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SZENT ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM, BUDAPEST MASTER OF ARTS IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

FROM NATURE TO ARCHITECTURE : BIOPHILIC DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SPACES

GÖZDE TETİK

SUPERVISOR PÉTER ISTVÁN BALOGH Ph.D.

BUDAPEST, 2019


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am deeply grateful to Professor Péter István Balogh, who saw some lines of a very incipient research proposal few months ago and believed it enough to become my supervisor. He has given me all the freedom to pursue my research, while silently and non-obtrusively ensuring that I stay on course and do not deviate from the core of my research. Without his able guidance, this thesis would not have been possible to complete. I am also grateful to all the members of staff at Szent Istvan University with whom I met during my postgraduate course. They provided me extensive professional guidance and knowledge about landscape architecture and garden design. Moreover, I would also like to thank to all of my classmates for becoming a family; especially Gente, Szuli, Soub and Mateo with whom I shared the greatest memories during last two years. Some special words of gratitude goes to my favorite person, Endre Daróczy-Kiss. Golden heart of this man has always been a major source of support for me. I believe that if nature was a human, it would be in the form of a mother, because only a mother can share all of her sources with no expectation in return. Thus, I would like to dedicate this work to my mother and my grandmother whose dreams for me have resulted in this achievement. Without their loving upbringing, I would not have been where I am today.


ABSTRACT

There have been various studies by researches to understand human connection with nature in many aspects. This study investigates and explores this connection through existing literature data collection and fieldwork survey. It aims to observe human actions in natural and built environment refered to the collected research data. Thus, it defines the disconnection of architecture and nature at urban scale. After the human connection with nature is clarified, this study introduces a new biophilic design approach which is often refered to the literature review. This new approach is a systematic guideline for the design process of biophilic spaces. The system aims to create a path in order to solve integration problems of indoor and outdoor spaces. Therefore focus of this study is on the 20 biophilic design patterns which are the bond between human beings and nature. These patterns explain the reasons why humans feel attracted to nature. Understanding the roots of this bond helps this study to suggest effective solutions for the aimed integration. In order to understand this integration, this study additionally examines the case studies which are designed with biophilic design considerations. After reviewing the existing biophilic design solutions through case studies, it tests the applicability of the system on an architectural site that is not integrated enough with its outdoor environment.


CONTENT Master’s Title Page.......................................................................................................................I Referee’s Report of Diploma Thesis...........................................................................................II Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................III Abstract.....................................................................................................................................IV Content.......................................................................................................................................V CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................1 1.1. Purpose of The Study............................................................................................................2 1.2. Objectives.............................................................................................................................2 1.3. Research Questions..............................................................................................................3 1.4. Methodology.........................................................................................................................3 1.5. Scope....................................................................................................................................4 1.6. Hypothesis............................................................................................................................4 1.7. Limitations...........................................................................................................................4 CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................................................5 2.1. Introduction..........................................................................................................................6 2.2. Definition of Nature..............................................................................................................6 2.3. Story of Human and Nature..................................................................................................6 2.4. Existing Design Problems....................................................................................................7 2.5. Biophilia Hypothesis............................................................................................................8 2.6. Environmental Psychology : Theories Related to Biophilia.................................................8 2.6.1. Psycho-Evolutionary Theories 2.6.1.1. Attention Restoration Theory (ART)..............................................................8 2.6.1.2. Stress Reduction Theory (SRT)......................................................................9 2.6.1.3. Perceptual Fluency Account (PFA)................................................................9 2.6.2. Environmental Theories 2.6.2.1. Savannah Hypothesis.....................................................................................9 2.6.2.2. Prospect - Refuge Theory............................................................................10 2.7. Biophilic Design.................................................................................................................11 2.8. Nature by Design : Practise of Biophilic Design................................................................12 2.8.1. Principles and Benefits of Biophilic Design.............................................................12 2.8.2. Experiences and Attributes of Biophilic Design.......................................................12 2.9. 14 patterns of Biophilic Design by Terrapin Bright Green.................................................13 2.9.1. Nature in The Space Patterns....................................................................................14 2.9.2. Natural Analogues Patterns.......................................................................................17 2.9.3. Nature of The Space Patterns....................................................................................18 2.10. Design Considerations of 14 Biophilic Patterns by Terrapin Bright Green......................19 2.11. Conclusions of Chapter Two.............................................................................................21


CHAPTER 3 : A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN......................22 3.1. Introduction........................................................................................................................23 3.2. A Systematic Approach To Biophilic Design.....................................................................24 3.3. Implementation Spaces......................................................................................................25 3.3.1. Spaces by Scope.......................................................................................................26 3.3.2. Spaces by Function..................................................................................................28 3.4. Human Activities in Space.................................................................................................30 3.5. Strategies for Biophilic Design..........................................................................................31 3.6. Values of Biophilic Design................................................................................................33 CHAPTER 4 : 20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS........................................................34 4.1. Introduction : Categories of 20 Biophilic Design Patterns................................................35 4.1.1. Characteristics of Space 4.1.1.1. Attraction.....................................................................................................38 4.1.1.2. Mystery........................................................................................................39 4.1.1.3. Prospect & Refuge.......................................................................................40 4.1.1.4. Risk / Peril....................................................................................................41 4.1.1.5. Diversity & Flexibility.................................................................................42 4.1.1.6. Dynamism....................................................................................................43 4.1.1.7. Continuity.....................................................................................................44 4.1.2. Forms of Space 4.1.2.1. Thermal & Air Flow Variability*.................................................................46 4.1.2.2. Landform Levels..........................................................................................47 4.1.2.3. Visual Connection with Nature....................................................................48 4.1.2.4. Biomorphic Forms and Patterns...................................................................49 4.1.2.5. Dominance...................................................................................................50 4.1.2.6. Scale ..........................................................................................................51 4.1.3. Elements of Space 4.1.3.1. Reflection.....................................................................................................53 4.1.3.2. Dynamic & Diffuse Light............................................................................54 4.1.3.3. Presence of Water.........................................................................................55 4.1.3.4. Color Palette................................................................................................56 4.1.3.5. Material Connection with Nature................................................................57 4.1.3.6. Natural Representatives...............................................................................58 4.1.3.7. Use of Plants................................................................................................59 4.2. Charts.................................................................................................................................61


CHAPTER 5 : CASE STUDIES AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1. CASE STUDIES................................................................................................................64 5.1.1. Indoor Space : Maggie’s Oldham.............................................................................66 5.1.2. Transitional Space : Khoo-Teck Puat Hospital.........................................................68 5.1.3. Outdoor Space : Gardens by Bay Singapore............................................................70 5.2. SUGGESTIONS : BUILDING K, SZIE BUDAI CAMPUS.............................................72 5.2.1. Function Scheme......................................................................................................73 5.2.2. Existing Patterns.......................................................................................................74 5.2.3. Suggestion Zones and Suggested Patterns................................................................76 5.2.4. Suggestions...............................................................................................................78 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................80 LIST OF FIGURES...................................................................................................................81 LIST OF TABLES AND DIAGRAMS.....................................................................................85 REFERENCES..........................................................................................................................86


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CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

Purpose of The Study Objectives Research Questions Methodology Scope Hypothesis Limitations Figure 1


Introduction

‘’Nature is not a place to visit, it is home.’’ Gary Synder

Nature has became a place to seek for, especially for humans who are living in the cities. Working in the multi-storey buildings, looking through windows to the concrete walls, going to holidays just to get closer to nature is a common way of living for many people. Increasing number of the human population forced architecture to be fast and monotype. Dense cities were being constructed to fullfill the need of human beings for a shelter. Because the focus of the designers was sheltering, human need for nature and living organisms was neglected. In order to describe this need of human beings to nature, the term 'biophilia' was introduced by psychologist Erich Fromm. 1.1. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of architectural design is to create spaces where people can have better quality of living. Thus, this study investigates the placement of biophilic design in human well-being; moreover it is role within integration of indoor and outdoor spaces. After the existing materials, values, patterns and missing strategies of biophilic design approach are defined and clarified, this study suggests a systematic and well-defined strategy for the design process of specified indoor and outdoor spaces where architecture blends with biophilia. 1.2. OBJECTIVES - To define biophilia as the core of the thesis - To investigate and introduce the existing literature related to biophilia - To define the values of existing literature which can be improved - To create a strategical framework to integrate indoor and outdoor spaces with biophilic considerations - To introduce 20 biophilic design patterns with their design considerations - To test the feasibility of the strategy which is introduced by the thesis on indoor and outdoor design strategies. 2


Introduction

1.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS - What is the definition of biophilia and biophilic design ? - What are the existing theories related to biophilia? - What are the existing strategies and patterns of biophilic design ? - What can be done to present a biophilic design strategy and framework which responds to the integration of natural features and architecture. - What is the success rate of the proposed strategy? 1.4. METHODOLOGY This chapter describes various research methods and strategies which are used to develop the structure of the study. As the study is designed as a qualitative research, certain methods which are used in response to the research questions as it follows: The research methods of the study are as it follows: - Literature review and data collection : In the second chapter, literature review includes definition and theories of biophilia, the strategies related to biophilic design and their relationship with architecture. Besides, in the fourth chapter, data collection includes the information collection of the design site. - Data Analysis Data analysis which is used for conclusion of the second chapter is an essential method to define the problemetics of existing biophilic design approach in order to create a new strategical approach. - Observation The application of created patterns are possible only with a systematical observation of human behaviors in nature and built environment. Therefore, observation is the core method of the third and fourth chapters.

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Introduction

1.5. SCOPE The applicable scope of biophilic design is various. This study focuses on the interior and landscape architectural level for the application of created biophilic design strategies. Interior scope of the study is a multifunctional space that includes variety of functions. This feature of the scope will allow this study to be tested on integration of outdoor and indoor spaces as well as the transition between functions.

1.6. HYPOTHESIS A systematic and well-defined strategy can help designers to create stronger solutions for a space by focusing on the right biophilic need of human beings in specific situations.

1.7. LIMITATIONS The lack of case studies especially in Hungary is the main limitation of the study. Besides, studying on biophilic design features and their impacts on individuals may be various as users can have diverse reactions based on their own perception and experiences about their environment.

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2

CHAPTER

L I T E R AT U R E R E V I E W

Introduction Definition of Nature Story of Human and Nature Existing Design Problems Biophilia Hypothesis Theories Biophilic Design Practise of Biophilic Design 14 Patterns Design Considerations Conclusion of Chapter Figure 2


Literature Review

2.1. INTRODUCTION There have been various studies by the researches to understand human connection with nature concerning to many aspects. The conflics between the built and natural environment is one of them. At this point biophilic design is a concept which helps people to understand and aims to solve the conflics of built environment and nature. In this chapter the existing definitions and theories related to biophilia and biophilic design is investigated. The next chapters are inspired by the collected data and conclusions in this chapter. 2.2. DEFINITION OF NATURE ‘’If you truly love nature, you will see beauty everywhere.’’ Vincent Van Gogh It is possible to define nature in many different ways. Nature is understood by this research as the environment which exists with or without human influence and it can be described as the phenomena of the physical world including plants, animals, landscape and other features and products of the earth. [0] 2.3. STORY OF HUMAN AND NATURE ''The deeper parts of your mind know nothing about football or about jobs. They know only sensations.'' Yuval Noah Harrari Table 1. Timeline of human nature disconnection

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Literature Review

Roots of Homo Sapiens go back to roughly to 300.000 years ago.[2] Since then, humans evolved in nature as part of it. They had to rely on nature for all of their needs such as water, food, shelter. Early humans inhabited in Savannah Landscapes in East Africa as hunter-gatherers.[3] Savannah landscapes with grasslands with trees and shrubs supplied all the necessery features that modern humans' ancestors needed. The human attachment with these lands situated in their brain adaptation. [4] After the industrial revolution, human population and built environment rapidly grew. Humans started to get less and less access to nature. Therefore, the impacts of this disconnection caused various changes in their social, pschological and physical environments. Now they spend their time in built environments more than ever.[5] They work, live, play, access to food even exercise at the indoor spaces. 2.3.1. EXISTING DESIGN PROBLEMS

Today, the 55% of world's population is living in urban areas and it is expected to increase to 68% by 2050. [6] Even though the importance of nature cannot be denied, the fact is the structures of urbanism needed in the cities. Thus, urbanization is a necessity. Yet, development of civilization is believed to be conquering the nature for many years. Standardization of the architectural buildings often ignored the environment. This ideology caused big destractions the bond between humans and nature in the cities. As a result of this approach, meeting with nature has become an activity which they need to do once in a while instead of being a part of human life.

