ROUTES 96

I

50

150

250

500m

A

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S


S

I

T

E

A

N

A

L

E XI ST I N G TO U R I ST ROUTE

PRO PO SED TOURIS T RO U TE

PROPOS ED ED UCATIONAL ROUTE

- Visitor’s Centre

- New Reception

- Housing

- Observatories

- Tourism component of

- Edicational hub

- SALT

proposed ISAATC Building

- Observatories

Y

S

I

S

- Observatories - SALT

97


S

50

150

250

T

E

A

N

A

L

EX I STI N G VEGETATI O N

WATER D RAINAGE ON MOUNTAIN

Vegetation mostly

Rain water and

found around built

melting snow drains

areas and drainage

down from the

canals

mountain

EXISTING CONDITIONS 98

I

500m

Y

S

I

S


S

I

T

R O C K EDGES

WES TERN S UN

Natural rock edges

Mountain is cool during

form boundaries within

the mornings and heats

the mountainscape

up in the afternoon due

E

A

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S

to western sun

99


S

50

150

250

T

E

A

N

A

L

LI N KI NG SI TE I N FR ASTRUCTUR E

INTEGRATION OF COS MIC D OME

Linking existing on-

West facing site enables

site infrastructure to

prominent astronomical

observatories.

events to be framed

DESIGN INTENT 100

I

500m

Y

S

I

S


S

I

T

E

A

N

A

PR O PO SED MOVEMENT H UBS

D IS PERS ION THROUGH ARCHITECTURE

Proposed design

The proposed movement

creates movement

hubs enable dispersement of

hubs to enable site

movement on site

L

Y

S

I

S

integration

101


S

150

250

E

A

WATER COLLECTION

Location of building

Proposed building

is on the existing

to harvest rain and

plateau, linking onsite

snow water

SITE INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT 50

T

PRO PO SED BU I LDI NG LO CATI O N

infastructure

102

I

500m

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S


S

I

T

E

A

NEW VEGETATI O N

FORM GIV ING

Promotion of new

Form of building to take

vegetation around

inspiration of natural

the site and proposed

contour lines while

building

incorporating the western

N

A

L

Y

S

I

S

view on site

103


Stars over | Proposed site (image by author, 2014)

104


THECOSMIC LANDSCAPE

05

The cosmic landscape Science applied to site

00:16

105


Drummer Hodge

They throw in Drummer Hodge, to rest Uncoffined -- just as found: His landmark is a kopje-crest That breaks the veldt around: And foreign constellations west Each night above his mound.

106


T H E C O S M I C L A N D S CA P E

Night Sky| SAAO

00:41

(image by author, 2014)

107


A Landscape to interact

C O S M I C L A N D S C A P E

The proposed site is placed within the Cosmic Envelope, creating a new landscape in which the design proposal will interact. The Cosmic Landscape was explored using 2D spatial parameters to gain a greater understanding of the interaction between the Cosmic Dome and the proposed site. expected

positions

of

The

solstices, equinoxes

and star activities, in relation to the site, were intended to determine the viewing from within the building. The first study investigated the movement of stars and planets across the Cosmic Dome.

WESTERN EMBANKMENT

SAAO Sutherland

108

SITE LOCATION

COSMIC ENVELOPE

COMBINATION

Location of building

Location of building

Location of building

is on the existing

is on the existing

is on the existing

plateau, linking onsite

plateau, linking onsite

plateau, linking onsite

infastructure

infastructure

infastructure


Science applied to site

C O S M I C L A N D S C A P E

After completing a detailed analysis, the Cosmic Dome was superimposed

on the

selected site. The following figure illustrates the solstice movements and star and lunar rises.

Sun Path

N

E 90°

STAR ACTIVITY

296° WINTER SOLSTICE 21 June

180° S

W 270° EQUINOX 21 March 21 September

Lunar rises

243°

Site Access

SUMMER SOLSTICE 21 December

109


Young Hodge the drummer never knew -Fresh from his Wessex home -The meaning of the broad Karoo, The Bush, the dusty loam, And why uprose to nightly view Strange stars amid the gloam. Yet portion of that unknown plain Will Hodge for ever be; His homely Northern breast and brain Grow to some Southern tree, And strange-eyed constellations reign His stars eternally.

THOMAS HARDY

110


M A P P I N G T H E S T A R S

View at night| Proposed Site

02:48

(image by author, 2014)

111


Sun: The investigation led the researcher’s understanding of how the sun moves across

the

Cosmic

Dome

and

its

movements in relation to the different seasons, and the effect this has on the angles at which the sun rises and sets.

MAPPING THE SOLSTICES 50

150

250

VIEW FROM SITE

500m

21 DECEMBER

21 MARCH SEPTEMBER

18: 00 - 1 9 : 4 5

D EP EN D IN G O N YEA R

SUMMER SOLSTICE

112

EQUINOX

WINTER SOLSTICE

21 JULY


Stars: Like the sun – the stars move from east to west within the Cosmic Dome. Their movement across the Cosmic Dome is cyclical, and can easily be determined as stars are always in the same position in the night sky.

MAPPING THE STARS 50

150

250

500m

VIEW FROM SITE RIGEL SIRIUS

ORION

MOON

BETELGEUSE

20:30 - 22:45

FEBR UA RY - A P R IL

RIGEL KENT

113


Lunar: Lunar movements are more difficult to determine as the Moon orbits at its own pace around the Earth. This permits for unique and rare events to be documented, making moonrises and moonsets into features which the proposed design is able to incorporate

MAPPING THE MOON 50

150

250

500m

VIEW FROM SITE 20: 30 - 2 2 : 3 0

D EP EN D IN G O N LU N A R O R B I T

FAR THEST SOUTH MOON SET

114

FAR THEST NOR TH MOON SET


Planets: Planets are the most difficult to track, as they not only have orbits of their own, but so does earth, which makes synchronising the earth with views of the planets more difficult. The proposed design

would

enable

documentation

of

certain cycles of specific planets.

MAPPING THE PLANETS 50

150

250

500m

VIEW FROM SITE 20:30 - 23:00

D EP ENDIN G ON P LAN ETA RY O RB IT S.

VENUS

MARS

JUIPTER

115


Current SAAO Facilities | SAAO (photo by author, 2014)

116


C L I E N T S ’ ACCOMMODATION P R O G R A M M E

06

Proposed Clients & Funding Design Focus & Programme Accommodation Schedule

16:18

117


D E S I G N P R O G R A M M E

Proposed Client & Funding National Research Foundation The NRF is a non-profit entity and acts as a science council which provides funding for further advancements in research, resource development and the establishment of national research facilities that advance all fields of natural sciences, social sciences and technology by promoting the creation of knowledge. The NRF’s core funding is received from the Department of Science and Technology (www. saasta.ac.za). Department of Science and Technology In 2005, as mentioned, South Africa launched SALT, a multi-million rand project, in collaboration with several international countries, including Germany, Poland and USA. The project was intended to establish the largest single optical telescope in the southern hemisphere (www.info. gov.za). Since then, the DST has helped South Africa advance in its technology to construct the largest array of radio telescopes to date, the SKA. National Astrophysics and Space Science Programme As indicated, NASSP is a cooperative graduate programme located in Cape Town and was established by local researchers so that both South African and international students could obtain a degree in astrophysics and astronomy under the tutelage of some of South Africa’s leading scientists. NASSP will act as the guidance body for the education needs of the proposed design (http:www.star.ac.za).

