Architectural Thesis - Placemaking in Jaipur Urban Centre

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Architectural Thesis

Place-making in Jaipur Urban Centre Gokul Goyal A/2694/2014 Sec - A

Guides

Prof. Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover Prof. Satish Khanna


2

Jaipur Urban Centre

DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE The thesis titled “PLACEMAKING IN JAIPUR URBAN CENTRE” a requisite of the Bachelors Program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi – 110002, was completed by the undersigned in January – May 2019. The supervisors were Prof. Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover & Prof. Satish Khanna. The undersigned hereby declares that this is his/her original work and has not been plagiarized in part or full from any source. Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other University.

Signature Name of student: Gokul Goyal Roll No: A/2694/2014 Date: May 26, 2019


Architecture Thesis 2019

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CERTIFICATE BY THESIS GUIDES We certify that the Thesis titled “PLACEMAKING IN JAIPUR URBAN CENTRE” by GOKUL GOYAL, roll no A/2694/2014 was guided by us in January – May 2019 and placed in front of the Jury by the candidate on 16 – 17th May 2019. On completion of the report in all respects, including the last chapter, by the candidate and based on the declaration by the candidate hereinabove, we forward the report to the Department to be placed in the library of the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

RESEARCH GUIDE Prof. Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover

TECHNOLOGY GUIDE Prof. Satish Khanna


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Jaipur Urban Centre

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I take this opportunity to thank the following people for their support and encouragement without which this thesis would not have been possible. I thank my guides, Prof. Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover & Prof. Satish Khanna, for their valuable guidance and deep insight for the topic. They had faith in me and guided by through their relevant & profitable comments. I thank Antriksh Verma - a friend from Jaipur, Dharna Mudgal - a senior & Arpit Jain - a batchmate, who constantly supported me in this research and many others, whose suggestions were also vital. I thank my juniors - Rajat, Rohit, Saaral, Hardeep, Anushka, Ayushi, Aritro, Dakshil, Hardik & my seniors - Aman, Iman & Parinay for helping me produce the work. I thank Mr. Ravinder Mathur & Mr. Prakhar Gupta & many other officials from the Jaipur Development Authority for helping me providing necessary information about the Project & Site. I thank Ms. Meena Mani for guiding me through the India Habitat Centre which was vital in understanding my Primary case study. Last but not the least, I thank my family & friends who believed in me and were very patient and understanding through the whole process.


Architecture Thesis 2019

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Jaipur Urban Centre

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PRELIMINARY SECTION

CHAPTER-1

13

CHAPTER-2.1

INTRODUCTION

AREAS OF RESEARCH

21

Declaration by the Candidate Certificate by Thesis Guides Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables

02 03 04 06 08 11

Synopsis 14 Introduction 16 The Pink City 16 Need Identification 16 Design Intent 17 Proposition 18 Project & Site Selection 18 Need for Offices 18 Way Forward 19

Public Spaces Making of Public Spaces Markets as Public Spaces Vernacular Architecture of Rajasthan Office Design Auditorium Design

22 27 31 34

CHAPTER-2.2

41

CHAPTER-3

CHAPTER-4

69

CASE STUDIES Selection Criteria Analytical Framework India Habitat Centre City Centre Jawahar Kala Kendra Comparative Matrix Learnings from Case Studies

59

PROJECT SITE & ANALYSIS 42 42 43 47 51 55 58

Site Information The Urban District Site Features & Photos Climatic Data & Analysis Observations & Inferences

36 38

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT & ANALYSIS 60 63 65 67 68

Project Scope Objectives Program Users Detailed Area Program Area Program Analysis Zoning Determinants Area Relationships

70 70 70 71 72 75 77 77


Architecture Thesis 2019

CHAPTER-5

7

79

CHAPTER-6

97

CHAPTER-7

TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

DESIGN DETERMINANTS

Sustainability 80 Structures 83 Services 85 Life Safety 94

SWOT Analysis Design Determinants Zoning, Placement of Functions & Relationship on Site

98 99 100

Rediscovering Jaipur

CHAPTER-8

CHAPTER-9

109

END SECTION

105

101

CONCEPT DESIGN

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

DESIGN PORTFOLIO

Key Parameters 106 Stage-1 107 Stage-2 107 Stage-3 108 Stage-4 108

Contents 110 Concept Narration 111 Drawings 113 Technology 125 Model Photos 128 Jury Comments 133

102

Bibliography 134 Appendix 135


Jaipur Urban Centre

8

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-

Hawa Mahal Jaipur

16

Figure 24-

Source: https://i.ytimg.com/vi/AGig11PAMSY/maxresdefault.jpg

Source: http://www.tracyanddale.50megs.com/India/Rajasthan/images/Baradari02.jpg

Figure 2-

Street Market in Old Jaipur

16

Figure 25-

Figure 3-

Places of Jaipur

17

Figure 26-

19

Figure 27-

Source: https://i0.wp.com/www.whatsuplife.in/rajasthan/blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/5285480486_c4700ca59f_b.jpg?fit=800%2C532&ssl=1

Location of Site WRT the Places Source: Author

Figure 5-

The benefits of Great Places

22

Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/5810e16fbe876cec6bcbd86e/5b71f88ec6f4726edfe3857d_2018%20placemaking%20booklet.pdf

Figure 6-

Vastu Purusha Mandala

24

Figure 7-

Parastara Vedic Town Planning

24

Figure 8-

Axes of Town & Street

24

Source: http://www.archinomy.com/sites/default/files/case-studies/2011/conceptual-prastara-plan-1.jpg

Source: http://www.archinomy.com/sites/default/files/case-studies/2011/conceptual-prastara-plan-2.jpg Source: http://www.archinomy.com/sites/default/files/case-studies/2011/mandala-2.jpg

Figure 9-

Uniform planned shop fronts on bazaar streets with upper floors in interesting juxtaposition 25 Source: http://www.archinomy.com/sites/default/files/case-studies/2011/bazaars-2.jpg

Figure 10-

Concept Layout of Chandigarh

25

Source: http://www.sustasis.net/Non-Oral Compendium/Tindwani.doc

Figure 11-

Typical Sector Plan of Chandigarh City

26

Source: http://www.sustasis.net/Non-Oral Compendium/Tindwani.doc

Figure 12-

Highlighting the Importance of People in a Place

27

Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/5810e16fbe876cec6bcbd86e/5b71f88ec6f4726edfe3857d_2018%20placemaking%20booklet.pdf

Figure 13-

What makes a Great Place? The Power of 10+ things to do at the Place

30

Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/5810e16fbe876cec6bcbd86e/5b71f88ec6f4726edfe3857d_2018%20placemaking%20booklet.pdf

Figure 15-

31

Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/581110f944272e4a11871c01/598dd6d694beee0001081050_unnamed-3.png

Figure 16-

Open Air Market

32

Street Market

32

Source: http://static.asiawebdirect.com/m/kl/portals/kuala-lumpur-ws/homepage/klareas/chinatown_ petaling/pagePropertiesImage/petaling-street.jpg

Figure 18-

Market in Public Building Market Shed

32

Source: c3314642.r42.cf0.rackcdn.com/00005511-still1.jpg

Figure 20-

Shopping Mall

32

Source: https://www.indiaretailforum.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/mall.jpg

Figure 21-

Dilli Haat INA

33

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/rf/image_size_960x540/HT/p2/2016/12/20/Pictures/_ a573da8e-c660-11e6-9f83-7f3d2f12db63.jpg

Figure 22-

Masala Chowk, Jaipur

Figure 28- Figure 29-

Courtyard Source: https://anishashahbbc.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/6-jodhpur-umaid-bhawan-248.jpg

35

Jharokha

35

Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Maheshwar_Fort_-_Jharokha_02.jpg

Figure 30-

Baori/ Stepwell

35

Source: https://www.hlimg.com/images/things2do/738X538/800px-Rani_ki_Baoli,_a_step_well_some_ distance_from_the_Neemrana_Fort_Palace_1523606383t.jpg

Figure 31-

Kund/Sagar 35 Source: https://static.toiimg.com/thumb/59155688/59155260.jpg?width=650&height=433&resize=true&resizeMode=5

Figure 32-

Shell, Services, Scenery & Setting

36

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf

Figure 33-

Space requirements for an Office Desk

37

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf

Figure 34-

Power and communication servicing

37

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf

Space and circulation requirements of filing and other office equipment

37

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf

Figure 36-

Recommended Zoning & Inter-relations

38

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

Figure 37-

Fan Shaped plan of Auditorium

39

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

Typical Section

39

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

Figure 39- Figure 40-

Veiwing Angle

40

Viewer’s Sitting Posture

40

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

Figure 41-

Section below Balcony

40

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

India Habitat Centre

42

Source: Author

Figure 43-

City Centre

42

Source: https://i1.wp.com/architecturelive.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/City-Center-018.jpg?resize=1024%2C745&ssl=1

Figure 44-

Jawahar Kala Kendra

42

Source: http://rajasthanpost.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Jawahar_01.jpg

Figure 45-

India Habitat Centre Location

43

Source: Google Maps & Author

Figure 46-

Area Distribution

44

Source: Author

33

Figure 47-

Source: Author

Figure 23-

Jaali/Lattice Work

Source: http://architectureimg.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/ancient-window-world-amber-fort-india-ornate-latticework-architecture-full-hd-wallpaper.jpg

Figure 42- 32

Source: http://navigatens.thechronicleherald.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/halifax_seaport_farmers_market_nova_scotia_1000x650-compressor.jpg

Figure 19-

35

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

Source: https://www.discoverwalks.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/open-market-paris-big.jpg

Figure 17-

Chajja Source: https://2.imimg.com/data2/RA/KB/MY-3422781/royal-jharokha-500x500.jpg

Figure 38-

Benefits of Public Markets

Entrance/Pol 34 Source: https://www.encounterstravel.com/za/sysimages/rszimages/entrance-to-amber-fort-Jaipurindia_tg_1314.jpg

Figure 35- 28

Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/581110f944272e4a11871c01/5acfa7910b1c9faf752f2229_ greatplace-detail-PPS.jpg

Figure 14-

Chhatri 34 Source: http://www.tracyanddale.50megs.com/India/Rajasthan/images/Baradari02.jpg

Source: Author

Figure 4-

Baradari 34

Zoning & Demarcation of spaces

44

Source: Author

34

Figure 48-

Movement Systems Source: Author

45


Architecture Thesis 2019 Figure 49-

9

Section through Basement showing the gradual slope of the basement slab 46 Source: indiahabitat.org

Figure 50-

Basement Plans showing parking & services

46

Source: Author

Figure 51-

City Centre location Area Distribution

48

Figure 78-

Floor wise Area Distribution

Figure 79-

Site Planning

48

Figure 80-

Ground Floor Plan

49

Figure 81-

First Floor Plan

49

Figure 82-

49

Figure 83-

Section 50 Jawahar Kala Kendra location

Figure 84-

Defined Space according to usage

51

Figure 85-

Movement Systems

52

Figure 86-

Ground Floor Plan

53

Figure 87-

Site Section

53

Programmatic Density

53 54

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/nihan_guetta/jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur-case-study

Figure 64-

Circulation Diagram

54

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/nihan_guetta/jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur-case-study

Figure 65-

Section Analysis

54

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/nihan_guetta/jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur-case-study