Figure 3

The world is growing towards urbanscapes.Yet, the increasing awareness of nature's importance and people's need for nature is an important value which we need to focus on as the designers. At this point it is important to understand and internalize the need of integration and balance of both values; natural and built environment. 7


Literature Review

2.5. BIOPHILIA HYPOTHESIS Biophilia is the biological connection of humans with nature. It helps to explain why they are attracted to nature which boost their positivity and creativity and decreases stress level. [7] [8]

The term ''biophilia'' (bio+philia=love of living systems) first was used by psychologist Erich Fromm to describe a psychological orientation of being attracted to all that is alive and vital.[9] Later was popularized by American biologist Edward Osborne Wilson who describes the term in his book as ''the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life''. He proposes that biophilia is an innate tendency of all human beings and love of nature is rooted deeply in our biology.[10] 2.3. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY : THEORIES RELATED TO BIOPHILIA BIOPHILIA HYPOTHESIS

PSYCHO-EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES

ENVIRONMENTAL THEORIES

ART, SRT, PFA

Savannah Hypothesis Prospect-Refuge Theory

Table 2. Theories related to biophilia

2.3.1. PSYCHO-EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES 2.3.1.1. ATTENTION RESTORATION THEORY (ART) Attention Restoration Theory (ART) is an environmental psychological theory that suggests the ability to concentrate may be restored by exposure to natural environments. [11] Attention Restoration Theory was fully described for the first time in 1989 by Rachel and Stephan Kaplan in the book called ''The Experience of Nature''. [10] ART claims that nature can renew capability of taking attention after exerting mental and physical energy (for example spending sleepless nights). Interest on the theory has been increasing since the pace of life gets faster and even busier. Environmental psychologist are looking for ways to provide more restoration in people's lives. [12] 8


Literature Review

Stephen and Rachel Kaplan (1989) proposed that there are four therotical elements of restorative environments: 1. Fascination : Capacity of an environment to automatically draw attention without cognitive effort. 2. Being away : Being away from daily hasses and obligations. 3. Extend : Connectedness. 4. Compatibility : Compatibility between individuals' tendencies and characteristics. 2.3.1.2. STRESS REDUCTION THEORY (SRT) SRT is devised by Roger Ulrich in 1983 with the arcticle named ''Aesthetic and Affective Response to Natural Environments''. It focuses on how natural environments reduce psychological stress. According to SRT presence of some natural element in the environment such as spatial openness, the presence of pattern or structure, vegetation and water features trigger feelings of interest, pleasantness and moreover allow psychophysiological stress recovery. 2.3.1.3. PERCEPTUAL FLUENCY ACCOUNT (PFA) The Perceptual Fluency Account (PFA) aims to present an integration of both ART and SRT. The idea of PFA is that the natural environments processed more fluently than the urban environments. Thus, restoration potential of these environments are not the same. Human's visual brain is more adaptated to the visual information is structured in natural scenes than in built environments. Specifically, natural scenes contain much more details and information which makes them more fluent than the urban scenes. [14] [13]

2.3.2. ENVIRONMENTAL THEORIES 2.3.2.1. SAVANNAH HYPOTHESIS To understand the human connection to nature, it is essential to consider the environment which humans evolved in. Savannah Hypothesis suggests an explanation to reason why human brain works as the way it does. ''The Savannah Hypothesis posits that those individuals who comprehended and appreciated the value of their native landscape survived and multiplied in greater numbers than those who did not. 9


Literature Review

The hypothesis takes as given that the majority of pre-human and human evolution took place in the East African savanna during the Pleistocene the geological epoch which lasted from about 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago and that all modern humans descend from this population of closely related individuals.'' [15] This hypothesis claims that modern humans feel closer to the natural elements from African Savannah. [16] This type of landscape includes; high diversity of flowers, topographic changes, umbrella-like tree canopies, open landscape views with rolling grasslands provided humans' ancestors vantage points for hunting and scattered, trees offered them hiding places from predators.It is necessery to mention that even though there are many the evidences supporting the Savanna Hypothesis exist, there are some different opinions which claim that landscape preference was influenced primarily by people's familiarity with the environment where they live and grow. [17]

2.3.2.2. PROSPECT-REFUGE THEORY

SAVANNAH HYPOTHESIS

ART PFA

BIOPHILIA HYPOTHESIS PROSPECT REFUGE THEORY

SRT

Table 3. Relations between theories

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Environmental Psychological Theories

Psycho-Evolutionary Theories

Prospect-Refuge Theory was developed by English geoprapher Jay Appleton in 1975. This theory describes why certain environments feel secure and thereby meet basic human psychological needs. The main motivation of this theory is that the situation of a person to view a space (prospect) without being seen (refuge) makes people feel more secure and relaxed. This theory drives from evolutionary survival, where the predator must be able to see their prey without being seen. To make the theory clear in today's world it is important to share some examples such as an elevated viewlarge natural wonders , mountains, oceans, lakes, sky expanse as prospect; an interior space, a bench seat with a wall behind, a physical impediment to hide behind as refuge.[18]


Literature Review

2.7. BIOPHILIC DESIGN The design approach which aims to satisfy human need for nature in the built environment is called as biophilic design. It is an extension of biophilia which combines the values of natural world with built environment and aims to present a biophilic atmosphere for the users. ''Look deep into nature and then you will understand everything better.'' Albert Einstein

Figure 4

Since humans are on this planet, they have been inspired by nature. Nature patterns can easily be found in even the earliest human structures such as representations of animals and plants have been used for many purposes. More than representation, bringing nature into architecture is seen in many cultures. Classic examples iclude; garden courtyards of the Alhambra in Spain, porcelain fish bowls in ancient China, the aviary in Teotihuacan (ancient Mexico City), bonsai in Japanese homes, papyrus ponds in the homes of Egyptian nobles, the cottage garden in medieval Germany, or the elusive hanging gardens of Babylon. [20] Nature is an endless resource for inspiration. Thus, biophilic design is a chance of gathering humans and nature closer to each other. Biophilic design is a topic can be mentioned wherever the human civilization starts. To understand the importance of it, it is essential to understand how their environments effect human experiences and well-being. Biophilic design reduces stress, enhance creativity, improve our well-being and helps healing. [21] In this case, it is important to focus on indoor spaces which is the envirenments where most of the people spend most of their time in. This occurred especially after industrial revolution

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Literature Review

with the improvements in technology. Today people spend 25% less time in nature as compared to just 20 years ago according to a research based in US. [22] Lack of time spent in nature can eventually cause humans and nature to be disconnected. As the main purpose of it, is to (re)connect humans with nature, biophilic design needs to be understood and considered as a need of human beings by the designers. 2.5. NATURE BY DESIGN : PRACTISE OF BIOPHILIC DESIGN [19] A book named ''The Practise of Biophilic Design'' was published in 2018 by Stephen R. Kellert and Elizabeth E. Calabrese. In this book, they presented valuable and systematical approach to biophilic design. This approach is driven from their previous works. They summarized the principles and benefits of biophilic design to understand its reasoning and functioning in a better frame. Moreover, they introduced the ''experiences and attributes of biophilic design'' to define connection between the biophilic design elements and nature. 2.5.1. PRINCIPLES AND BENEFITS OF BIOPHILIC DESIGN 1. Biophilic design requires repeated and sustained engagement with nature. 2. Biophilic design focuses on human adaptations to the natural world that over evolutionary time have advanced people’s health, fitness and wellbeing. 3. Biophilic design encourages an emotional attachment to particular settings and places. 4. Biophilic design promotes positive interactions between people and nature that encourage an expanded sense of relationship and responsibility for the human and natural communities. 5. Biophilic design encourages mutual reinforcing, interconnected, and integrated architectural solutions. 2.5.2. EXPERIENCES AND ATTRIBUTES OF BIOPHILIC DESIGN Three kinds of experience of nature represent the basic categories of the framework of Practise of Biophilic Design. These include the direct experience of nature, the indirect experience of nature, and the experience of space and place. [23]

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Literature Review

Direct Experience of nature : Light, air, water, plants, animals, weather, natural landscapes and ecosystems, fire. Indirect Experience of nature : Images of nature, natural materials, natural colors, simulating natural light and air, evoking nature, information richness, age/change and the patina of time, natural geometries, biomimicry. Experience of space and place : Prospect and refuge, organized complexity, integration of parts to wholes, transitional spaces, mobility and wayfinding, cultural and ecological attachment to place. Table 4. Experiences and Attributes of Biophilic Design Chart by S. Kellert

Direct Experience of Nature Light Air Water Plants Animals Weather Natural Landscapes Fire

Indirect Experience of Nature Images of Nature Natural Materials Natural Colors Light and Air Evoking Nature Information Richness Age / Change Natural Geometries Biomimicry

Experience of Space and Place Prospect and Refuge Organized Complexity Integration of Parts Transitional Spaces Mobility and Wayfinding Cultural and Ecological Attechment to Place

2.6. 14 PATTERNS OF BIOPHILIC DESIGN BY TERRAPIN BRIGHT GREEN The conceptualized American corperation Terrapin Bright Green released a resource entitled "14 Patterns of Biophilic Design: Improving Health and Well-being in the Built Environment" in 2014. The purpose of their study is to '' present the foundation necessary for thinking more critically about the human connection with nature and how biophilic design patterns can be used as a tool for improving health and well-being in the built environment. '' [24] In this Report, 14 biophilic design patterns were categorized into three categories as Nature in the Space, Natural Analogues and Nature of the Space. 13


Literature Review

In this report, 14 biophilic design patterns were categorized in three categories as Nature in the Space, Natural Analogues and Nature of the Space. Nature in The Space P1. Visual Connection with Nature P2. Non-Visual Connection with Nature P3. Non-Rhytmic Sensory Stimuli P4. Thermal&Airflow Variability P5. Presence of Water P6. Dynamic Diffuse Light P7. Connection with Natural Systems

Natural Analogues P8. Biomorphic Forms & Patterns P9. Material Connection With Nature P10. Complexity&Order

Nature of The Space P11. Prospect P12. Refuge P13. Mystery P14. Risk / Peril

Table 5. Categories of 14 Biophilic Design Patterns by Terrapin Green

2.6.1. NATURE IN THE SPACE Nature in the Space patterns address to the direct presence of nature in the built environment. P1. VISUAL CONNECTION WITH

Figure 5

NATURE : A view to elements of nature, living systems and natural processes. Examples : Mechanical flow of a body of water, koi pond, aquarium, green walls, artwork depicting nature scenes, video depicting nature scenes, Highly designed landscapes etc.

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Literature Review

Figure 6

P2. NON-VISUAL CONNECTION WITH NATURE : Auditory, haptic, olfactory, or gustatory stimul that engender a deliberate and positive reference to nature, living systems or natural processes. Examples : Digital simulations of nature sounds, mechanically released natural plant oils, highly textured fabrics/textiles, audible and physically accessible water feature etc.

P3. NON-RHYTMIC SENSORY

Figure 7

STIMULI: Stochastic and ephemeral connections with nature that may be analyzed statistically but may not be predicted precisely. Examples : Billowy fabric or screen materials that move or glisten with light or breezes, reflections of water on a surface,shadows or dappled light that change with movement or time etc.

Figure 8

P4. THERMAL & AIRFLOW VARIABILITY : Subtle changes in air temperature, relative humidity, airflow across the skin, and surface temperatures that mimic natural environments. Examples : HVAC delivery strategy, systems controls, window glazing and window treatment, window operability and cross ventilation etc.

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Literature Review

Figure 9

P5. PRESENCE OF WATER : A condition that enhances the experience of a place through seeing, hearing or touching water. Examples : Water wall, constructed water fall, aquarium, fountain, constructed stream, reflections of water (real or simulated) on another surface, magery with water in the composition etc.

Figure 10

P6. DYNAMIC & DIFFUSE LIGHT : Leverages varying intensities of light and shadow that change over time to create conditions that occur in nature. Examples : Multiple low glare electric light sources, iluminance, light distribution, ambient diffuse lighting on walls and ceiling, day light preserving window treatments, task and personal lighting, accent lighting etc.