118


D E S I G N P R O G R A M M E

Design Focus & Programme Functional & Spatial Requirements: Context & Site Integration The proposed building complex joins with the existing on-site infrastructure. Located on the western slope of the mountain, it links the foot of the mountain with the observatories at the top. The western faรงade is designed as an extended or deep skin to mediate solar radiation. The design, as has been emphasised, should also take into account the light sensitive telescopes and ensure that minimal artificial light escapes the building at night.

Conceptual section . By author 2014.

Cosmic Integration Differentiation between events allows spaces to accommodate both observers visitor and users (astronomers & students). It is argued that more prominent events would possibly attract a greater number of observers by offering spaces that are able to respond to the needs of both.

119


D E S I G N P R O G R A M M E

Walkways & Circulation Using generous walkways of up to 6m in width, the design accommodates private and public routes. • Public Circulation is regarded as a journey that creates curiosity and narrates the exhibitions within the building. • Private Circulation is removed from the public route, allowing the educational hub of the facility to function without unnecessary distraction.

120


D E S I G N P R O G R A M M E

Public vs. Private

Education & Housing

The design differentiates clearly between

Educational facilities comprise of shareable

public,

classrooms which are able to be completely

semi-public

and

private

realms.

Although no physical barrier exists between

opened

up

towards

exterior

spaces, a

them, visual elements convey different degrees

computer laboratory and several dynamic

of privacy.

workshop areas alongside research and experimental laboratories. Lecturers’ offices are designed to be accommodated in an open

The 3 components are:

plan environment. Tourism Centre – (PUBLIC) : This is where the main museum and exhibition spaces are

Housing requires extreme façade treatment

located.

to accommodate for western solar radiation. Large overhangs, operable protective screens

Educational

Hub

This

and vertical louver systems are used to protect

component of the proposed design is a

each housing unit. Recreational facilities

combination of public and private space.

include lounges, a 25m swimming pool and a

Certain areas within the educational hub afford

gym.

(SEMI-PRIVATE):

the opportunity for public and private spaces to intertwine, which allows for interaction to take place between visitors, students and professionals. Housing – (PRIVATE): This component is more isolated within the design proposal and allows for privacy for students and lecturers. The housing component has a strong visual barrier between it and the educational hub, with this transition space creating a sense of privacy and discouraging the public from entering the housing component. 121


D E S I G N P R O G R A M M E

Structural Response The building’s structure responds differently in regard to the various

1. Tourism Centre

building components. Massing, wall thicknesses, roof covering and structure all vary between the Tourism Centre, Educational Hub and

The Tourism Centre blurs the line between man-made space and the

Housing components. Although the material and structural integrity

landscape. This part of the building is sunken into the mountain, almost

share a common theme throughout the building, various components

allowing the landscape to enter the built artefact, thereby creating a

in the building adapts accordingly . These changes include:

shared space.

• Wall thickness

2. Educational Hub & Housing

• Floor to ceiling height • Glazing and solar protecting

The Educational Hub and Housing component will have a higher

• Structural integrity

frequency of occupation. Shading screens, thick insulated walls, doors

• Exposed structures vs buried structures

and windows as well as large overhangs are layers added to help protect

• Openings and closures

these spaces from the extreme Karoo climate.

• Influence of natural lighting.

122


D E S I G N P R O G R A M M E

Passive Design Solutions Passive design systems were incorporated as an extension of the building complex. The introduction of radiant cooling and heating assists in achieving a more temperate indoor climate. Using water and geothermal heat pumps, the building is able to adapt to climatic changes with minimal use of energy.

123


Museum

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE ENTIRE FACILITY 124

Educational Hub

Housing


Accommodation Schedule

1.

Astro-Tourism Centre

Administration

2.

Educational Hub

• 4 x classrooms and educational rooms

3.

Housing Component

Student Housing

• 1 x computer laboratory • Reception

• 2 x workshops

• 90 x post-graduate student rooms

• Administrative offices

• 1 x engineering/building room.

• Communal kitchens

• Security rooms

• Auditorium

• Communal showers/ toilets

• Security check points

• Dedicated telescopes

• Communal study areas

• Maintenance rooms

• Communal lounge areas

• Storage

• Kitchens

Guess Lecturers’ / Visitors’ Housing

• Bathrooms • Exterior relaxation space.

• 20 x lecturer & visitor’s bachelor’s flats.

• Administrative offices

• Communal kitchen

• Modern interpretation of Stonehenge

• Lecturers’ offices

• Communal relaxation areas / lounges.

• Exhibition / museum – interactive space.

• Conference rooms

• Restaurant / café

• Library

• Public telescope

• Restaurant / café

Tourism Museum/Exhibition

• Public toilets

Recreational Facilities • Gym • 25m swimming/lap pool • Lounges

125


M U S E U M P E R S P E C T I V E M I L K E Y W A Y A B O V E 126


D E S I G N DEVELOPMENT

07

Concept Design Principles Design Development

127


AXIS MUNDI

COSMIC DOME

HORISONTAL

MEETS VERTICAL

EARTH

03:18 128


T H E C O N C E P T The built artefact is explored as a “telescope�, bringing astronomical objects from the Cosmic Dome to the foreground. The concept was inspired by the Axis Mundi investigation in Chapter 2, and the way in which the horizontal planes (geographical poles) intersect with the vertical (celestial poles).

Source: (Online) http://galleryhip.com/desert-starsphotography.html. [Accessed 13.10.14]

129


Day

130

13:45

Night

23:37

(image by author, 2014)


4)

AXIS MUNDI AS CONCEPT This notion was then explored within the Cosmic Landscape in a 3D diagram.

1

COSMIC DOME

Objects and events in the

GEOGRAPHICAL POLE

AXIS MUNDI

cosmic envelope

EARTH

2 3

Documenting astronomical

The landscape as facilitator for

event through framing.

the architectural manifistation

131


132


B U I L D I N G A S O B S E R VA T O R Y

01:28

The proposed design allows for interaction between the spatial form and the Cosmic Landscape.

Left: Image by author. 2014

133


D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S

M U S E U M E N T R A N C E 134

TOUR GUIDE GATHERING AREA


D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S

01LANDSCAPE & ARCHITECTURE

Cosmos

Cosmos

Introduction of man within earth

The Landscape / Earth

Cosmos

Cosmos

Connecting man with earth

Introducing architecture as connection

Drawings by author. 2014

135


D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S

02SECTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Facility

polluting

night

sky

with

luminance, thereby compromising the quality of the view from observatories.

Respond to observatories’ sensitivity to light by limiting light emitted by facility during night.

136


D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S

03CLIMATIC & SEASONAL RESPONSE

Building to able to close up during winter seasons and able to retain heat.

During summer season facility should be allowed to open up and allow for cross ventilation and extended shadow lines.

137


T

H

E

A

T

R

E

D

O

M

E

D E V E L O P M E N T S K E T C H

138


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

139


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

SITE INTEGRATION Initial Site integration diagram

INTEGRATION, MOVEMENT & ACCESS 140

50 (photo by author, 2014)

150

250

500m


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

MOVEMENT

ACCESS

Site as disbursement

Site access route &

hub

movement hub.

