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Contents Chapter 1

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1. Studio Brief: -Z

Chapter 2: Networks

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1. Urban Density: Networks and the Hybridization of the Urban Environemnt. 2. Mapping Accessibility: Access and Human Cognition 3. Networks: London

Chapter 3: Programmable Material

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1. Programmable Material: Between Organicism and Computation 2. Frei Otto and Ciro Najle 3. Marc Fornes and Francois Roche R&Sie(n) Architects 4. Bioplastic 5. Pulled Wax Techniques 6. Latex 7. ABS and Plastics

Chapter 4: Growth Systems

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1. Growth Systems: Evolution Strategies, Decision Making and Deployment. 2. Numen 3. Diffusion Limited Aggregation and Laplacian Growth 4. Hele Shaw Simulation 5. Diffusion Limited Aggregation Simulation

Chapter 5: Feedback +++

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1. Feedback: Setting the Thresholds and the Framework for Growth.

Chapter 6: Robots in Architecture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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Robots in Architecture The 2012 Research Pavilion by Achim Menges The Chandelier Prototype by Kruysman and Proto Virtual Robots: Space, Occupation and Flexibility Physical Robots: AL5D Lynx Robotic Arm Arduino and Firefly

Chapter 7: Appendix 1. Material Appendix 2. Simulation Appendix

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CHAPTER 001

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Studio Brief


Studio Brief

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Chapter 1 Studio Brief


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Studio Brief

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Studio Brief: -Z Chapter 1

Investigations into material and robotic technology has led to groundbreaking proposals in the field of architecture. The aim of the studio is to understand Znegative: Shajay material behaviour, rule-based calculation and robotic computation to Booshan studio. AADRL generate feedback systems capable of achieving evolution, self-regulation and self-replication. In a proposal deployed in Z negative, urban conditions are addressed where ultimately, aspects of communication, networking and access lead to a proposal for architecturla innovation. In many regards the brief wishes to address myriad aspects rising in contemporary architectural discourse. Themes that have been explored in the past, with architects such as Frei Otto, Le Ricolais, Nervi and taken into the future by others such as Marc Fornes, and Francois Roche R&Sie(n) Architects. The proposal for an architecture with these parameters in mind, begins to address three major components: material behaviour, feedback systems and robotics.


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Networks


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Chapter 2 Networks


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Urban Density Networks and the Hybridization of the Urban Environment Chapter 2

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The increasing density levels of the contemporary cities is an issue of high importance, having complex implications concerning the design and development of the urban landscapes, the infrastructures and networks that support the latter and eventually the everyday life of the inhabitants. Nevertheless, the complexity of the resultant environment and the diversity of the parameters that create it constitute severe obstacles for designers to understand and predict any further development. In order to overcome this obstacle and have a better perception of urban density, we focus on the superimposition of physical and digital networks that create it and we try to approach the topic through the observation of the hybrid space that is produced. HYBRID SPACE In an urban scale, the architectural environment is highly hybridized, combining analog and digital entities in a fuzzy mix. To be more precise, on one hand, it is essential to realize that nowadays all physical networks are being regulated by digital code. Everything that is essential to our everyday life and becomes accessible to us through physical networks, relies on digital control and is being globally distributed according to interconnections weaved by pieces of code.1 On the other hand, even if not perceived by human senses, digital networks are everywhere in the cities, creating a complex dynamic system which affects our everyday life, our social interactions and our relationship with the city and the other inhabitants. Moreover, another indication of the hybridization of the urban space emerges through the development of augmented reality applications. More specifically, with the aid of the aforementioned, layers of metadata can easily be superimposed to physical objects and thus create immersive experiences, produced by hybrid civic environments. These layers of media information, when supplemented to urban, architectural space, can either generate enhanced realities or act as means for the visualization of immaterial data that co-exist with the embodied space but cannot be perceived directly by human cognition. As it can be observed, it is indisputable that nowadays networked intelligence is embedded in our physical environment, creating hybrid urban ecologies. And the hybridization of the space we inhabit is emphasized by the fact that events taking place in cyberspace manifest themselves physically and vice versa. It is for this reason that the past few years we have witnessed the emergence of discontinuous, asynchronous global agoras, in the sense that actual events that take place in physical public spaces are being organized in digital space, and projected back to cyberspace in a continuous feedback loop.

1 Through the increasing integration of telecommunication networks and digital controls with vehicles and transportation networks, electrical supply systems, water, gas and petroleum pipeline systems, dams and food control systems, air-conditioning systems, and global trading systems, digital code now controls the supply of just about everything that“s essential to us.“, Mitchell, William J.. Me++ the cyborg self and the networked city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003, page 4


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As approximately 75 per cent of the world“s energy use and 80 per cent of the world“s carbon emissions result from urban activities, cities have an essential role in achieving environmental and economic sustainability. These goals need to be achieved in tandem with improving quality of life for the world“s 3.5 billion urban residents. This


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analysis explores the overall form, population and administrative boundaries of six established Urban Age cities and introduces a further six “green pioneer“ cities, noted for their innovation in environmental policy and practice. 1 1 Burdett, Ricky and Rode, Philipp, eds. (2012) The electric city: Urban Age electric city conference London 6-7 December 2012. The London School of Economics and Political Science, Alfred Herrhausen Society, London, UK.


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The challenges cities confront in becoming more sustainable places to live and work vary depending on the distinct socio-economic, environmental and spatial constraints of each of them. Yet all cities are broadly united in their efforts to improve the wellbeing of their residents, ideally by raising their income while improving their quality of life through accessible social services and environmental amenities. While there are no universal approaches, the main objective of sustainable cities is to ensure that continued economic and population growth can occur without a commensurate


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increase in a city“s environmental footprint. This so-called “decoupling“ of economic prosperity from increasing levels of resource consumption impact is increasingly seen as a fundamental component of a sustainable future. The graphs below show the diverse patterns of change taking place in cities over the past 20 years. Comparing economic and population growth to selected environmental indicators provides a sense of the drastic transformations these cities have experienced over a relatively short time span. 2 Ibid.


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In an attempt for a better understanding of the issue of urban density, a study of diverse parameters was realized. Different ways of measuring urban density, such as mapping of technological factors or visualising cultural parameters, can lead to innovative design approches.

18

Afterall, the high complexity of the hybrid urban environment that we inhabit cannot be addressed by simplified methods anymore. New tools for perceiving it are needed and in the pursuit of understanding those, we analyzed the following alternative measures of density.

Fig. 000 Tokyo Compression photo: Michael Wolf http://photomichaelwolf. com/#tokyo-compression/1 1 Clarke, Paul, and Rama Gheerawo. Metricity: exploring new measures of urban density : research carried out at the Royal College of Art, Helen Hamlyn Centre October 2006-September 2008. London: Helen Hamlyn Centre, Royal College of Art, 2008. Print.


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1 . Energy use : Individual carbon footprint - sor credits per hectare 2 . Cultural complexity : Number of languages per hectare 3 . The impact of GDP : Technology indexes, pattent applications per head, per hectare 4 . Technological density : Number of wireless hotspots per hectare - Technology distribution across the city 5 . Demographic growth : Fertility rates or number of births 6 . The Metropolitan index : Ideas per cubic meter per minute 7 . Hyperactivity of the city : Walking speed of a citizen > indicates much about the psychology of the inhabitants 8 . Health density : Track of poor living conditions 9 . Noise complaints : Track of antisocial behaviour 1

ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF DENSITY


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Map of the United States, Eric Fisher

Map of San Fransisco, Eric Fisher

DISCONTINUITY So, once realizing the fact that we inhabit a hybrid space, the key issue for architects to speculate on is how to approach this complex dynamic system in order to be able to design efficiently within its context. Is the analysis of the overall networks“ stratification the best way to address this issue? Is the mapping of the networks that compose the hybridized civic environment helpful for the decision-making process of a designer? Or, contrariwise, such an approach would create more obstacles than creative possibilities? For architects and urban designers, an attempt to map the totality of the networks that interweave the urban reality is more likely to fail or lead to misguided results. And that is not a consequence of lack of data or will to encounter the networks in their totality; it is a fact that is mainly due to the discontinuities of these networks.

Hybrid space is discontinuous, both from a spatiotemporal perspective, as well as from the one concerning the consciousness of the citizens. And this is not occurring exclusively in the case of hybrid environments; most networks are discontinuous structures, in the notion that their access points are clearly defined but what happens in between these is often very opaque and unclear. For example, networks that serve most of our daily needs, such as transportation or energy supply ones, are highly discontinuous. Sea travel networks are accessible only at ports, air transportation networks at airports and water supply ones at the tap of one“s house. It has to be stated though that this does not occur incidentally; these discontinuities result from the pursuit of efficiency, safety and security.1 The access to these networks can be achieved only through certain nodes, so as to foster faster and more efficient navigation through them.


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Architecture of density, aod_scout_02, Michael Wolf

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Hong Kong, back door 24, Michael Wolf

INTERFACES And the exact same thing that occurs in the case of familiar physical networks like the ones mentioned above, also characterizes the digital networks that are superimposed to physical public space and create the hybridized environment we live in. The most obvious case is that of public WiFi hotspots, where free access to the global information network can be achieved only in specific, carefully predefined public spaces. But what is even more interesting, is the fact that in human consciousness this discontinuity doesn t constitute a problem. We are used in experiencing these networks at their interfaces and what happens between or behind those doesn“t really concerns us. Although the fusion of the analog with the digital is a phenomenon of the recent years, we experience it in our daily routines and we have become so accustomed to it that these discontinuities don“t reach the threshold of our consciousness. The only occasions that this fact overturns is when something goes wrong or when the digital signal is interrupted.

1 Mitchell, William J.. Me++ the cyborg self and the networked city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003, page 4

NETWORKS' DISCONTINUITIES AND INTERFACES

Consequently, what can be deduced from the above is that people generally don“t perceive a global network as a whole, but rather as connected local fragments; as interconnected, but still local, interfaces. Thus, for architects, a closer look on these interfaces could provide a valuable tool concerning future designs. To begin with, such interfaces promote the concept of connected localism10; their spatial presence is well-defined but that doesn“t obstruct their integration in a global network. For instance, education can take place locally in a university but through interfaces, the results of the research can generate feedback for the global networked community. From another perspective, these hybrid networks“ interfaces enable the global community to manifest its presence locally. “Smart“ screens or buildings“ facades can become local transmitters of globally collected data, like the city“s environmental conditions or the citizens“ mood. Moreover, these interfaces can shelter a wide range of activities, thus they can constantly evolve. For this reason, they should be considered more as frameworks for the emergence of events and interaction in the city, rather than as static objects.

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Connectivity is the lifeblood of cities and urban evolution is intrinsically linked to transport infrastructure. These maps display the multi-modal public transport networks in six case study cities, revealing stark differences in distribution of transport routes with commensurate effects on urban form and accessibility both within cities and to their regional hinterlands. Burdett, Ricky and Rode, Philipp, eds. (2012) The electric city: Urban Age electric city conference London 6-7 December 2012. The London School of Economics and Political Science, Alfred Herrhausen Society, London, UK.


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Mapping Accessibility Access and Human Cognition

23 ACCESS A very reasonable question one could come up with, once realizing the existence and importance of the interfaces of a hybrid civic environment, is why architects should emphasize more on these. The answer to that, as W. Michell describes, is because they are the points that affect“our access to economic opportunities and public services, the character and content of public discourse, the forms of cultural activity, the enaction of power, and the experiences that give shape and texture to our daily routines.“1 It is indisputable that all networks, at their access points, produce advantageous places, attract human activity and favor the emergence of interactions. And this is more likely to happen in public spaces, where the existence of interfaces/access points has profound implications on the distribution of activities. Just as in the past, where vivid public meeting points were created around railway stations, ports of other nodes of transportation networks, in today“s hybrid space, privileged public spaces are created around the points of connection to the digital communication infrastructure. Consequently, architects need to rethink the idea of access, which has always been one of the traditional functions of a city. Older urban strategies that were implied in order to facilitate access to resources and between a city“s inhabitants, such as the increase of city densities or the creation of efficient transportation networks, have to be reconsidered. For certain, not rejected; but re-imagined, taking into consideration the superimposition of information on physical space occurring in contemporary hybrid environments. After all, the distribution of human activities in urban landscapes nowadays is materialized according to access to information.