P7. CONNECTION WITH NATURAL SYSTEMS :

Figure 11

Awareness of natural processes, especially seasonal and temporal changes characteristic of a healthy ecosystem. Examples : Simulated daylighting systems that transition with diurnal cycles, wildlife habitats (e.g., birdhouse,honeybee apiary, hedges,flowering vegetation), exposure of water infrastructure etc.

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Literature Review

2.6.2. NATURAL ANALOGUES Natural Analogues address to organic, non-living and indirect evocations of nature.

P8. BIOMORPHIC FORMS &

Figure 12

PATTERNS: Symbolic references to contoured, patterned, textured or numerical arrangements that persist in nature. Examples: Arrangement of the structural system (e.g., columns shaped like trees), building form, acoustic paneling, railings, banisters, fencing, gates, furniture form, window details etc.

Figure 13

P9. MATERIAL CONNECTIONS WITH NATURE : Materials and elements from nature with minimal processing, reflection of the local ecology or geology and creating a distinct sense of place. Examples : Wall construct on (wood, stone), structural systems (heavy timber beams) etc.

Figure 14

P10. COMPLEXITY & ORDER : Rich sensory information that adheres to a spatial hierarchy similar to those encountered in nature. Examples : Exposed structure/exoskeleton, exposed mechanical systems, facade materials, facade, spandrel and window hierarchy, building skyline, floor plan, landscape plan, urban grid, pedestrian and traffic flows etc. 17


Literature Review

2.6.3. NATURE OF THE SPACE Nature of the Space addresses spatal configurations in nature.

P11. PROSPECT: An unimpeded view over a distance, for surveillance and planning. Examples : Transparent materials, balconies, catwalks, staircases, landings, open floor plans, elevated planes, views including shade trees, bodies of water or evidence of human habitation etc. Figure 15

Figure 16

P12. REFUGE : A place for withdrawal from environmental conditons or the main flow of activity, in which the individual is protected from behind and overhead. Examples : Spaces with climate protection and visual privacy; spaces reserved for reflection, meditation, rest, relaxation; operable, adjustable or translucent; drop or lowered ceiling or soffit; lowered or varied light color; temperature or brightness etc.

P13. MYSTERY : The promise of more

Figure 17

information, achieved through partially obscured views or other sensory devices that entice the individual to travel deeper into the environment. Examples : Light and shadow, sound or vibration, activity or movement, artwork or installation, form and flow, translucent materials etc. 18


Literature Review

Figure 18

P14. RISK / PERIL : An identifiable threat coupled with a reliable safeguard. Examples : Double-height atrium with balcony or catwalk, architectural cantilevers, infinity edges, facade with floor-to ceiling transparency, experiences or objects that are perceived to be defying or testing gravity, transparent railing or floor plane, passing under, over or through water etc.

2.7. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF 14 BIOPHILIC PATTERNS BY TERRAPIN BRIGHT GREEN Different types of design integration systems are created by Terrapin Bright Green for the implamentation of the 14 biophilic design patterns. The chart below concluds and summarizes the design considerations on a chart.

Table 6. Design considerations by Terrapin Bright Green

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Literature Review

TABLE OF 14 BIOPHILIC PATTERNS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES *** Patterns that are supported by more rigourous emphirical data are marked with up to three asteriks.

NATURE OF THE SPACE

NATURAL ANALOGUES

NATURE IN THE SPACE

PATTERNS P1.Visual Connection with Nature

* ** *

P2. Non-Visual Connect on w th Nature

COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE

STRESS REDUCTION

EMOTION,MOOD, PREFERENCE

Lowered blood pressure and heart rate

Improved mental engagement / attentiveness

Positively impacted attitude and overall happiness

* *

Reduced systolic blood pressure and stress hormones

Positively impacted on cognitive performance

Perceived improvements in mental health and tranquility

P3. NonRhytmic Sensory Stimul

* *

Positively impacted on hearth Observed and quantified behavioral measures of rate, systolic blood pressure and symphatic nervous system attention and exploration activity

P4. Thermal& Airflow Variability

* *

Positively impacted comfort,well-be ng and productivity

Positively impacted concent ration

Improved perception of temporal and spatial pleasure (alliesthesia)

P4. Presence of Water

* *

Reduced stress, increased feelings of tranquility, lower heart rate and blood pressure

Improved concentration and memory restoration Enhanced perception and psychological responsiveness

Observed preferences and positive emotional responses

P6. Dynamic & Diffuse Light

**

Positively impacted circadian system functioning Increased visual comfort Enhanced positive health responses; Shifted percept on of environment

P7. Connection with natural systems P8. Biomorphic Forms & Patterns P9. Material Connection with Nature

*

P10. Complexity & Order

**

Positively impacted perceptu al and psychological stress responses

P11. Prospect

** *

Reduced Stress

P12. Refuge

* **

P13. Mystery

**

Induced strong pleasure response

*

Resulted in strong dopamine or pleasure responses

P14. Risk & Peril

Observed view preference Decreased diastolic blood pressure Improved comfort Improved creative performance Observed view preference Reduced boredom, irritation, fatigue

Improved comfort and perceived safety

Improved concentration, attention and perception of safety

Figure 7. Biological Responses of 14 Biophilic Design Patterns

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Literature Review

2.8. CONCLUSION OF THE CHAPTER In this section, the collection of researched data about different aspects of biophilic design from various resources points out the important and necessary information related to this study. It is well understood that the detailed reseaches had been done previously. This research illuminates the weaknesses and strenghts of these researches. The common strenght of the research field is its systematical framework which gives inspiration and motivation for the next chapters of this research. Yet, lack of specified and clear scope, scale and function considerations of the existing strategies related to biophilic design is observed.

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3

CHAPTER

A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC D E S I G N

Introduction A systematic Approach Implementation Spaces Human Activities Strategies for Patterns Values of Biophilic Design Figure 19


A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

3.1. INTRODUCTION : PURPOSE OF THE NEW APPROACH The exiting theories and strategies related to biophilic design is investigated and the weaknesses of the reviewed literature is clarified. This chapter introduces a new and more systematical biophilic design approach. The purpose of this new approach is to present a guideline and inspiration for the designers who wish to work with concern of nature inspired design. Bringing nature into architecture is a comlex topic which has to be understood well before starting to work on it. It has a complexity that covers the various types of scopes from nature itself to any kind of architectural design field. To bring nature into indoors is not only about interior architecture field. This goal requires a complementary and integrative design approach to understand the integration between fields and scopes which is as important as the design site. Complementary and integrative design approach means that indoor and outdoor spaces should not be considered as separated scopes. Their integration should be considered during the whole design process. As it is not an efficient way to design an indoor space without considering its surrounding outdoor, it is not possible to gain a successful biophilic design result when a space is designed without a complementary vision of nature. Therefore approach of the system which is suggested by this study embraces the integration of nature and architecture in a comprehensive technic. This technic is a tool that can be used from the first step until the last step of a design process. Firstly it helps designers to analyze and understand the true needs of spaces and users. Secondly gives them a guideline and offers biophilic design tools in order to focus on the right needs of spaces. Aim is to create design solutions for the indoor and outdoor spaces; moreover for their integration to each other. For this reason, spaces are going to be approached in three categories as outdoor spaces, transitional spaces and indoor spaces. This chapter introduces the three spaces and connection of their functions with users in the context of biophilia. In addition this chapter is a base and preparation for the next chapter. Thus it explains the biophilic design considerations as the first part of the suggested technic.

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3.2. THE NEW SYSTEM

1

2

Implementation Spaces

20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Human Activities

3

Values of 4 Design Patterns

Strategies for Conceptualization Table 8. 20 biophilic patterns and their design considerations

The system is formed in two parts as 20 biophilic design patterns and their design considerations. 20 biophilic design patterns are components and factors of a space that is intended to have a biophilic value. Furthermore the design considerations of these 20 biophilic design patterns are the constituents of design process. Moreover, it is essential to understand these considerations for a successful and comprehensive approach to biophilic design. Design considerations are gathered under four categories as implementation spaces, human activities in the space, strategies for biophilic design and values of biophilic design. The order of the considerations is a guideline of a design process. To understand the space with its opportunities,weaknesses and needs is suggested to be the primary step of the process. Second step is to decide the right design approach according to the users and their needs. Third step is to be inspired by nature and turn it into a design concept. Finally, the last step is the values of biophilic design which has to be considered and applied into design efficiently. Design considerations are created to understand the use of 20 biophilic design patterns in a complementary point of view. Thus, this chapter clarifies them one by one before the 20 biophilic design patterns are explained in the next chapter.

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A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

3.3. IMPLEMENTATION SPACES ‘’I think space, architectural space is my thing. It's not about facade, elevation, making image, making money. My passion is creating space.’’ Peter Zumthor Implementation Spaces

1

Spaces by Scope

Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces

2

Spaces by Function

Work places Retail Spaces Healthcare Spaces Playscapes Residential Spaces Spiritual Spaces Educational Spaces

Table 9. Implementation Spaces for Patterns

The term architectural space can be described by many experts as it is the place where the production is the subject of architecture [25]. As it has a more personal meaning for Peter Zumthor, it can be defined in many other ways by various professionals. Making the definition of it is not an easy task to do. Is it empty or full? People feel it with their senses but is its presence delimited by physical fullness, volume and form ? What is the limit of the architectural space ? These questions have been placing on many researches as discussion topics. Therefore, it is necessary to define space in the context of design considerations of this study. In order to keep nature-architecture comprehensive approach strong , it is not possible to define space only as a concept of enclosure and fullness which is separated from the outdoor environment. Thus, space can be defined by this study as the environment where any kind of human interaction exists. For this reason it is not appropriate to delimitate space as one type of volume and form since there can be various forms, scales and functions of a space. On the other hand it is essential to define the scope of this study. Therefore, some of the various types of spaces are categorized under this chapter with a generalized point of view.

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A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

3.3.1. SPACES BY SCOPE Complex and systematic way of thinking can help designers to create simple solutions for integration of indoor and outdoor concepts.This study aims to suggest a technic which is useful for bringing nature into spaces. Thus, it is important to clarify their scopes, relations to each other and challenges. For this reason this study views space as a concept in three categories as outdoor, transitional and indoor spaces. This categorization helps to investigate indoor and outdoor characteristics of spaces in order to understand their similarities, connections and dissimilarities. When the outdoor and indoor spaces can be understood deeply, importance of transitional spaces will be illuminated. Transitional spaces is an important category especially for the integrity of other two categories. As it is mentioned , understanding the space is the first step of the design considerations which are suggested by the system. Before starting to work on a design site , it is important to deeply analyze its surrounding spaces as well as the design site itself. This kind of analysis leads designers to the roots of existing problems and later on to the solutions. Outdoor Spaces : This category indicates wide range of outdoor spaces from natural environment to any kind of built environment. Outdoor spaces have the highest potential to supply natural environment for human needs. They play a big role for helathier life for human beings' need of continuously being connected to a natural environment which is called biophilia. [26][27] In the context of biophilic design, built environment should be considered as the part of outdoor spaces. An architectural structure can be connected to its exterior in many different ways. In traditional architecture concepts the building can dominate, surround or edge its environment. This study suggests that the building with its indoor and transitional spaces should gently merge with its environment.

Figure 20

Diagram 1

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A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

Transitional Spaces : Understanding the relation between indoor and outdoor spaces provides a vision for the characterization of transitional spaces as they share some of the features of both indoor and outdoor spaces. These spaces mostly play one of the most important roles of integration between different types of spaces. It is essential to have a deep knowledge of indoor and outdoor spaces of a design site in order to create a strong transitional zone which creates a bridge between indoor and outdoor spaces. Moreover it can be used as a powerful tool to create a comprenhensive transition between nature and architecture.

Figure 21

Diagram 2

Indoor Spaces : Indoor spaces can be defined as the environments that creates feeling of enclosure and shelter on the users with its vertical and horizontal architectural elements such as ceiling, walls, floor etc. When the topic is biophilic design, indoor spaces cannot be defined only with basit architectural elements. The aim of creating biophilic indoor environments is to design multi-sensory experience for the users. [28] Tools for this aim are not limited with only physical appearance of the natural elements. Interior designers have a key role in shaping the indoor spaces and therefore have the liability and obligation to create spaces that meet the right needs of humans to nature. With good design strategies indoor spaces can be strong enough to make users feel closer to nature even though they are in enclosed indoor space.