141


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

ORIENTATION Building orientated westwards and follows mountain contour lines.

ORIENTATION, MASSING & RESPONSE 142(photo by author, 2014)

50

150

250

500m


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

INITIAL MASSING

BUILDING INTEGRATION

Integrating movement

Integrating distribution

routes and massing.

of movement,

Splitting building into

incorporating views and

seprate components.

proposed vegetation.

143


Journey to Observatories| SAAO 144(photo by author, 2014)


17:06


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

03_03_2014:

04_03_2014:

04_03_2014:

Bubble diagram showing accommodation

Initial massing concept sketches. Linear journey

Further massing exploration. Spinal movement

breakdown,

sizes,

through the middle of the proposed design,

corridor as main circulation route within the

the

shape of facility influenced by contours of site.

proposed facility. Heavy massing components

circulation

initial and

proposed facility.

ratio

to

movement

spatial through

placed on the eastern side of facility, tucked within the mountain.

146


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

05_03_2014:

05_03_2014:

06_03_2014:

Circular

Developing the facility around circular element.

Massing and form development. Development

element placed in the middle of the proposal

Initial massing of accommodation element in

includes: cosmic integration, site integration

to act as the Axis Mundi within the proposed

relation to movement route through proposed

and placement of various spaces within the

facility.

building. Proposed building to split up into 3

proposed facility.

Introduction

of

organic

shape.

(three) components: •

Museum / exhibition

•

Educational hub

•

Student & guest housing.

147


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

12_03_2014:

23_03_2014:

First draft of a master plan of proposed facility.

Environmental response. Building’s integration

Indicating movement route, views of the facility

with natural landscape. Initial concept is to cut,

incorporated and spatial arrangement of

or lower, building into the existing mountain.

spaces and overall size of facility.

The use of the landscape to help address the harsh climate of the Karoo region.

148


D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T

23_03_2014:

24_03_2014:

Passive Design solutions for the proposed

Cosmic

building. First conceptual drawings showing

building within the landscape and creating

progression of passive design solutions for

architectural elements to document the

proposed facility.

Cosmic Landscape. Architectural elements

integration

concept.

Placing

include the manipulation of the roof, wall and • Use of Cross ventilation

floor to create openings and views towards the

• Raising the building for more airflow and

Cosmic Landscape.

cooling • Introducing Evaporative Cooling • Incorporating mountain as thermal mass for protection from western solar radiation.

149


.01

Museum Component DEVELOPMENT 150


M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T

A P P R O A C H & E N T R A N C E M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T 151


M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T

152

20_04_2014:

20_04_2014:

22_04_2014:

First initial draft of museum component. Strong

Cosmic & landscape integration. Incorporating

Breakdown of final sketch plan and museum

spinal corridor runs through museum, moving

certain angles and views of the Cosmic

journey. Indicating various activities in specified

through it in a zig-zag mode into various

Landscape which the proposed facility will

spaces within the museum, time spent in these

spaces. The corridor acts as visual link to final

frame. Views towards natural landscape and

spaces, total length of route and total amount

destination.

Karoo plateau.

of steps taken during route:

Angles and openings reflect and indicate

Maximum Tourist per Tour = 120 people.

cosmic integration of stars, planets and moon

• Total time of Tour = + - 68min

as well as landscape views.

• Total length of Tour = +- 240m • Total steps taken during Tour = +- 315 steps


M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T

26_04_2014:

28_04_2014:

through

Final concept draft of Museum facility. More

Final Draft of Museum plan before CAD & 3D

museum and exhibition spaces, investigating

organic shapes introduced on plan. Placement

model drawings. Different activities in specified

total length of museum and basic sizes of

of services, bathrooms, fire escapes explored.

spaces include

accommodation and narrative of the museum

Narrative of museum journey explored through

Observe

experience.

specified and themed spaces throughout

Pause

route.

Active

In-between

23_04_2014: Exploration

of

movement

route

spaces. Spaces defined through required

153


M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T

28_04_2014: Initial sectional concept of how facility is incorporated within the mountainscape and the first introduction of a plenum as a cooling mechanism for the facility.

154


M U S E U M D E T A I L S

29_04_2014:

30_04_2014:

Detailed development of exhibition spaces

Edge and sectional details of museum

within museum component.

component

indicating

construction

and

detailing of materials. Exploration of plenum & cooling systems.

155


E D U C A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T

A E R I A L P E R S P E C T I V E E D U C A T I O N A L H U B 156


E D U C A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T

.02

Educational Component D E V E L O P M E N T

157


E D U C A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T

05_05_2014:

06_05_2014:

06_05_2014:

First conceptual sketch of educational hub

Basement or lower level services sketch:

Groundfloor level services sketch:

• Introduction of plenum waterflow below

• Light wells puncturing into lower levels

component with initial notion of how to document the different solstices.

buidling • Use of lightwells to illuminate lower level • Red lines indicate geothermal heating on lower level.

158

• Waterflow around hub to create cool air through evaprotive cooling • Geothermal heating on ground floor class rooms and offices.


E D U C A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T

07_05_2014:

07_05_2014:

08_05_2014:

• Accommodation assignment in various

First draft plan of education hub, concentrating

Final draft of Educational Hub. Allocation of

on spatial layout and circular movement

classrooms, offices, workshops, library and

• Further exploration of circular spatial layout

between spaces. Rough introduction of various

restaurant placed within the circular design.

• Exploration of landscape design between

accommodation through facility.

Design allows for documentation of the

spaces

spaces

solstices and equinox.

• Investigation of light wells and wind towers as means of passive design solutions for cooling and heating.

159


E D U C A T I O N A L C O M P O N E N T

10_05_2014:

10_05_2014:

Diagrams showing pathway that links proposed

Diagrams

facility to observatories at top with a winding

movement route, public vs private spaces

route.

and landmarks which correspond to cosmic events.

160

indicating

cosmic

integration,


E DO U UC SA IT IN O GN C H A LOC MO PM O P ON N E E NN T

.03 W A L K W A Y P E R S P E C T I V E

Housing Component DEVELOPMENT

H O U S I N G C O M P O N E N T 161


H

U

S

I

N

G

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T

13_05_2014:

15_05_2014:

15_05_2014:

First initial concept sketch.

Diagrams of housing component.

Zonal breakdown of housing units.

• Allocation of individual housing units

• Allocation of student & lecturer/guest

• Indicating movement between different

• Allocation of bathrooms, study lounges • Taking

natural

consideration.

landscape

housing units • Level difference between students’ and

and kitchen areas views

into

lecturers’ units • Concept section exploring spatial quality of housing units.

162

O

zones • Introduction communal lounges.

of

a

kitchen

gym, areas

dedicated and

study


H

O

U

S

I

N

G

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T

16_05_2014:

17_05_2014:

Final basement/lower lever floor plan draft.

Final ground floor plan draft.

• 38 student rooms accommodating 2 x students per room

• 45 student rooms, 1 student per room

• 24 lecture rooms with en-suite bathrooms

• Communal bathroom, study lounges and kitchen areas for students

• Gym

• Communal lounges and kitchens for lecturers.

• 25m lap pool • Communal bathroom, study lounges and kitchen areas for students

2 x circulation route

• Communal lounges and kitchens for lecturers.