And we have to always keep in mind the fact that the access points/ interfaces that we are talking about are not at all immaterial, nor ambient, and even less abstract diagrammatic nodes. On the contrary, they are placed within a very definite urban context; they have a local presence in the environment we live in, and ultimately and most importantly, they alter our perception of the city by affecting the formation of our cognitive maps. HYBRID SPACE AND HUMAN COGNITION Indeed, nowadays, we are beginning to know and use cities in new ways. Urban form and human cognition are highly related, as Kevin Lynch described 2 ,and in this hybridized space that we inhabit, certain things have started to change. For example, while in the past the orientation in the city depended on the mental maps a citizen would create, with the aid of physical landmarks, nowadays people rely on electronic extensions and GPS technologies in order to find their way through the city“s streets, most of the times without even realizing the fact that this is an interaction with the hybrid city“s interfaces. And on a level of higher significance, our connection with the hybrid city“s space has become so important for our everyday lives that even our identity becomes defined by that: “I link, therefore I am“3 Thus, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the hybrid civic environment“s interfaces in our lives; because ultimately, the experience of those affects the way we construct ourselves in the world. 1 Mitchell, William J.. City of bits space, place, and the infobahn. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1995. Page 5 2 Ibid. 43 3 Mitchell, William J.. Me++ the cyborg self and the networked city. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003, page 62


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Networks: London Chapter 1

As something that is invisible to the human eye, networks rule the very motion, behaviours and even structures of our everyday lives. Mark Wigley, in his article, The Architectural Brain, wrote that, “The key development in network architecture occurred when network structures were developed in which the force, freedom, and beauty were in the network itself, with the inhabitants occupying the nodes and links themselves1. It is not strange therefore to envision ourselves, like Buckminter Fuller when he positioned himself on the scaffolds of his own MoMA space frame in 1958, as caught in the webs of technology. Nowadays we have begun to measure every aspect of our lives in data; numbers that are uploaded to larger frameworks and passed from node to node across countries. It is these networks, the very points of information around which we build the most important structures of our cities. Transportation, communication, technology, etc, all concentrate in specific physical nodes to allow for a city’s eventual and inevitable evolution. In reference to this research on networks and nodes, on notions of accessibility and mobility, we have begun to explore certain databases of information that break-down this information for a city like London: We Are Data and Census Profiler.

1. Wigley, Mark. "The Architectural Brain." Network Practices: New Strategies in Architecture and Design. Ed. Anthony Burke and Therese Tierney. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2007. 30-53. Print. We are Data. http://wearedata. watchdogs.com/ start.php?locale=enEN&city=london Census Profiler: http://censusprofiler.org/ Fig opposite: We are Data: London 2014


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London Networks London is Europes largest city, with a population of 8 million people. By 2031 it will have 10 million inhabitants. There are 270 stations that form part of London's Tube System. 7,500 Red Buses carry over 6 million passengers each day. 3.5 million passengers make their way across London per day. TFL manages a 580km network of roads in London. The London Tube is the oldest underground railway in the world.

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1. London Statistics: "London Key Facts and Statistics." London Key Facts and Statistics. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. Real-time data charts:

We are Data. http://wearedata. watchdogs.com/ start.php?locale=enEN&city=london Census Profiler: http://censusprofiler.org/

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Chapter 3 Programmable Material


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Programmable Material


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Programmable Material: Between Organicism and Computation Chapter 1

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It is understood that at the basis of material research in architecture there should be an element of formal and programmatic logic inherent in any formation. Deeper structure, a research of materiality based on observing the behaviours of natural phenomena and translating them into coded languages, has emerged in the field to redefine both conceptual and perceptual approaches to myriad urban conditions1. In order to achieve higher levels of architectural performance, materiality has become, in its many forms and gestations, the driving force of innovation. It is in nature that we observe the serial, the notion of simple rules from which we can derive infinitely complex systems and interactions. Serial architecture questions the role of the architect; the generative parameters of any given system have been displaced by sets of digits and coded behaviours. From nature emerges notions of calculability used in order to enhance observation, and as the lens through which we interpret the physical world. Though natural formations and organic material may inspire technique, these are also generative of digital information. Historically the architect has been tempted to find in nature the forms, structural strength, diversity, and even processes, that have no man-made equivalent, with which to transform the built environment2. It is these very variables, organic abstracts which are then deployed across millions of networks and uploaded real-time by the computer. We've managed to merge the reductionist approach of the digital to the singularities of nature3. Life has become a veritable algorithm. We have begun to explore the very dynamics of chemical reactions. Reaction-diffusion systems have allowed us to understand how the most complex of formations are created. The patterns formed from the interaction of A and B are self-organized, self-regulated and self-replicating. A phenomena foreign to architecture until cybernetics, with Alan Turing, began to question the most elemental components of space. We see formations in the field that replicate the very essence of life, built space and cyberspace exist one intersected by the other. Karl Chu, prominent phylosopher and architect, in his Planetary Aautomata explores the very rules under which these systems evolve. Genetic architecture akin to material programmability, rely on an acute understanding of environment, parameters and simple controls in order to acheve unpredictable complexity3. Calculability is bound to probabilities and statistics, though often generates as a result, something most define as ordered chaos. Mterial behaviour is determined by algorithmic calculation..

1. Lorenzo-Eiroa, Pablo. "Form:In:Form. On the Relationship Between Digital Signifiers and Formal Autonomy". Architecture in

Formation. On the Nature of Information In Digital Architecture. Routledge. NY. USA, 2013. P.E01.

2. Picon, Antoine. "Digital Design Between Organic and Computational Temptations".

Architecture in Formation. On the Nature of Information In Digital Architecture. Routledge. NY. USA, 2013. E11.01 3. Karl Chu, “The Unconscious Destiny of Capital (Architecture in Vitro/Machinic in Vivo)�, Neil Leach (ed.), Designing for a Digital World (Chichester: 2002). p.127-33. Hyperzoa according to Karl S. Chu are the eruptions of artificial life that are intelligent andform part of the everyday fabric of reality. 4. Opposite: Francois Roche and Marc Fornes


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1. Najle, Ciro. "Interview: 32

Ciro Najle." Architecture in Formation: On the Nature of Information in Digital Architecture. Ed. Pablo Lorenzo-Eiroa and Aaron Sprecher. London: Taylor & Francis, 2013. 238-45. Print. Images: Frei Otto and Maeda Workshop: Hensel, Michael, Achim Menges, and Michael Weinstock. "Frei Otto: In Conversatin with the Emergence and Design Group." Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies. Chichester: WileyAcademy, 2004. 18-25. Print.

Programmable Material: Frei Otto and Ciro Najle Material intelligence is pursued, explored and ultimately achieved, in the works of Frei Otto, especially as they pertain to space frames and lattice formations. It is in this work that the architectural network is showcased. Nodes exist between physical links, connecting actual formation to scientific data. Materiality is source of life and form. Understanding architecture in terms of material behavior is a manner with which evolutionary parameters, the very rules that govern natural formations and phenomena, are allowed to change and merge with the discipline. It is architecture of autonomous and intelligent design, self-regulation, and self-determination. Frei Otto’s work bases itself on the very forces and environments it exists in, in order to achieve its best configuration and ultimate balance. It is architecture of opportunity, dealing with the most essential components and letting go of anything extraneous to its logic. Material behavior is, and will continue to be, an endlessly fruitful exploration in architectural research. Ciro Najle eloquently states: "The role of the architect increasingly appears as one of configuring material mediums capable to receive, hold, and move across determinations, understanding them as gradients of interaction within material compounds as they absorb demands, requirements and limits. The work becomes similar to that of a computer programmer, but only similar, as it now develops models of interaction with feedback loops, only in view to rigorously lose control, rather than gaining it (or simultaneously as gaining it)"1.


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Frei Otto and Maeda Workshop. Lattice Experiments.

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Frei Otto and Maeda Workshop. Lattice Experiments.

Frei Otto and Maeda Workshop. Lattice Experiments.


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Programmable Material

1. Roche, Francois. "An Architecture Des Humeurs." Architecture in Formation: On the Nature of Information in Digital Architecture. Ed. Pablo Lorenzo-Eiroa and Aaron Sprecher. London: Taylor & Francis, 2013. 310-15. Print. Images Above: Marc Fornes: The Very Many.

Gallery Synesthesie. Invited. Paris 2012 Image Below: Francois Roche.. New Territories. Olzweg. Paris. France.

Programmable Material: Marc Fornes, and Francois Roche R&Sie(n) Architects. A genetic architecture or architecture of evolution? Architects like Francois Roche and Marc Fornes have presented interesting cases to study and observe since they tackle aspects of generative logic, autonomous construction and self-replication. For both of these practitioners, aspects of robotics and mechanical components are not only essential to the language of their architecture, but construct the entire logics of their systems and determine even the most elemental parameters. Architecture for them is morphological, assembled, and self-regulated. For Roche, architecture must, "deal with complex, non-standard geometries through a process of secretion, extrusion, and agglutination, this protocol frees the construction procedure from the usual frameworks that are incompatible with geometries constituted by anomalies and singularities"1.. For Marc Fornes, architecture is rule based; simple elemental parameters that create infinite complexity. Recursion is key to architectural construction. Theoretically both of these practitioners have delved deep into the recesses of evolutionary tectonics, each proposing a new method of work, technology, and practice for a field that is in a constant state of redefinition.


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Marc Fornes: The Very Many. Sous Tension, INRIA. Renne, France. 2012

Marc Fornes: The Very Many. Sous Tension, INRIA. Renne, France. 2012

Marc Fornes: The Very Many. Sous Tension, INRIA. Renne, France. 2012

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Programmable Material: Bioplastic Chapter 1

Bioplastic is an organic material, whose uses are being explored throughout various fields. The tests in this material were conducted to test the properties of such plastics as they pertain to architecture. Bioplastics are used for insulation purposes, though in this case, they were tested for their consistency and resilience. Bioplastic is composed of starches, glycerin, and even other biomass polymers. Depending on their application, these plastics are either degradable or meant for long-term use. In the case of these particular tests, the bioplastics were tested in different concentrations of starch and glycerin in order to produce free standing structures.

Fig. 1 opposite Bioplastic test model. Emergence of Hele-Shaw pattern throughout the various tests.


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Fig. below Diagrams indicating proportions of material. Bioplastic is created from organic substances.

38

Bioplastic was treated like a composite. IT was mixed and prepared under different conditions and by varying its components.. This was done in order to alter the behaviour of the material in regards to its resilience, stretch, consistency, and programmability. The initial tests were made with glycerin. Though successful, they created a material that was entirely see-through, soft and not very flexible. It degenerated quickly once moss life began to grow over it. The following tests instead were tested with differenign concentrations of potato startch and glycerin. Test B is a neutral test, consisting of a 1:4:1:1 ratio. Test A: -1 tbs -4 tbs -2 tsp -1 tsp

of of of of

potato starch water glycerine vinegar

Test B: -1 tbs -4 tbs -1 tsp -1 tsp

of of of of

potato starch water glycerine vinegar

Test C: -2 tbs -4 tbs -1 tsp -1 tsp

of of of of

potato starch water glycerine vinegar

Flex

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Setting Time: 6 hrs Cook Time: 10min

Flex

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Setting Time: 4.5 hrs Cook Time: 10-12min


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Bioplastic Process

39 1min

2min

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15min Fig. above Bioplastic curation.