Figure 66-

Connectivity of Site from outside the City

60

Source: Author

Figure 67-

Primary roads of the city WRT approachability to the site

61

Source: Author

Figure 68-

Kevin Lynch Analysis around the site- Nodes & Landmarks

61

Source: Author

Figure 69-

Built-Open relationship

Figure 88-

62

Figure 89-

Proposed Land-use Plan

Figure 90-

The Urban District

Figure 91-

Land use in the District

Figure 92-

Building use in the urbanscape

Figure 93-

Kevin Lynch Analysis of the Urban District

Figure 94-

Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha

Figure 95-

Amar Jawan Jyoti

Maximum Tempratures

67

Average Tempratures & Precipitation

67

Cloudy, Sunny & Precipitation Days

67

62

Shadow Analysis

68

Area Distribution

77

Privacy Triangle

77

Service Intensity Triangle

77

Relationship Diagram

77

Porous Site Planning

80

Use of Jaali

80

Source: Climate Consultant Software

Figure 96-

Modern Jaali used in Pearl Academy, Jaipur

81

Source: https://images.adsttc.com/media/images/5011/e999/28ba/0d5f/4c00/03d2/slideshow/stringio. jpg?1414473803

Figure 97-

Traditional Stone Jaali

81

Source: https://live.staticflickr.com/7136/7703598074_613c605a72_b.jpg 81

63

Figure 98-

Fenestration design & placement

81

Source: Climate Consultant Software

63

Figure 99-

Fenestration shading devices

82

Source: Climate Consultant Software

63

Figure 100-

Seismic Zones of India

83

Source: https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/seismiczone.htm

64

Figure 101-

Shear Walls

83

Source: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/w/images/a/a9/Shearwalls.jpg

64

Figure 102-

Source: https://new-img.patrika.com/upload/mediafiles/2015/03/13/vidhansabha-5502b447b360f_l_835x547.jpg

Figure 76-

66

Source: Climate Consultant Software

Source: Author

Figure 75-

Traffic Jammed Roads on Match Days

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 74-

66

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 73-

Sealed roads on Vidhan Sabha Session Days

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 72-

65

Source: Author

Source: Master Development Plan of Jaipur 2025

Figure 71-

Vidyut Marg on west edge

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 70-

65

Source: https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/jaipur_india_1269515

Source: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zi3_mVrlWxA/VRWYjYpJn9I/AAAAAAAAA08/XzUkmqc7LMY/s1600/ Jawahar_05.jpg

Figure 63-

Existing seating for Amar Jawan Jyoti

Source: https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/jaipur_india_1269515

Source: https://www.academia.edu/30954088/JAWAHAR_KALA_KENDRA

Figure 62-

65

Source: https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/jaipur_india_1269515

Source: Author

Figure 61-

Janpath on east edge

Source: Author

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/nihan_guetta/jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur-case-study

Figure 60-

65

Source: Author

Source: Google Maps & Author

Figure 59-

Site Photo 2- Showing illegal settlements at the northern edge

Source: Author

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/Sonaliparashar/city-center-kolkata

Figure 58-

65

Source: Author

Source: http://saltlake.citycentremalls.in/mall-map.aspx

Figure 57-

Amar Jawan Jyoti

Source: Author

Source: http://saltlake.citycentremalls.in/mall-map.aspx

Figure 56-

65

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 55-

Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha

Source: Author

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/Sonaliparashar/city-center-kolkata

Figure 54-

65

Source: https://new-img.patrika.com/upload/mediafiles/2015/03/13/vidhansabha-5502b447b360f_l_835x547.jpg

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/Sonaliparashar/city-center-kolkata

Figure 53-

Site Photo 1- Showing southern Edge & Adjacent Building Source: Author

47

Source: Google Maps & Author

Figure 52-

Source: Author

Figure 77-

Bi-axial Voided Slab

83

Source: https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSZvM4eF1VHbrO3t5-CyKe_4BRHTlM5Vy1-2BEkGACDBSlASKX4sA

64

Figure 103-

Catenary Arch

83


Jaipur Urban Centre

10 Source: http://www.earth-auroville.com/maintenance/uploaded_pics/10-catenaries.jpg

Figure 104-

Section through Bi-axial voided slab

Source: https://live.staticflickr.com/7136/7703598074_613c605a72_b.jpg

84

Figure 132-

84

Figure 133-

Source: Author

Figure 105-

Waffle slab

Source: https://jaipurthrumylens.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/architecture-of-jaipur-chhatri.jpg?w=720

Source: Google Images

Figure 106-

Precast Concrete Portal frame Plan of Structural Module

84

Figure 134-

Framing Section through Offices

85

Figure 135-

Multi-Parker 760

85

Figure 136-

Details of Multi-Parker 760

85

Figure 137-

86

Figure 138-

Conceptual depiction of site boundary for Water Balance Schematic Diagram

87

Figure 139-

MRL Lift Catalogue

87

Figure 140-

90

Figure 141-

Waste Distribution in India EcoRich Elite II Composter

92

Figure 142-

EcoRich Elite II Composter Catalogue

93

Figure 143-

93

Figure 144-

Typical Floor Plan Showing Cores & Fire Exits

95

Figure 145-

Response to the immediate context Inferences for Built Mass Density accross the site

99

Figure 146-

Activity analysis - Directing placement of functions by their publicness

99

Figure 147-

Zoning - derived from previous inferences

99

Figure 148-

Zoning, Inter-relation b/w functions & Movement systems placed on Site

99

Figure 149-

Quote Written at Jawahar Kala Kendra

100

Figure 150-

Quote Written at Jawahar Kala Kendra

102

Figure 151-

Badi Chaupar in 19th Century

102

Figure 152-

Sagar Alwar

102

Figure 153-

102

Figure 154-

Entrance at City Palace Jaipur

102

Figure 155-

Fort Wall at Jaipur

103

Source: https://storage.googleapis.com/karmagroup-d66ca.appspot.com/karmagroupblogcdn/2018/01/ jaipur1-940x671.jpg

Figure 129-

Tripolia Bazaar Street Market

103

Source: https://static2.tripoto.com/media/filter/nl/img/148920/TripDocument/1468051387_tripolia_bazar.jpg

Figure 130-

City Palace Jaipur

103

Source: https://mytriphack.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Pink-City-Jaipur.jpg

Figure 131-

117

Lower Basement

118

First Floor Plan

119

Second Floor Plan

120

Third Floor Plan

121

Fourth Floor Plan

122

Fifth Floor Plan

123

Sixth Floor Plan

124

Structure 125 Services 125 Source: Author

Source: https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/rajasthan/images/city-palace/Entrance-gate-of-City-Palace.jpg

Figure 128-

Upper Basement Plan

Source: Author

Source: https://ohmyrajasthan.com/uploads/4/1514810302sagar-lake-Anil-Yadav.JPG

Figure 127-

Elevations 116

Source: Author

Source: http://ww.india-seminar.com/2014/660/660_shikha_7.gif

Figure 126-

Sections 115

Source: Author

Source: https://architexturez.net/data/styles/large/public/media/10_chapter%202%20pp%2060.jpg

Figure 125-

114

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 124-

Ground Floor Plan

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 123-

113

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 122-

Site Plan

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 121-

Concept 112

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 120-

112

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 119-

The Project

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 118-

111

Source: Author

Source: https://www.ecorichenv.com/commercial-composter

Figure 117-

Site & Context

Source: Author

Source: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Ds7q1ppWoKE6k2Z.jpg

Figure 116-

Proposition 111

Source: Author

Source: https://www.epw.in/system/files/Figure_1.png

Figure 115-

108

Source: Author

Source: http://starwayelevators.com/images/elevators/9.png

Figure 114-

Design Development-4

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 113-

108

Source: Author

Source: Google Images

Figure 112-

Design Development-3

Source: Author

Source: https://www.wohrparking.in/datasheets/multiparker-750-60.pdf

Figure 111-

107

Source: Author

Source: https://www.wohrparking.in/datasheets/multiparker-750-60.pdf

Figure 110-

Design Development-2 Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 109-

107

Source: Author

Source: Author

Figure 108-

Design Development-1 Source: Author

Source: http://abmprecast.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/ABM-A-P-Proj-2-1.jpg

Figure 107-

Chhatri 103

Jaali 103

Water Management

126

Source: Author

Figure 156-

Facade

126

Source: Author

Figure 157-

Solar Energy

127

Source: Author

Figure 158-

Life Safety

127

Source: Author

Figure 159-

Model Photo-1 Source: Author

128


Figure 160-

Model Photo-2

129

Source: Author

Figure 161-

Model Photo-3

130

Source: Author

Figure 162-

Model Photo-4

131

Source: Author

Figure 163-

Model Photo-5

132

Source: Author

LIST OF TABLES Table 1-

Planning and design criteria for different types of office building

36

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf

Table 2-

Navgraha translation to design

52

Source: https://www.academia.edu/30954088/JAWAHAR_KALA_KENDRA

Table 3-

Case Study comparative matrix

57

Source: Author

Table 4-

Learnings from case studies

58

Source: Author

Table 5-

Detailed Area Program

74

Source: Author

Table 6-

Area Program Analysis

76

Source: Author

Table 7-

Daylight Requirement

82

Source: ECBC 2017

Table 8-

Reflectance Requirement for different surfaces

82

Source: ECBC 2017

Table 9-

Pressurization of Staircase & Lift Lobbies

94

Source: NBC 2016

Table 10-

Travel Distances Source: NBC 2016

94


12

Jaipur Urban Centre


Chapter - 1

Introduction


14

Jaipur Urban Centre

SYNOPSIS INTRODUCTION With increasing tourism, the Old City of Jaipur is becoming too overcrowded. Due to the number of vehicles passing through the streets, it has already become very hard for the city to function. The market of handicrafts & traditional goods, which is an important major market of these goods, is facing a major impact by this increasingly jammed flow of vehicles. The market, which acts as a hub for the community, which promotes local culture & artisans, seems to be confined to the very walls of the Old City. RESEARCH Being impacted negatively for a longer period can be threatening to the culture itself, thus, this thesis focuses on rectifying the situation of the Market & the people associated with it. Incidentally, a major part of Newer Jaipur lacks a public place & a market which maybe a center for the community. The research, thus, is based on developing a successful, comfortable & lively public place for the community & the people of Jaipur via means of Place-making. PROPOSITION To develop a Public Place relating to cultural identity, which acts as a Centre for community, using shopping as a means for facilitating place-making. RESEARCH OUTCOMES - Good markets, through clustering of activities, do act as public gathering places for people from different ethnic, cultural, & socioeconomic communities. - Involvement of the community is very important, since they have a unique understanding of certain issues. They also add to the experience of the place. - The identity of the place & the number of activities/purposes for a user play a huge role in the success of a place. - While designing a public place, the formula must be; first life, then spaces, then buildings. LEARNINGS FROM CASE STUDIES The project can be successful only if it creates its own identity responding to its regional identity, history & heritage. Materials & building form are great tools for achieving that. Passive strategies such as landscaping, courtyards, water bodies, trees, etc. act as excellent placemaking tools in public spaces of activity. DESIGN CONCEPT The concept is inspired by the following quote by Maharaja Jai Singh (1687-1742) - “To Invent a new future & to Rediscover the past is One Gesture.” Thus, the concept for the design is to rediscover the attributes that define Jaipur & use them to realize the design of Jaipur in the 21st Century. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES The development has been carried out on the bases of the factors mentioned above & the factors mentioned below – Context, Urban conditions of Jaipur, Massing & volume, Open-built relationship in site, Movement on site, Inter-relation between functions & visitor experience.