1. Main route/axis – exterior route, public. Access to rest of facility 2. Secondary route – interior route, private, movement between units. 163


H

12_05_2014: Sectional design concept. • Merging building with mountain slope • Using mountain as a thermal mass. • Level differences within proposed structure • Use of plenums to cool & heat the building.

164

O

U

S

I

N

G

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T


D

E

T

A

I

L

E

L

E

M

E

N

T

S

20_05_2014: Landscape exhibition space:. • Exhibition placed within landscape. • Incorporate installations into landscape. • Various

installations

allow

for

specific

experiences.

165


H

21_05_2014: First sectional concept of housing within mountainscape.

Openings

expose

lower

levels to natural light. Design allows for cross ventilations and cooling through plenum level.

166

O

U

S

I

N

G

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T


H

Double bedroom unit

O

U

S

I

N

G

C

O

M

P

O

N

E

N

T

Singe bedroom unit

17_07_2014: Detail Development of individual housing units. •

Double bedroom unit

o

2 x beds

o

1 x Table per student

o

1 x Closet per student

o

1 x Storage space per student.

•

Singe bedroom unit

o

1 bed

o

1 x table

o

1 x bookshelf

o

1 x closet

o

1 x draws

167


21_07_2014: Combination of all three components to form the entire design plan. Building form follows the natural contour lines of the mountain.

FINAL CONCEPT FLOOR PLAN

NOT TO SCALE 168


F

I

N

A

L

D

E

S

I

G

N

28_07_2014: Detailed floor plan design of the museum component. No weather line present in proposed building. Exposed plenum levels and natural landscape within the building help continue the landscape from the outside. 169


THEATRE DOME DEVELOPMENT SKETCH 170


D E S I G N RESOLUTION

08

Plans Sections Elevations 3D

171


D

E

S

I

G

N

R

E

S

O

LEGEND 1. New Reception 2. Storage 3. Temporary Staff Residence 4. Recreational Facility 5-7. Residence 8. International Observatories 9. SALT Observatory

172

L

U

T

I

O

N


D

E

S

I

G

N

R

E

S

O

L

U

T

I

O

N

9

3 5

1

2

4

8

6

7

SITE PLAN 30

90

150

300m

173


D

0 1 MUSEUMCOMPONENT

LEGEND - Administration Offices - Landscape Orrery - History Exhibition - Reflectance Pool - Landscape Exhibition - Universe Exhibition - Theatre / Dark Room

G R O U N D F L O O R P L A N 174

1:1000

E

S

I

G

N

R

E

S

O

L

U

T

I

O

N


D

E

S

I

G

N

R

E

S

O

L

U

T

I

O

N

1 LEGEND 1. Camera Obscura 2. Landscape Exhibition

2

3. Universe Exhibition 4. First Aid Room 5. Baby Changing Room

4

6. Male Restroom

5

7. Female Restroom 8. Dark Room Exhibition

3

9. Film / Theatre Dome

6

7

8

9

EXHIBITION/THEATREROOM

1:400

175


D

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E X H I B I T I O N S P A C E 176

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23:15

Framing Sirius

Sirius

Rigel

Orion

Beetleguese

Moon

3 R E F L E C T A N C E P O O L M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T 177


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0 1 MUSEUMCOMPONENT Types of exhibition spaces:

Day & Night Time tours:

1. Tour gathering area

Maximum tourists: 120 people.

2. Landscape Orrery

Time of tour: 75mins

3. History exhibition

Length of tour: 250m

4. Dawn of astronomy exhibition 5. Reflection pool 6. Camera Obscura room 7. Landscape exhibition 8. Universe exhibition

- Pause - Active - Observe

9. Dark room exhibition 10. Film/Theatre room

SECTION

EXHIBITIONS 178

DAY TOUR

NIGHT TOUR

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Water catchment and vegetation growth:

Where natural light enters the building:

Framing certain cosmic events:

Locations of where the building catches and

Locations where natural light enters the

Museum component frames 3 (three) events:

release water through various channels. The

building.

proposed design also promotes growth of

• Farthest North Moon set.

flora around the perimeter of the building.

• Jupiter • Sirius

diagrams

+

sKETCH

WATER AND VEGETATION

NATURAL LIGHT

COSMIC INTEGRATION 179


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LEGEND 1. Lecturer Offices 2-3. Master’s Student Class room

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L O W E R F L O O R P L A N 182

1:400

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LEGEND 1. Lecturer Offices 2-3. Sharable Classrooms

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4. Student Exhibition space 5. Open Class room 6. Towards Telescope 7. Student Workshop

10

8. Towards Housing 9. Tourist Experience Area 4

10. Rest rooms 9

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G R O U N D F L O O R P L A N

1:400

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E D U C A T I O N A L S E C T I O N 1

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21 MARCH & 21 SEPTEMBER E Q U I N O X E S 1 3 2 8

184


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Public spaces within the Educational Hub:

Private circulation: - Movement of students & lecturers

11. Amateur telescope set-up area 12. Restaurant 13. Dedicated telescope

EXHIBITIONS 186

- Auditoira - Cafeteria / Restaurant - Offices

PRIVATE MOVEMENT

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Framing certain cosmic events:

Locations of where the building catches and

Education hub frames 3 (three) events:

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release water through various channels. The proposed design also promotes growth of

• 21 July Solstice

flora around the perimeter of the building.

• 21 March & 21 September Equinoxes. • 21 December Solstice

WATER AND VEGETATION

COSMIC INTEGRATION 187


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LEGEND - Student Communal Kitchen - Gym - Lecturer’s/Guest Housing Units - Student Housing Units - Lecturer’s/Guest Kitchen - 25m Lap Pool - Reception

L O W E R F L O O R P L A N 190

1:1000

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2. Lecturer/Guest open lounge 3. Service Room

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4. Lecturer/Guest Kitchen 5. Student Housing 6. Water Storage & Geothermal Heat Pump Room 7. Male Showers 8. Female Showers 9. Student Lounge 10. Service Room

13 4 14

11. Storage & First Aid Room 12-13. Student Kitchen 14. 25m Lap Pool 15. Pump Pump Room

S T U D E N T / L E C T U R E R AC C O M M O DA T I O N

1:400

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HOUSINGCOMPONENT

LEGEND - Student Communal Kitchen - Stairs to lower floor - Rest Rooms - Communal Student Lounge - Braai Area - Disabled Bathrooms - Care Taker unit

G R O U N D F L O O R P L A N 192

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LEGEND

7

1. Student Housing 2. Formal Study Room 3. Study Lounge 4. Workshop / Studio 5. Communal Lounge 6. Service room

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7-8. Communal Kitchen 9. Storage & Services Room 10. Braai Area

S T U D E N T A C C O M M O D A T I O N

1:400

9 193


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LEGEND 1. Lecturer/Guest Unit 2. Main access walkway 3. Single unit 4. Double unit 5. Interior walkway 6. Plenum

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H O U S I N G S E C T I O N A C C O M M O D A T I O N 194

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19:35

5 I N T R I O R W A L K W A Y H O U S I N G C O M P O N E N T 195


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HOUSINGCOMPONENT Private circulation:

Water catchment and vegetation growth:

- Movement of students location of communal spaces - Bathrooms - Braai area

PRIVATE MOVEMENT 196

Locations of where the building catches and release water through various channels. The proposed design also promotes growth of flora around the perimeter of the building.