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Fig. A

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Fig. 1 Single point deposition.

Fig. B

Fig. C


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PROCESS: SQUARE PLATES

Fig. A, B, C 1. The process begins by laying out two sheets of perspex one over the Tests refered to in the text and whose process diagrams other with a dollop of the mixture of bioplastic between them and pressed are demonstrated below. to extend the mass. The material will stretch to cover the surface of the sheets. This is done while the material is warm and malleable. 2. As the material is being pressed and left to adhere to the surface for approximately 20-30seconds, the bolts to the screws are attached at the bottom to stop the movement of the bottom plate when it is pulled down.

41

3. The bottom plate is allowed to be both pulled by force and gravity away from the top plate. This will stretch the material and create the series of tower-like formations we were interested in. The consistency of the material impacted severely how much the material would adhere to the surface of the plates, a thicker concentration of starch rendered a stronger form (Test C), while the one with larger concentrations of glycerin (Type A) had a harder time adhering to itself and the plates. It did not have a good consistency of viscosity.

>

>

>

Fig. A

Fig. B

Fig. C

One pressure point Concentration Glycerin

One pressure point Concentration Neutral

One pressure point Concentration Starch


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Fig. 1 Two Point deposition

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Fig. 2 Two line deposition


Programmable Material

PROCESS: RECTANGULAR PLATES 1. The process for these longer plates is similar to the aforementioned square plates. In the case of the rectangular plates, different patterns and organizations were used to place the material on the bottom plates. Patterns such as: lines, crosses, diagonals, points, hatches, etc.. were all laid out to test the merging of material, interactions between specific areas on plates and the overall formations once these were pulled one from the other.

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Fig. opposite Two experiments with rectangular plates, both are two separate patterns of layouts.

43

2. The various placements were also informative in regards to quantity of material placed per sheet and the speed at which these were pulled one from the other. Density and Acceleration are factors that affect bioplastic materials when pulled.

>

Fig. 1

>

Fig. 2

>

Fig. 3

>

Fig. 4

One pressure point

Two pressure points

Two line pressure points

Three line pressure points


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Fig. 008 Two line and point depositions

Fig. A

Fig. B

Fig. C

Fig. D

Fig. E

Fig. F

Fig. 009 Single point depositions


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ANALYSIS

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Fig. opposite

Though the bioplastic initially gave interesting results, its preliminary concentrations would manifest other behaviours once dry. The bioplstic would shrink and break at specific points, making the overall final formation hard to determine beforehand and in its final form.

Diverse iterations of material changes as the formations set and the material transforms in place. Time 1: Upon pressure

Tying them one to the other also proved unpredictable. Thought the Time 2: 1 day later material could be pushed from platform to platform in order to connect Time 3: 3 days later one pieve with the other, eventually one wouldn't allow for structural reliability in its present form. A study of composite materials to add to bioplastic would serve to strengthen and shape once more the behaviour of the materiall. The various combinations of diagrams below showcase the change over time of the material as its sets. The shinkage is very apparent where the break-down occurs.

Fig. A

>

One pressure point

>

Fig. B

>

One pressure point

>

>

Fig. C

>

>

One pressure point

Fig. D

>

One pressure point

Fig. E

> Time 1

One pressure point

> Time 2

Time 3

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Studio Brief


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Programmable Material: Pulled Wax Experiments Chapter 1

47

In our experiments we are using paraffin and glass wax. Glass wax is reminiscent of glass. It is used to create various artefacts since it only melts at more than 150 degrees. As a relatively durable material, it was the subsequent step for the experiments. In many ways it proved a successful material under which to test the phenomena of hele-shaw patterns and the vertical translation of such formations. Amber Rosin was added to change the flexibility, ductility, malleability and interaction of glasswax with its environment. Amber rosin allowed the material to overcome many of the shortcomings of the glass wax during its forming. Amber rosin made the wax much more flexible when exposed to air. The behaviour of the material was meant to elucidate a next step in formation of both structure and architecture. A component that could in its logic engender an autonomous system built with the capabilities of robotic arms. In the case of glasswax, though the material was far more controllable than bioplastic in regards to the hele-shaw formations, it still did not fully present a scenario where scalability would be possible. Glasswax in many regards does not equate a known building material. Paraffin wax and Glass wax.


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Studio Brief


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Programmable Material: Pulled Wax Experiments


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The production process includes the following states - Heating of the wax. Pass form solid to liquid state. - Deposition of the wax in the plate - Compression forces We compress the deposed material using the tow plates. - Separation forces We separate the two plates. The angle of the applied force, the plane normal is 0 degrees in all the experiments. - Hardening procedure We stabilize the system allowing to act only gravitational forces in our system. The system requires almost 5 minutes to fully harden. In this experiments some of the variables related to the resulting formation are an understanding to the design rules: - The number of repetition of the compression- separation step - The amount of the wax - The wax' s state How much liquid is it - Scale of the plane - Distance between the planes - The speed / time of the process - The number, the strength and the relational position of the points in which the pulling forces are applied.

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Flex

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Cook Time: 20min Setting Time: 5min


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Programmable Material

sides speed

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55 height area h area h/2 quantity branch level

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FIG. 1

FIG. 2

FIG. 3


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57 height area h area h/2 quantity branch level

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FIG. 6


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59 height area h area h/2 quantity branch level

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FIG. 8

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height area h area h/2 quantity branch level

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FIG. 13

FIG. 12


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FIG. 11

FIG. 10


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14.5 cm

The relatively low tensile strength of the glass wax not allow us for bigger pulling distance. The experiment fails.

height area h area h/2 quantity branch level

FIG. 14


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height area h area h/2 quantity branch level

height area h area h/2 quantity branch level

FIG. 15

FIG. 16

First attempt for material reinforcment. Use of carbon fiber wiith wax.


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65

Programmable Material: Latex and Thread Chapter 1

Frei Otto is one of the most prolific architects to have used biological models not only to understand material behaviour, but also to direct its application towards issues of structure and formation. Self-generative architecture, an architecture of simple rules that achieves incredible complexity, are the beginning premises of some of the tests conducted with latex, abs and nylond plastics. These models begin exploring the behaviour of lattice formations and the structures in tension. Form finding is a result of forces, material phase change and eventually networking of such systems.

Fig. opposite Latex lattice model. String formations were tested in tension and submerged in diverse fluids to create form.


CHAPTER 003

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PROCESS: LATEX + THREAD FORMATIONS

Fig. 000 opposite Process of dipping the thread into latex liquid several times, allowed to set for 10-15 minutes and dipped once more.

1. The initial tests were conducted on short frames with increasing amounts of strings to test the thread's ability to self-structure as it interacted with the materials. Initially the threads were placed in a tense configuration, that allowed the liquid material to surface it, but not change its configuration. 2. The second trial consisted of loose threads dipped into liquid material, allowed to reconfigure and self-assemble at will. These kinds of behaviours altered the configuration by allowing the threads to determine the pathways of most efficient configuration.

66

3. FInally the third latex trial was tested on a frame, where the wires were pulled and reconfigured as they were submerged in the latex liquid. In many respects, this proved that as the gravity pulled the material down allong the thread, various surfaces were branched between the threads, creating a lattice held together by membranes, latex though soft and flexible still managed to reinforce the structure.

Flex

Flex

40%

Dipping time: 20mins Repetitions: 6-8 covers

40%

Setting Time: 8hrs


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Latex Process and Thread Forms

67 F: 0

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F: 56 Fig. above Latex Process


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Latex Process and Thread Forms

68 F: 0

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Fig. above Latex Process


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Latex Process and Thread Forms

69 F: 0

F: 4

F: 8

F: 12

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F: 56 Fig. above Latex Process


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Fig. B

Fig. A

Fig. C

Flex Surf

Flex Surf

Flex Surf

Height: 30cm Width: 15cm

Height: 30cm Width: 15cm

Height: 30cm Width: 15cm


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Fig. B

Fig. A

Fig. C

Flex Surf

Flex Surf

Flex Surf

Height: 30cm Width: 15cm

Height: 30cm Width: 15cm

Height: 30cm Width: 15cm


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Latex Process and Thread Forms

72

Fig. 000 Latex thread process and models


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Tensile tectonics allowed us to create complex cross-section structures, whose resolution was a direct result of the internal cohesive forces Fig. opposite interacting with the external pulling forces applied to the system and Latex Process material. The process began to explore notions of self-organized materiality with the potential for its own self-regulation and structure. Material distribution is controlled at a macroscale (it may be predicted according to a bounding geometry) while in the microscale the nature of the behavior can be phenomenally random. We’ve approached this randomness by investigating quantitative data such as the time of the process, the phaseFig. below change of the material (liquid to solid), etc.

73

Latex Process

Flex Curve Height: 5cm

Flex Curve Height: 12cm

Flex Curve Height: 15cm

Flex Curve Height: 20cm

Flex Curve

Flex Curve

Flex Curve

Flex Curve

Flex Curve

Flex Curve

Strings: 4

Strings: 5

Strings: 7

Strings: 8

Strings: 9

Strings: 7


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Programmable Material: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Reinforced with Thread Chapter 1

77

In this part we use acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, commonly known as ABS, reinforced with thread. In direct relationship with reinforced concrete, this technique combines both, the advantages of the compressive strength of the ABS, and the tensile strength of the thread. The final result is a composite material in which ABS’s relatively low tensile strength (42.5 44.8 MPa) is counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement with cotton thread which has relatively higher tensile strength (1025- 1087 MPa).

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a terpolymer made by polymerizing styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene.

The thread is embedded passively in the abs before the ABS sets using the method of the dynamic relaxation. In this process all the forces applied to the produced geometry are in an equilibrium state under the influence of the loads. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the material that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and schematic of the microstructure of cotton fiber


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Programmable Material

>

>

+

81

>

The reinforcement of the ABS with thread allows us a higher level of control of the final formation in macro and micro scale. The cross section formation is related to: - The amount of the abs - The density of the threads Which is related to the plate dimension, the subdivisions of the plane, and the amount of threads on each node of the subdivided grid - The ABS’s state How much liquid is it. We can define this state by using the formula (quantity of solid abs)/(quantity of acetone). However because is difficult to measure those quantities we estimate the state according to time passed from the mixed process - Scale of the plane - Distance between the planes Which is related to the initial setup process - The number of repetition of the compression- separation step

>

The experiment process includes the following steps: - Mix ABS with acetone From solid to liquid state. Mix ratio ½ - Preparing the framework By using 2 plates and thread. Our framework is composed by plates having a grid of holes from which are passing the thread scaffolding. We investigate the results produced by simple frameworks in which the thread lines between the interacting planes are placed in parallel relationship. - Material deposition - Compression forces We compress the deposed material using the tow plates. - Separation forces We separate the two plates. The maximum distance is related to the initial setup. The angle of the applied force, the plane normal, and the thread can differ according to the experiments - Repeat the compression and separation state. This step results the better material distribution because of the adhesion forces between the thread and the liquid ABS. - Hardening procedure We stabilize the system allowing to act only gravitational forces in our system. The system requires almost 3 hours to fully harden.

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19.0 cm

82


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Initial condition: -V thread arrangement -Dimension: 29x19 cm -Holes: 30x2

83

The process of the dynamic relaxation is failed due to the stable anchor points of the structure.