Architecture Thesis 2019

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सारांश परिचय बढ़ते पर्यटन के साथ, जयपुर का पुराना शहर भी अत्यधिक भीड़भाड़ वाला होता जा रहा है। सड़कों से गुजरने वाले वाहनों की संख्या के कारण, शहर में कार्य करना पहले से ही बहुत कठिन हो गया है। हस्तशिल्प और पारंपरिक वस्तुओं का बाजार, जो इन वस्तुओं का एक प्रमुख बाजार है, वाहनों के इस तेजी से जाम प्रवाह से एक बड़ा प्रभाव पड़ रहा है। बाजार, जो समुदाय के लिए एक केंद्र के रूप में कार्य करता है, जो स्थानीय संस्कृति और कारीगरों को बढ़ावा देता है, पुराने शहर की बहुत ही दीवारों तक सीमित प्रतीत होता है। अनुसंधान लंबी अवधि के लिए नकारात्मक रूप से प्रभावित होने से खुद को संस्कृति के लिए खतरा हो सकता है, इस प्रकार, यह थीसिस बाजार और इससे जुड़े लोगों की स्थिति को सुधारने पर केंद्रित है। संयोग से, न्यू जयपुर के एक प्रमुख हिस्से में सार्वजनिक स्थान और बाजार का अभाव है जो शायद समुदाय के लिए एक केंद्र है। इस प्रकार, अनुसंधान स्थान और स्थान के माध्यम से जयपुर के लोगों और समुदाय के लोगों के लिए एक सफल, आरामदायक और जीवंत सार्वजनिक स्थान विकसित करने पर आधारित है। प्रस्ताव सांस्कृतिक पहचान से संबंधित एक सार्वजनिक स्थान को विकसित करने के लिए, जो स्थान-निर्माण की सुविधा के लिए खरीदारी के साधन के रूप में समुदाय के लिए एक केंद्र के रूप में कार्य करता है। अनुसंधान के परिणाम - अच्छे बाजार, गतिविधियों की क्लस्टरिंग के माध्यम से, विभिन्न जातीय, सांस्कृतिक और सामाजिक आर्थिक समुदायों के लोगों के लिए सार्वजनिक सभा स्थानों के रूप में कार्य करते हैं। - समुदाय की भागीदारी बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है, क्योंकि उनके पास कुछ मुद्दों की एक अनूठी समझ है। वे जगह के अनुभव को भी जोड़ते हैं। - स्थान की पहचान और उपयोगकर्ता के लिए गतिविधियों / उद्देश्यों की संख्या किसी स्थान की सफलता में बहुत बड़ी भूमिका निभाती है। - सार्वजनिक स्थान डिजाइन करते समय, सूत्र होना चाहिए; पहले जीवन, फिर रिक्त स्थान, फिर भवन। केस स्टडी से सीख यह परियोजना तभी सफल हो सकती है जब यह अपनी क्षेत्रीय पहचान, इतिहास और विरासत के प्रति अपनी पहचान बनाए। सामग्री और निर्माण प्रपत्र उस को प्राप्त करने के लिए महान उपकरण हैं। निष्क्रिय रणनीति जैसे कि भूनिर्माण, आंगन, जल निकाय, पेड़, आदि गतिविधि के सार्वजनिक स्थानों में उत्कृष्ट स्थानापन्न उपकरण के रूप में कार्य करते हैं। रचना विचार अवधारणा महाराजा जय सिंह (1687-1742) द्वारा निम्नलिखित उद्धरण से प्रेरित है - “एक नया भविष्य बनाने और अतीत को फिर से खोजने के लिए आविष्कार करना एक इशारा है।” 21 वीं शताब्दी में जयपुर के डिजाइन का एहसास करने के लिए उनका उपयोग करें। डिजाइन विकास रणनीतियाँ विकास ऊपर वर्णित कारकों के आधार पर किया गया है और नीचे वर्णित कारक हैं - प्रसंग, जयपुर की शहरी स्थितियां, द्रव्यमान और आयतन, साइट में खुला-निर्मित संबंध, साइट पर आंदोलन, कार्यों और आगंतुक अनुभव के बीच अंतर-संबंध ।


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INTRODUCTION When the people experience a city, it is the culture & the architecture of the city that has the major impact on its identity or image in their minds. In the world of increasingly universal and replicated architecture, the landmark areas & places within the cities are pockets with meaning attached to them. They provide additional dimensions to our urban space, giving them a sense of place & identity. Jaipur, the capital city of Rajasthan, India, is also famously known as the “Pink City” especially in the world of tourism. This is due to the dominant colour scheme of its buildings in the Walled City & thus, has developed the city’s identity around it. The Walled City, founded in 1727, consists of places like City Palace, Hawa Mahal, Jantar Mantar, Chaupars, Bazaars, Temples and Residences – making it the centre of tourist attractions. But Jaipur is not just

Figure-1: Hawa Mahal Jaipur Source: https://i.ytimg.com/vi/AGig11PAMSY/maxresdefault.jpg

the walled city, there is also a newer part of the city which started expanding towards the west and south of the Walled City in early 1920s & houses majority of the population.

THE PINK CITY Apart from tourism, the Walled City is still a living and functioning city. It still acts as the major marketplace of local/traditional goods – for not just the tourist but also for the locals and retailers around the country. The handicrafts of Jaipur carry a huge cultural importance. They represent the rich heritage and culture of Rajasthan & traditional skills and talents of the people who are associated with it. The Walled City is believed to be shopper’s paradise. The bazaars of Jaipur have a huge variety of traditional goods where one can shop anything

from jewellery to textiles & footwears and pottery to handicrafts. The market of these goods is hugely important in terms of economic development. They provide ample opportunities for employment even with low capital investments and become a prominent medium for foreign earnings.

NEED IDENTIFICATION These goods have a huge demand and thus creates an influx of footfall to the Walled City along with the tourists – rendering the place overcrowded. The city designed in 1727 cannot take the load of motor vehicles received every day. Thus, many people show reluctance to step-into the very place. This reluctance does impact the lives of the locals, as they start looking for alternatives of the walled city. It also impacts the lives of the artisans & the entrepreneurs operating in the walled city.

Figure-2: Street Market in Old Jaipur

Source: https://i0.wp.com/www.whatsuplife.in/rajasthan/blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/5285480486_ c4700ca59f_b.jpg?fit=800%2C532&ssl=1


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Rest of the Jaipur does have shopping centres, but they are not enough in terms of their number & their location. Most of these shopping centres are Malls which sell branded products but they are not the civic centres of the city. Our towns and cities used to grow up around markets, which served as our original civic centres. However, with the onset of Malls, Supermarkets, this was lost & resulted in creating poor public spaces. There is a need to, therefore, go back to creating Markets/Bazaars as centres for the Community. This scenario generates a demand for new a marketplace or a ‘Bazaar’ to be developed as a ‘Public Place’ somewhere in Jaipur outside the walled city that can provide a less crowded & vehicle-free place to the shoppers & the shop keepers.

DESIGN INTENT For a ‘Public Place’ to be created, the architectural character of the very place plays a huge role in identification & popularity of that Place. Generally, the newer developments show a tendency and eventually end up losing the cultural identity of that very context. But Jaipur is a city which relates to its cultural identity quite strongly and directly. Thus, there is a dire need of a market place which relates to its cultural identity, so that similar kind of activities and experiences can be replicated outside the walled city. This would be beneficial to both – the visitors and the shop owners. Visitors will get an easier access to the market place and the shop owners will get a chance to expand.

Figure-3: Places of Jaipur Source: Author


Jaipur Urban Centre

18 The intent of the project is to develop – - A market place outside the walled city of Jaipur, which acts as a centre for the community. - A ‘Public Place’ for the people of Jaipur, relating to its cultural identity & preserving the essence of heritage outside the Walled City. - A market place similar to the ones inside the walled city, which replicate the kind of activities and experiences. - A Bazaar, so that none of the people of any age groups & sections of society feel alienated to the place.

JDA has proposed Jaipur Habitat Centre as shown in the news coverage. Since, there would be a huge influx of people visiting these kinds of places, there is an opportunity to merge this project with place-making. In this case, it would be a win-win situation for both the shopper & the shop-keeper, as the shopper would be able to have a shopping experience at a traditional Bazaar, while the shop keeper would be able to boost his sales on the days of event. Moreover, merging the two would also ensure, that the centre doesn’t lack any life on a Non-event day.

PROPOSITION “To attempt an integrated approach for developing a Public Place relating to cultural identity, which acts as a Centre for community, using shopping as a means for facilitating place-making.”

SITE SELECTION

PROJECT SELECTION MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences & Events) is a type of tourism in which large groups, usually planned well in advance, are brought together for a particular purpose. Since Jaipur is a city which relates to its cultural identity quite strongly and directly, it provides the tourists with an added experience. Thus, in recent times, Jaipur has emerged as one of the major MICE destinations. The city regularly holds conventions, trade fairs, summits, etc & thus, require a centre which could facilitate for the same.

Since there is no Major shopping centre in the part of Jaipur highlighted in Fig-1.2, the site needs to be somewhere around the centre of that area. Following the Master Plan, the site shall allow flexibility to house different kind of functions. Moreover, for developing a Public Place, the site needs to hold some opportunity to the same. That is, the site must have a strong context & must have an identity among the people of Jaipur. Considering the above criteria, the ground of ‘Amrudo ka Bagh’ has been chosen as the site for the project.

NEED FOR OFFICES As depicted in Chapter-3 of Project Site & analysis, the site lies in the institutional district of Jaipur, where all the institutions are not just important for Jaipur, but also for Rajasthan. Institutions like Vidhan Sabha, Vitta Bhawan & High Court exist

NEWS COVERAGE


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nearby. It is also next to Amar Jawan Jyoti & Sawai ManSingh Stadium – making it a very prime location with respect wto the context & the city. Since, the project is focused on the local artisans & entrepreneurs selling traditional goods, the project needs to be clubbed with a certain amount of offices, which work for the preservation of traditional arts & skills deployed in making of these goods. This would help both - the community & the project. - The offices & NGOs working for the community would run awareness & promotional programs helpful for the community. - The activities of Convention & Marketplace are generally active in the evening – leaving the place not lively enough for the rest of the day. Providing for offices would prove to be good for place-making as the place would act as a congrigational space where people from different backgrounds interact. - Making just a Centre for MICE & a marketplace would make it under-built in the institutional context as it won’t be able to utilize complete FAR of the Site.

WAY FORWARD The design shall be able to regard to the intangible aspects of the community. The tangible & intangible components of a public place complement each-other and an intervention which impacts only one of these in isolation cannot be considered a successful attempt. Generally, most of the building projects fail to regard the intangible cultural practices of the destination. The locals being the most important Stakeholders are not involved in the process, leaving an alienated feeling among the visitors.

Figure-4: Location of Site WRT the Places Source: Author


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Jaipur Urban Centre


Chapter - 2.1

Areas of Research


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PUBLIC PLACES

Public places are important part of everyday life. These are places for recreations, places for social interaction and learning, places to get amalgamate with nature, places to detoxify the body, places for sports, places to walk with your pets, places to get away from the hectic life for calm and quiet place. In others words, publics spaces are the living room without wall to enjoy, to get together, to rejuvenate. These public spaces play important role in social and economic interaction. City is comprised of new kinds of public spaces based on different activities, based on different age group, based on different interest group.