Figure 22

Diagram 3

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A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

3.3.2. SPACES BY FUNCTION Biophilic design has many elements and considerations with the purpose of bringing nature into spaces. Before starting to a design process, it is important for designers to know and clarify the function of their site because each space has its own function with different purpose of use. Moreover, every different type of space has its own needs in the context of biophila. For this reaoson, this study categorizes spaces by their functions with the limitation seven branches in order to have clear methodology. Work places : Representative elements of the natural world, natural light, plants and natural colors are desired by the users. Yet, 58% of the employees reported having no elements represents nature within their work environment.[29] Another survey of 1,000 office workers commissioned by Ambius found interesting results that show the outdoor time that Figure 23 employees spend during a typical workday is far less than the the time they spend indoors. [30] Healthcare Spaces : Previous chapter introduced how nature and biophilic design has positive impact on health, wellbeing and overall happiness of individuals. Even the simple use of natural elements, or interpretations of it, helps in healing process of patients making the healing process faster. [31] It is known that use of biophilia within hospitals statically reduces Figure 24 post-operative recovery by 8.5% and the use of pain medication by 22%. [32] Residential Spaces : Natural light, fresh air, feeling of being safe, plants that clean the air, use of natural materials such as wood, elements that represent nature such as fire, bird sound, wind and many others can be used in living spaces even in simple forms. Many researches prove that this kind of applications in residential spaces have many positive impacts on the residents such Figure 25 as increasing the quality of sleep, reducing, boosting energy etc. [33] 28


A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

Educational Spaces : Many people spend their significant amount of time in the educational spaces such as nurseries, schools, university campuses, course places, libraries etc. As it is mentioned in the previous chapter, direct or indirect contact of humans with nature creates better consantration level. It is also observed that children have higher test scores when they access Figure 26 greater natural lighting, outdoors, and natural materials. [34] Retail Spaces : People spend increasingly more time in commercial spaces; especially in retail centres. And brands are trying to create more restorative and positive shopping experiences for the consumers. Elelements of nature can help customers to restore their direct attention. [35] This way the number of sales can increase and a more satisfactory experience for the costumers Figure 27 can be achieved. Playscapes : Children express their natural love of nature at an early age by being attracted to animals, plants, water and natural materials. The open-ended scope of nature gives children to be more creative. Nature gives them more space to be more energetic and free. [36] As natural environments are not accessible enough in the urban areas as playscapes, biophilic design plays Figure 28 an effective and important impact on children to protect their bond with nature. Spiritual Spaces : Humans are surviving thanks to nature which gives them all the necessary sources that they need. Their biological systems and bodies involve elements which are also working in nature for different purposes. In many belief, human and nature are considered to be extension of one another. This approach is a similar approach to Biophilia Hypothesis. Figure 29 Thus, Use of biophilic elements can imrove sipiritual feelings to higher levels. 29


A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

3.4. HUMAN ACTIVITIES ‘’Nature uses human imagination to lift her work of creation to even higher levels.’’ Luigi Pirandello

Table 10. Human in Nature

Human in Nature

Human Activities Human Feelings Dynamic Activities

Stable Activities

Walking Exploring Swimming Climbing etc.

Sitting Contemplating Laying Fishing etc.

Mystery Attraction Spiritality Enclosure Calmness

Curiosity Excitement Protection Fear etc.

Nature always offers people various types of activities by encouraging them to be creative about how they can use its elements as useful materials. Using a tree branch or a random stone for sitting, a simple grassland for running or sleeping or trying to find the clues in order to find our way in the forest like a game and many other activities are all the result of our flexible and enjoyable nature. All these activities and feelings are can be easily seen in built envionment as well. Nature only does it in its perfect way. As designers to give this flexibility and variety of activities and feelings to the users, it is an effective concept to be inspired by nature. To decide what activity with which type of feeling is wanted to be created in the space is a big step forward in a design process. So after this step, designers can be inspired by observation of people and their behaviors in nature.

Figure 30

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A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

3.5. STRATEGIES FOR BIOPHILIC DESIGN

Strategies For Biophilic Design

1

Nature for Concept

2

Conceptualization

3

Imlementation to Space

Table 11. Strategies for Biophilic Design

After the space is clarified and user needs are examined, conceptualization of a design process starts. Strategies does help designers to be insipired by nature and turn their observation to a concept and finally to a real architectural space. This study suggests three steps of a conceptualization process with the helpful tools.

smelling, seeing, tasting, hearing and even feeling the nature.

Nature gives us tremendous amount of inspiration. We only should know how to understand it in our way and turn it into any fields of architectural creation. To do this, it is important to use all our senses by touching,

In this case it is possible to call designers as the potential bridge which can fill the gap between nature and the built environment which is rapidly growing day by day.

For any problem, nature always has a solution if we can identify the problem truly and seek for the solution enough. Whatever the design task, scope or scale is nature is there to be the source of endless inspiration.

‘’Beauty is hidden in everything. Just learn how to observe.’ ‘ Ritu Ghatourey

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Figure 28

Nature for Concept

1

During the process of biophilic design verything starts with observing and trying to understand the way of nature to behave in different situations and how it solves the problems. Moreover analzing its forms and usage and to turn them into sketches, diagrams or any tool will lead designer to the abstraction process.

Figure 31

2

Conceptualization Conceptualization of nature is one of the most critical stage of the process. What is observed in nature should be blended with geometrical forms. Nature is a complex form and when it is intended to abstracted, this complexity should be seen, understood and abstracted with simplicity with using biomimicry methods.

Figure 32

3

Implementation to Space With method of analogy, similarities and differences of nature and built environment, can be defined. Limits of the design site can be understood better by using this method. As nature simplified and conceptualized on the second step, complexity of built environement can be thought in this step in order to address all the senses.

Figure 33

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A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOPHILIC DESIGN

3.6. VALUES OF BIOPHILIC DESIGN

Diagram 4

Local Features : Every culture has its own geographical, demographical, architectural values and resources. Biophilic design should respect its sorruounding values. As long as it is not necessary, using local features should always be considered as the first option. [37]

Diagram 5

Resource Efficiency: Biophilic design respects nature and uses the limited resources of the world in an efficient and in a most sustainable way possible. Biomimicry 3.8 mentions that we should take adventage of resources of nature skillfully and conservatively. [37]

Diagram 6

Life Friendly Chemistry : Life friendly chemistry is one of the six primary Life's Principles of Biomimicry 3.8 which mentions that we should take advantage of resources and opportunities of nature skillfully and conservatively. [37] Nature solves chemistry needs in a more sustainable way. Complexity : Nature has an endless complexity. Yet, its system is perfectly working in an order. Even though we design of architectural space is not as complex as nature, it is important to be inspired by nature’s complexity in order to create simply complex spaces.

Diagram 7

Simplicity : Even if complexity and simplicity sound as oppositions of each other, it is a challenge for biophilic designers to resolve simplicity in complexity. Representative elements of nature should be applied in the space in way that they can be seen as one all together. 33


4

CHAPTER

20 BIOPHILIC D E S I G N PAT T E R N S

Categories of 20 Biophilic Patterns Charts Figure 34


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

This study introduces 20 biophilic design patterns which are created by considering their relation to nature and impacts that they have on human psychology. These patterns can be applied in design sites with the design considerations which are explained in previous chapter.

4.1. INTRODUCTION : CATEGORIES OF 20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS CATEGORIES OF 20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

1

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACE

Characteristics of Space refers to the patterns which define and create the atmosphere and feeling of an environment. These are the patterns plays with all senses of humans and activates their feelings with the use of other categories. 7 patterns of this category are as it follows; Attraction as the dominant pattern Mystery, Prospect and Refuge, Risk / Peril, Diversity , Dynamism, Continuity.

2

FORMS OF SPACE

Forms of Space patterns refer to the geometrical forms, openness, closeness and volumes of a space. General concept of the Form of Space patterns’ general concept comes from being the patterns which make the most direct connection with outdoor and indoor spaces.These patterns are: Thermal Air Variability, Landform Levels, Visual Connection with Nature, Volumes, Dominance and Scale.

3

ELEMENTS OF SPACE

Elements of Space refers to the interventions in a space which can be done through use of materials, objects, living forms, use of colors etc. These patterns can be found in nature and creates the most nature-like feeling when they are used : Reflection, Dynamic / Diffuse Light, Presence of water, Use of Plants, Color Palette, Material Connection with Nature, Representatives of Nature. Table 12. Categories of 20 Biophilic

35


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACE PATTERNS AND THEIR RELATIONS Diversity Flexibility

Mystery

Prospect& Refuge

Dynamism

Attraction

Continuity

Risk / Peril FORMS OF SPACE PATTERNS AND THEIR RELATIONS

Thermal &Air Flow Variability

Dominance

Landform Levels

Biomorphic Forms and Patterns

Visual Connection with nature

Scale

ELEMENTS OF SPACE PATTERNS AND THEIR RELATIONS Reflection

Use of Plants

Representatives of Nature

Color Palette

Material Connection with Nature

Dynamic& Diffuse Light

Presence of Water These patterns have been inspired from 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design by Terrapin Bright Green.

Table 13. Categories of 20 biophilic design patterns and their relations

36 1


CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACE PATTERNS

Figure 35


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 36

Feeling : Attraction Excitement Impacts : Feeling lively and engaged with the environment. Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Educational Spaces Retail Spaces Playscapes Examples : Water Features, artworks representing nature, informative boards and posters etc.

Figure 37

4.1.1. ATTRACTION Nature has tremendous amount of values which can make people attracted to it easily but why are people drawn to nature that much? The reason why people are attracted to nature is explained by Biophilia Hypothesis as the innate love of people to nature. Especially because of densely polulated city life, hunger for natural environments and living organisms was evolved. The pattern attrection responds to this hunger of people by using any kind of charm such as artisting paintings which represent nature, accessibility for touching water, closeness to the plantation and animals etc. Thus, attraction is the most dominant pattern of Characteristics of The Space category because every other six patterns are in direct or indirect relation with Attraction. It is possible to consider those six patterns as the branches of Attraction pattern because directly or indirectly all patterns are effective in different levels in order to make people attracted. 38 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 38

Feeling : Mystery Attraction Curiosity Impacts : Strong pleasure response Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Educational Spaces Playscapes Spiritual Spaces Examples : Contrast darksness with light, unknown narrow paths, enclosed indoor spaces, half transparent materials etc.

Figure 39

4.1.2. MYSTERY Humans are driven by their hunger to reach the knowledge from their childhood times. [38] This hunger is called curiosity which is one of the basic elemens of human cognition. [39] They have a desire to reach the knowledge which they don’t have as long as they have enough clues that shows them there is more to discover. At this point missing knowledge of a space works the same for human psychology. When there is a clue about the space but it is not possible to see the whole picture, people start to develop a desire to explore more about the space. Mystery of a space is explained well on the report of Terraping Bright Green as the promise of more information achieved through partially obscured views or other sensory devices that entice the individual to travel deeper into the environment. [40] Thus, this pattern is suitable for the spaces where people’s purpose is to explore. This pattern can be used with the purpose of teaching in a highly effective way. 39 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 40

Feeling : Attraction, enclosure curiosity, protection,calmness Impacts : Reduced stress, improved concentration, perception of safety. Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Work Places, healthcare spaces residential spaces, educational spaces, spiritual spaces.

Figure 41

4.1.3. PROSPECT & REFUGE People like to be in secure places where they can see an open view. This desire of humans is clarified with The Prospect and Refuge Theory which is explained in Chapter two. According to this theory people prefer the spaces where they can see (prospect) without being seen (refuge). It is possible to see this theory in every-day lifes of humans. For example in a restaurant, they intended to sit on the tables which are closer to walls and not in the middle. In order to create this feeling in a design, a space should offer people procpect and refuge spaces. For example; wide grassland surrounded by trees, open gallery views to watch from elevated floors etc. Diagram 8

Examples : Private rooms, seperators, open views through enclosed spaces etc.

40 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 42

Feeling : Mystery, attraction, curiosity excitement, fear. Impacts : Controllable risk supports positive experiences. Devoloping risk assessment. Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Healthcare Spaces Playscapes Examples : High terraces, glass floor materials, being under heavy objects, walls filled with water etc.