84

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11.5 cm

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85

height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

FIG. 1

Circular framework. Low thread density experiments. Threads only in the perimeter.

height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

FIG. 2


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7.5 cm

8.0 cm

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86

height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

FIG. 3

FIG. 4


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Programmable Material

In this experiment apart from thread we also use fiberglass for the reinforcement.

height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

FIG. 5

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18.3 cm

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height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

FIG. 7


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22.5 cm

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91

Lattice formation and branching system as a result of the accumulation of material in specific areas

height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

FIG. 8


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21.5 cm

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93

In this experiment the thread density is relatively low, and the deposed material is enough liquid. As a result the resulting lattices are bigger in scale in comparison with the previous experiments. We evaluate the resulting geometry and we depose more material in the weak areas.

height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

FIG. 9


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height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

FIG. 7

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height area h area h/2 quantity thread density

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Growth Systems


Growth Systems

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99

Chapter 4 Growth Systems


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Growth Systems


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Growth Systems: Evolution Strategies, Decision Making and Deployment Chapter 2

101

Complexity is built simplicity. specifically, built on simple It is understood that on at the basis ofMore material researchitinisarchitecture there computational parameters that alter most elemental of should be an element of formal and the programmatic logic components inherent in any any system, be it biological mechanical. Advances based in fieldsonextraneous formation. Deeper structure, or a research of materiality observing to as phenomena mathematics,and biology, technology, computer the architecture, behaviours ofsuch natural translating them into coded engineering, and emerged even neuro have brought into and the languages, has in science the fieldand to medicine, redefine both conceptual 1 discipline discourse ontoevolution. Growthconditions architecture an architecture perceptuala approaches myriad urban . In is order to achieve based the ofvery tectonics of life. Myriad materiality iterations bring forth the in most higher on levels architectural performance, has become, its optimal solutions any giventheurban, structural, even design research many forms and togestations, driving force oforinnovation. that is conducted. Complex feedback loops, run the systems over and over, to accomplix connection overlap. It is inallnature that we interaction, observe the serial, theand notion of simple rules from which we can derive infinitely complex systems and interactions. Serial We understand growththesystems as architect; "relational the dynamics within network architecture questions role of the generative parameters morphologies". There have are been intricate relationships notions of of any given system displaced by sets between of digits and coded organization, structure andemerges funtion in notions scientific,of mathematical, computational behaviours. From nature calculability used in order fields, that bisect the very and foundation of architectural to enhance observation, as the theories lens through which wepractice. interpretThey the splice and stretch the bases which design is based, and leave their physical world. Though naturalon formations and organic material may in inspire wake endless possibility and generative opportunity. of digital information. Historically technique, these are also the architect has been tempted to find in nature the forms, structural Growth reminiscent of their natural systems, they strength, systems diversity, are and non-linear, even processes, that have no man-made equivalent, 2 are numerical the databuilt thatenvironment is recursive. have begun to see with based which on to transform . ItWe is these very variables, networksabstracts emerge which from this Thus, across as urban networks widden organic arecomplexity. then deployed millions of networks due to cyberspace, so dobythey similar evolution and uploaded real-time the accomplish computer. We've managedattoa microscale merge the in new architectural In the to words of Andrew Wuenshe: reductionist approachpractice. of the digital the singularities of nature3. Life has become a veritable algorithm. "Some of the outstanding questions in genetics, evolution, and development, including of modularity, will involve unrabeling and comprehending Laplace >notions Mentioned here. networks of interacting elements.. Feedback makes the one-way signaling paradigm inadequate; it has been superseded by a dynamical network -architecture is a life form 1 approach" . -Mention Karl Chu planetary automata

1. Tierney, Therese.. "Biological Networks: On Neurons, Cellular Automata, and Relational Architectures." Network Practices: New Strategies in Architecture and Design. Ed. Anthony Burke and Therese Tierney. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2007. 78-99. Print.

1. Lorenzo-Eiroa, Pablo. "Form:In:Form. On the Relationship Between Digital Signifiers and Formal Autonomy". Architecture in

Formation. On the Nature of Information In Digital Architecture. Routledge. NY. USA, 2013. P.E01.

-laplace > issues of calculability and determinism bounded together with issues of chance and probability.

2. Picon, Antoine. "Digital Design Between Organic and Computational Temptations".

Material behaviour intends to be grown via algorithmic calculation and allowed thus to evolve, self-structure and self-inform.

Architecture in Formation. On the Nature of Information In Digital Architecture. Routledge. NY. USA, 2013. E11.01


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“The new image of man looks roughly like this: we have to imagine a network of interhuman relations, a ‘field of intersubjective relations’. The strands of this web must be conceived as channels through which information (ideas, feelings, intentions and knowledge etc.) flows. These strands get temporarily knotted and form what what we call ‘human subjects’. The totality of the threads constitutes the concrete sphere of life and the knots are abstract exterrapolations... ....The greater the density, the more ‘concrete’ the relations. These dense points form wave troughs in the field... These wave troughs shall be called ‘cities’.” 1 1 Sikiaridi, Elizabeth and Vogelaar, Frans, “Idensity” in Cognitive architecture: from bio-politics to noo-politics ; architecture & mind in the age of communication and information, ed. Hauptmann Deborah, Rotterdam: 010 Publishers 2010, page 526

We are interested in investigating web structural formations as they present superior performance and strength, while at the same time they respond to stress in a nonlinear way resisting successfully any external force applied. For this reason, we are focusing on spider web networks and through analysis of those we are extracting structural principles that we then use for our material experiments and feedback. Fig. 000 Trees encased in spider webs after floods in Pakistan Photograph courtesy Russell Watkins, U.K. Department for International Development http://news. nationalgeographic. com/news/2011/03/ pictures/110331-pakistanflood-spider-trees-webs/ Fig. 000 Spider webs hierarchical structures https://www.pinterest. com/shanlanhan/web/


Growth Systems

CHAPTER 004

Thicker members utilized as primary support Apparent curvature is actually consisting of straight members pulling upon one another Large openings are still capable of being created even within the center of dense thinner members

Structure ties back in various directions to provide greater overall stability upon all axis of movement 103

Hierarchy of structures Density differentiation Structure vs. Surface An essential parameter in our investigation on spider webs is the hierarchy of structures. The high rigidity and resistance to external forces is owed to the hierarchical deployment of the system. Another advantage of this structural logic is the possibility for density variation. Larger voids can exist in the middle of the structure without affecting the overall rigidity.


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104

NUMEN / FOR USE We are interested in these projects of Numen/ For Use as references for our experiments as they present successful surface-network formations that exceed the artistic value and create architectural entities with intrinsic spatial qualities. The strength of this massive “spider web“ is based on the fact that adhesive tape is the only material used in its creation. Adhesive tapes have a pressure sensitive material coated on a plastic film. When such tapes are laid layer upon layer, the weight bearing capacity increases massively. One dimensional line evolves into surface that forms organic shape of extraordinary strength. The entrance of the audience inside the volume transforms the sculpture into architecture. 1 1 http://www.geekosystem.com/tape-spider-web/

Fig. 000 Tape Vienna - Odeon Numen / For Use http://www.numen.eu/ installations/tape/viennaodeon/

Fig. 000 Tape Melbourne Numen / For Use http://www.numen.eu/ installations/tape/melbourne/

Fig. 000

Fig. 000

Tape Orebro Numen / For Use http://www.numen.eu/ installations/tape/oerebro/

Tape Tokyo Numen / For Use http://www.numen.eu/ installations/tape/tokyo/


Growth Systems

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Fig. 000 Tape Tokyo Numen / For Use http://www.numen.eu/ installations/tape/tokyo/

Fig. 000 Tape Stockholm Numen / For Use http://www.numen.eu/ installations/tape/stockholm/

Fig. 000 Tape Melbourne Numen / For Use http://www.numen.eu/ installations/tape/melbourne/

GROWTH SYSTEMS PRECEDENTS

105


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106 DIFFUSION LIMITED AGGREGATION

LAPLACIAN GROWTH

THE PHENOMENON DESCRIPTION

THE PHENOMENON DESCRIPTION

Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) is the process whereby particles undergoing a random walk due to Brownian motion cluster together to form aggregates of such particles. This theory, proposed by T.A. Witten Jr. and L.M. Sander in 1981, 1 is applicable to aggregation in any system where diffusion is the primary means of transport in the system. DLA can be observed in many systems such as electrodeposition, Hele-Shaw flow, mineral deposits, and dielectric breakdown.

Laplacian instability occurs when a smooth interface evolving under a Laplacian field develops rapidly growing spikes and branches. Many fields are Laplacian, including the steadystate heat equation, electric potential, and an incompressible fluid pressure field. The instability has been connected to many disparate phenomena, such as dendrites on snowflakes, forks on lightning, quasi-steady-state fracture, lobes onlichen, coral, riverbeds, vasculature, and urban sprawl patterns. 2

1 DLA is a simple computer simulation of the formation of clusters by particles diffusing through a medium that jostles the particles as they move. T. Witten, L. Sandler 1981

2 Theodore Kim, Jason Sewall, Avneesh Sud and Ming C. Lin, Fast Simulation of Laplacian Growth, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA,

MACROSCALE GROWTH We are interested in the Diffusion Limited Aggregation growth system in terms of a macroscale deployment of our network structure. Firstly, the DLA growth system acts in a diffusion logic, which characterizes our overall investigations. Also, it offers the possibility of acquiring several levels of control, specifically concerning the direction of the growth, through the specification of the position of the seeds of the growth. Nevertheless, this extension also relies on other parameters, which result in unexpected, interesting geometrical and structural formations. In general, the DLA growth logic is chosen for the simulation of the networks growth in an urban level, where several input parameters and obstacles will exist, but the deployment of the system will have to occur through processing feedback from the urban environment.

MICROSCALE GROWTH We are interested in the Laplacian growth system in terms of a microscale organisation of our network structure. More specifically, we are including the logic of the Laplacian growth in most of our digital simulation studies, either these concern surface formations or the description of the feedback loop of the system. An essential element of this logic is the reconfiguration of the system's boundaries according to external forces and environmental conditions. A use of the latter in our system's microscale growth is being done in the case of surface formation through the consideration of the external pressure conditions (Hele Shaw simulation-feedback from external constraints), as well as in the case of the feedback loop through heating the network locally, where the heat diffusion informs the system and leads to decision-making.


Growth Systems

CHAPTER 001

MACROSCALE initial input seed

structure growth

evaluation/ feedback

seeds 107 FEEDBACK INPUT: existing structure FEEDBACK OUTPUT: new seed position ACTION: extension of the network LEVEL OF CONTROL: high - explicit

MICROSCALE initial input constraints

boundary

growth

evaluation/ feedback

pressure points

FEEDBACK INPUT: environmental conditions / constraints / topology optimization FEEDBACK OUTPUT: reconfiguration ACTION: capturing of the phase change LEVEL OF CONTROL: medium - implicit

SYSTEM'S GROWTH CONCEPT


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109 Controlled injection of viscous fluid between plates

Hele Shaw fingering

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE HELE SHAW

PSEUDOCODE

A thin film of viscous liquid sits between two glass plates. As the plates are forced apart, air gets entrained from either side, causing finger-like instabilities to form between the two fluids. This is a result of the Saffman-Taylor mechanism. The final dendritic pattern depends on the fluid viscosities, surface tension, and any non-uniformities in the apparatus. 1

Initial Setup: //1. Apply pressure p at the center ; //2. Apply pressure = 0 at the periphery ; //3. Get the initial pressure distribution with the Laplace equation; //4. Add pressure at each cell TotalPr = F lifting force; //5. Find initial velocity vel at each cell using Darcy's law;

The LHSC is a modifed version of the normal HS cell, where the less viscous fluid enters from the sides, as the plates are drawn apart. The more viscous fluid, sandwiched between the two plates, forms fingering patterns at the interface, under proper conditions. 2 In the normal Hele-Shaw cell, usually the invading fluid is air which is assumed to be non-viscous. The pressure distribution in the displaced fluid is obtained as a solution of Laplace“s equation.