PURPOSE OF PUBLIC PLACES Urban environments are increasingly designed to be distinctive, trying to create memorable sensory experiences and give happiness for the people who use them. The definition of urban happiness is strongly interwoven with social, environmental, economic, philosophical studies and, according with new crisis and consequent transformation of lifestyles, needs and habits, the definition is in continuous change. On the other hand, the definition looks to be similar to that used for defining well-being, quality of life, and sustainability (Relph, 1976). Accordingly, urban happiness could be defined as a character which gives to the place a positive perception in people who live it and which induces them to spend long time there and/or to live there again the same experience (Gehl, 2010).

Figure-5: The benefits of Great Places Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/5810e16fbe876cec6bcbd86e/5b71f88ec6f4726edfe3857d_2018%20placemaking%20booklet.pdf

Humans are a highly sociable species, on the whole, and the company of others seems to be fundamental to our sense of existence and belonging. (Shaftoe, 2008) Cells are the basic element of human body and people of a city and for these cells to grow, they need to see around, feel others. Public spaces are important for the people, society and the city. They are important for health, wellbeing, learning, conflict resolution, tolerance and solidarity.

Encounters with a stranger, differences and conflicts develop the tolerance level of a human and the ability to resolve. Organized festivals like ‘Navratri Dandiya’, Dusshehra, etc. and demonstrations or public speeches, build up a sense of solidarity among the people. Definitely if a person is living in a monoculture society, he will be directed only towards his likes and dislikes, but public spaces celebrating joys from all cultures will develop the society as a whole.


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Public places can also be looked as a financial benefit. Refreshment stalls serving for the owner and increasing the popularity of the locality thus attracting more people. They also increase the value of the place in terms of environment and property. Thus, they are a major factor in the transformation of a city.

ten by those in architecture, planning, and other related disciplines. The intense focus on built ups has caused us to miss the opportunity to discuss community, process, and the act of making. The importance of the Placemaking process itself is a key factor that has often been overlooked in working towards many of the goals. (Tindwani, 2015)

A convivial space in a locality is well known by the residents and thus it serves as a security element for them. Such a space is likely to have visitors round the clock and thus develops a fear among the crime offenders of the law-abiding citizens that could witness or report. These spaces are often considered as ‘eyes on the street’ and ‘capable guardians’. (Jacobs, 1961)

TRADITIONAL PUBLIC PLACES

HISTORY OF PUBLIC PLACES Public place has historically been described as “open space”, meaning the streets, parks, recreation areas, plazas and other publicly owned and managed outdoor spaces, as opposed to the private domain of housing and work; have acquired a renewed visibility in the urban planning world. Public spaces are essential ingredients to the sustainability of cities for political, social, economic, public health and biodiversity reasons. Designers and scholars are facing questions: to how to conceive spaces that are at once accessible to everyone and which also foster a sense of shared concern, the emergence of a local public sphere? It highlights the importance of people in defining place, a critical aspect that is all too often forgot-

Traditional public places can be understood as places which have a historical background. Places which have been long established and owns a connection to the history. Traditional public places reflect the culture of the society. By culture it is meant the set of norms, ideas, beliefs and practices that a community follows to be called a society. The culture may go to small essential things like utensils, clothing, ornamentation, rituals, tools etc to rather important factors like feelings, customs, institutions, inventions. The traditional public places in Indian sense can be classified as Chowks, gali’s, Nukad’s, Bazar, Streets, Maidan’s etc. It is here that one can experience the Indian culture and heritage. These spaces are totally informal and functional but exhibit the introvert aspect of the society. For example, the street in olden times was not a mere channel of movement but instead was an activity zone in itself. In fact, all residential units faced the street to witness the street scene which in itself was a community space. The level of interaction was the highest in spite of them being tight and congested. In fact, the reason for their success can be attributed to the fact that

all that time relationships were valued much more than efficiency unlike today where human development is ignored for land development.

EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC PLACES Earlier people used to travel the town walking all the way round. Living in cramped homes, often with no yards, and certainly no cars or refrigerators, they had little choice but to use public spaces. (Gehl, 1987) The public places at that time were widely used, markets for shopping, squares and churches for socializing, parks for recreation by people according to their needs and wish. With time complexities within a city have increased altering the character of the urban environment. Another reason for neglect of public places is the increasing exclusivity in today’s city. Our cities have begun to speak the urban language of separation. Shopping malls of modern times are examples of increasing exclusivity in the city. There has been the development of gated residential enclaves as well as the withdrawal of middle- and upper-class activities indoors in an attempt to fabricate a controlled substitute within enclosure of various kinds. Thus, people end up spending their working days in buildings that isolate them from outside life as they travel between them in private cars. Hence the level of personal contact within a city is diminishing and we all the more need quality public places that furnish opportunities for social interaction, cultural enrichment and recreation.


Jaipur Urban Centre

24 One thing that we need to understand is that people have a lot of options now as compared to what they had in the past. If they don’t feel comfortable in one, they switch to another and this is true for all things around us whether it be appliances or recreational spaces. “People are not out in public spaces because they have to but because they love to. If the place is not appealing, they can go elsewhere. That means the quality of public spaces has become very important. There is not a single example of a city that rebuilt its public places with quality that has not seen a renaissance.” (Gehl, 1987) It is not completely our fault, but we don’t have such spaces in the present community that can encourage us to talk to people, express our views, or exchange our cultures. We lack a public open space in our community that promotes brotherhood and humanity.

Figure-6: Vastu Purusha Mandala

Source: http://www.archinomy.com/sites/default/files/case-studies/2011/conceptual-prastara-plan-1.jpg

COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL & MODERN CITIES OF INDIA JAIPUR CITY It is live model of first planned city in India. Planning of Jaipur city was based on Hindu system of town planning and followed the principles prescribed in the Shilpa-Shastra. Jaipur city was planned according to the Prastara type of layout, which gives prominence to the cardinal directions. Thus, plan of Jaipur is a grid of 3x3 with gridlines being the city’s main streets. A nine square subdivision of space helps to utilize the central space. The central axis of the town was laid from East to West between the gates of the Sun (Suraj pol) and the moon (Chandpol). This was crossed by two roads at right angles dividing the town into nine almost square, almost equally sized blocks, which were further sub divided by lanes and alleys all at right angles. By building the western boundary of the city right up to the hill’s southern apex, it provided a continuous line of defence. The mandala could not be complete in the NW due to the presence of the hills. On the other hand, in the SE an extra square has been added that plugged the gap between the city and the eastern hills. Public spaces in Jaipur city are Chaupars, Bazaars, Mohallas, Streets and Temples. CHAUPARS Junctions of the main axial streets formed the two square civic open spaces called chaupars (Badi chaupar and Chhoti chaupar). The width of the square chaupars was three times that of the main street. These square

Figure-7: Parastara Vedic Town Planning

Source: http://www.archinomy.com/sites/default/files/case-studies/2011/conceptual-prastara-plan-2.jpg

Figure-8: Axes of Town & Street Source: http://www.archinomy.com/sites/default/files/case-studies/2011/mandala-2.jpg


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intersections were of size 100 m X 100m. Chaupars are public gathering places for festive occasions. The distance between two Chopars is about 700 meters which is ideal for pedestrian movement. Historically, the chaupars were outlets for intense social use with water structures connected by underground aqueducts, supplying numerous sources of drinking water at street level. BAZAARS OR MARKETS Bazaars in city are Kishanpole, Gangauri, Johari and Sireh Deorhi along the major axis from north –south and east-west intersecting at Chaupars. These bazaars are defined with strong horizontal lines, with uniform architectural elements like brackets, modular system of arches filled with delicate latticed screens to cut direct sun and glare of reflected sun in the street. (Tindwani, 2015)

Figure-9: Uniform planned shop fronts on bazaar streets with upper floors in interesting juxtaposition Source: http://www.archinomy.com/sites/default/files/case-studies/2011/bazaars-2.jpg

CHANDIGARH CITY Political change happened in India after 1947, now India has to look into the building new state capitals and extension of existing cities to house refugees, to control congestion. The development of Chandigarh, Bhubaneswar and Gandhinagar are examples of new planning approach after British India. The architect planner Le Corbusier with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru provided the new planning model and architectural design for New India. Planning of Chandigarh was a model to implement, an experiment of innovative master planning, modernist building and new land use pattern. Figure-10: Concept Layout of Chandigarh Source: http://www.sustasis.net/Non-Oral Compendium/Tindwani.doc

The basic principle was to accommodate different architectural and urban morphology, diversity and neighbourhood interaction. He allocated nearly 30 percent parks and recreational areas. He divided city in to sectors and each residential sector 800 meters by 1200 meters is self-contained urban village with four neighbourhood sized quarter each bordering with green strips with pedestrian pathways running north south, and market streets east west. The green strip should stay uninterrupted and accommodate schools, sports fields, walks and recreational facilities for the sector. Each sector caters to the daily needs of the inhabitants, which varying from 5,000 to 25,000. City has the city level public green with artificial water bodies, free


Jaipur Urban Centre

26 flowing green spaces connecting sectors, semi private green spaces for neighbourhood and private green spaces for residential units. (Tindwani, 2015)

CONCLUSION New developments have been planned based on the formula; first buildings, then spaces, then (perhaps) life. In present-day planning, this formula must be turned about, like it used to be traditionally, and the questions should be – in said order – what kind of life do we want here, what kind of spaces will be needed for this life, and finally, how can the buildings in this area be placed and formed to support these spaces and the life in this area? In short, the formula must be; first life, then spaces, then buildings. Figure-11: Typical Sector Plan of Chandigarh City Source: http://www.sustasis.net/Non-Oral Compendium/Tindwani.doc

INFERENCE While designing a public place, the primary focus shall be on life or people, for whom the place is being designed, then on what kind of spaces are needed to be provided for life to flourish in the place & then finally on how can the buildings be placed to support these spaces.


Architecture Thesis 2019

MAKING PUBLIC SPACES Designing a residence, an institution, a factory on a blueprint is understood because each one has a specified client and a defined purpose. But is designing a public space on a blueprint feasible? “Convivial places seem to have grown through an accumulation of adaptations and additions; can we design such places on the drawing board?” (Rudofsky, 1964) There are examples from all times that tell that such places can be designed but they tend to be relatively smaller in scale and of a limited life. “The challenges that are at the root of convivial spaces are to manage the fine grain, local nuance and adaptability of theour space byaround the people.” (ShafWhat if we built cities places? toe, 2008)

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PLACE-MAKING Placemaking refers to a collaborative process by which we can shape our public realm in order to maximize shared value. More than just promoting better urban design, placemaking facilitates creative patterns of use, paying particular attention to the physical, cultural, and social identities that define a place and support its ongoing evolution. Placemaking shows people just how powerful their collective vision can be.

PL ACEMAKING

depends upon what that community perceives as human scale. However, in practice, massive towers, blank walls taking up entire city blocks, and parking lots don’t come out of a placemaking process. What does emerge are places with different things to do, local stores, public spaces, and walkable streets.

WHAT ARE GOOD PUBLIC SPACES Great public spaces are those places where celebrations are held, social & economic exchanges occur, friends run into each other, & cultures mix. They are the ‘front porches’ of our public institutions - libraries, field houses, schools - where we interact with each other & government. When these spaces work well, they serve as the stage for our public lives.

Access & Linkages Places are for Human Beings. Creating a human scale environment means making sure that the objects that we interact with every day are of a size and shape that is reasonable for an average person to use. We use human scale to refer pedestrians. Human scale also can refer to how people perceive a city. Long before it was an area of study, dictators took advantage of the impact architecture can have on the mind. By creating architecture at a monumental scale, rather than a human one, they inspired fear and awe in their citizens.