WATER AND VEGETATION

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Framing certain cosmic events:

Locations where natural light enters the

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housing units. Communal spaces are also lit up through sun wells.

• Mars • Farthest South Moon set • Rigel Kent

NATURAL LIGHT

COSMIC INTEGRATION 197


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29 UNITS 58 STUDENTS

L O W E R G R O U N D F L O O R D

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39 UNITS 39 STUDENTS

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LEGEND 1. Exterior walkway 2. Exterior lower walkway / service route 3. Single Unit 4. Double Unit 5. Interior walkway 6. Plenum

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201


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W E S T E R N E L E V A T I O N 1

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BEETLEGUESE

ORION

RIGEL

SIRIUS

4 1 202

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LEGEND 1. Tourist arrival area 2. Framing Jupiter 3. Reflectance Pool 4. Theatre dome 5. Canvas Ring screen 6. Housing Units 7. Accommodation arrival area

RIGEL KENT

6 7 203


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C O S M I C I N T E G R A T I O N

01 21

JULY

21 MARCH & SEPTEMBER

21

296o

270o

243o

DECEMBER

LEGEND INTEGRATION WITH BUILDING 204

21

JULY

WINTER SOLSTICE


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C O S M I C I N T E G R A T I O N

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MARCH & SEPTEMBER

EQUINOXES

03

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DECEMBER

SUMMER SOLSTICE 205


S E C T I O N

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22:28

Jupiter

1 F R A M I N G J U P I T E R M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T 207


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A E R I A L P E R S P E C T I V E M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T

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06:48

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S U M M E R S O L S T I C E

209


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Passive design solutions Materials Structural analysis Drawings

211


INCORPORATING LANDSCAPE BUILDING PROTECTED BY MOUNTAIN

(photo by author, 2014)


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PASSIVE DESIGN SOLUTIONS

213


P A S S I V E D E S I G N S O L U T I O N S

PROTECTIVE LOUVERS

Plenum design A plenum level was introduced below the building to help cool the building during the harsh summer heat in the Karoo. During the summer season the plenum is filled with water collected through rain, snow and the on-site borehole. Water in the plenum flows by gravity and helps cool the floor slabs through radiant cooling. Openings on the western faรงade also help catch the prevailing wind to aid in the cooling process.

0.75m Grubb Parsons Telescope| SAAO 214(photo by author, 2014)


P A S S I V E D E S I G N S O L U T I O N S

Solar/wind chimneys

Geothermal heating

Water harvesting

Solar and wind chimneys are used to assist in

A modern hypocaust system: Geothermal

Rain and melted snow from the roof and

cooling the building through the plenum level

heat pumps are used in the winter months

landscape will be collected, filtered and stored

and aid in ventilation within deeper recessed

to assist in warming the building. During

in tanks within the building. Grey water in the

spaces in the design. Using the stack ventilation

winter, the plenum discharges the water and

building is also to be filtered and re-used. Water

method, openings below and above create air

closes up. Once air is heated up through the

discharged from the plenums will assist where

pressure differences that allow for air currents

geothermal heat pump, it is distributed into the

possible to supplement the use of the borehole

to flow through the building. Warm air that rises

plenum level and heats the building up from

water on site.

is extracted through an exhaust above ground,

below. This technique is based on the Roman

while cooler, outside air is funneled through the

hypocaust system. The geothermal pipes are

Water flowing in the plenum level is to filtered

plenum and openings on the western faรงade.

to be laid at a minimum depth of 4m.

and pumped back up to create a loop system where the water is always in motion. This eliminates the threat of bacteria and fungi growing in motionless water.

215


T E C H N I C A L B R E A K D O W N

M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T

water release point

booster pump

storage

main pump & storage

geothermal pipes

geothermal pipes

water release channel

water release channel

wind chimneys

WATER Water

flowing

HEAT through

Location of geothermal

plenum level by means of

heat pumps and solar/

gravity. Design utilises water

wind chimneys

harvesting technology. 216

solar chimneys


T E C H N I C A L B R E A K D O W N

higher ground level

ground level

dark room

#1 fire escape

#2 fire escape 45m apart

#3 fire escape 45m apart

lower ground level

LEVELS

ESCAPES

- Ground floor

Location of fire escapes

- Lower Ground floor

through out the

- Under ground

museum component 217


T E C H N I C A L B R E A K D O W N

E

water pump & storage

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water pump & storage

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water release channel

WATER flowing

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wind chimney

geothermal heat pump

geothermal heat pipes

HEAT through

Location of geothermal

plenum level by means of

heat pumps and solar/

gravity.

wind chimneys

for 218

N

water storage

wind funnel

Water

O

Water

student

bathrooms

harvested

and

visitors


T E C H N I C A L B R E A K D O W N

ground level

basement level

#1 office fire escape

#2 basement fire escape

#3 auditoria fire escape

lower ground level

LEVELS

ESCAPES

- Ground floor

Location of fire escapes

- Lower Ground floor

through out the

- Under ground

educational hub 219


T E C H N I C A L B R E A K D O W N

H O U S I N G C O M P O N E N T

water pump

water pump & storage

water pump & storage

WATER Water

flowing

wind chimney

geothermal heat pipes

geothermal heat pipes

HEAT through

Location of geothermal

plenum level by means of

heat pumps and solar/

gravity. Design utilises water

wind chimneys

harvesting technology. 220

water pump & storage

wind chimney


T E C H N I C A L B R E A K D O W N

ground level

basement level

basement level

LEVELS

#1 fire escape

basement level

#2,3,4 fire escape routes

#5 fire escape

ESCAPES

- Ground floor

Location of fire escapes

- Lower Ground floor

through out the housing

- Under ground

component. 221


T E C H N I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E M U S E U M C O M P O N E N T 222


223


224 (all photos by author, 2014)


MATERIALS

225


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ShotCrete / Back anchoring

Rammed Earth Construction

Natural Stone walls

Due to the large scale and organic shape

400 – 1500mm thick reinforced rammed earth

Natural mountain stones collected from the

of the building, ShotCrete back anchoring

walls are used through the entire design.

site and surrounding areas are used to create

retaining walls will be implemented. This

These thick walls create excellent insulation

structural stone walls and facings through the

method reduces the labour and custom form-

and thermal properties and utilise the soil

building. Stones vary in sizes, 100mm-500mm in

work that conventional concrete retaining walls

excavated from the site. The rammed earth

diameter according to application. Structural

require and enables the retaining wall to be

consists of 50-70% sand, 15-30% clay and 5%

stone walls are bonded together with a cement

only 200mm thick. A dry mix process is advised

silt. A 10% Portland cement mixture is added

mortar mix and are used in areas where the

as it is more suitable for vertical reinforced

for adhesion and strength. Soil is stacked in

load of the building does not require strong

application.

400-500mm and compacted in layers of 150-

reinforced concrete elements.

250mm in height. Custom curved shaped form-work is needed.