Update: //1. Update outer periphery boundary with velocity from Darcy's equation; //2. Check if boundary has reached a limit radius (if yes=stop updating) //3. Solve Poisson equation for P(x,y) taking into account the new area -- If TotalPr = F continue, else increase p; //4. Get new velocities with Darcy's law;

SIMULATION OF THE PHENOMENON For the digital simulation of the Hele Shaw phenomenon, custom made code is used for the formation of diverse patterns. The algorithm is based on the physical principles and laws that create the real patterns in the physical world, thus, the highest possible accuracy is attempted to be achieved.

1 http://fuckyeahfluiddynamics.tumblr.com/post/39660954162/ in-this-video-a-thin-film-of-viscous-glycerin 2 SUJATA TARAFDAR, SOMA NAG, TAPATI DUTTA and SUPARNA SINHA, Computer simulation of viscous fingering in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell with grooved plates, Pramana journal of Physics, Indian Academy of Sciences, October 2009, pp. 743-754

The resultant formations are further processed, firstly by creating a simplyfied vector map, and then by transforming the latter into a triangulated density map. This aims to the visualisation and better understanding of the final pattern configuration accordng to the parameters given and the encoding.

HELE SHAW SIMULATION


VECTOR DIAGRAM

FINAL CONFIGURATION

INITIAL CONDITION

110

DENSITY MAP

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Growth Systems

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111


VECTOR DIAGRAM

FINAL CONFIGURATION

INITIAL CONDITION

112

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Growth Systems

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113


VECTOR DIAGRAM

FINAL CONFIGURATION

INITIAL CONDITION

114

DENSITY MAP

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Growth Systems

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115


VECTOR DIAGRAM

FINAL CONFIGURATION

INITIAL CONDITION

116

DENSITY MAP

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119 Simulation of second seed

Simulation of third seed

GROWTH SIMULATION

PSEUDOCODE

For the digital simulation of the macroscale growth of the network, custom made code is used for the formation of diverse patterns.

Input: seeds

Through the alteration of certain parameters, different resultant configurations are achieved, varying in terms of extension, density, lattice formation and volume. The control of the overall deployment is gained through various iteration studies, where the seeds for the extension are considered as static, while the forces applied are changed in every case.

Control parameters: Adhesion Force Evolution rules: Divide the branch in the middle Create new branch Grow new branch towrds the furthest developing seed

The diversity of these iterations is due to the fact that a wider understanding of the solution space is pursued. The ultimate goal of this investigation is to discover parameter combinations that lead to the formation of rigid skeletons and of structurally stable networks.

DIFFUSION LIMITED AGGREGATION SIMULATION


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Growth Systems

Fig. 000 Example of difusion limited aggregation study. Deployment of the network according to specific rules.

120


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121

Simple rules in order to deploy the system. Rule 001: Divide in the middle and go towards the furthest developing seed.

SEED DEPLOYMENT Networks


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Fig. 000 122

DLA study Final formation High spread

Fig. 000 DLA study Final formation Medium spread

Fig. 000 DLA study Final formation Low spread


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Fig. 000 Evolution process Frame 25 Frame 100 Frame 200

Fig. 000 Evolution process Frame 25 Frame 100 Frame 200

Fig. 000 Evolution process Frame 25 Frame 100 Frame 200

DLA SIMULATION Network Evolution Greater control over a growth system can be determined by a reaction whose parameters directly influence the direction and flow of matter. In the case of this particular reaction, it is a growth equation, argueing the expansion of network rather than matter.

123


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Fig. 000 124

DLA study Final formation High spread

Fig. 000 DLA study Final formation Low spread

Fig. 000 DLA study Final formation High spread


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Fig. 000 Evolution process Frame 25 Frame 100 Frame 200

Fig. 000 Evolution process Frame 25 Frame 100 Frame 200

Fig. 000 Evolution process Frame 25 Frame 100 Frame 200

DLA SIMULATION Material and Network Evolution Parameters: static and pre-determined seed point, aggregation of components hampered by diverse applications of adhesive forces, overall distribution force maintained equal and proportional throughout.

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Lattice

Lattice

Seed: static Adhesion: 2 Force: 1

Seed: static Adhesion: 3 Force: 1

Lattice

Lattice

Seed: static Adhesion: 4 Force: 1

Seed: static Adhesion: 5 Force: 1

Lattice

Lattice

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.6 Force: 1

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.5 Force: 1

Lattice

Lattice

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.4 Force: 1

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.3 Force: 1

126


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Lattice

Lattice

Seed: static Adhesion: 2 Force: 1

Seed: static Adhesion: 3 Force: 1

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Lattice

Lattice

Seed: static Adhesion: 4 Force: 1

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.6 Force: 1

Lattice

Lattice

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.5 Force: 1

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.4 Force: 1

Lattice

Lattice

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.3 Force: 1

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.2 Force: 1

Network iterations


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Lattice 128

Seed: static Adhesion: 0.6 Force: 2

Lattice Seed: static Adhesion: 0.5 Force: 3

Lattice Seed: static Adhesion: 0.4 Force: 4


Growth Systems

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Lattice Seed: static Adhesion: 2 Force: 5

Lattice Seed: static Adhesion: 2 Force: 6

Lattice Seed: static Adhesion: 2 Force: 4

3D GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION FORCE The formations are not only generated in plan, they are a sectional, 3dimensional condition. The distribution of the network is compromised by addition of force to the seed point. Breaking apart of the branching into close yet separate components.

129


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Feedback +++


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131

Chapter 5 Feedback +++


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Feedback +++


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Feedback Setting the thresholds and the framework for growth Chapter 2

133

An essential parameter taken into consideration throughout all our material experiments and simulation studies is the idea of feedback which is produced throughout the digital fabrication process. In contrast to the pursuit of explicit control, in our studies the final form is generated mainly through material testing,, while at the same time digital simulations of the latter inform the overall process. Thus feedback is not limited to the generation of several iterative digital models. and does not concern only the optimization of the digital representation of the designed object, through simulations in a digital environment. On the contrary, in our case, in a pursuit of implicit control, where the fabrication process is not linear and does not coincide with the “file-tofactory“ logic, the feedback loops affect directly the design decisions taken and the way the digital objects are represented. But why should feedback be considered to be so important? Mostly because in a feedback-based design approach, the system has the ability to observe and contrast the digital model with the physical product and thus, it is able to constantly regulate its actions. The current state of the system drives the next action, creating a highly informed environment. After all, only through feedback can the limitations and opportunities of these new digital fabrication technologies be evaluated and understood.

“"The final product emerges out of the interaction between fabrication devices, material behavior and environment." 1 1 Male-Alemany, Marta, Van Ameijde Jeroen and Vina Victor, “(FAB)bots customized robotic devices for design and fabrication“ in Fabricate: making digital architecture. ed. Sheil, Bob, Toronto: Riverside Architectural Press, 2011, page 43


CHAPTER 005

Feedback +++

In our current material experiments of thread and ABS, the concept of feedback concerns the structural reinforcement of the system and the attempt to produce rigid skeletons.

134

In a more precise description, after the streching and pulling apart of the two plates, the ABS gets distributed throughout the thread network, and as it solidifies, it creates structural vertical elements of different density and thickness. In a second stage, these diversifications are being observed and evaluated, and the skeleton is being reinforced where needed. In this way, the structural stability of the final formation is constantly altered, untill an optimized result is obtained. The third stage of the feedback process concerns the further reinforcement of the structure through surface formation. Big voids are being filled and independent vertical elements are being joined,, resulting in formations with high levels of rigidity.

Fig. 000 Model Detail Thread and ABS Lattice formation

Fig. 000 Diagrams of the feedback process Rules of the feedback loop

Fig. 000 Model after feedback process Reinforced vertical structure Surface formation


Feedback +++

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metal wires

136

nylon filament

In our further experiments, we will use nylon fibres, which in combination with a structural system, either soft-thread or hard-metal wires, will create 3dimensional structural networks that will then be heated with a gun and result in intrinsic skeleton formations. The basic concept is to make use of the heat diffusion phenomenon and take advantage of the phase changing of the materials so as to create feedback loops. In order for the system to be able to recognize these changes, observe the materially weak or strong areas and have a corresponding response, a thermal camera will be used. In this way, after every iteration, a thermal image will be sent to the computer, analyzed through algorithms with varying rules, and lead to the decision-making of the robot.

normal thread

white spiral cable wrap

Fig. 000 Setup of the experiment Materials needed for the soft and hard version

Fig. 000

piano wires

Diagrams for the description of the process Heating of the system Creation of the feedback loop


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Version 1 // soft system

Version 2 // hard system

A thick branch of nylon tube and soft thread is created and tensioned into position. The robot heats the nylon tube in order to make the nylon malleable, melting it to certain extents. Once the material has been heated, it is reconfigurable. The overall system is quickly analyzed with thermal imaging for points on the structure that exist within a predefined heat limit. Red is equated to higher concentration of heat (higher malleability), whereas blue is equated to lower concentrations of heat (lower malleability). Check for topology optimization is realized in order to heat the subsequent area of nylon. The order given to the robot is to heat the nylon and thread following different rules and to repeat the process.

A branch of nylon tube coated metal wire is set into position in tension at a seed point (initial point); however the wire“s ends are attached to different and separate plates that initially (step 1) are placed side-by side. The robot operates a heat gun, and begins heating the nylon tube in order to make the nylon malleable, melting it to certain extents. Once the material has been heated, it is reconfigurable. The overall system is quickly analyzed with thermal imaging for points on the structure that exist within a predefined heat limit. Red is equated to higher concentration of heat (higher malleability), whereas blue is equated to lower concentrations of heat (lower malleability). One of the plates is released, allowing the wire to spring back into its preferred formation (pretension). Or move the wire by hand to the next seed point. The nylon cools at a relatively quick rate, though it depends on the application of heat. The more heat applied for longer periods can liquefy the material. Check for topology optimization is applied and the next set of wires gets added while nylon is malleable. Nylon tube will melt together and extend the branch. The order given to the robot is to heat the subsequent area of nylon and wire and to repeat the process.

FEEDBACK PROCESS Soft / Hard System


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2. photo image result of heating process

138

1. heating robot pattern deformation

FEEDBACK PSEUDOCODE VERSION 1 // SOFT SYSTEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

. thread structure with nylon tube . heat . take thermal photo “ . process image: read RGB values for each point of the grid . map RGB values and check if they are within predefined limits . read red color as high density areas and blue as low density areas . check for topology optimization . heat next area according to the path created


Feedback +++

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3. C++/grasshopper analysis image sampler component identify deformation

139

4. extension of the pattern feedback process add extension

Fig. 000 Material study Feedback process The heat diffusion melts the nylon cable wrap and structural sceleton is created

VERSION 2 // HARD SYSTEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

. piano wire structure with nylon tube . heat . release part of the piano wires . take photo or scan and process the point cloud . check the configuration after the phase change of the nylon . check for topology optimization . add next set of wires - extend . heat and split again

Img 1. Geometric arrangement of Wires. Img 2. The path of the heat gun is determined by means of robotic movement. Img 3. Plastic and Nylon components will change and melt when the heat is applied. Configuration shifts due to material behaviour. Img 4. Movement of wires will allow molten plastic to stretch and form latices via its own behaviour. Feedback is based on analysis of material configuration at each stage in order to heat and reconfigure wire.


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Chapter 6 Robots in Architecture


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Introduction: Robots in Architecture Chapter 3.1

143 In the last decade the development of technology has led to the discovery of many new techniques of construction, 3-D printing and Robotic arm fabrication being the most highlighted outcomes. The usage of robotic arms in the industrial sector production in the previous years laid base to this innovative idea of using them in architecture. Thereby creating possibilities of fabricating complex geometries using these arms through the medium of coding and extensive software application . Many firms such as Gramazio & Kohler, Robofold, Bot and Dolly have collaborated with world renowned architectural schools, researchers and leading names in the profession to create outstanding structures and complex installations, using the innovation to the maximum. Therefore highlighting the applicability of these robotic arms as the future of the evolving construction and fabrication industry.