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES

Figure-12: Highlighting the Importance of People in a Place Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/5810e16fbe876cec6bcbd86e/5b71f88ec6f4726edfe3857d_2018%20placemaking%20booklet.pdf

If the human scale is about perception, then we cannot apply a single objective definition; each person views the world from a different angle. That means the human scale in any given community

A successful public space is easy to get to & get through; it is visible both from a distance & up close. The edges of a spaces are important as well: For instance, a row of shops along the street is more interesting & generally safer to walk by than a blank wall or empty lot. Accessible spaces have a high parking turnover &, ideally, are convinient to public transit.

Comfort & Image Whether a space is comfortable and presents itself well - has a good image - is key to its success. Comfort includes perceptions about safety, cleanliness, & the availibility of places to sit - the importance of giving people the choice to sit where they want is generally underestimated.


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Figure-13: What makes a Great Place? Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/581110f944272e4a11871c01/5acfa7910b1c9faf752f2229_greatplace-detail-PPS.jpg

Jaipur Urban Centre


Architecture Thesis 2019

Uses & Activities Activities are the most important pieces of the puzzle when it comes to a place. Having something to do gives people a reason to come to a place & return. When there is nothing to do, a space will be empty & that generally means that something is wrong.

Sociability This is a difficult quality for a place to achieve, but once attained it becomes an unmistakable feature. When people see friends, meet and greet their neighbors, and feel comfortable interacting with strangers, they tend to feel a stronger sense of place or attachment to their community - and to the place that fosters these types of social activities.

PRINCIPLES OF PLACEMAKING

29 ownership in the project that can be of great benefit to both the project sponsor and the community.

Recommended steps: - Ask the JDA to carefully select the tenants.

Recommended steps: - Identify & Define the Stakeholders

4. VISION A vision for a public space essentially concerns the activities that will occur there in the future. Therefore, it should be defined primarily by people who will live, work around, and use the space, rather than the professionals or public agencies who are responsible for planning it.

2. YOU ARE CREATING A PLACE, NOT JUST A DESIGN When people describe a place they enjoy, they use words like “safe,” “fun,” “beautiful,” and “welcoming.” These words describe the intangible qualities of a true place -- the kind of place people talk about and return to over and over. To create a place, we shall cater to the people & not the design. The goal is to create a place that has both a strong sense of community and a comfortable image, as well as a setting and activities and uses that collectively add up to something more than the sum of its often-simple parts.

(pps.org, 2009) 1. THE COMMUNITY IS THE EXPERT To create any successful place, it is essential to find a way to uncover and incorporate people’s talents. Tapping into the ideas and talents of a community - inviting into the process the people who have an interest or stake in a particular place, such as those who live or work there -- is crucial in deciding what will be done to develop or improve a place. They provide perspective and valuable insights into how an area functions; overall, they have a unique understanding of the issues that are important. Tapping this information at the beginning of the process will help to create a sense of community

Recommended steps: - Identify issues from the stakeholders 3. YOU CAN’T DO IT ALONE A good public space requires more resources and expertise than any one individual or organization can offer. Partners can contribute innovative ideas, financial support, and/or in-kind goods and services. A good place always attracts high real estate values. Thus, the spaces are generally occupied by established market leaders, who may not necessarily promote the place. The maintaining or the enforcement body plays an important role in controlling – who occupies the spaces.

Recommended steps: - Develop a vision with the stakeholders 5. FORM SUPPORTS FUNCTION The most successful places grow out of understanding what a space needs to offer so that people will use it. By following and incorporating the uses articulated by the community, a designer can not only make the space interesting to look at and be in, but also very functional. Recommended steps: - Develop a diagram of the functions that are to occur in the space and locate the functions onto a plan of the site. 6. TRIANGULATE The concept of triangulation relates to locating elements in such a way that the chances of activity occurring around them is greatly increased. For example, a bench, a trash receptacle, and a telephone placed near each other at a bus stop create synergy because together, they offer more chances for activity than if they were isolated from each


Jaipur Urban Centre

30 other. Or, if a children’s reading room in a new library were located next to a playground in a park with a food kiosk, more activity would occur than if these facilities were sited separately. On a larger scale, it means locating buildings near each other with easy access between them and active uses on the ground floor so that people will move between them.

fountain, playground, and popcorn vendor is better. A library across the street is even better, more so if they feature storytelling hours for kids and exhibits on local history. If there’s a sidewalk café nearby, a bus stop, a bike trail, and an ice cream parlor, then you have what most people would consider a great place.

Recommended steps: - Outline triangulation opportunities on a plan of the site & list the potential partners for the process. 7. EXPERIMENT : Lighter, Quicker & Cheaper To create a good public space requires more than long-term planning and large-scale changes. Many great plans become bogged down because they are too big, cost too much, and take too long to happen. Short-term actions, like planting flowers, can be a way of not only testing ideas, but also giving people the confidence that change is occurring and that their ideas matter. In many of the most successful public spaces, short-term actions occurred at the outset and were evaluated while longer-term planning was in progress. Recommended steps: - Identify & Implement shortterm improvements

THE POWER OF 10 (pps.org, 2009) It’s actually offering a variety of things to do in one spot & not literally 10 — making a place more than the sum of its parts. A park is good. A park with a

Figure-14: The Power of 10+ things to do at the Place Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/5810e16fbe876cec6bcbd86e/5b71f88ec6f4726edfe3857d_2018%20placemaking%20booklet.pdf

INFERENCES - The place shall be visible from a distance. - Site edges shall be permeable - prevent using boundary walls. - The place shall be inviting & comfortable. - A unique identity or image of the place needs to

be created amongst the visitors - can be done by architectural character of the built form. - There shall be scope for multiple activities to happen at the place. - The place shall be flexible - allowing the people to use the place the way they want to.


Architecture Thesis 2019

MARKETS AS PUBLIC PLACES (pps.org, 2010) Public markets are not just places of commerce. Successful markets help grow and connect urban and rural economies. They encourage development, enhance real estate values and the tax base, and keep money in the local neighborhood. Public markets also offer low-risk business opportunities for vendors and feed money back into the rural

31 economy where many vendors grow, raise and produce their products. Historically our towns and cities grew up around markets, which served as our original civic centers. However, With the onset of Malls, Supermarkets, this was lost & resulted in creating poor public spaces. There is a need to therefore go back to creating Markets as centers of Community development. Some of the important features of Public

Markets are as follows- Vibrant Markets Strengthen Local identity - Markets catalyse Neighbourhood development - Clustering of Market Activities – Community Hubs

MARKETS AS COMMUNITY HUBS The spin-off benefits of markets are numerous. But, perhaps most important is the way markets serve as public gathering places for people from different ethnic, cultural, & socioeconomic communities. Great markets are created through the clustering of activities. They require the intentional aggregation of local food & lifestyle products, & also other services, functions & activities. Food is one of the central reasons for which people gather, and that gathering creates a hub for community life. As one of the few places where people comfortably gather and meet, markets are our neighborhoods’ original civic centers.

DEVELOPMENT OF MARKETS The role of the public market in the city was crucial in the way it contributed to the social & political lives of all city dwellers. Markets first appeared as “specifically appointed places of exchange” where people gathered for mutual benefit. Markets can be understood in a way in which places embrace every aspect of human existence simultaneously, that are capable of juxtaposing in a single space several aspects of life that are in themselves incompatible.

Figure-15: Benefits of Public Markets Source: https://assets-global.website-files.com/581110f944272e4a11871c01/598dd6d694beee0001081050_unnamed-3.png

Over the period of time, several market typologies have developed to provide organised trade & protection from the natural elements.


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32

1. OPEN AIR MARKETPLACE

3. MARKETS IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

5. ENCLOSED MARKET HOUSE

It is the most universal market typology in which an open space is occupied by the vendors accordingly & shade themselves using temporary structures. The open air market is seen in many variations around the world.

It is a form typically characterized by a single building with open arcade on the ground floor where the market took place.

This typology arose in late 1800s as cities replaced their open market sheds will fully enclosed market buildings. Cast Iron developments allowed the structures to be large covered spaces with an open plan free of supports.

Figure-16: Open Air Market Source: https://www.discoverwalks.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/openmarket-paris-big.jpg

Figure-18: Market in Public Building Source: http://navigatens.thechronicleherald.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/halifax_seaport_farmers_market_nova_scotia_1000x650-compressor.jpg

2. STREET MARKETS These marketplaces are linear in nature. These elongated marketplaces usually are located on

4. MARKET SHEDS

publically owned land & are easy to expand.

& is usually rectilinear & supported by piers, posts, or columns, which allows for it to be open on one or more sides.

They are the most common type of covered market

Figure-17: Street Market Source: http://static.asiawebdirect.com/m/kl/portals/kuala-lumpur-ws/homepage/ klareas/chinatown_petaling/pagePropertiesImage/petaling-street.jpg

Figure-19: Market Shed Source: c3314642.r42.cf0.rackcdn.com/00005511-still1.jpg

Figure-20:

Shopping Mall

Source: https://www.indiaretailforum.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/mall.jpg


Architecture Thesis 2019

33

URBAN MARKET SYSTEMS OF 21ST CE

side an urban jungle & character of built spaces make it an interesting public place.

Urban market systems in the 21st century can be vital centres of exchange connecting rural & urban environments & places that anchor local culture & social life for all residents.

MASALA CHOWK, JAIPUR

CASE EXAMPLES DILLI HAAT INA, NEW DELHI

This is one of the most recent projects implemented by JDA in Jaipur. This project shows how place can be made around street food. It focuses on providing authentic Jaipur Street Food experience to the visitors, away from the walled city. They made it a successful public place by bringing many legendary food outlets from the Walled City at one public square.

Dilli Haat is a great example of how a traditional open market can be created in 21st Century. It designed a ‘market place’ portraying the traditional Indian culture to the visitors by bringing rural life & folk art closer to urban business. According to seasons & themes, the shops are alloted once or twice every fortnight. This induces a curiosity factor among the visitors & thus, attract them to visit the place again.

Masala Chowk is an inward looking square, provided with sit-outs – shaded with large Umbrella-like tensile structure. There is nothing much traditional about the architectural character of the place, but, the occupants or the stakeholders are carefully chosen by JDA, which help in providing the authentic Jaipur Experience to the visitors & that makes the place interesting enough to revisit after some time.

The rich culture can be experienced because of subdued architectural character helps the colours of the craft bazaar to be the prominent features. Other than this, ease of access, rich rural culture in-

The place is also successful because of better ease of access & parking when compared to the Walled City.

Figure-21: Dilli Haat INA

Figure-22:

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/rf/image_size_960x540/HT/p2/2016/12/20/Pictures/_a573da8e-c66011e6-9f83-7f3d2f12db63.jpg

Source: Author

Masala Chowk, Jaipur


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VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF RAJASTHAN In the Indian Sub-continent, vernacular architecture plays an important role in instructing architecture over sustainability, materiality, history & identity. While traditional technologies are full of wisdom locally, they also have their shortcomings that new technology can compensate for. A harmonious mix of the urban contemporary & traditional might be the answer to architecture that belongs & makes place for the future.