226

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Timber & Laminated Timber

Structural glass

Green roofs

Non-structural columns and screens consist

Frameless structural glass is used to allow

Because the building is lowered into the

of laminated timber columns bolted together

natural light to penetrate deeply recessed

mountain, the building utilises green roofs.

with mild steel brackets and base plates. Timber

areas within the building. These glass boxes

Theses roofs help insulate the building and act

was introduced to add to the natural material

protrude above the natural ground level and

as thermal mass against to the harsh Karoo

selection and assist the design to fit in to its

are assembled using structural glass fins and

climate. The green roof consists of a sloped

natural surroundings. These timber columns

stainless steel spider brackets. The structural

screed, two layers of bitumen waterproof

are coated with a preservative to protect them

glass consists of 12mm thick PVB laminated

membrane and an anti-root protective geo-

from the Karoo climate and are for decorative

glass panels with an OPEL finish, allowing for a

textile drainage layer.

purposes only. Timber facing, wall finishes and

softer illumination.

GSEducationalVersion GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.95

louver systems are also treated similarly.

227


INTRODUCING BUILDING SYSTEMS STRUCTURAL AND PASSIVE DESIGNS


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

229


S T R U C T U R A L A N A L Y S I S

1400 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand ring beam per Engineer's specification detail and waterproofed 400mm thick reinforced CONCRETE floor slab per Engineer's specification & detail to carry natural ground above

Purpose made mild steel skylight ceiling to detail

300 x 300mm reinforced CONCRETE beam to Engineer's specification & detail fixed to 500mm MOUNTAINSTONE structural wall

1400 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand ring beam per Engineer's specification detail

400mm thick reinforced CONCRETE floor slab per Engineer's specification & detail to carry natural ground above

550 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand ring beam per Engineer's specification detail 300 x 400mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand beam to Engineer's specification & detail @ 20deg c.c apart 600 x 400mm reinforeced CONCRETE ring beam to Engineer's specification and detail to support CONCRETE beams above

2500 x 500mm structural MOUNTAINSTONE column in cement motar mix on CONCRETE foundation per Engineer's specification & detail to support CONCRETE upstand beams

600 x 300mm reinforced off-shutter CONCRETE column @ 20deg per Engineer's specification detail to carry CONCRETE ring beam above

200mm IN-SITU cast CONCRETE floor per Engineer's specification & detail.

500mm structural MOUNTAINSTONE wall in cement motar mix on CONCRETE foundation per Engineer's specification & detail

500mm structural MOUNTAINSTONE wall in cement motar mix on CONCRETE foundation per Engineer's specification & detail.

3500 x 200mm Thick Lafarge Custom made pre-cast prestressed CONCRETE panel to manufacturing specification & detai 600 x 1190mm reinforced offshutter CONCRETE column @ 20deg per Engineer's specification detail to support CONCRETE upstand beams above

300 x 2900mm reinforced CONCRETE fin @ 1200 c.c apart to Engineer's specification & detail to carry CONCRETE ring beam above 600 x 3500mm structural MOUNTAINSTONE wall in cement motar mix on CONCRETE foundation per Engineer's specification & detail to help support CONCRETE ring beam above 600mm wide insitu cast CONCRETE cantilever floor slab per Engineer's specification & details

In-Situ cast water channel to run rainwater into PLENUM. Waterproofed with DERBIGUM waterproofing solution. See details.

PLENUM SCREED NOTE: 60mm CEMENT screed to slope to outlet channels on 180mm thick reinforced CONCRETE slab to Engineers Specification & detail

300 Ø re-inforced CONCRETE column @ 25deg to carry CONCRETE ring beam above per Engineer's specification & detail and to be protected by waterproofing 600 x 300mm Purpose made STEEL Sluice gate to Engineers specification & detai

PLENUM SCREED NOTE: 50mm Screed to slope to outlet channels on 180mm thick reinforced concrete slab to engineers specification and detail

1:7 CONCRETE slope to direct water to PLENUM below as per Engineer's specifciation & detail 1000 x 1600mm reinforced CONCRETE pad foundation per Engineer's specification & detail

400 x 400mm STAINLESS STEEL Purpose made operable damper system by mechanical engineers specification and detail to be fixed to concrete plenum foundation wall 300 x 300mm re-inforced in-situ CONCRETE ring beam to Engineer's specification and detail to carry precast pre-stressed CONCRETE floor slabs above

STRUCTURAL CONSTRUCTION ASSEMBLY

EXHIBITION AREA #1 GSEducationalVersion GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.95


S T R U C T U R A L A N A L Y S I S

1200 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand beam per Engineer's specification detail

900 x 300mm purposed coffered slab profle @ 1050mm c.c per Engineer's specfication & detail.

800 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand ring beam per Engineer's specification detail

1200 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand beam per Engineer's specification detail 800 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand ring beam per Engineer's specification detail

1200 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand beam per Engineer's specification

600 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand beam per Engineer's specification detail and waterproofed

1000 x 600mm off-shutter reinforced CONCRETE column per Engineer's specification & detail 5570 x 600mm off-shutter reinforced CONCRETE wall per Engineer's specification & detail

900 x 300mm purposed coffered slab profle @ 1050mm c.c per Engineer's specfication & detail.

300 x 400mm reinforced CONCRETE beam to brace concrete roof per Engineer's specification detail 1200 x 3000mm precast prestressed CONCRETE panels @ 3000c.c over 200mm reinforced CONCRETE beam per Engineer's specification & detail

12mm Single Pilkington PLANAR™ Laminated Safety Glass with OPEL finish to manufacturer's specification & detail 300mm thick reinforced CONCRETE wall to act as support structure to carry 255mm reinforced CONCRETE roof slab per Engineer's specification and detail Reinfored CONCRETE firestair case to Engineer's specification & detail. 300mm Ø reinforced off-shuitter CONCRETE column per Engineer's specification detail resting on 1000 x 400mm thicked reinforced CONCRETE foundation per Engineer's specificaation & detail carrying bracing beams above to secure cofferd slab 510 x 400mm reinforced CONCRETE beam to brace concrete roof per Engineer's specification detail

600mm Thick reinforced CONCRETE wall to Engineer's specification & detail 200mm Thick MOUNTAINSTONE facing around CONCRETE wall

1400 x 400mm Thickend CONCRETE foundation per Engineers specification & detail. 700 x 350mm CONCRETE column on 1100 x 750 x 400mm pad foundation per Engineers specification & detail. 1000 x 5800mm reinforced CONCRETE column per Engineers specification & detail on 1800 x 400mm Strip reinforced CONCRETE foundation per Engineers specification & detail

20430 x 300mm off-shutter reinforced CONCRETE wall per Engineer's specification & detail

550 x 200mm CONCRETE COLUMN @ 6000 c.c on 850 x 600 x 400mm pad foundation per engineers specification & detail.

PLENUM SCREED NOTE: 60mm CEMENT screed to slope to outlet channels on 180mm thick reinforced CONCRETE slab to Engineers Specification & detail Purpose made STEEL Sluice gates to Engineers specification & detail.