Figure 43

4.1.4. RISK / PERIL People face similar situations and spaces in their daily lives. When they interact with similar situations and spaces over and over again and no harm happens to them, they start to feel secure in that specific situation or space. On the other hand when they experience an unexpected space, they try to relate it with their previous experiences. If they find a relation between the unfamiliar space with a danger they observed or experienced before, they start to feel in danger. Ancestors of humans had to fight with animals for survival. Even though fear doesn’t sound as a positive feeling, it one of the feelings that people have to face especially in nature. This feeling can be used in a positive way by creating secure spaces with controlable risk and danger concepts. This pattern’s usage is especially important for the playscapes where children can be able to develope risk assessment skills when it is time to face with such a situation. 41 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 44

Feeling : Attraction Curiosity Excitement Impacts : More effective management[43] Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Workplaces Residential Spaces Retail Spaces Playscapes

Figure 45

4.1.5. DIVERSITY & FLEXIBILITY Nature allows people to use its environment in a diverse and flexible way. It gives people flexibility to be create with its spaces. It is only a question of creativity how many fuctions people can create with a simple rock or a tree. In different seasons and different times of days the same space can be used with different purposes. Designers also can give space for their users to be creative by designing flexible and diverse environments that changes according to time and need. This diversity as the representative of living atmosphere of nature, can make people feel that the designed space is also alive. Diagram 9

Examples : Flexible furnitures with multi-functional purposes, diverse textures and forms etc.

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20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 46

Feeling : Attraction Excitement Fear Impacts : Activation in the brain Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Workplaces Educational Spaces Playscapes

Figure 47

4.1.6. DYNAMISM Dynamisim in architecture is relatively refers to movement and change. Use of dynamic forms, functions and materials represents the living form of nature. It is possible to see many different dynamic forms in nature such as waves or wind. When people experience this kind of movements, they feel unsafe and want to find a shelter. When this happens, their brain is being warned and it starts to be activated more effectively. In a smaller scale, when people experience dynamic forms and geometries which are dominant comparing to surrounding objects, their brain gets to be activated the same way as it occurs in nature. Diagram 10

Examples : Dynamic forms and spaces, moving elements in the space, dynamic colors, staircases with attractive volumes etc.

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20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 48

Feeling : Attraction, Spiritiality Curiosity Impacts : Feeling of eternity Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Retail Spaces Sipiritual Spaces Examples : Continious path with a contrast material, repetetive architectural elements, linear ceiling or floor lighting systems, treelines or linear edges etc.

Figure 49

4.1.7. CONTINUITY Architectural continuity is a well-known concept that aims to create continuous spaces or provide the continuous life form to the architectural work. Why is this concept important? Does it connected to nature somehow? Architecture intervenes nature and it is clearly an important task not to break its continuity down. It is not easy to imagine the end point when we look at nature. It looks big and continuous. It is alive. It lives and changes. This can be the reason why people are being impressed not only by continuity of life of nature but also visual continuity of it. Views which looks endless activates the feeling of eternity perception on people. It also makes them feel curious about where the linear form goes. Accordingly this perception of people, organically formed long vegetated lines that are sometimes separation and sometimes dominant element of natural landscape gives inspiration for this pattern. 44 1


FORMS OF SPACE P A T T E R N S

Figure 50


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 51

Feeling : Attraction Sipirituality Calmness Impacts : Comfort Well-being Productivity Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Work Places Healthcare Spaces Educational Spaces Examples : Ventilation systems, windows places in contrast positions,

Figure 51

4.2.1. THERMAL & AIR FLOW VARIABILITY Everyone knows the feeling of a wind touching the skin softly with a perfect temperature. While soft changes in temperature and air flow with a relative humidity are creating a nature-like atmosphere, they also support to have cleaner air in the environment. Air which is coming from outside to the interior is also an integration element. There are various ways to control and diversify airflow of a space. Sometimes by using in all scales of spaces. Air can move at outdoor spaces, through the surface of a hill; at transitional spaces between the columns of an arcade; at indoor spaces between the windows. It is possible to create indoor air flow variability with air conditioning and ventilation systems as well. Diagram 11

outdoor 46 1

transitional

indoor


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 52

Feeling : Attraction Enclosure Protection Impacts : Engagement with the environment Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Retail Spaces Playscapes Spiritual Spaces Examples : Terrain-like elevation differences which gets to be higher gradually on the floor, artificial hills etc.

Figure 53

4.2.2. LANDFORM LEVELS

Landforms of nature often shape gradually. This feature of landforms smoothly create volumes. With the right use of gradual elements in space, feeling of a natural terrain can be reached. Moreover for reaching this natural terrain figure, material and plant use on these levels is very important. For example earth can be used as a material in some cases and in this situation these levels can give even more natural feeling to people. Additionally, landform levels as a pattern is in direct connection with the other patterns. Because landform levels can create dominance or prospect and refuge patterns when they come together. Levels can be used in spiritual or retail spaces in order to emphasize importance of persons, objects or products. Levels can also be used with water in order to create flowing water features such as indoor waterfalls. 47 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 54

Feeling : Attraction Excitement Calmness Impacts : Reduced attentional fatigue, sadness and agression Improved mental engagement and attentiveness Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : -utdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Work Places Healthcare Spaces Educational Spaces Examples : Any kind of visual connection with nature.

Figure 55

4.2.3. VISUAL CONNECTION WITH NATURE

People enjoy to watch views of nature. When they are tired or stressed, most of the time a beautiful natural view helps them for stress reduction and calming down. They want to see greenary through their windows. The ones who live in cities spend time in parks just to see natural elements. That’s true that people like to have visual connection with nature. But why? Because natural views can involve many elements such as water, vegatation, pleasing colors, natural light etc. While the other patterns explain the reasons why people are attracted to these natural elements, visual connection with nature is a pattern that claims; beyond having proximity to nature and natural elements, only seeing these elements have strong impacts on people as well. This pattern is strongly related any other pattern that is suggested by this study as it can contain them all visually. 48 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 55

Feeling : Attraction Curiosity Impacts : View preference observed Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Suggested for all spaces Examples : Structural elements with the biomorphic forms such as columns or roofs, pavement patterns, textures, window frames, artworks / sculptures etc.

Figure 57

4.2.4. BIOMORPHIC FORMS AND PATTERNS Every Nature as a source of inspiration, offers many forms which can be conceptually applied in different types of spaces. These kind of applications are not only reminding natural patterns to people, but also solves issues of built environment with a nature-inspired way. Biomimicry is an important technic for this pattern. Observing nature and choosing the right value of it in the context of the space and bringing it into the space is a comlex task but once it is succeeded, it becomes an efficient feature for the integrity of the space and its surrounding. On the image above (figure 57) it can be seen how the form of the indoor spaces is merging with it is environment visually. When it is intended to create biomorphic forms, it is important to observe surrounding and local natural elements and their forms. Since the task is to capture integrity of indoor and outdoor spaces, biomorphic elements should exist in the space in harmony with its surrounding.. 49 1


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Figure 58

Feeling : Attraction Spiritality Impacts : Attracts attention of the observer Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Educational Spaces Retail Spaces Sipiritual Spaces Examples : Monumental creatures as eye-catchers, big screens dominating the space for attention of the observer etc.

Figure 59

4.2.5. DOMINANCE In natural landscapes dominant forms appears as trees, mountains, stones etc. Dominance of a form appears in space as an eye-catcher. As soon as the space is observed, it should be the first seen form which dominates the space. This dominance can be reached by using various technics. For instance, its material or color can be in contrast with other materials and colors exist in the space; its scale can be greatly bigger than its surrounding or it can be illuminated by lighting elements in a dark environment. These are only few conceptual examples which explain how to design dominant forms in a space. Besides, dominant element takes the attraction of observer. Thus dominance in a space is suitable especially for the places where the users are desired to take attention on the dominant form. Dominance has also been using for centuries as the symbol of royalty, holiness and greatness. This is the reason why the castels are mostly on top of the cities.

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Figure 60

Feeling : Attraction Sipiritality Fear Impacts : Comfort or Uncomfort Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Sipiritual Spaces Exampless : Temples such as churches or mosques, memorial structures which exalts something, High columns and structures as represetative of forest etc.

Figure 61

4.2.6. SCALE Today humans live in spaces that were designed ergonomically for their standart measurement. It is comfortable to use these kind of ergonomic furnitures, tools and devices. Their purpose is to make people’s lives easier. In contrast, nature does not always offer human scale forms. Humans as creatures who live with these standart measurements which suits with their bodies, feel unfamiliar with the scale of nature. For example when they see a huge tree trunk they start to think how small they are comparing to nature. When this ‘scale’ concept is brought into architecture, it makes people feel in a similar way. Thus, nature inspired and over-scaled architectural buildings are being created with the intension of making people feel small. For example churches and masques are designed to make people feel smaller so they can feel the greatness of god in a more stronger way. I is also believe that high churches lift the soul to heaven. While in Islam it is believed that god embraces people. 51 1


ELEMENTS OF SPACE P A T T E R N S

Figure 62


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 63

Feeling : Attraction Calmness Impacts : Percieving space bigger Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Retail Spaces Spiritual Spaces Exampless : Reflecting surfaces such as mirror, water, metal, glass etc.

Figure 64

4.3.1. REFLECTION Reflection is a strong pattern for the integration of indoor and outdoor spaces. It is possible to expand or distort a place; or to blend two spaces in one frame by using reflective surfaces. If the conditions are good enough, it can be possible to bring any other patterns into a space by using only reflection. For example; a simple mirror can reflect a view or light to a space which has no direct connection with them. Reflective materials can also be use to blend a structure into its environment and to make it almost invisible. (Figure 64) Another example can be given as water surfaces. When water is used to reflect what is above it, perfect symmetrical views can be captured or dominance of an element can be emphasized by reflection on water surfaces. Continuity of a space likewise can be perceived as even more continuous than it is. As it seems, reflection is a strong element/tool of space especially in order to create visually integrated biophilic spaces. 53 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 65

Feeling : Attraction Calmness Impacts : Higher productivity Higher sales Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Highly suggested for all of the spaces. Exampless : Electrical light sources, window openings, window frames with dynamic patterns to make dynamic shadows etc.

Figure 66

4.3.2. DYNAMIC & DIFFUSE LIGHT Light is never stable in nature. It changes during days and months. People can relate themselves to time in nature through light. Unfotunately not every time it is possible to have enough natural light source in architectural spaces. Bringing light into built environment is not only about using light sources. First of all in any types of space, the maximum effort should be given in order to bring natural light to the environment as much as possible. Because natural light itself is already dynamic and diffuse. In the cases that it is not possible to carry enough natural light into space, other types of light sources can be used. It is always important to remember that creating light is also creating shadows. Thus shadows and light should be thought and designed together. In order to create environments with dynamic and diffuse light which represents time and change different materials can be used such as seperators with biomorphic forms, openings between two objects etc. 54 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 67

Feeling : Attraction Calmness Impacts : Reduced stress, increased tranquility feeling Lower heart rate and blood pressure Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Highly suggested for all of the spaces. Exampless : Artificial waterfalls, water ponds, decorative or swimming pools, inner lake etc.

Figure 68

4.3.3. PRESENCE OF WATER Water has various positive impacts on human psychology such as reduced stress, restorative response etc. Accordingly, landscapes with water being prefered by people more than landscape which don’t contain water. Because it has been one of the most important sources of life for people since the birth of humankind. There are many ways to explain human attractionton to water. They relate water most of the time to food production. Thus, proximity to water is very important for life. Once proximity to water exists in a space, people often want to touch it. There are different ways to apply presence of water pattern to a space. Three important design forms of water use are dynamic water, flowing water and stable water. The more water gets dynamic, people feel more attracted. For example they are attracted to waterfalls more than stable water features because dynamism of water falling to the ground reminds people the freshness and cleanness of water just like rain. 55 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 69

Feeling : Attraction Calmness Impacts : Calming effect Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Highly suggested for all of the spaces. Examples : Green and blue colors that symbolized stability and nature as cold colors, their pastel variations, sometimes mixed with dynamic warm colors etc.