Figure-25: Figure-23:

PUBLIC PLACE & VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE

Courtyard

Source: https://anishashahbbc.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/6-jodhpur-umaid-bhawan-248.jpg

PAVILIONS

The identity & the mental image of a Public Place are very important in perspective of the user, as to how he/she would percieve the place & what he would remember the place for. In that essence, ar-

They came into being by multiplying very simple spatial untis in modules. The module consists of four columns and a roof, irrespective of the style & construction method, offering a simultaneous ex-

chitectural character of the built form at the Place plays an important role. The vernacular architecture would help render the place to provide an even more traditional experience, which would play a vital role in its Place Making as well.

perience of the inside & the outside. The Pleasure pavilions are known as BARADARIS & CHHATTRIS.

Chhatri

Source: http://www.tracyanddale.50megs.com/India/Rajasthan/images/Baradari02. jpg

Baradaris are repititive or modular but the chhattris are cupola-like stand alone units. They serve best during summer evenings in arid regions allowing a free flow of fresh air.

ENTRANCES The most important transitional relationship between two distinct realms is expressed through entrances. Whether it is the entrance to a city through a Fort Wall with defence as the major consideration, or a heirarchical sequence of spatial layers with a series of in-between realms, transition through the Entrances remains the most significant aspect.

COURTYARDS They act as a relief from the outside world by forming a peaceful microclimate & are a great source of natural light & cross ventilation of the interior spaces. They also form a socio-cultural place of public activity connected visually through terraces & verandahs. Figure-24:

Baradari

Source: http://www.tracyanddale.50megs.com/India/Rajasthan/images/Baradari02. jpg

Figure-26:

Entrance/Pol

Source: https://www.encounterstravel.com/za/sysimages/rszimages/entrance-toamber-fort-Jaipur-india_tg_1314.jpg


Architecture Thesis 2019

35

FACADE & ITS ELEMENTS Rajasthan comes under hot & dry climate zone. Here, the building envelope needs to be perforated. The major elements are - JHAROKHAS, CHAJJAS & JAALIS. All the elements of the traditional facade are a response to climatic & socio cultural needs. The texture of the facades is uneven with ornate features to provide shade & cooling. The functional

determinants of each feature can be understood & interpreted in modern design schemes in the area.

WATER AS AN PLACE-MAKING

ANCHOR

FOR

Historically, the more active public places were always centred around water. In hot & dry climate zones, water creates a cool & breezy mirco climate of the area, as a resultant of evaporative cooling & pressure differences. The cool environment is a relief for the dwellers of the settlements & thus, urged people to gather around them in summer evenings. There are majorly two types of artificially created water bodies in Rajasthan which serve as public place.

KUND OR STEPPED-POND It is a larger scale water body, which is generally rectangular or square in shape. It can be accessed from three or all four sides. The water level is quite low, thus it has elaborate number of steps. To save space, many flights are in lateral direction of the kund, which are also used for sitting. They are generally complimented with use of CHHATTRIS.

BAORI OR STEPPED-WELL Figure-27:

Chajja

Source: https://2.imimg.com/data2/RA/ KB/MY-3422781/royal-jharokha-500x500. jpg

Figure-29:

Figure-28:

Jharokha

Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/5/59/Maheshwar_Fort_-_Jharokha_02.jpg

Jaali/Lattice Work

Source: http://architectureimg.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/ancient-window-world-amber-fort-india-ornate-latticework-architecture-full-hd-wallpaper.jpg

It is a smaller scale water body, which is linear or rectangular which can be accessed from one side & 3 sides respectively. The water level is low, thus, there are lot of steps, shaded by using a number of pavillions.

Figure-30:

Baori/ Stepwell

Source: https://www.hlimg.com/images/things2do/738X538/800px-Rani_ki_ Baoli,_a_step_well_some_distance_from_the_Neemrana_Fort_Palace_1523606383t. jpg

Figure-31: Kund/Sagar Source: https://static.toiimg.com/thumb/59155688/59155260.jpg?width=650&height=433&resize=true&resizeMode=5


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36

OFFICE DESIGN

PLANNING & DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF OFFICE BUILDINGS

(Adler, 1969)

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS DEPTH OF THE BUILDING This determines the quality and types of space available on each level. Aspect, natural ventilation and lighting, zoning of space, and support space should all be considered. Building depths are generally described as being predominantly ‘glass to core’ or ‘glass to glass’. - Glass-to-core depths of 9-12 m allow room for cellular office space or open plan plus storage. - Glass-to-glass depths of 13.5-18 m allow two or three zones of office and support space. FLOOR TO FLOOR HEIGHT Related to floor depth and floor plate size, this has a major effect on air conditioning, cable distribution, ability to use natural ventilation and light, and on visual comfort. Floor-to-floor heights of 4–4.5 m provide maximum flexibility and good visual comfort.

FREQUENCY OF CHANGE & FLEXIBILITY Buildings are relatively permanent, while the organisations and activities within them are continuously changing. To allow for maximum flexibility, different time scales of building briefing and design can be distinguished into separate functions of:

Table 1-

Planning and design criteria for different types of office building

- THE BUILDING SHELL The structure and enclosure of the building, lasting 50–75 years, while the functions within change many times over. - BUILDING SERVICES The heating, ventilation, and cabling infrastructure of a building, which have a life span of 15 years or less before the technology becomes obsolescent. - SCENERY The fitting-out components of a building, such as ceilings, lighting, finishes, which adapt a building to a specific organisation’s requirements. The life span of a fit-out is between 5 and 7 years. - SETTING The day-to-day re-arrangement of the furniture and equipment, to meet changing needs. Figure-32:

Shell, Services, Scenery & Setting

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf


Architecture Thesis 2019

Figure-33:

37

Space requirements for an Office Desk

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf

Figure-35:

Space and circulation requirements of filing and other office equipment

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf

DESIGN OF CONTEMPORARY WORKSPACES

Figure-34:

Power and communication servicing

Source: http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/uesawi/files/2015/04/The-Metric-Handbook-Architecture-must-have.pdf

Many studies suggest, that for an increased productivity, the employees shall not be bound to a desk & a box. The technology today is such, that it doesn’t require a person to remain at their desk. They can work from anywhere. So the interiors today must also be designed in such a way that the spaces are dynamic, free-flowing & promote interactions.

- Create agile workspaces for employees by providing different kind of zones, instead of providing a fix workstations & cabins to them. - Providing Nooks in Common Areas would offer spaces to people where they can converse & discuss ideas whenever they run into eachother. - There shall be small spaces (like booths), which provide a sense of privacy to the employees. Here, they could go & attend personal & professional calls in a quieter & peaceful space.


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38

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF AUDITORIUM & CONCERT HALLS Auditoriums are spaces which can accommodate functions such as : - Theatre/ Drama - Music concerts - Dance - Instrumental performance - Opera or Ballet - Screening/ Projection - Public speaking

- Reception & info. desk - Administrative office - Service lobby - Equipment store - Cloak room - Janitor’s room - Toilet(s) - Refreshment area

The stage and the audience share very crucial relationship as the interaction between the performance and the audience in any live performance is what determines the success of the design of an auditorium. The optimum array of seating should be provided with consideration of the visual and acoustic clarity for the audience.

An auditorium can be simply broken down into three main functional zones: - Front of the house - Stage and Seating space - Back of the house

AUDITORIUM DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

FRONT OF THE HOUSE The front of the house is dedicated to the audience, the foyer facilities for all the requirements and needs of the audience such as refreshments, info. Desks, toilets. It also acts as the waiting area, distributes and manages the crowd pre and post show. The building should be legible to a user and the facilities should be provided such that they do not hamper the movement of people through the foyer space. A clever way to manage a foyer space is by providing clear signage to help the user to find directions to seat and other facilities. FOH consists of:

of the activities in BOH should not intersect with public spaces at any given point. It consists of: - Backstage storage - Green room(s) - Toilets - Scenery docks - Backstage gallery

Figure-36:

Recommended Zoning & Inter-relations

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

BACK OF THE HOUSE The back of the house is to accommodate all those activities and people who are responsible for the performance. BOH is required to meet the technical requirements of the production house while remaining hidden from general public. Hence any

REFERENCES: - IS: 2526 - 1963 : Code of practice for Acoustical design of Auditoriums and Conference halls - NBC 2016 vol-2 Part 8, Section 4 : Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control - Time Saver Standards for building types, 2nd edition Optimum audio clarity depends on: 1. correct reverberation time 2. absence of echo 3. correct loudness level at all parts of the hall 4. low background noise HALL FUNCTION Music Theatre General Purpose

VOL/ PERSON 5.0 - 5.5 cum 4.0 - 5.0 cum 4.0 - 5.0 cum


Architecture Thesis 2019

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS - Background noise level < 40 to 45 dB (as measured on ‘A’ scale of sound level meter) should be achieved within the hall. - The average height may vary from 6 m for small halls to 7·5 m for large halls. Ceiling may be flat but it is preferable to provide a slight increase in the height near the center of hall. - Fan-shaped plan is preferred due to acoustical considerations. - The side walls should be arranged to have an angle of not more than 100 degrees with the curtain line. - It is recommended that the distance of the farthest seat from the curtain line should not normally exceed 23 m.

39 tical design shall indicate either the surface to be splayed or convex corrugations given in order to avoid any tendency for the sound to focus into the hall.

SIDE WALL Where the side walls are non-parallel as in the case of a fan-shaped hall. the walls may remain reflective and may be architecturally finished. in any manner required. Where the side walls are parallel they may be left untreated to a length of about 7 m from the proscenium end. Difference between the direct path and the path reflected from side wall shall not exceed 15m.

ROOF AND CEILING In large halls a false ceiling is usually provided be-

Figure-37:

Fan Shaped plan of Auditorium

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

REAR WALL The auditorium rear wall should be either fiat or convex in shape. This should not be concave in shape, but where it cannot be avoided, the acous-

Figure-38:

Typical Section

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

low the trusses. The portion of the false ceiling near the proscenium is constructed of reflective material (usually plaster of Paris) and is suitably inclined to help reflections from the stage to reach the rear seats of the hall. The remaining portion of this ceiling is constructed to take acoustical treatment. Concave shaped ceilings (in the form of dome or barrel) should be avoided. The rear portion of the ceiling may be treated with sound absorbing material partly for control of reverberation and partly to prevent buildup of audience noise.

FLOOR The floor elevation is based on the principle that each listener shall be elevated with respect to the person immediately in front of him so that the listener’s head is about 12 cm above the path of


Jaipur Urban Centre

40 sound which would pass over the head of the person in front of him. It is possible to reduce this to 8 cm, if the seats are staggered. As an empirical rule the angle of elevation of the inclined floor in an auditorium should not be less than 8 degrees.

The elevation of the balcony seat should be such that line of sight is not inclined more than 30 degrees to the horizontal.

OTHER IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS

BALCONY Where a balcony is provided, its projection into the hall should not be more than twice the free height of the opening of the balcony recess.

Figure-39:

LINE OF SIGHT

Veiwing Angle

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

- The seats should be arranged in concentric arcs of circles drawn with the center located as much behind the center of the curtain line as its (curtain line) distance from the auditorium rear wall. - The angle subtended with the horizontal at the front-most observer by the highest object should not exceed 30 degrees. On this basis, the distance of the front row works to about 3.6 m for drama and it should be 4.5m or more for cinema purposes. - The width of a seat should be between 45 cm and 56 cm. - The back to back distance of chairs in successive rows of seats shall be at least 85 cm - 106 cm (extra comfort) - Seats should be staggered sideways in relation to those in front so that a listener in any row is not looking directly over the head of- the person in front of him.