IMAGE 1 - GRAMAZIO & KOHLER NYC

IMAGE 2 - ZHA PAVILION VENICE BEINNALE

Learning from the achievements of the above mentioned structures and their fabrication process, we desire to apply the same in our thesis project of autonomous building robots. Using the material intelligence and the feedback generated as mentioned earlier in the book, exploring the ways in which the robotic arm could be used to fabricate the structure in the Z- axis of the datum is the final goal of this exercise. The experiments conducted in term1 mainly focussed on studying the volume occupation, flexibility of the arm in three axes and the robot arm choreography to understand the path it could traverse accurately between two points along the 60 degrees angle in the X and Y axis using the virtual simulations and the AL5D robotic arm. As the initial material experiments contemplated the weaving of the thread network and extrusion of the ABS plastic material as the robot action, the example of the 2012 Pavillion by Achim Menges was studied and an exercise on material extrusion was also conducted using a fabricated extruding end effector. Further, on realising the complexity attached to the weaving of our desired material using a robotic arm, we concluded that the robotic arm would finally be used for heating the the material using a heat gun as an end effector, which was studied through the Chandelier Prototype by Kruysman and Proto at the Sci-Arc. fabrication lab.

IMAGE 1 "GRAMAZIO & KOHLER: DIGITAL MATERIALITY." WHAT WE DO IS SECRET. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014. <http:// www.whatwedoissecret. org/madebyblog/2009/09/ gramazio-kohler-digitalmateriality/>. IMAGE 2. Urschler, Matthias. Urschler, Matthias. "WHAT | we did summer 2012 , Venice - AA Visiting school , Bangalore 2013." WHAT we did summer 2012 , Venice - WHAT | we did summer 2012 , Venice -N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2014. <http://www. zha-code-education.org/ WHAT-we-did-summer-2012Venice>.


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Precedents : The 2012 Research Pavilion Achim Menges Chapter 3. 2

144 THE RESEARCH PAVILION 2012 The Research Pavilion was built in November 2012 by the Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart led by Achim Mengis. It was completely fabricated by a single 6-axis robotic arm using carbon and glass fibre composites. This interdisciplinary project, conducted by architectural and engineering researchers of both institutes together with biologists of the University of T端bingen, investigated the possible interrelation between biomimetic design strategies and novel processes of robotic production. The research focused on the material and morphological principles of exoskeletons of arthropods as a source of exploration for a new composite construction in architecture.1 The project transferred the fibrous morphology of the biological role model - the exoskeleton of the lobster (Homarus americanus) (which was analysed in greater detail for its local material differentiation) to fibre-reinforced composite materials, the anisotropy of which was integrated from the start into the computer-based design and simulation processes,.

1 - "achimmenges.net - Achim Menges Design Research Architecture Product Design." achimmenges.net - Achim Menges Design Research Architecture Product Design. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. <http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=5561>. 2 - Ibid.

IMAGE 3 - PAVILION FABRICATION

IMAGE 4 - RESEARCH PAVILION 2012

The lobsters exoskeleton (the cuticle) consists of a softer endocuticle, and a relatively harder exocuticle. The specific position and orientation of these fibres and related material properties relate to specific local requirements. In areas where a non directional load transfer is required, the chitin fibres get incorporated into the matrix by forming individual unidirectional layers laminated together in a spiral arrangement forming an isotropic structure which helps in uniform load distribution throughout. And the areas which are subject to directional stress, a unidirectional layer structure is exhibited, forming an anisotropic assembly for dirrect load distribution. Due to this local material differentiation, the shell creates a highly adapted and efficient structure. These principles of locally adapted fibre orientation constituted the base for the computational form generation, material design and manufacturing of the pavilion.2

3 - Ibid

IMAGE 3 - achimmenges. net Achim Menges Design Research Architecture Product Design." achimmenges.net - Achim Menges Design Research Architecture Product Design. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. <http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=5561>. IMAGE 4 - Ibid


Robots in Architecture

IMAGE 5 - ANISOTROPIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

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IMAGE 6 - ISOTROPIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

145 FABRICATION After the thorough research, a fibre composite system of resin saturated glass and carbon fibres was employed in weaving the anchored temporary light steel frame which formed the mold of the pavilion. The 6 -axis robotic arm instead of having to move around to place the fibre was coupled with a digitally controlled turntable which was was rotating the whole pavilion's structure, while the robotic arm was just moving the filaments. The prestressed fibres were tensioned between the anchor points and from the straight segment of these fibres emerged the double curved shape of the pavilion. In this way the hyperbolic paraboloid surfaces resulting from the first sequence of glass fibre winding served as an integral mould for the subsequent carbon and glass fibre layers with their specific structural purposes and load bearing properties. The glass fibres were mainly used for spatial partitioning and the carbon fibres contributed primarily for the load transfer and the global stiffnes of the pavilion..3 Fibre optic sensors were also integrated into the structure which continuously monitored the stress and strain values so as to regulate the fibre placement such that their orientation gets optimally aligned with the force flow in the skin of the pavilion.端 The arm was placed on a 2m high pedestal which allowed it to a working span of 4m. Since the control of the robot was highly explicit in this scenario many virtual iterations and simulations of the same were generated and compared before the final structure which spanned 8m in dia and 3.5m was erected and it consisted of 30 km of fibre rovings.

IMAGE 7 - ISOTROPIC & ANISOTROPIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

IMAGE 8 - FIBRE WEAVING

IMAGE 5 - achimmenges.net - Achim Menges Design Research Architecture Product Design." achimmenges.net - Achim Menges Design Research Architecture Product Design. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5561>.

IMAGE 6 - Ibid IMAGE 7 - Ibid IMAGE 8 - Ibid


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Robots in Architecture

Precedents : The Chandelier Prototype Kruysman and Proto Chapter 3. 2

146 THE CHANDELIER PROTOTYPE This project was fabricated in 2013 by Jonathan Proto and Brandon Kruysman at the Sci-Arc robot house. The bottom up approach consisted of 3 stabuli robots choreographed using Esperant.o software to fabricate a chandelier made of plastic tubes, highlighting the collaboration of the robotic arms, each performing a certain task. The complexity of the project lies in the networking of the three arms which were simulated virtually and physically simultaneously to achieve the end result, invariably testing the heat fusing and material deforamtion process. FABRICATION It consisted of three arms as mentioned earlier, where one robotic arm was choreographed to pick up the plastic tubes from the dispenser and rotated it, while the other arm heated the tube using the heat gun as an end effector. Once heated, the arm holding the tube would then place it on the stack, melting and fusing with the tubes which were laid earlier. The third arm then consisting of a spray gun would spray the coloured coolant on the rim of the placed plastic tube.

IMAGE 9 - THE CHANDELIER PROTOTYPE

The project is of great interest, since it speaks of the level of precision and control that can be obtained through the choreography of multiple robots. Even though the control on the deformation of the material on heating was limited but the amount of heat applied and the time period could be realised.. Moreover the designers experimented to develop a form finding process through the generative logic by giving up control on the material deformation.

IMAGE 9 "SCI-Arc端s Robot House Gets Hot | Los Angeles, I'm Yours." Los Angeles Im Yours. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. <http:// www.laimyours.com/20418/ sci-arcs-robot-house-getshot/>. IMAGE 10 - Ibid. IMAGE 11 - Ibid IMAGE 12 - Ibid


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147 IMAGE 10 - HEATING THE PLASTIC TUBE

IMAGE 11 - PLACING THE HEATED TUBE

IMAGE 10 - SPRAYING THE COOLANT


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VIRTUAL ROBOTS Space Occupation & Flexibility Chapter 3. 3

148


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1A

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1B

149 1C

1D

1E

1F

To understand the flexibity and the space occupation of the virtual robotic arm in the three axes Maya simulations were conducted, where the arms were made to follow simple and complex geometries.

SEQUENCE 1 AXIS - X AXIS SHAPE -

ARM RADIUS - 1.08m


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2A

2B

2C

2D

2E

2F

150

SEQUENCE 2 AXIS - Y AXIS SHAPE -


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3A

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3B

151 3C

3D

3E

3F

SEQUENCE 3 AXIS - Z AXIS SHAPE -


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4A

4B

4C

4D

4E

4F

In this iteration the space occupied by the motion of the secondary arm is also analysed.

SEQUENCE 4

152

AXIS - X AXIS SHAPE -


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5A

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5B

153 5C

5D

5E

5F

In this iteration the space occupied by the motion of the secondary arm is also analysed.

SEQUENCE 5 AXIS - X AXIS SHAPE -


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6A

6B

6C

6D

6E

6F

154

SEQUENCE 6 AXIS - Y AXIS SHAPE -


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7A

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7B

155 7C

7D

7E

7F

SEQUENCE 7 AXIS - Y AXIS SHAPE -


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Ra

diu

s

=1 .0

8m

156

m

.08

s

diu

Ra

Timelapse Diagrams Arm Radius = 1.08m Area Occupied = 3.66m2 Overall Volume Occupied = 5.28m3

=1


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PHYSICAL ROBOTS AL5D LYNX Robotic Arm Chapter 3. 4

AL5D ANATOMY 157

8.57cm

18.73

cm

GRIPPER WRIST

Servo HS-485HB

Servo HS-645MG ELBOW

14.60cm

Servo HS-755HB

Servo HS-805BB

SHOULDER

SSC-32 BOARD

BASE Servo HS-485HB


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Robots in Architecture

ARM CHOREOGRAPHY Chapter 3.5

The AL5D arm was choreographed to understand the path it could traverse accurately BETWEEN TWO POINTS along the 60 degree angles in the X and Y axis.

158

The choreography was executed using the default software provided by Lynx Motion. A virtual simulation of the same movement was also designed using Godzilla plug-in for Grasshopper. SEQUENCE 1

10 20 30 SEQUENCE 2

40

50

X MIN = 5 CM X MAX = 45 CM

Y MIN = 1 CM Y MAX = 45 CM

SEQUENCE 3


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1A

1B 159

LONG EXPOSURE PHOTO OF SEQUENCE1 PATH 1C

1D

1E

1F

1G

1H

1I

1J

1K


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2A

2B 160

LONG EXPOSURE PHOTO OF SEQUENCE 2 PATH 2C

2D

2E

2F

2G

2H

2I

2J

2K


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3A

3B 161

LONG EXPOSURE PHOTO OF SEQUENCE 3 PATH 3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3I

3J

3K


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4A

4B 162

GODZILLA SIMULATION - SEQUENCE PATH 4C

4D

4E

4F

4G

4H

4I

4J

4K


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5A

5B

5C

5D

5E

5F

5G

5H

FOAM BRICK CHOREOGRAPHY

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163

In this sequence the AL5D arm was choreographed to see the accuracy with which it can reach a certain point and lift a foam brick, perform certain movements and place it back again onto the same point.


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164

5A

5B

5C

ABS MATERIAL EXTRUSION The above sequence shows the step by step extrusion of the ABS(Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) material using the AL5D robot arm. The extruding end effector was fabricated using cardboard sheets with perforations which facilitate the weaving of the thread formwork. The experiment also informs on the importance and flexibility of the end effector in a robotic arm, which can be replaced/ changed depending on the function of the robotic arm.

5D


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5E

5F

5G

5H

5I

5J

SEQUENCE 5 ABS EXTRUSION


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166

ROBOFOLD WORKSHOP The one day workshop at Robofold was mainly focussed on learning virtual simulations of the robotic movement/actions using the Godzilla plugin for Grasshopper. At the end of the worksop the robot arms were deployed to draw a pattern using a pen, whose virtual simulation was done using the same before the actual physical manifestation.