Figure 70

4.3.4. COLOR PALETTE It is an undeniable fact that colors have a big importance in people’s lives. Every color has an impact on human psychology. As single colors, they can create various feelings and moods of a space. Combination of colors can sometimes have even stronger effects. Beside, some of the specific colors can strongly support a creation of a natural environment. Use of color yellow can support the natural light feeling especially on the ceilings of indoors. Green is a secondary cold color and ccepted as the representative color of nature with its calm impact on people. Moreover green is the most restful color for eyes because it makes focus exactly on retina.[41] Blue as a cold color and representative of water in nature, has a relaxing effect. Brown is a color which is mixture of many colors. Thus it can have very different effects in different situations. As it is associated with wood, right tone and amount of brown can represent warmness of wood. 56 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 71

Feeling : Attraction Calmness Impacts : Improved creative performance Improved comfort Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Highly suggested for all spaces. Exampless : wood, natural stones, earth, sand, bamboo, straw-bale, cob, adobe etc.

Figure 72

4.3.5.MATERIAL CONNECTION WITH NATURE

When a space is well integrated with natural materials and represents nature efficiently, it makes the space warm and authentic. [42] As one of the elements of space pattern, material connection with nature is one of the most direct ways to refer nature in a space. Materials are directly in correlation with humans. They appear in the space phycically so people can touch, smell, see and even hear them in a space. This pattern is important because it communicates with many senses of humans. Besides the psychological effects material connection with nature, using natural and local materials have other structural and sustainable benefits as well. In order to apply this pattern to a design in a efficient way, these materials should desirably be the natural values of the local area which represents its local geography, climate and features. They also should be as natural as possible with minimal processing. 57


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 73

Feeling : Attraction, calmness Curiosity Impacts : Attention and exploration desire Relaxation Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Work Places, Healthcare Spaces, Educational Spaces, Playscapes, Sipiritual Spaces Exampless : Natural sounds (water, birds etc.), fire, animals, natural food etc.

Figure 74

4.3.6. NATURAL REPRESENTATIVES

Nature offers people more than only forms, materials and colors. There are many other values that can be related directly to nature by people. For example people are curious about animals or smell of plants. As soon as they get into interection with these kind of values, humans start to be attracted to them. In another example, people are highly drawn to fire. Flames capture their attention immedeately. Fire was very important in evolution of human history. [43] It is unknown why humans are attracted to fire but this can be explained by biophilia. Yet, there are other different theories related to human attraction to fire. [44] Natural representatives of space refer to any kind of living forms in nature by reaching five human senses. These are the elements of nature that we can taste, hear, smell, touch or see. Unlike other patterns, this pattern includes elements which are not directly related to technical and structural architecture. 58 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

Figure 75

Feeling : Attraction Calmness Impacts : Higher productivity Helps for headache Better focus Highly Suggested Spaces by Scale : Outdoor Spaces Transitional Spaces Indoor Spaces Highly Suggested Spaces by Function: Highly suggested for all of the spaces. Exampless : Potted plants, green walls, courtyard trees, rooftop gardens, climbers etc.

Figure 76

4.3.7. USE OF PLANTS

Seeing plants is a pleasure for people because plants represent life. It means that an environment where the plants are healthy, possibly has good quality of conditions to live and survive. With new technologies not only outdoors also indoors, it is possible to create good conditions for plants almost in any kind of built environment. Besides, it is well-known that there are many benefits of plants.They reduce stress and help for human well-being; improves air quality by cleaning air; reduce noise. It is claimed by Ambius that plants can reduce backgroud noise because some plants’ leaves can absorb background noise. [45] Moreover when they are used on the floor, facade or rooftop they work as energy savers. As it can be understood, plants have a great value in our lives. People should aim to create more vegetated spaces both in quantity and quality aspects. 59 1


Suggested Plants for Indoor and Transitional Spaces FLOOR

TABLETOP

20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

HANGER

Chysalidacarpus Lutescens (Areca Palm) Light: Medium-Low

Pilea Peperomioides (Chinese Money Plant) Light: Medium

Nephrolepis Exaltata (Sword Fern) Light: Medium-Low

Strelitzia Reginae (Bird of Paradise) Light: Medium-Hight

Aloe Vera (Medicinal Aloe) Light: High

Dischidia Nummularia (String of Nickles) Light: Medium

Monstera Deliciosa (Swiss Cheese Plant) Light: High

Sansevieria Species (Snake Plant) Light: Medium

Epipremnum Aureum (Devil’s Evy) Light: High-Medium

60 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

SUGGESTED PATTERNS FOR SPACES BY FUNCTION Work

Healthcare Residential Education

Retail

Playscapes Spiritual

Attraction Mystery Prospect Refuge Risk/Peril Diversity Flexibility Dynamism Continuity Thermal Airflow V. Landform Levels Vis.Con. with Nature Biomorphic Forms&P. Dominance Scale Reflection Dy. Dif. Light Presence of Water Color Palette Material Connection Natural Represent. Use of Plants Table 14. Suggested patterns for spaces by function

61 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

RELATION OF PATTERNS AND HUMAN FEELINGS Mystery Attraction Spiritali. Enclosure Curious. Excite. Protection Fear

Calm.

Attraction Mystery Prospect Refuge Risk/Peril Diversity Flexibility Dynamism Continuity Thermal &Airflow Var. Landform Levels Visual Connect. with Nature Biomorphic Forms&Patterns Dominance Scale Reflection Dynamic Diffuse Light Presence of Water Color Palette Material Connection Natural Representetives Use of Plants Table 15. Pattern-human feeling relation

62 1


20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS

PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF PATTERNS

Attraction

Feeling lively and engaged with the environment / Ellard C.,Places of Heart,2015

Mystery

Strong pleasure /Biederman, 2011 / Blood & Zatorre, 2011 / Salimpoor,Benovoy,Larcher,2011

Prospect Refuge

Reduced stress level / Grahn & Stigsdotter, 2010 Improved concentration, perception of safety / Ulrich et al. , 1993 Controllable risk supports positive experiences / Van Den Berg & ter Hejne, 2005 / Blood & Zatorre, 2001 / Developing risk assesment / Kahn&Kellert, 2002

Risk/Peril Diversity Flexibility

More effective management /

Dynamism

Activation in brain /

Continuity

Perception of eternity.

Thermal &Airflow Var. Landform Levels Visual Connect. with Nature Biomorphic Forms&Patterns

Kaplan, 1987

Gallase, Human Nature Dynamism, 2016

Comfort, well-being and productivity /

Heerwagen,2006 / Tham&Willem,2005

Engagement with environment. Reduced fatigue, sadness, anger and aggression. Improved mental engagement and attentiveness / Biederman & Vessel , 2006 View preference is observed /

Vessel,2012 / Joye, 2007

Dominance

Attracts attention of the observer /

Kaplan, 1992 / Ulrich, 1983

Scale

Feeling of comfort or uncomfort /

Cristopher Alexander, 1977

Reflection

Various perceptions of space size.

Dynamic Diffuse Light Presence of Water Color Palette Material Connection Natural Representetives Use of Plants

Higher productivity and higher sales / Browning, Romm, 1994 Reduced stress, increased feeling of tranquilit, lower heart rate and blood pressure, / Alwarsson, Wiens & Nilsson, 2010 Calming effect by nature reflecting colors /Nelson, J.G. Pelech M.T, Foster S. F.,1984 Improved creative performance / Lichthenfeld et. al. 2012 Improved comfort / Tsunetsugu Myazaki & Sato, 2007 Attention and exploration / Windhager et. al. , 2011 Relaxation / Lewis, 2012 / Vessel, 2012 Higher productivity / Alex Haslam/University of Queensland, school of psychology Helps headache, better focus / Ulrich, 1984 / Lohr et. al., 1996�

Table 16. Psychological impacts of patterns

63 1


5

CHAPTER

CASE STUDIES SUGGESTIONS

Case Studies Suggestions


Case Studies

5.1. INTRODUCTION TO CASE STUDIES Purpose of this chapter is to examine existing case studies in the context of suggested New Approach to Biophilic Design and 20 Biophilic Design Patterns. The suggested approach is intended to be universal and applicable to any space. Thus, this study analysis three case studies. Table 17. Structure of Case Study Analysis

Smaller Area

Figure 77

Bigger Area

Figure 78

Figure 79

INDOOR SPACE

TRANSITIONAL SPACE

OUTDOOR SPACE

CASE STUDY 1

CASE STUDY 2

CASE STUDY 3

These three case studies are intentionally chosen from different parts of the world and being examined in three categories as indoor, transitional and outdoor spaces. They vary also in scale and function. The purpose of this intentional diversity of selection is to understand the patterns and their design considerations in different cases and scenarios. Another reason of the selection of these specific projects is their design methods. All of three case studies were designed with the consideration of bringing nature into architecture concept. After selection of case studies, examine process of case studies starts and this study tries to finds conclusions about 20 Biophilic Design Patterns and their design considerations. 65


Case Studies

5.1.1. CASE STUDY 1 : INDOOR SPACE NAME : MAGGIE’S OLDHAM LOCATION : OLDHAM, ENGLAND FUNCTION : REHABILITATION CENTER ARCHITECTS: dRMM ARCHITECTS YEAR : 2017 This case study site is chosen because of its location; especially its neighborhood is challenging to deal with biophilic design. As it can be seen on figure80, Maggie’s Diagram 12

Figure 80

Oldham is sorrounded by buildings, concrete and solid stone walls (figure 81). In this situation making the outdoor connection with indoor is a difficult challenge. Yet, dRMM Architects dealed with issue in a smart way. Once a visitor enters from this solid walls of the street to the building, it is easy to have the feeling of being in a garden. This study is a well-designed example to understand how biophilic design patterns can be applied even in small spaces

Lacking Integration Between Spaces

Figure 81 Figure 82

Better Integration between Spaces 66


Case Studies

Diagram 13

Attraction Mystery Prospect Refuge

Attraction Use of Plants Dynamism

Risk/Peril Diversity Flexibility Dynamism

Dynamic Diffuse Light

Prospect Refuge

Figure 83

Continuity Thermal &Airflow Var. Landform Levels Visual Connect. with Nature Biomorphic Forms&Patterns Dominance Scale Reflection

Continuity Material C. to N.

Figure 84

(yellow-natural light)

Color palette Flexibility

Figure 85

67

Dynamic Diffuse Light Presence of Water Color Palette Material Connection Natural Representetives Use of Plants


Case Studies

5.1.2. CASE STUDY 2 : TRANSITIONAL SPACE NAME : KHOO-TECK PUAT HOSPITAL LOCATION : SINGAPORE FUNCTION : HEALTHCARE BLOCKS ARCHITECTS: RMJM ARCHITECTS YEAR : 2010

Diagram 14

Figure 86

Figure 88

As it can be seen in Figure 88, Khoo-Teck Puat Hospital is located in a densely urbanized area comparing to Maggie’s Oldham. It also has a bigger scale. Yet, it is a successful design both in the terms of biophilia and integration of indoor and outdoor spaces. This case study site is chosen because of its high quality and human-friendly design approach which directly focuses on integration of indoor and outdoor spaces. In the previous chapters importance of biophilic design and patterns in healthcare spaces was discussed. This hospital tries to bring nature for the patients and makes them feel closer to nature as much as possible even in such a densely built area.

Figure 87

Figure 89

68


Case Studies

Attraction Visual Connection Presence of Water Use of Plants

Attraction Mystery Prospect Refuge Risk/Peril Diversity Flexibility

Continuity

Dynamism Continuity

Landform Levels Use of Plants

Figure 90

Diversity&Flexibility Prospect Refuge

Thermal &Airflow Var. Landform Levels Visual Connect. with Nature Biomorphic Forms&Patterns Dominance Scale Reflection

Material Connection with Nature

Landform Levels & Color Palette

Figure 91

69

Dynamic Diffuse Light Presence of Water Color Palette Material Connection Natural Representetives Use of Plants


Case Studies

5.1.3. CASE STUDY 3 : OUTDOOR SPACE NAME : GARDENS BY BAY SINGAPORE LOCATION : SINGAPORE FUNCTION : PARK ARCHITECTS: GRAND ASSOCIETS YEAR : 2012

Figure 92

Gardens by Bay Singapore is the biggest in area among the three case studies. Singapore is well-known with its name ‘’city in a garden’’. This not wrong to say. As figure 92 shows even the dense areas of Singapore is full of greenery. Thus, this park integrates with its surrounding spaces well. Gardens by Bay Singapore is one of the most attractive parks in the world with its biomorphic forms forest-like trees and atmosphere. This park is design with the considerations of biophilic and moreover, sustainable design which expalins the source of its success behind.