CONFERENCE HALL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Figure-40: Sitting Posture

Viewer’s

Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

Figure-41: Section below Balcony Source: Time Saver Standards for Building Types - 2nd Edition

Basic difference between conference halls and auditoriums, like theaters and cinema halls, lies in the possibility of sound originating, in the former case from any part of the hall. In a conference hall a table or cluster of tables is generally placed in the center of the hall, and persons who are listeners as well as speakers sit around the table. Conference hall may

have any shape to suit architectural or any other special requirements. In designing conference halls particular consideration should, therefore, be given to the following requirements. - Acoustics of the halls should be so designed as to ensure proper conditions for listening, assuming that a person may speak or listen from anywhere in the hall. - Optimum reverberation time should be chosen. It may be noted that ‘too Jong a reverberation time muffles and confuses the speech intelligibility while too short a time prevents build-up of proper level for good listening. - Use of sound amplification system should be avoided as far as possible. But where necessitated, because of size or other requirements, low level loudspeakers or head phones should be provided for individual or a group of seats. - Absorbent material should be distributed evenly over the wall surfaces of the hall. - Ceiling should not be domed and should not be ‘higher than 6 meters. Acoustical treatment on the ceiling should be confined to peripheral regions only. In the case of larger halls with considerable heights, more area of ceiling would need to be treated,


Chapter - 2.2

Case Studies


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42

SELECTION CRITERIA Given the diversity of the proposed scheme, different projects inform different aspects of the proposal. Therefore, the case studies have been chosen based on the following. - Creation of public spaces supported by certain functions - Mix of functions in those projects - Similar scales of program components as of the design project.

INDIA HABITAT CENTRE

CITY CENTRE

JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA

LODHI ROAD, NEW DELHI Primary Case Study

SALT LAKE CITY, KOLKATA Secondary Case Study

JLN MARG, JAIPUR Primary Case Study

Figure-42:

Figure-43:

Figure-44:

India Habitat Centre

Source: Author

City Centre

Source: https://i1.wp.com/architecturelive.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ City-Center-018.jpg?resize=1024%2C745&ssl=1

ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK The case studies would be analysed & compared in a matrix on the basis of the following: - Building Program - Zoning - Concept & Design translation - Site Planning - Spatial organisation - Architectural Expression - Place-making components

Jawahar Kala Kendra

Source: http://rajasthanpost.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Jawahar_01.jpg


Architecture Thesis 2019

INDIA HABITAT CENTRE Indian Habitat Center (IHC) was conceived to provide a physical environment, which would serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals working in diverse habitat related areas and would therefore maximize their total effectiveness. It mixes work, commercial and social spaces to result into an integrated urban physical form. Elegantly designed, the campus is a hub of activity while simultaneously being serene.

SITE Indian Habitat center is located at Lodhi road. The site is L shape with a slopy terrain, having a difference of about 4 Meters between the extreme opposite ends. The area is predominant institutional on Lodhi road with residential colonies as you go deeper.

43

GENERAL INFO Architects Stein, Doshi and Bhalla Architects. Construction - 1989 to 1993 Client - Indian Habitat Centre Site Area - 38850 sqm FAR - 1.4 Built-up area - 53000 sqm Ground coverage - 9550 m2 – 25% Maximum No. of Floors - 7

CONNECTIVITY IGI Airport – 15 km Nizamuddin Railway Station – 4 km ISBT Sarai Kale Khan – 7 km Khan Market Metro Station – 1.7 km Lodhi Corner Bus Stop – 500 m

ACCESS The Lodhi road in the north acts as a pedestrian entrance. The roads in the west and south, Max Mueller Marg and Vardhaman Road respectively, provide vehicular entrance into the building for specific areas.

CLIMATE The climate is humid sub-tropical. Average temperatures range from 19°-32° depending on weather. Summers temperature can reach up to 42° and winters up to 6°. most of the rainfall is experinced during monsoon season. Figure-45:

India Habitat Centre Location

Source: Google Maps & Author


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44

BUILDING PROGRAM

ZONING

Building Program of IHC is programmed as a moderately dense complex with institutional and office work spaces, conference and library facilities, including a diverse range of facilities for the members. - 40,000 sq.m. of office accommodation - Conference rooms with a total capacity of 1000 in various configurations holding 30 to 450 people - 60 guest rooms, 5 suites, 5 service apartments - Conference rooms, cafeteria, restaurants and private dining rooms can handle around 1500 persons at a time - 700 sq.m. of exhibition space - 420 capacity auditorium, 250 capacity amphitheatre - Parking for 933 cars and 2000 two-wheelers - 25% of the total area goes into landscaped courts.

- There is an evident polarization in the zoning of the offices and non-office functions in the site. - The offices are located in the three blocks facing the lodhi road while the convention facility, Stein auditorium, library and guest houses are located towards vardhman marg in the south block - The ground floor is majorly used for facilities that involve public like the art galleries, information center, restaurants and food court, auditorium, amphi theatre and public landscape spaces. - Offices are mostly pushed to the upper floors in the same three blocks. The south block and the office blocks have separate entrances and the office block has two vehicular entrances considering the rush hours in the morning and evening. - The double basement parking under the courtyard houses most of the parking and services extended under the entire block on the west.

Figure-46:

Figure-47:

Source: Author

Area Distribution

Source: Author

Zoning & Demarcation of spaces


Architecture Thesis 2019

CONCEPT AND DESIGN TRANSLATION The genesis of the design, according to Stein, is rooted in the fact that he is a “horizontal architect with a profound dislike for automobiles and the need for climate modifications, the applications of these with the co-operation of the client led to a conscious decision to under build�. Thus, the complex is realised as an oasis of quite and greenery in the midst of the chaos of the city. The landscaping, horticulture and fountains add to the pleasing ambiance of the campus.

SITE PLANNING - There is a clear segregation between the vehicular & the pedestrian movement. - The ground is perceived as a vehicle-free envi-

45 ronment, and a fairly elaborate system worked out to deny entrance to all motorized traffic except for repair and fire. - Building volumes are articulated to form interconnected internal courtyards that are major public spaces.

SPATIAL ORGANISATION The habitat center is organized as a series of four to seven storey blocks around linked shaped courtyards. The built forms are grouped around climate tempered courts, shaded by overhead sunscreens and are enlightened by vertical gardens. The complex has a very well-planned segregation of spaces. All areas, which are expected to experience a large and regular inflow of public have been placed very close to the entrances; the office areas being given the access from the inside of the courtyards. Although the public and the semi-public areas have been placed in separate built blocks, the courts and the landscape areas form a very good connection between the two. The landscape forms a very integral part of the design and seems to be a part of the built-scape. Each internal courtyard has been designed to impact a distinct-identity to the spaces and is conducive to the type of functions or activities that can be anticipated. That has been achieved by paving patterns in the different materials, the use of water, a play of levels and plants.

Figure-48: Source: Author

Movement Systems

Water bodies are provided to cut the rigidity of

harsh material and generate micro climate cooling. Stepped planters serve as a sitting space too. Palm trees have been planted to create a refreshing environment inside.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER Micro climate The shaded canopies and efficient orientation along with the presence of the plants and water bodies help in creating a comfortable environment, the aspect ratio of the courtyard helps as a built form itself shades the courtyard and helps in keeping the heat gain low. Scale The scale is monumental. The exposed brick facades portray a fortress like yet earthly character, the large gateway kind of openings frames the multilayered design features picturesuely. Bridges between Blocks Over head connections between the blocks creates an interesting massing and also helps in shading the courtyard efficiently. Roofing An open to sky partially shaded roofing is used over the courtyards, this helps in shading and increases interaction with day light and promotes the coexistence of the plants and small animals with humans. It creates a interesting play of shadow on the floor.


Jaipur Urban Centre

46

STRUCTURE & SERVICES - The structure used is an RCC Column, Beam & Slab structure, with Raft foundation. It follows an alternative grid of 5x5m & 10x10m respectively in both directions. - The entire building is air-conditioned, the basements are mechanically ventilated, sprinkler systems are installed in all usable areas and the complex has its own water purification plant. - Fire escape staircase and lobbies are pressurized to prevent the spread of fire along vertical shafts. - Computerized building management systems have been designed for the efficient operation of all systems, including watering of window boxes and the detection of faults.

Figure-49:

Section through Basement showing the gradual slope of the basement slab

Source: indiahabitat.org

Figure-50: Source: Author

Basement Plans showing parking & services


Architecture Thesis 2019

CITY CENTRE City Centre is not just the confluence of various outlets of designer wear, jewellery shops, coffee shops, departmental stores and multiplex theatre; it is a mall where there is a confluence of care and compassion along with the culture of consumerism. In the mall, there is a unique blend of the nostalgic Kolkatan elements like the Bengali’s passion for ‘adda’ and the concept of consumerism within the complex of this mall.

SITE City Center is located in Bidhannagar, Salt Lake City as it is popularly called. It is a planned satellite town of Kolkata. The site is rectangular in shape with plain terrain.

47

GENERAL INFO Architects - Charles Correa Construction - 2004 Clients - Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority and Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited Site Area - 20234 sqm FAR - 2.5 Built-up area - 50400 sqm Ground coverage - 40% Maximum No. of Floors - 8

CONNECTIVITY Kolkata Airport – 11 km Sealdah Railway Station – 7 km ISBT – 3 km City Centre Metro Station – 0 m City Center Bus Stop – 50 m

ACCESS The site is well connected with roads and streets touching the site on all four sides almost seamlessly with 14 vehicular & pedestrian entry/exit points. It recieves a footfall of about 10,000 on weekdays & about 25,000 on weekends.

CLIMATE The climate is hot and humid because of a moderating effect from the sea. The average temperature ranges 45°-12°depending on the weather. Average rainfall is about 154 cm annually.

Figure-51: City Centre location Source: Google Maps & Author


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48

BUILDING PROGRAM

Figure-53:

Floor wise Area Distribution

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/Sonaliparashar/city-center-kolkata

ZONING Segregation of activities through levels, define uninterrupted user specific movement. Various activities are clubbed (close proximity of forms, clubbing by means of corridors, plazas.) & open spaces are merged with whole compositions. The elements that unify all these diverse uses are the pedestrian streets that traverse from one end of the site to the other, climaxing in an open-air kund at the focal point at the centre of the main plaza.

CONCEPT AND DESIGN TRANSLATION

Figure-52:

Area Distribution

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/Sonaliparashar/city-center-kolkata

The design of this mall has borrowed generously from two Indian experiences- the bazaar life and the need for social interaction. The result is evident in the construction of a mall which, through its horizontal layout, neat straight lines, pastel shades, and airy ambience, is seen more as a destination mall than a convenience mall. A collective space which could be used flexibly for a diverse variety of functions, a harmonious fusion between a convention centre (or cultural hub) and a commercial centre was the need for the space.

SITE PLANNING - Peripheral vehicular movement & parking allows pedestrian movement to be random & natural inside the project. People experience the site freely according to will. The site is penetrable and connects seamlessly to streets outside.