Robots in Architecture

CHAPTER 006

TERM 3 PLANS: ARDUINO - FIREFLY Chapter 3. 6

Post the experiments of term 2 and understanding the capabilities of the AL5D arm, the term 3 woud be utilised for the further explorations of the arm and conducting experiments using it pertaining to the material and the feedback system decided upon. - The arm would be connected to an arduino and operated using the firefly plugin for grasshopper. - As per the material feedback subsequent end effector will be deployed for the arm. - The workshop with Luis Fraguada at IAAC, Barcelona will help in exploring the same of controlling the arm using arduino. - The possibility of the arm coupled with another servo based device for the fabrication of the future project will also be worked upon.

167


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Appendix

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Chapter 7 Appendix


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Appendix


Appendix

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Appendix

172

Fig. A

Fig. B

Fig. C


Appendix

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173

Programmable Material: Wax in Water Chapter 1

Wax is a material that is malleable yet solid in room temperature; however, when heated and placed in contact with water, it will interact with the liquid until it sets into various interesting formations and solidifies once more. Wax is also an organic material which is not soluble in water. In the case of the experiments, two waxes were used: paraffin and glass wax. Glass wax is reminiscent of glass. It is used to create various artefacts since it only melts at more than 150 degrees. As a relatively durable material, it was the subsequent step for the experiments. In many ways it prooved a successful material under which to test the phenomena of hele-shaw patterns and the vertical translation of such formations.

Fig. 11 opposite Initial tests consisting of paraffin and water in a glass. The stiks were used to push the wax and pull it out.


CHAPTER 007

Appendix

The various studies of wax led to a search for composites that would begin to change the behaviour of wax in water. Amber Rosin was added to change the flexibility, ductility, malleability and interaction of glasswax with its environment - be it water or air. Amber rosin allowed the material to overcome many of the shortcomings of the glass wax during its forming. Amber rosin made the wax more susceptible to transformation when in water, and much more flexible when exposed to air.

Fig. 12 Diagrams of wax melting process and pouring. Reference of pouring techniques employed.

174

The behaviour of the material was meant to ellucidate a next step in formation of both structure and architecture. A component that could in its logic engender an autonomous system built with the capabilities of robotic arms. In the case of glasswax, though the material was far more controllable than bioplastic in regards to the hele-shaw formations, it still did not fully present a scenario where scalability would be possible. Glasswax in many reagards does not equate a known building material. The diverse combinations of Glass Wax and Amber Rosin were explored in the range of 0-100%, with a middle combination of 50-50%" Highest Amber Rosin: AR: 100% GW: 0% Mid Conditions: Equilibrium AR: 50% GW: 50% Highest Glass Wax: AR: 0% GW: 100%

> Flex GW N AR

Flex

40%

Cook Time: 20min Setting Time: 5min

40%

Reaction Time: Upon Contact


Appendix

CHAPTER 007

Wax and Amber Rosin Process

175 F: 0

F: 4

F: 8

F: 12

F: 16

F: 20

F: 24

F: 28

F: 32

F: 36

F: 40

F: 44

F: 48

F: 52

F: 56 Fig. 013 Combination 100-0


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Appendix

Wax and Amber Rosin Process

176 F: 0

F: 4

F: 8

F: 12

F: 16

F: 20

F: 24

F: 28

F: 32

F: 36

F: 40

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F: 56

Fig. 014 Combination 50-50


Appendix

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177 F: 0

F: 4

F: 8

F: 12

F: 16

F: 20

F: 24

F: 28

F: 32

F: 36

F: 40

F: 44

F: 48

F: 52

F: 56 Fig. 015 Comination 70-30


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Appendix

Volatility Height:10cm GW: 0 AR: 100

Volatility Height:10cm GW: 80 AR: 20

Volatility Height:10cm GW: 70 AR: 30

Volatility Height:10cm GW: 50 AR: 50

Volatility Height:15cm GW: 60 AR: 40

Volatility Height:15cm GW: 70 AR: 20

Volatility Height:15cm GW: 100 AR: 0

Volatility Height:15cm GW: 40 AR: 60

Volatility Height:15cm Metal: 100

178


Appendix

The concentration of amber rosin in comparison to wax made the material react severely differently in water. When the concentration of amber rosin was at its highest, the wax lost all cohesion in water at its initial state. It was a much more explosive reaction, causing wax dust to fly off from the reaction.

CHAPTER 007

Fig. 016 opposite Combinations of amber rosin and glass wax in water. Each of the formations differing due to combination of materials

On the other hand, pure glass wax in water attains much more cohesion and is not easily shaped by water. It almost falls in folds the minute the material breaks the surface of the water in the glass.

179

The interesting aspect of this experiment is the ability to mix materials into composites. Wax however is a mass, used mostly for moulding. In regards to that function, the wax was not the most worthwhile pursuit other than for its formation capabilities. Fig. 017 Close-up analysis of formations as they interact with water. Quality and colour of the wax changes.

AR GW

AR GW

3 : 1

3 : 1.2

3 : 1.5

3 : 1.8

3:2

AR

AR

AR

AR

AR

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW


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Appendix


Appendix

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181

Programmable Material: Water in Wax Chapter 1

Understanding the behaviour of any material under diverse conditions is essential to the generation of complex material systems. In the case of wax, testing it under differeing conditions was not only essential but necessary to discover how the material may behave if it was poured, allowed to set once more as a surface and then transformed by the forceful introduction of water. Pouring water into wax not only chnaged the surface topology of the plane of material, but allowed for the recording of such force in the waves and lifts of material transformation.

Fig. 018 opposite One of the myriad trials of wax as water was introduced to the system after it was poured on a surface.


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Appendix

Fig. 019 opposite Photographs of wax models. Coin-like arrangements were poured in order to analyze the change with one point of water pressure.

182

Similarly to the other experiments in the shot glasses, these wax experiments used smaller round plates to place the wax into and to pour water over them from one point, 40cm away. As the water fell over the wax, it created the various formations presented, some reminiscent of the hele-shaw pattern. In the same way as before, differing concentrations of wax showcased different interactions with the water, where 100% glass wax mixtures showed more resistance to the water, than amber rosin concentrations. The diverse combinations of Glass Wax and Amber Rosin were explored in the range of 0-100%, with a middle combination of 50-50%" Highest Amber Rosin: AR: 100% GW: 0%

Fig. 020 below Close-up images of wax formations when water was poured with added pressure over the surface.

Detail: AR 100%

Mid Conditions: Equilibrium AR: 50% GW: 50% Highest Glass Wax: AR: 0% GW: 100%

Detail: AR 90%

Detail: AR 40%


Appendix

Fig. 1

Deform Height:15cm GW: 100, AR: 0

Fig. 5

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Deform Height:15cm GW: 60, AR: 40

183

Fig. 2

Deform Height:15cm GW: 80, AR: 20

Fig. 6

Deform Height:15cm GW: 60, AR: 40

Fig. 3

Deform Height:15cm GW: 70, AR: 30

Fig. 7

Deform Height:15cm GW: 50, AR: 50

Fig. 4

Deform Height:15cm GW: 60, AR: 40

Fig. 8

Deform Height:15cm GW: 40, AR: 60


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Appendix

Pour Distance: 15cm. Fig. 1. Diameter: 4cm Fig. 2 Diameter: 4cm

Fig. 9

Deform Height:15cm GW: 30, AR: 70

Fig. 3 Diameter: 4.5cm Fig. 4 Diameter: 4.5cm Fig. 5 Diameter: 4.5cm

184

Fig. 6 Diameter: 4.7cm Fig. 7 Diameter: 4.7cm Fig. 8 Diameter: 4.8cm

Fig. 10

Deform Height:15cm GW: 20, AR: 80

Fig. 9 Diameter: 4.8cm Fig. 10 Diameter: 5.0cm Fig. 11 Diameter: 5.3cm Fig. 12 Diameter: 5.6cm

Fig. 11

Fig. 12

Deform Height:15cm GW: 10, AR: 90

Deform Height:15cm GW: 0, AR: 100


Appendix

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Wax and Amber Rosin Process

185 F: 0

F: 4

F: 8

F: 12

F: 16

F: 20

F: 24

F: 28

F: 32

F: 36

F: 40

F: 44

F: 48

F: 52

F: 56

Fig. 020 Larger pour experiments


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Appendix

Fig. 020 previous Process of wax as it is poured in the container, allowed to set and then transformed by water.

186

Biochemistry is said to be the new foundation for architectural material studies, where biological and organic behaviour will attempt to redefine the new conditions under which architecture will view formation and structure. The processes that make living systems possible will become the very languange under which we evolve the field. A discourse on architectural materiality will cover topics as complex as chemical reactions, as diverse as organisms and as physically unpredictable as neural networks. We look forward to an architecture that is shaped by forces and tendencies, behaviours rather than mechanisms, gadgets or predetermined structure. Space will be the equivalent of an ecosystem, where man will ultimately find himself challenged at all turns..

Fig. 021 below Diagrams of formations and varying samples of wax. Rectangular plates in alluminum.

Deform GW: 100 AR: 0

Deform GW: 80 AR: 20

Deform GW: 70 AR: 30

Deform GW: 60 AR: 40


Appendix

The wax experiments are testament of the power of materiality in its ability to record the changes that occur when a force is applied and introduced to a system. The water flows frozen on the surface like a history of movement. The wax petrified and left as record the very movement of fluid. By varying the material, this record became either more probounced and explosive, or was simply recorded as ripples, just barely able to compete with the cohesion and viscosity of wax.

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Fig. 021 Diagrams of formations and varying samples of wax. Rectangular plates in alluminum.

187

In the opposite page, the reliefs clearly showcase the difference in wax formations as they interact with the water. The top view alludes to more cohesion, where the water's force only barely affected the surface as it was poured. On the other hand, the bottom image, clearly shows the water's molding of the material. The flows are not merely ripples, but waves in a turbulent sea.

Deform GW: 50 AR: 50

Deform GW: 40 AR: 60

Deform GW: 80 AR: 20

Deform GW: 0 AR: 100


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Appendix


Appendix

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Programmable Material: Wax in Water Chapter 1

The next iteration of wax experiments attempted to capture the force of the wax as it fell into water, due to the previous experiments it was determined that though the water did not change the cohesion of the pure glass wax concentrations, it would sustain the wax's formation when poured into water. In this particular experiment, the wax allowed the water to set the wax into arch-like formations. In many respects, this experiment begna the conversation of lattice structures and the possibility of constructing an architecture based on surfaces and mesh-like lattices. We also began looking for materials which could exist as both.

Fig. 022 opposite Image of the glass wax as it was set in the water. The formation was then placed on a base.


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Wax and Amber Rosin Pouring Process

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Fig. 023 Pure glass wax pour


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Wax and Amber Rosin Pouring Process

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Fig. 024 Glass wax and amber rosin.

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Fig. B

Fig. C

Fig. 025 Single point depositions

Fig. D

Fig. D

Fig. 025 Single point depositions


Appendix

On the discourse of high performance capacity for materiality, the wax experiments culminated in an understanding of form that is directly related to the forces it must both guide and be guided by. In many respects, a fluid and viscous material such as wax, though it lent itself to immense malleability and versatility, did not make for a structural proposal that could be applied to the conditions explored for this particular proposal.

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Fig. 025 opposite Photographs of formations and varying samples of wax. as they were poured in water containers.

Still, the wax experiments did however lead us towards the material experiments that followed the process: abs, nylon and plastics.

193

Fig. D below Photographs of formations and detail of pour paths planned on cold water. Wax formation figure D.

Fig. E

Fig. D: Details

Fig. F

Fig. D: Details


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Programmable Material: Foam VS Wax


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3ml hypothesis

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Lattice formation

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Injection points

Quantity


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202

Testing the relation between the quantity of the deposed acetone and the time. We use the same quantity for both experiments but we depose it in different time duration, and we compare the resulting patterns, and the lattice formation.