200 x 200mm reinforced CONCRETE beams @ 3000c.c on 200x200mm reinforced CONCRETE columns per Engineer's specification & details 200 x 200 x 800mm high reinforced CONCRETE column @ 3000c.c to support 180mm precast pre-stressed CONCRETE floor slabs per Engineer's specification & detail

PLENUM SCREED NOTE: 60mm CEMENT screed to slope to outlet channels on 180mm thick reinforced CONCRETE slab to Engineers Specification & detail

STRUCTURAL CONSTRUCTION ASSEMBLY

EXHIBITION AREA #2 GSEducationalVersion GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.95


International Observatories| SAAO (photo by author, 2014)

232


T E C H N I CA L D R AW I N G S

233


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LOCALITY & SITE PLAN 234

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PARTIAL SITE PLAN 235


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LOWER PLENUM / FOUNDATION PLAN 1:300 236

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PLENUM / FOUNDATION PLAN 1:300 237


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MUSEUM LOWER GROUND FLOOR 1:100 238

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A W

I

N

G

S


800mm high STAINLESS STEEL handrail recessed into STONE wall.

TREND: 1000mm RISER: 180mm 1000mm high TIMBER Ballustrade

7 5 28 694 3

200mm shotcrete CONCRETE retaining wall to engineer's specification and detail, with bitumen waterproof paint and protective membrane

3 1 34

line roof

FIRST AID ROOM

5 1 53

50mm Ø UPVC Waste pipe

365

movement joint

D5

screed & epoxy to slope to edges

800 x 300mm CONCRETE stormwater drainage channel cast underneath floorslab to PLENUM

WHB

4 450 4 461

beam ov er

Epoxy

WHB

97 500

WHB

roof line

D9

movement joint 1 892

WHB U Epoxy Naturally & mechanically ventilated 2 019

beam o ver

550 x 200mm off-shutter reinforced CONCRETE COLUMN @ 6000 c.c per Engineers specification & detail.

1 34 0

300

5 585

100Ø S Pipe oil D UCT 1 816

800 x 300mm CONCRETE stormwater drainage channel cast underneath floorslab to PLENUM

D6 WC

Epoxy

D6 N&M ventilated D6

CT

WC

100 Ø Pip Soil e

FEMALE

WC

IRE

DO

OR

100mm Ø UPVC Stub stack with 2way VV 100mm MOUNTAINSTONE cladding fixed to concrete wall 200mm shotcrete CONCRETE retaining wall to engineer's specification and detail, with bitumen waterproof paint and protective membrane

41 57

TRIPPLE VOLUME OPEN DUCT

1 3 D9 24

300mm Thick RAMMED EARTH wall

2

300

4 15 5

100mm Ø UPVC Stub stack with 2way VV

WC

T_: 250 m R_: 175 m mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 11

2 50 0

23 2 2

21 20 19 18

17 16

15 14

200mm GABION wall within MILD STEEL basket bolted to reinforced CONCRETE wall

1000 mm High STA INL STE 13 EL B ESS allus trade

Epoxy

800 x 300mm CONCRETE stormwater drainage channel cast underneath floorslab to PLENUM

96420 1 57 5

UP

SERVICES

809

D8

2 28 4

beam over

5 982

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 85 5

3 618

line of roof above

553 5 540

200mm shotcrete CONCRETE retaining wall to engineer's specification and detail, with bitumen waterproof paint and protective membrane

move ment joint 1 311 1 311

move ment joint

D6

2H F

FIRE STAIRS

1 286

D8

PLENUM BELOW

D7

145

DU

3 100

line o f roof above

WHB

300mm Thick RAMMED EARTH wall

2 76 5

9 743

WHB

100mm MOUNTAINSTONE cladding fixed to 220mm concrete wall per detail.

TRIPPLE VOLUME OPEN DUCT

roo f lin e

WHB

500mm GABIO N wall

50m mØ

WHB

WC

3 224 line o 3 498 f bea m ab 6 ove 348

UPV Cw aste pipe

WHB

2 274

screed & epoxy to slope to edges

WC

D6

1 95 4

line of r oof abo ve

20 32

600 x 200mm off-shutter reinforced movement joint CONCRETE COLUMN @ 6000 c.c per Engineers specification & detail.

D6

line o f bea m ab 1 239 ove 129 1 539

300

bea mo ver

2 40 0

500 mm GAB ION wal l

WHB

600

D9

MALE

roof li ne

WHB

open skylight above

200mm GABION wall within MILD STEEL basket bolted to reinforced CONCRETE wall

1 311

5 58 5

EXHIBITION SPACE

500 x 50 x 60mm TIMBER latts fixed to pre-cast concrete wall with mild steel holding brackets

TRIPPLE VOLUME OPEN DUCT

3 744

D4

100Ø SP DUCT

interior planter

500 x 60mm off-shutter CONCRETE seating precasted to 200mm concrete wall. open skylight above

BABY CHANGING ROOM

7 206

17 133

1 100

GSEducationalVersion GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.95

200mm CONCRETE structural wall to engineer's specification and detail

5 8 48

6 3 63

D4

over beam

UP

line of roof above

STONE wall in n CONCRETE foundation

250

2 00 2

GREY WATER storage tank to process, filter and supply all waste & rain water in the building to Engineer's specification and detail.

239


EXHIBITION GROUND FLOOR PLAN 1:100 240


seating

300mm wide gap in CONCRETE floor exposing water in PLENUM below.

30 0 30 0

17 0

above

28 0 12 00

80 600 80 60 0 8 0 60 0 8 0 6 00 80 1 00

am be f o

se ati ng

beam abov e7

20°

DOUBLE VOLUME (ROOF OPENING)

INTERIOR PLANTER

R 3 300 6

e bov ma a e of b line

x 99750

SETTING OUT POINT

20°

0 3 50

e ov ab

e lin 12

line of ring beam above

20°

35 982

R 2 800

ve line of beam abo 13

SETTING OUT POINT 5

20°

line of roof above

lin e

20°

D 13

ab ov e

2

3

line of be am

300

600

0 3 50

1

PRECAST SE OUT POINT

72 0

ab ove

20°

ove m ab f bea line o

0 1 80

4

14

of be am

12

line of roof above

0 80 600 80 100 80 60

se ati ng

8

600 80 600

6 400

11

line of

0 60

g in at se

10 9

28 00

00 16 8

600

0 8 36

e ov ab

600 x 3500mm structural MOUNTAINSTONE wall in cement motar mix on CONCRETE foundation per Engineer's specification & detail.

100 000

m ea fb eo lin

300mm wide gap in CONCRETE floor exposing water in PLENUM below.

60 0

100 18

66 00

line of bea m

30 0

30 0

30 0

0 00

46 00

500 x 60mm off-shutter CONCRETE seating fixed to in-situ 200mm in-situ cast concrete wall.

300 x 400mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand beam to Engineer's specification & detail @ 20deg c.c apart

Epoxy

SERVIC STORA

sea ting

EXHIBITION SPACE

1

300 x 2900mm reinforced CONCRETE fin @ 1200 c.c apart to Engineer's specification & detail.

600mm wide insitu cast CONCRETE cantilever floor slab

line of ring beam above

0 60

50 66

30 0

1 00 0

600

0 30

R 10 200

5 330

300

600

1 650

3500 x 200mm Thick Lafarge Custom made pre-cast pre-stressed CONCRETE panel to manufacturing specification & detail

4600 x 300mm in-situ cast concrete water channel wall

1000

PLENUM CHANNEL

line of roof above

300 x 400mm reinforeced CONCRETE ring beam to Engineer's specification and detail.