Figure 93

70


Case Studies

Attraction Attraction Mystery Dynamism Biomorphic forms and patterns Dominance Scale Plant Use

Mystery Prospect Refuge Risk/Peril Diversity Flexibility Dynamism Continuity Thermal &Airflow Var. Landform Levels

Presence of Water

Figure 94

Prospect Refuge

Visual Connect. with Nature Biomorphic Forms&Patterns Dominance Scale

Reflection Continuity Color Palette

Figure 95

Dynamism Biomophic forms and patterns

Figure 96 Figure 85

Diagram 17

71

Reflection Dynamic Diffuse Light Presence of Water Color Palette Material Connection Natural Representetives Use of Plants


Suggestions

5.2. SUGGESTIONS : SZIE BUDAI CAMPUS - K BUILDING , BUDAPEST SUGGESTIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF 20 BIOPHILIC DESIGN PATTERNS As the strategy and patterns are introduced detaily in previous chapters, strategies can be understand more efficiently in a live case study besides case studies. Budai Campus of Szent Istvan University is at the same time an arboretum. In this campus, where the garden involves many types of plants, Building K -which is the main building of the campus- has minor integration problems with its beautiful and green surrounding. This part of the study suggests simple but efficient solutions for the problematic indoor and transitional spaces. Firstly, it examines the existing functions , patterns and characteristics of the space. Then , this study intends to find possible parts of the building where is available to implement easy and efficient solutions both for the staff and students. This way, it aims to prove success of 20 Biophilic Design Patterns in defining the problems and opportunities of a space. Figure 97

72


Suggestions

FUNCTION SCHEME

1

Parking Area Entrance

1 Information Security

4 Cloak Room

7 Corridor

2

Concrete Paved Courtyard

2 Store

5 Resting Area

8 Corridor and Exhibition Area

3

Secondary Entrance

3 Entrance Hall

6 Cafeteria

9 Offices

2

1 1

3

2

4

7

6

8

3

5 9

3

Indoor Spaces

8

2

3

6

4

1

2

9

7

5

Transitional Spaces

1

73


Suggestions

EXISTING PATTERNS 10 F3

9

8

C5

5

3

E6

F5

4

1

6

E7

7

F3

E2

C3 C3

C7

Attraction Mystery Pr.&Refug. Risk/Peril Div.&Flex. Dynamism Continuity T.Air Flow LandformL Visual.Con Bio.Forms Dominance Scale Reflection D.D.Light

2

Pres.Water

Color Palet Mat.Con. Nat.Rep. Use.Plants

1 C3

2 C3

3 F5

This modernist building is centered in The Budai Arboretum which allows it to have many types of biophilic design application opportunities. Even though these opportunities are not efficiently used, it is possible to find some of 20 Biophilic Design Patterns in the building. This study tries to understand design patterns which currently exist in the building. It is observed that the existing patterns have biophilic values.Yet, they are not as efficient as they could be with the use and conceideration of biophilic design strategies. Firstly, Prospect and Refuge pattern exists at the main entrance of the building which is one of the main transitional zones. The same pattern is observed in the gallery of the entrance hall as well. The use of 74


Suggestions

Prospect and Refuge pattern associates with the function of sitting, relaxing and waiting. On the other hand, Dominance of the gallery’s parapet as a decorative and functional element which cuts the continuity of stairs creates attraction feeling in the space. Moreover valuable biophilic elements exist in the space such as Dynamic and Diffuse Light and Use of Plants. Another valuable element of space pattern which is Natural Representatives exist in the courtyard area which is one of the transitional spaces between the garden and building. Presence of animals makes people to feel closer to nature in this courtyard. In the multifunctional corridor zone it is possible to observe Diversity and Flexibility pattern with Continuity pattern as it leads users to Visual Connection with Nature at the second main entrance of the building.

4 E2

5 E6

6 E7

7

9

F3

C7

8

10

C5

F3

Figure 85 75


Suggestions

SUGGESTION ZONES AND SUGGESTED PATTERNS 1

Attraction

2

Mystery Pr.&Refug. Risk/Peril Div.&Flex. Dynamism Continuity E7

T.Air Flow

E5

LandformL. Visual.Con.

E7

F3

Bio.Forms E7

Dominance

E5

Scale Reflection

3

4

D.D.Light Pres.Water

Color Palet Mat.Con. Nat.Rep. Use.Plants

1. Entrance Hall : Right choice of material for the windows simply can make this indoor space to have a visual connection with nature and natural light. On the other hand plant use can turn the entrance hall into a transitional interior zone between two courtyards. 2. Corridor and The Offices : Use of blind indoor walls between the offices and the corridor blocks natural light to come into the corridor completely. Use of transparent material with Biomorphic forms and patterns can create dynamic&diffuse light in the space.

3. Entrance : Over usage of concrete material creates a big conflict between the building and its planted environment. Concrete entrance of the building can be integrative, more user-friendly and attractive by using few patterns as simple interventions. 4. Courtyard : This concrete paved courtyard has a high potential to be a gathering point for the students as it is accessible from the cafeteria. Both for the user activities and ntegration of concrete material with garden, different types of patterns are suitable and applicable for the zone. 76


Suggestions

77


Suggestions

SUGGESTION ZONE 1

SUGGESTION ZONE 2 F4

Biomorphic Forms and Patterns

E2

Dynamic&Diffuse Light

78

F3

Visual Connection w. Nature

E2

Dynamic&Diffuse Light

E7

Use of Plants


Suggestions

SUGGESTION ZONE 3 C1

Attraction

E3

Presence of Water

E5

Material Connect. with Nature

E7

Use of Plants

SUGGESTION ZONE 4

Figure 85 79

C1

Attraction

E5

Material Connect. with Nature

E7

Use of Plants


Conclusion

CONCLUSION Table 18. Concluded Relation of Space and Characters of The 20

SPACES

ELEMENTS OF SPACE

FORMS OF SPACE

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACE

PATTERNS

OUTDOOR SPACES

TRANSITIONAL SPACES

INDOOR SPACES

More challenging implementation of the patterns on the later processes of a design After evalution of the case studies which are intentionally designed with biophilic design considerations and created suggestions for a massive concrete building which had no biophilic design considerations during its design process, conclusion of this study as follows; outdoor spaces mostly present higher potention for application of 20 Biophilic Design Patterns. This is because outdoor built spaces are closer to nature comparing to transitional and indor built spaces with their access to natural light, fresh air etc. Because of this reason, from outdoor space to indoor space, implementation of biophilic design patterns become more and more challenging due to their distance to nature. Thus, this study suggests Elements of The Space Patterns as the patterns which can be applied to any space easier on the latest parts of a design process or even into a project that its design process is finished. Yet, it is possible to have the most biophilic efficiency with any categories of 20 Biophilic Design Patterns in any space if the right need of the space can be defined efficiently. This way, right selection of patterns can be applied to any kind of space with their design considerations both in the most simple or complex way according to their needs. As a conclusion, this study presents an efficient and useful guidline for a successful biophilic design regardless of the function and scale of the space. Figure 85 80


Figure 85


LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. River and forest reflection, https://www.desktop-background.com/p/2015/12/27/1063841_hd-river-and-forest-reflection-desktop-backgrounds-widescree n-and_1920x1080_h.jpg Figure 2. Plant grows throught urban asphalt, https://www.boredpanda.com/plants-flowers-versus-concrete-asphalt-pavement/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=organic &utm_campaign=organic Figure 3. View of New York City, photo made by FHG Photo/Flickr Creative Commons, https://www.mobilitypartnership.org/blog/tracing-steep-decline-police-enforcement-actions-new-york-city Figure 4. African Savannah in Kenia, https://www.shutterstock.com/es/search/sabana+africana Figure 5. The New York Times Building, Lobby Garden, https://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/the-new-york-times-building-lobby-garden Figure 6. The Palacio de Generalife, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalife Figure 7. Reflection of water, a coffee beside the sewage plant, https://www.thestar.com/life/homes/2012/05/11/savour_a_coffee_beside_the_sewage_plant.html Figure 8. Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes, https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/spain-castilla-la-mancha-toledo-historic-high-res-stock-photography/661791409 Figure 9. Kogod Courtyard of the Old Patent Office Building, Washington DC, https://hu.pinterest.com/pin/146296687865278185/ Figure 10. British Museum Paintings, https://www.artranked.com/topic/British+Museum#&gid=1&pid=22 Figure 11. The greenroof of COOKFOX Architects’ New York office, https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-2493-6_1034-1 Figure 12. Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta, https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1005/ Figure 13. Bamboo roof structure in Bali, https://hu.pinterest.com/pin/61854194852804524/ Figure 14. Santiago Calatrava Brookfield Place (Toronto), http://vikpahwa.com/tag/santiago-calatrava/ Figure 15. Château de vaux-le-vicomte, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaux-le-Vicomte#/media/File:Kasteel_van_Vaux-le-Vicomte_-_Maincy_06.jpg Figure 16. Henderson Waves Bridge at night, https://viola.bz/henderson-waves-bridge/the-most-beautiful-pedestrian-bridge-in-the-world- henderson-waves-12/ Figure 17. Obscured views in Prospect Park, New York, https://hu.pinterest.com/pin/243968504790175411 Figure 18. Michael Heizer: Levitated Mass, https://www.kanopy.com/product/levitated-mass-story-michael-heizers-monol Figure 19. Humans and Nature, https://www.cityyear.org/los-angeles/blog/planting-seeds-success-stevenson-middle-school?tid=all Figure 20. Falling Water House outdoor view, https://www.lundy5.com/2013/05/fallingwater.html Figure 21. Falling Water House transitional space view, https://www.lundy5.com/2013/05/fallingwater.html Figure 22. Falling Water House indoor space view, https://www.lundy5.com/2013/05/fallingwater.html Figure 23. Inside Google’s Dublin Campus, Biophilic design,

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Figure 24. Newport Health Center, Using Biophilic Design to Enhance Healing, https://www.nacarchitecture.com/naclab/naturescure.aspx Figure 25. King Bill’s Gallery, Austin Maynard Architects, https://www.archdaily.com/909046/king-bill-austin-maynard-architects Figure 26. Small Bone Library a Biophilic Library, https://www.oakham.rutland.sch.uk/Smallbone-Library-unveils-stunning-new-centrepiece Figure 27. Apple Store in San Francisco, http://essentialhome.eu/blog/apples-new-store-regent-street-foster-partners/ Figure 28. Kindergarden in Japan: Ring Around a Tree, https://www.archilovers.com/stories/5161/travelling-with-an-architect-discovering-tokyo.html Figure 29. Thorncrown Chapel at Arkansas, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorncrown_Chapel Figure 30. Human Silhouette by Author Figure 31. A "diving bell" water spider (Agyroneda aquatica), https://www.architectmagazine.com/technology/arachnid-architecture-as-human-shelter_o Figure 32. Bizarre Pavillion Conceptualization,https://www.wired.com/2015/07/bizarre-pavilion-inspired-underwater-spider/ Figure 33. Bizarre Pavilion, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, Figure 34. Small Human Big Nature, Arvids Baranovs, Flickr Figure 35. Collage by Author Figure 36. Lonley tree, https://wallpaperstudio10.com/wallpaper-nature_lonetree-109787.html Figure 37. Maggie’s Oldham Centre, http://drmm.co.uk/projects/view.php?p=maggies-oldham Figure 38. View of Marmara through forest, Yalova, https://weheartit.com/entry/20061865 Figure 39. Softwall, https://thetotaloffice.biz/2016/10/17/the-biophilic-design-checklist/ Figure 40. View of Marmara through forest, Yalova, by Author Figure 41. View of Parliament Building through fisherman's bastion, Budapest, https://www.denttours.hu/oldalak/19:touristische-regionen.html Figure 42. Devil's Bridge, Yavapai County, Arizona, http://www.keywordbasket.com/ZGV2aWwncyBicmlkZ2UgaGlrZQ/ Figure 43. Office Designed by Titania Bilbao, https://www.tatianabilbao.com/ Figure 44. Dragontail Peak Montage by Author Figure 45. Lake of Vajdahunyad Castel, Budapest Montage by Author Figure 46. Sea waves, https://www.eetcafedewaal.nl/category/columns/tim-oconnor/ Figure 47. The Living Staircase by Paul Cocksedge, https://www.pinterest.cl/pin/402298179199030935/ Figure 48. Koyukuk River, http://www.minitime.com/Koyukuk_River-Gates_of_the_Arctic_National_Park-Alaska-attraction Figure 49. Figure 50. Montage by Author Figure 51. Wind and Phragmites, https://www.thmhaber.com/ruzgar-nasil-olusur-haber-143773 Figure 52. Bella Vista, Arkansas Tanyard Creek Waterfal Rapids https://hu.pinterest.com/pin/367184175843157942/