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209 Reaction Diffusion 3D study

Reaction Diffusion 2D study

In this series of catalogues, the phenomenon of reaction diffusion is studied thoroughly in order to obtain a certain level of control over the final result. These studies aim to the deeper understanding of the RD and the Laplacian growth, from a generative perspective.

In this series of catalogues, material simulations are using the phenomenon of reaction diffusion in order to achieve the recreation of the hele shaw pattern which surfaced as one of the essential observations in the initial material experiments.

PSEUDOCODE

More specifically, the values of diffusion of the two reacting liquids are kept constant, while the feed rate and the kill rate vary in order to simulate the closest possible results to the pattern.

//for each cell in the grid of cells: //calculate the rate of change of chemical A & chemical B; //1. calculate laplaceA; //2. calculate laplaceB; //3. calculate diffusionA : Ra * A //4. calculate diffusionB : Rb * B //5. calculate current quantities; A*B*B //6. calculate feed rate; f*(1-A) //7. calculate kill rate; (k+f)*B; //8. calculate Rate of Change of A and Rate of Change of B using the above quantities; //ROC of A = diffusionA - currentQuantities + feed; //ROC of B = diffusionB + currentQuantities - kill; //update A and B; //update A and B in the current cell;

VIRTUAL MATERIAL REACTION DIFFUSION SIMULATIONS


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5 point deposition f=0.03 k=0.012

Iteration 1B 4 point deposition f=0.01 k=0.037

Iteration 1C 3 point deposition f=0.06 k=0.024

Iteration 1D 5 point deposition f=0.06 k=0.024


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Iteration 2B Corner deposition f=0.01 k=0.037

Iteration 2C Surface deposition f=0.01 k=0.037

Iteration 2D Corner deposition f=0.01 k=0.037


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D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 Wave to F=0.01 Wave to K=0

Iteration 1B D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 Wave to F=0.03 Wave to K=0.012

Iteration 1C D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 Wave to F=0.06 Wave to K=0.024

Iteration 1D D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 Wave to F=0.08 Wave to K=0.038


Appendix

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REACTION DIFFUSION Material Simulation


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Appendix

Iteration 2A D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 C to F=0.009

216

Iteration 2B D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 C to F=0.005

Iteration 2C D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 C to F=0.0001

Iteration 2D D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 C to F=0.0


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REACTION DIFFUSION Material Simulation


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Iteration 3A D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 Wave Clamp=0

218

Iteration 3B D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 Wave Clamp=10

Iteration 3C D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 Wave Clamp=20

Iteration 3D D_a=0.08 | D_b=0.04 k=0.045 | f=0.01 Wave Clamp=50


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REACTION DIFFUSION Material Simulation


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Appendix

This digital simulation consists a study of particles distribution in space, according to the Hele Shaw principles of formation. More specifically, the particles' system is moving and being distributed according to the map of the pressure distribution that is applied to the field. Likewise in the case of the Hele Shaw pattern formation, the forces acting here are gravity, external pressure, collision, particle-to-particle collision and friction. 220

Frame 0-400 Hele Shaw formation Forces applied: collision particle-to-particle collision friction

Frame 400-550 Pulling down Forces applied: collision particle-to-particle collision friction gravity

Fig. 000 Detail of the particles' movement


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Fasbender rocksssss!!!! asdfasdf asdfasdf asdfsadfsdf


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1 . Energy use : Individual carbon footprint - sor credits per hectare 2 . Cultural complexity : Number of languages per hectare 3 . The impact of GDP : Technology indexes, pattent applications per head, per hectare 4 . Technological density : Number of wireless hotspots per hectare - Technology distribution across the city 5 . Demographic growth : Fertility rates or number of births 6 . The Metropolitan index : Ideas per cubic meter per minute 7 . Hyperactivity of the city : Walking speed of a citizen > indicates much about the psychology

TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION STUDIES


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Fig. 000 Fasbender rocksssss!!!! asdfasdf asdfasdf asdfsadfsdf

TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION STUDIES


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Appendix

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MARK WEST WORKSHOP KADK, COPENHAGEN 2014

STUDIO SHAJAY BHOOSHAN ALEXANDRA LIPEZKER | EVA MAGNISALI GIORGIOS PASISIS| SAI PRATEIK


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Appendix

THE

MOULD


Appendix

Groin Vault | Mark West Programmable Material

The Mark West workshop focused on building a large scale model of a shell form utilizing a method of construction long explored by the architect. In this particular case, the model is being tested at 1:1 scale. The entire model was laid-out, measured and planned from scratch. The proposed design is of a simple groin vault. The workshop consisted of students from the Architectural Association DRL and KArch Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts.

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Fig. 23 Final 1:1 under construction. Blocks have been laid out on the frame and the polyurethane foam has been used as mortar.

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SHELL FORMS Octagonal Studies CHAPTER 007 Appendix


Appendix

Shell Studies Programmable Material

The workshop with Mark West consisted of studying formations of rigid tyles as they deformed a piece of cloth. This experiment is reminiscent of studies conducted by Guadi, Frei Otto, Candela, Isler, all of which studied structures laid out in tension. The types of compressive shell formations obtained from these studies were then analyzed virtually in order to explain some of the characteristics and observations observed in the physical experiments. New avenues of research were also proposed for the 1:1 model built for the project.

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Fig. 1 8 Sided Figure Center Point

Fig. 2 8 Sided Figure Off- Center

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Appendix

Fig. 3 7 Sided Figure Center Point

Fig. 4 5 Sided Figure Center Point

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Fig. 1 Fig. 1

Fig. 2 Fig. 2

8 Sided Figure. Figure. 4 Divisions 8 Sided 4 Divisions Divisions Top toTop Bottom: Divisions to Bottom: Triangulation vs. Quads. Triangulation vs. Quads.

8 Sided Figure. Figure. 4 Divisions 8 Sided 4 Divisions Divisions Top toTop Bottom: Divisions to Bottom: Triangulation vs. Quads. Triangulation vs. Quads.


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Fig. 3

Fig. 4

7 Sided Figure. 4 Divisions Divisions Top to Bottom: Triangulation vs. Quads.

5 Sided Figure. 4 Divisions Divisions Top to Bottom: Triangulation vs. Quads.


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OctagonalAppendix Studies

Fig. A 8 Sided Figure Center Dist. Force

40%

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Fig. B 8 Sided Figure Off-Center Dist. Force

40%

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Fig. C 8 Sided Figure Center Dist. Force

40%

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Fig. D 8 Sided Figure Off-Center Dist. Force

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Fig. E Neutral Material Rigidity: 1.4


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Fig. F Neutral Material Rigidity: 0.6

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Fig. A Honey Material Rigidity: 0.2


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Fig. G T-Shirt Material Rigidity: 0.8

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Fig. A 8 Sided Figure Rigidity: 0.2

Fig. B 8 Sided Figure Rigidity: 0.4

Fig. C 8 Sided Figure Rigidity: 0.6

Fig. D 8 Sided Figure Rigidity: 0.8


Appendix

Fig. E 8 Sided Figure Rigidity: 1.0

Fig. F 8 Sided Figure Rigidity: 1.2

Fig. G 8 Sided Figure Rigidity: 1.4

Fig. H 8 Sided Figure Rigidity: 1.6

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001 CHAPTER 007

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Fig. A Mass: 25%

Fig. B Mass: Optimum

Fig. C Mass: 75%


Appendix

Fig. A Mass: 25%

Fig. B Mass: Optimum

Fig. C Mass: 75%

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STRETCH RESISTANCE : 1 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE :10 BEND: 0.1 RIGIDITY: 0 DEFORM RESISTANCE: 0 MASS : 50 REST LENGTH SC : 1 GRAVITY : 9.8 DEFORMATION % : 45

STRETCH RESISTANCE : 1 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE :10 BEND: 0.1 RIGIDITY: 0 DEFORM RESISTANCE: 0 MASS : 50 REST LENGTH SC : 1 GRAVITY : 9.8 DEFORMATION % : 60


001 CHAPTER 007

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STRETCH RESISTANCE : 1 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE :10 BEND: 0.1 RIGIDITY: 0 DEFORM RESISTANCE: 0 MASS : 50 REST LENGTH SC : 1 GRAVITY : 9.8 DEFORMATION % : 85

STRETCH RESISTANCE : 1 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE :10 BEND: 0.1 RIGIDITY: 0 DEFORM RESISTANCE: 0 MASS : 50 REST LENGTH SC : 1 GRAVITY : 9.8 DEFORMATION % : 70


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Shell Model 1:10 Tesselation Studies

The 1:10 model was the final output of the studies conducted for the workshop. These were the combination of physical models and virtual models analyzed throughout the week. In this particular model, notions of compression and bending were put to the test in order to understand novel techniques of construction as well as the actual physical forces as they compared to the virtual studies.

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Hotwire Robotic Formworks Heat diffusion experiments Feedback speculation

During our studio trip to Denmark we had the opportunity to visit the ODICO premises and use two ABB robotic arms with hotwire endeffectors, so as to have a better understanding of the robotic movement, control and programming. The main goal of the experiments that we conducted was to create a series of iterations of geometries and apply a feedback rule to the process, thus creating an evolutionary system. Our experiments were focused on heat diffusion, so as to approximate the building technique that we will use in our future experiments. We generated a custom made code in pyRapid and altered it according to a specific set of rules, so as to visualize the different results of the generative process. The experience that we gained through these experiments was of a great value concerning the realization of what time-based feedback constitutes in the real construction world. Moreover, through the control of the robotic arms we had the opportunity to visualize the translation of digital code into physical robotic movement. More specifically, in several tests we aimed to explore the connection between direct input of information to the robot and the output geometrical formation. In general, during our visit to ODICO we understood better the constraints that concern the spatial manipulation of a robotic arm and we speculated on how these can be transformed into design opportunities.

1. Close up of hotwire heating resulting formations. The depth of the formed cavities is subject to a timebased generative logic.


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FEEDBACK SYSTEM The feedback system is based on a mathematic function described by the equation: y=sin(2x) which was altered through pyRapid code. Pauses are inserted to the script at the instances where the hotwire reached the base and peak points of the curve. Feedback speculation was generated through different coding iterations, leading to material deformation

FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT VARIABILITY 1 2 3 4

. speed . wire temperature . foam density . pauses

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- - - - 5 7 7 9


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INDEPENDENT ITERATIONS

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Material Behaviour


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INDEPENDENT HEATING ITERATIONS


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1 . GEOMETRY / DIGITAL SURFACE

2 . CODE / TOOLPATH

FEEDBACK POSSIBILITIES / ADVANTAGES - DISADVANTAGES 1.

Greater exploration of the solution space / more iterations tested Simultaneous test of a bigger range of parameters Approximation / Possible lack of coincidence with real data Material properties are difficult to simulate

2.

Small changes of the parameters can lead to extremely different results Higher level of control / rule-based evolution Lack of visualization / results can not be easily predicted Higher level of complexity concerning the description of the path

3.

Faster process / fast reconfiguration of the rules Immediate response to material behaviour Re-calibration needed Lack of accuracy / manually controlled process

4.

Real-time response Possibility for the emergence of novel results Unpredictability concerning the robotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s movement Low resolution of input / material details cannot be recognized easily


Appendix

3 . ROBOT / TEST PATH

4 . SENSORS

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Profile for Georgios Pasisis

WIRED // R4D4 // AADRL // v01 // programmable material | feedback system | autonomous robot  

Investigations into material and robotic technology has led to groundbreaking proposals in the field of architecture. The aim of the studio...

WIRED // R4D4 // AADRL // v01 // programmable material | feedback system | autonomous robot  

Investigations into material and robotic technology has led to groundbreaking proposals in the field of architecture. The aim of the studio...

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