1 385

Pg. 12

5 290

8 890

C

600 x 300mm reinforced off-shutter CONCRETE column @ 20deg per Engineer's specification detail

Pg.

8400 x 300mm in-situ cast concrete water channel wall

390 600

600 x 3500mm structural MOUNTAINSTONE wall in cement motar mix on CONCRETE foundation per Engineer's specification & detail

line of ring beam above

3 69 0

265 x 80mm purpose made laminated TIMBER column @ 800 c.c fixed to MILD STEEL bracket

R 9 795 600

2 990 3 890

104 000

102 000

0 30

20° 60 30

300mm wide gap in CONCRETE floor exposing water in PLENUM below GSEducationalVersion GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.95

3 515

3 530

2 670

300 x 400mm reinforeced CONCRETE ring beam to Engineer's specification and detail

300 x 400mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand beam to Engineer's specification & detail @ 20deg c.c apart

ting sea 00 12

line of r oof abo ve

300 600 400

241


SECTION A-A EXHIBITION SECTION 242

1:75


T

E

C

H

N

I

C A

L

D

R

A W

I

N

G

S

243


T

SECTION B-B EDGE DETAIL 1 244

E

C

H

N

I

C A

L

D

R

A W

I

N

G

S


T

E

C

H

N

I

C A

L

D

R

A W

I

N

G

S

SECTION C-C WALKWAY DETAIL 245


T

E

C

H

N

I

C A

L

D

R

A W

I

N

NO WEATHER LINE

EXTERIOR

550 x 200mm off-shutter reinforced CONCRETE COLUMN @ 6000 c.c per Engineers specification & detail

600mm MOUNTAINSTONE facing with STONES collected from the site, bonded with cement motar on CONCRETE foundation

EXHIBITION SPACE

100 x 530 x 1000mm Pre-cast CONCRETE sill tile to finish off edge of building & hind waterproofing membrane

Mountainstone

150-300mm TOPSOIL comprised of organic materials and native soil, to match surrounding landscape and to slope away from building. line of building floor 80

80 x 200mm CONCRETE upstand footing to act as adhesion key for MOUNTAINSTONE wall

600 x 200mm off-shutter reinforced CONCRETE COLUMN @ 6000 c.c per Engineers specification & detail.

TOP SOIL

INTERIOR 10mm POLYETHYLENE foam expansion joint installed between RAMMED EARTH wall and CONCRETE roof to allow for movement

2 545

170mm MOUNTAINSTONE facing with STONES collected from the site, bonded with cement motar

Suspended light fixture

250

BACK FILL

250

5mm Standard ISOCRETE K-SCREED to be supplied and laid on an uncontaminated, shotblasted or scabbled and vacuum cleaned in situ concrete base, bonded with Isocrete Polymer 70 primer

550

35mm CEMENT SCREED with 1:50 fall to PLENUM opening at edge of floorspace 1200 x 3000mm Thick LAFARGE CUSTOM SOLUTIONS made pre-cast pre-stressed CONCRETE panel to manufacturing specification & detail

97 500

97 500 UFFL

UFFL

-02 LOWER GROUND FLOOR LEVEL

200 x 200mm wide openings to act as weep holes to allow water to flow into PLENUM

300

2 055

180

-02 LOWER GROUND FLOOR LEVEL

400

800

90 60

concrete seating

1 075

PLENUM 775

0.250 micron DAMP PROOF MEMBRANE to wrap up againt in-situ cast CONCRETE plenum wall

1 075

line of beam

8mm abe.DRAIN G (geotextile) dimpled high density polyethylene protection and drainage membrane with a polyester geotextile layer to wrap around HDPE drainage pipe

Off-shutter concrete

Geothermal heat pipe system installed and fixed to 300 x 200 CONCRETE beams by specialist during construction of floorslab support columns and beams

300 x 200mm CONCRETE beam @ 3000 c.c to Engineers specification & detail.. 300 x 200mm CONCRETE column @ 3000 c.c to Engineers specification & detail..

line of chamfer corner 96 245

96 245 UFFL

UFFL 180

-03 PLENUM LEVEL

Coarse Layer/Drainage stone comprised of crushed stone or other porous fill above Geotextile drainage pipe

concrete pad foundation behind

160mm Ø HDPE flexible DRAINEX pipe to fall 1:100 100mm SAND CEMENT blinder

DETAIL 2 STONE FACING EDGE DETAIL 246

GSEducationalVersion GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.95

1:30

-03 PLENUM LEVEL

60mm ABE.WATERPROOFING SLURRY CEMENT screed to fall 1:100 to plenum openings and sluice gates

G

S


T

E

C

H

N

I

C A

L

D

R

A W

I

N

G

S

DETAIL 3 STRUCTURAL GLASS BOX & LOUVERS 247


T

DETAIL 4 EDGE DETAIL 2 248

E

C

H

N

I

C A

L

D

R

A W

I

N

G

S


T

E

C

H

N

I

C A

L

D

R

A W

I

N

G

S

DETAIL 7 ISOMETRIC CONSTRUCTION ASSEMBLY DRAWING 249


Reflectance Pool

AERIAL SKETCH MUSEUM COMPONENT 250


10 CONCLUSION

Conclusion Acknowledgments References

251


252


C O N C L U S I O N

The aim of this dissertation was to design a School of Astronomy in such a manner as to pay homage to the ancient civilisations that documented our night sky while introducing modern functionality to the building. The selected site, isolated in its location, revealed rich layers of its surrounding landscape and natural elements that have the potential to inspire the public to experience such a unique setting in its rural context. The Cosmic Landscape in which the design finds

itself, allowed

for

architecture

that

complemented the natural elements. By exploring

massing

and

natural

building

materials, the building establishes itself within the landscape and creates the illusion that it has stood there for epochs. This is further emphasised by architecture that frames certain astronomical events. The theoretical premise of the Axis Mundi as a spatial experience established a base for the architecture to connect to the night sky. The architecture embraces the natural landscape surrounding

it

while

adding

a

layered

experience through light, the natural elements and the stars above. Nevertheless, there is much opportunity for the further development and interpretation of the proposed premise. The

proposed

architectural

intervention

remains open for reinterpretation. Exploration of the cosmic landscape, the user and the large massing of the proposed architecture creates a unique realm within the Karoo landscape, one which could inspire the general public and star lovers to develop a deeper appreciation of the world of astronomy. 253


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to: My design Mentor and Studio Master, Jacques Laubscher: For broadening my understanding of architecture. Your critique, understanding, motivation and patience were greatly appreciated. Juan Myburgh for the late night design discussions and crits. You helped me tremendously my friend. To my friends, especially Rikus for your inspiration and honesty. FJ and Susan for helping me to the end. To Helena. Jy is wen. Tshwane University of Technology for the financial support during the year. 254


Exhibition | TUT (photo by Juan Myburgh, 2014)

255


(Online) - http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/

256ancient-tradition-revelers-witness-first-summersunrise-n137336. [Accessed 02.10.14]


06:03

257


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Curiosity: The Design of an International School of Astronomy and Astro-Tourism Centre  

The Design of an International School of Astronomy and Astro-Tourism Centre

Curiosity: The Design of an International School of Astronomy and Astro-Tourism Centre  

The Design of an International School of Astronomy and Astro-Tourism Centre

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