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Figure 53. Showroom in Milano Italy, https://kkaa.co.jp/works/architecture/naturescape/ Figure 54. Otlica Natural Window, http://www.vipavskadolina.si/en/aktivno/pohodnistvo/poti/otlisko-okno Figure 55. Windhover Contemplative Center Stanford CA, http://www.iida.org/content.cfm/2015-idc-winners Figure 56. Okwui Okpokwasili: Adaku's Revolt, http://frenchculture.org/events/9357-adakus-revolt Figure 57. Arquitectura Naturaleza y Diseùo (Leaf House), https://www.visualarq.com/2014/04/17/architecture-plays-with-nature-in-the-leaf-house/ Figure 58. Stream flows under the mountain, https://www.alamy.com/a-small-unnamed-stream-flows-out-from-the-mountains-along-the-strandir-image151832823.html Figure 59. Melbourne’s Metro Tunnel, https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/metro-tunnel-melbournes-changing-face-revealed-as-consortium-named-for-11billion-project-20170716-gxc4yi.html Figure 60. Redwood Forest in Otways,http://www.humbletrail.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/The-Redwoods-4-of-4.jpg Figure 61. Rush University Medical Center, https://ca.perkinswill.com/work/rush-university-medical-center.html Figure 62. Montage by Author Figure 63. Devils Bridge in Germany, https://wallpapershome.com/travel/tours/rakotzbr-cke-devils-bridge-germany-europe-5k-19710.html Figure 64. Mirorr Glassed Tree Hotel,https://hu.pinterest.com/pin/21744010677446675/?lp=true Figure 65. Sunlight in Old Forest,https://hu.pinterest.com/klarabaczonigmailcom/term%C3%A9szet/ Figure 66. Pneuhaus' Atmosphere Installation, https://www.urdesignmag.com/art/2018/04/13/pneuhaus-atmosphere-installation-turns-sunlight-into-architectural-elements-in -space/ Figure 67. Waterfall in Thekkady, https://www.thrillophilia.com/tours/thekkady-tea-estate-and-waterfall-jeep-safari Figure 68. Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture https://www.archdaily.com/220462/update-smithsonian-national-museum-of-african-american-history-and-culture?ad_mediu m=gallery Figure 69. Color palette of forest, https://hu.pinterest.com/Larix_Lyallii/color-inspiration/ Figure 70. Outdoor House Plan with Interior Courtyard, https://cdn.trendir.com/wp-content/uploads/old/house-design/outdoor-house-plan-with-interior-courtyard-and-rooftop-garden -10.jpg Figure 71. Mountain Plants of the Western Cascades, http://westerncascades.com/2007/09/ Figure 72. Biophilic Terrace Wall, https://www.shutterstock.com/fr/search/terrace+wall Figure 73. Norwegian Bumblebee, http://arbroath.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-worlds-first-bumblebee-highway.html Fugure 74. Macro photo of a smoldering incense stick, https://www.videoblocks.com/video/close-up-smoldering-incense-stick-and-exudes-a-pleasant-fragrance-black-thin-straw-bu rns-and-smoke-fills-the-room-with-a-delicious-and-sweet-smell-hphosqjufjdghf38d

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Figure 75. Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest, http://biblicalcounsellor.online/info/ Figure 76. Marina One Singapore,http://www.zazzeri.co.uk/marina-one-singapore/ Figure 77. Maggie’s Oldham,https://www.archdaily.com/874795/maggies-oldham-drmm Figure 78. Khoo Teck Puat Hospital Singapore, https://living-future.org/biophilic/case-studies/award-winner-khoo-teck-puat-hospital/ Figure 79. Marina City Park,http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?page=4&t=1338858 Figure 80. Aerial Photography of a City, https://www.metrocommercial.com.au/property/1354/nsw Figure 81. Maggie’s Oldham street view, https://www.archdaily.com/874795/maggies-oldham-drmm/5955efa1b22e38e5e6000158-maggies-oldham-drmm-photo Figure 82. Maggie’s Oldham front View, https://inhabitat.com/tag/cross-laminated-timber/ Figure 83. Maggie’s Oldham Indoor 1, https://www.archdaily.com/874795/maggies-oldham-drmm Figure 84. Maggie’s Oldham Indoor 2, https://www.archdaily.com/874795/maggies-oldham-drmm Figure 85. Maggie’s Oldham Indoor 3, https://www.archdaily.com/874795/maggies-oldham-drmm Figure 86. Khoo-Teck Puat Hospital view from far https://www.cpgcorp.com.sg/CPGC/Project/Project_Details?ProjectID=1068 Figure 87. Volunteers Working at Fooftop Garden of KTPH ,https://www.ktph.com.sg/uploads/1348477880Volunteer.JPG Figure 88. Stallite View of KTPH, maps.google.com Figure 89. Plan of KTPH, http://cooper.edu/sites/default/files/Khoo%20image%202_0.jpg Figure 90. Outdoor Corridor of KTPH https://living-future.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/01-Transitional-Spaces-Bridges-throughnature.jpg Figure 91. Courtyard, KTPH http://www.the-nurses.com/uploads/allimg/160108/2-16010QP124c4.png Figure 92. Satallite View Of Gardens by Bay Singapore, maps.google.com Figure 93. View of Gardens From Top, https://www.traveltomtom.net/images/nieuwe_indeling/artikels/singapore/mbs/room_marina_bay_sand_singapore7.jpg Figure 94. Trees of Gardens by Bay Singapore http://www.landezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Gardens-by-The-Bay-by-Grant-Associates-17_robert_such.jpg Figure 95. Gardens by Bay Singapore, http://peyzax.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Resim-2.jpg Figure 96. Gardens by Bay Singapore at Night, http://grant-associates.uk.com/projects/gardens-by-the-bay/ Figure 97. Budai Arboretum Building K, www.google maps.com

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Timeline of Disconnect by Jason F. Mclennan Table 2. Theories related to biophilia by author Table 3. Relations between theories by author Table 4. Experiences and Attributes of Biophilic Design Chart by S. Kellert Table 5. Categories of 14 Biophilic Design Patterns by Terrapin Green Table 6. Design Considerations by Terrapin Bright Green Table 7. Biological responses for 14 biophilic patterns (Terrapin Bright Green) recreated table by author Table 8. 20 biophilic patterns and their design considerations by author Table 9. Implementation spaces for patterns by author Table 10. Human in nature by author Table 11. Strategies for Biophilic Design Patterns by author Table 12. Categories of 20 Biophilic Design Patterns by author Table 13. Categories of 20 biophilic design patterns and their relations by atuhor Table 14. Suggested patterns for spaces by function by author Table 15. Pattern-Human feeling relation by author Table 16. Psychological impacts of patterns by author Table 17. Structure of Case Study Analysis by author Table 18. Concluded Relation of Space and Characters of The 20 Patterns by author

LIST OF DIAGRAMS Diagram 1. Outdoor Spaces by author Diagram 2. Transitional Spaces by author Diagram 3. Indoor Spaces by author Diagram 4. Use of Local Features in Biophilic Design by author Diagram 5. Resource Efficiency in Biophilic Design by author Diagram 6. Chemistry Diagram by author Diagram 7. Simplicity in Complexity by author Diagram 8. Prospect Refuge Theory by author Diagram 9. Flexibility of Natural Elements by author Diagram 10. Playground with Dynamic Forms by author Diagram 11. Airflow Variability in Different Spaces by author Diagram 12. Location of Oldham, England by author Diagram 13. Existing patterns in Maggie’s Oldham by author Diagram 14. Location of Khoo-Teck Hospital in Singapore by author Diagram 15. Existing patterns in Khoo-Teck Hospital Diagram 16. Location of Gardens Bay by Singapore by author Diagram 17. Existing patterns in Gardens Bay by Singapore

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REFERENCES [1] https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/nature [2] http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-sapiens [3] Orions and Heerwagen – Savannah Hypothesis, 1986 [4] Edward O. Wilson, Biophilia / 1984 [5] Roberts T. / 2016 [6] https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/populaton/2018-revison-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html [7] Leader, Jessica. “Nature-Creativity Study Links The Great Outdoors With Positive Psychological Effects.” [8] Wise, Abigail.“Here’s Proof Going Outside Makes You Healthier.” , 2017. [9] Fromm E., The Heart of Man (1964) [10] Edward O. Wilson, Biophilia, 1984 [11] Environmental Psychology an introduction, Linda Steg, Agnes E., Van Den Berg, Judith I. M. Groot [12] https://positivepsychologyprogram.com/attention-restoration-theory/ [13] Joye & van den berg , 2011 [14] Environmental Psychology an introduction, Linda Steg, Agnes E., Van Den Berg, Judith.62 [15] https://www.crozetgazette.com/2015/07/03/science-to-live-by-beauty-and-the-savanna-hypothesis/ [16] Orians and Hemerwagen, 1992 [17] Han 2007, Hartmann and Apaolaza-Ibáñez 2010 [18] https://medium.com/@social_archi/prospect-refuge-theory-ca5d80379e51 [19] The Practice of Biophilic Design , Stephen R. Kellert, Elizabeth F. Calabrese [20] Pergams, Oliver R. W., and Patricia A. Zaradic. “Evidence for a Fundamental and Pervasive Shift Away from Nature-based Recreation.”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [21]National Acad Sciences, n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2017. [22] https://natureofamericans.org [23] Kellert, Calabrese, The Practice of Biophilic Design, 2018 [24] Browning, W.D., Ryan, C.O., Clancy, J.O. (2014).14 Patterns of Biophilic Design. New York: Terrapin Bright Green, LLC. / https://www.terrapinbrightgreen.com/reports/14-patterns/

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[25] https://edukalife.blogspot.com/2015/07/what-is-meaning-of-architectural-space.html [26] Using Nature and Outdoor Activity to Improve Children's Health, Leyla E.McCurdyMPhilaKate E.WinterbottomMPHaSuril S.MehtaMPHbJames R.RobertsMD, MPHc [27] Older people's health, outdoor activity and supportiveness of neighbourhood environments, Takemi, Sugiyamaa, Catharine, Ward, Thompson [28] https://www.terramai.com/blog/biophilia-interior-design-create-multi-sensorial-experience/ [29] Human Spaces Report www.humanspaces.com [30] https://www.ambius.com/blog/workers-spend-less-15-minutes-outdoors/ [31] Natures Cure: How Biophilic Design Can Enhance Healing, MCD Magazine, accessed 29 November 2018. https://mcdmag.com/2018/04/natures-cure-how-biophilic-design-can-enhance-healing/#.W_99vNszZhE [32] What is Biophilic Design?, Oliver Health Design, 2018 [33] Alvarsson, Niels & Nilssen , 2010 [34] http://www.biophilicdesign.net/uploads/8/4/5/6/8456913/bd_viewingguide_revised.pdf BIOPHILIC DESIGN The Architecture of Life Viewing Guide [35] World Green Building Council. Health, wellbeing and productivity in retail: the impact of green buildings on people and profit. [36] White, Randy and Vicki Stoecklin. “Children’s Outdoor Play & Learning Environments: [37] https://glbiomimicry.org/Education/Lifes_Principles_Handout_FINAL.pdf/ [38] William James, 1889 [39] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4635443/ [40] https://www.terrapinbrightgreen.com/reports/14-patterns/#mystery [41] https://medium.com/studiotmd/the-perception-of-color-in-architecture-cf360676776c [42]https://www.terrapinbrightgreen.com/reports/14-patterns/#material-connection-with-nature [43] Darwin C. 1871The descent of man. London, UK: John Murray. [44] https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-06-10/why-are-humans-attracted-to-fire/8592436 [45] https://www.ambius.com/learn/benefits-of-our-services/

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Profile for Gözde Tetik

BIOPHILIC DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SPACES  

There have been various studies by researches to understand human connection with nature in many aspects. This study investigates and explo...

BIOPHILIC DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SPACES  

There have been various studies by researches to understand human connection with nature in many aspects. This study investigates and explo...

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