Architecture Thesis 2019

49

- The main side of the mall facing the main road has a huge courtyard which centres a kund and several flights of stairs leading up to the various parts of the mall. The other entrance is from the opposite side of the mall which faces the parking space. consumers who are travelling in their own vehicle, walk into the mall without taking a detour. - The clustered organization relies on physical proximity to relate its spaces to one another. Also, the blocks are planned in a staggered manner. Often consists of repetitive, cellular spaces having similar functions and share a common visual trait such as shape or orientation.

placed in southeast direction to have pleasing sun during daytime making the experience even better. - The non-air-conditioned market is in the form of a series of stepped-back terraces, so as to increase cross-ventilation. The air-conditioned shopping centre is organized around a central atrium - and anchored by the presence of two large Department Stores at either end.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

Figure-55:

Ground Floor Plan

Source: http://saltlake.citycentremalls.in/mall-map.aspx

- Many in between open spaces are created between activity functions that are nice breathing space for the public or spill out spaces. The kund at the entrance is a very strong anchoring element. Acts as a nice stopping space where people pause relax, interact and can do many things.

Figure-56:

First Floor Plan

Source: http://saltlake.citycentremalls.in/mall-map.aspx

SPATIAL ORGANISATION

Figure-54: Source: Author

Site Planning

- The Kund breaks monotony of heighted built space. The interlinking corridors facilitate constant air circulation and end at the kund space. The kund space is provided on the longer axis of the site to have maximum exposure to the roadside. It is

The design has incorporated the contemporary look with the traditional Bengali environment. The play with light and shadows creates interesting experiences for the people at different times of the day. Corridors are covered with pergola with polycarbonate sheet to provide diffuse light inside. Its inclusiveness can be defined by the fact that it doesn’t have boundaries to separate it from the street, it is open to all. The material used for pavement of mall resembles the street. Tree placement in pathways and light arrangement. One will realize that the vast multiplex plaza has been designed with a Kund - a water body - as the centre. This provides a platform for interaction, where people from various groups, ages and backgrounds mingle with each other.


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Figure-57:

Section

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/Sonaliparashar/city-center-kolkata


Architecture Thesis 2019

JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA Jawahar Kala Kendra is an arts and crafts center located in the city of Jaipur. The center is important not because of the nomenclature but its close association with the city of Jaipur itself. The center was launched by the state government to provide space to the cultural and spiritual values of India and display the rich craft heritage. The center is dedicated to the late prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru.

SITE Jawahar Kala Kendra is located at the JLN Marg in Gandhinagar, Jaipur. The site is in shape of rectangle chopped off from a larger rectangle & almost has a plain terrain.

51

GENERAL INFO Architects - Charles Correa Construction - 1992 Clients - Rajasthan Art & Culture Department Site Area - 38445 sqm FAR - 0.24 Built-up area - 9000 sqm Ground coverage - 15% Maximum No. of Floors - 2

CONNECTIVITY Jaipur Airport – 7 km Jaipur Gandhinagar Railway Station – 1.5 km ISBT – 6 km SMS Stadium Metro Station – 1.7 km High Court Circle Bus Stop – 100 m

ACCESS The site is well connected with roads and streets touching the site on three sides. Thus, it is well connected to pedestrian and vehicular movement of the city via the JLN Marg.

CLIMATE Jaipur has a hot semi-arid climate. It receives over 63 cm of rainfall annually, but most rains occur in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high during summer & can go upto 45°c. Temperatures in winter days is not as low as the night, which can go as low as 5°c. Figure-58:

Jawahar Kala Kendra location

Source: Google Maps & Author


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BUILDING PROGRAM & ZONING

CONCEPT AND DESIGN TRANSLATION

The centre has been made in 8 blocks housing museums, theatres, library, art galleries, cafeteria, studios, workshops, guest house, dorm, amphitheatre and administrative spaces. Only recreational spaces seem to be active and to be in use now. The two active spaces are amphitheatre and cafeteria.

Correa has attempted to create a new image for the historical city by metaphorically replicating the Navagraha Plan of Jaipur. One of the squares is pivoted recalling the original plan of Jaipur. Each square was linked to the planet as per the characteristics of the particular planet and its astrological values and the functionality of the square. This Navagraha concept with its energy values their

favourable colour, quality and the favourable functionality to each planet with square kept in mind while designing and allocation of spaces. Some open courtyards and the traditional design elements of Rajasthan have been incorporated in the complex.

Table 2- Navgraha translation to design Source: https://www.academia.edu/30954088/JAWAHAR_KALA_KENDRA

SITE PLANNING There is peripheral movement of vehicles. Users experience the site on foot and no vehicles can enter. The pivoted square defines the entry of site to three functions-auditorium, library and admin block. It also acts like an inviting entry for the visitors. The massing and hierarchy of functions is done in a very axial manner according to the important principles of design- symmetry(apparent), harmony, unity, emphasis.

Figure-59:

Defined Space according to usage

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/nihan_guetta/jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur-case-study


Architecture Thesis 2019

Figure-60:

53

Movement Systems

Source: Author

SPATIAL ORGANISATION - In terms of spatial organisation on site vertical zoning has been done taking private spaces to higher ground like having cultural activity at lower floors and offices, admin happen above. - The place evokes emotions in the user because of its heterogenous planning and play of volumes. The high walls with no fenestrations make one feel isolated from the city as they are not physically or even visually connected with the outside. - The hierarchy of spaces is well defined and based on the program it occupies.

Figure-61: Ground Floor Plan Source: https://www.academia. edu/30954088/JAWAHAR_KALA_KENDRA

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER The play of light and shadows, the volumes invites the user. The spaces flow in a continuous manner with no break and the user is attracted into the site to explore more and more. The user experiences the space as a whole at once and the planning as a

Figure-62:

Site Section

Source: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zi3_mVrlWxA/VRWYjYpJn9I/AAAAAAAAA08/XzUkmqc7LMY/s1600/Jawahar_05.jpg


Jaipur Urban Centre

54 whole was in a monumental scale but not very dominating or daunting also. Correa has used red sand-stone, gridiron planning and nonrectilinear walls. The 8m high wall, is symbolic of the fortification wall along the old city. The art centre is a contemporary metamorphically replication of the well-planned city of Jaipur, characteristic of the built form. Partly open courtyards, narrow passageways, frequent openings with connecting vistas and the traditional design elements of Rajasthan have been incorporated in the complex. Material used has been carefully picked which reflects nature of space. Yellow sandstone, red sandstone, lime, red-rubble, marble, terracotta.

Figure-63:

Programmatic Density

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/nihan_guetta/jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur-case-study

Figure-64:

Circulation Diagram

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/nihan_guetta/jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur-case-study

Figure-65:

Section Analysis

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/nihan_guetta/jawahar-kala-kendra-jaipur-case-study


Architecture Thesis 2019

COMPARATIVE MATRIX

55


56

Jaipur Urban Centre


Architecture Thesis 2019

Table 3- Case Study comparative matrix Source: Author

57


58

LEARNINGS FROM CASE STUDIES

Table 4- Learnings from case studies Source: Author

Jaipur Urban Centre


Chapter - 3

Project Site & Analysis


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SITE INFORMATION The site, presently known as Amrudo ka Bagh, is located in the heart of the New City of Jaipur. Jaipur, the capital city of Rajasthan and known worldwide as the Pink City, has a unique presence on national & international tourism map.

CONNECTIVITY - FROM OUTSIDE The site is very well connected by a good Road Network & it is very much reachable by both - the locals & the tourists. The site is very well connected with City Level Transit Nodes, i.e, Airport, Railways & Bus Stations, from where the city welcomes its tourists.

DISTANCES & TIME TAKEN BY CAR JAIPUR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 9KM - 25 mins JAIPUR RAILWAY STATION 4KM - 15 mins GANDHINAGAR JAIPUR RAILWAY STATION 4.5KM - 15 mins NARAYAN CIRCLE BUS-STATION 2KM - 5 mins SINDHI CAMP BUS-STATION 3.5KM - 12 mins TRANSPORT NAGAR BUS-STATION 6KM - 20 mins THE PINK CITY (AJMERI GATE) 3.5KM - 10 mins Figure-66: Source: Author

Connectivity of Site from outside the City


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SITE & CONTEXT The site is currently being used as a Fair Ground, thus the people of Jaipur already percieve it as a place. It also sits near two important landmarks of Vidhan Sabha & Sawai Maan Singh Stadium with Amar Jawan Jyoti facing the site. These attributes mark this site as a Prime Location in the city. Located at Lalkothi Area, Janpath, the site is rectangular in shape & flat in Terrain. The site area is about 3.5 Ha, with dimensions - 220m x 158.5m. Vidhan Sabha is the highest building (40m) in the area. The height of the neighbouring buildings ranges from 15-30m.

Figure-67:

Primary roads of the city WRT approachability to the site

Source: Author

CONNECTIVITY - WITHIN THE CITY Janpath & Bhawani Singh Road (shown in Red) are the two most important roads which are used to approach the site. The Janpath in the N-S direction & Bhawani Singh Road in the E-W direction. The site is located along Janpath on its eastern edge. Tonk Road & Sardar Patel Marg (shown in Orange) are important primary roads, which are used to reach Janpath & Bhawani Singh Road - in order to reach the site. Ajmer Road & Jawahar Lal Nehru Marg (shown in Yellow) are important primary roads, which are used by the city to reach Tonk Road & Sardar Patel Marg.

Figure-68: Source: Author

Kevin Lynch Analysis around the site- Nodes & Landmarks


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62

Figure-69:

Built-Open relationship

Source: Author

ANALYSIS - Generally coarse grain & uneven texture - Low Density Built around the site. - Very little housing - depicted by fine grain

Figure-70:

Proposed Land-use Plan

Source: Master Development Plan of Jaipur 2025


Architecture Thesis 2019

63 SITE SELECTION The site lies in the Planning Zone- 01 under Jaipur Development Authority. According the proposed Zonal Development plan of Planning Zone- 01, the site, i.e, Amrudo Ka Bagh sits under Public Use Category, which goes by the program requirement. SITE JUSTIFICATION The site is an empty piece of land whose proposed use in the ZDP is Public Use. This, thus, justifies the site selection.

THE URBAN DISTRICT

As said by Kevin Lynch, the extents of a District is defined by its Edges. In fig-6, it can be observed that the district is defined by two primary roads, one railway line & a drain or Naala. Land Use in the District Land Use in the District

45% 45%

55% 55%

Figure-72: Source: Author

Greenscape

Urbanscape

Greenscape

Urbanscape

Land use in the District

Building Use in the Urbanscape Building Use in the Urbanscape

38% 46%

38%

46%

16% 16%

Figure-71: The Urban District Source: Author

Figure-73: Source: Author

Institutional

Commercial

Residential

Institutional

Commercial

Residential

Building use in the urbanscape


Jaipur Urban Centre

64

It can be observed that the district is predominantly for public use.The presence of important institutions like Vidhan Sabha, High Court, Vidyut Bhawan & Vitta Bhawan indicates that predominantly, the area is an institutional district. IMAGE OF THE DISTRICT The massive structure of Vidhan Sabha creates an authoritative statement, but, the use of Pink Sandstone & Rajasthani Architectural Elements, it also tries to comfort the viewer. All other neighbors have followed the similar concept, resulting in authoritative but peaceful image of the place.

Figure-75:

Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha Figure-76: Amar

Jawan Jyoti Source: https://new-img.patrika.com/upload/mediafiles/2015/03/13/vidhansabha-5502b447b360f_l_835x547. Source: Author jpg

Figure-74: Source: Author

Kevin Lynch Analysis of the Urban District

SITE LOCATION WRT THE DISTRICT The site is located on the important & prominent axis between Vidhan Sabha & the statue circle - the Janpath. Site has two important nodes near its vicinity - High Court Circle & Amar Jawan Jyoti. High Court Circle is the most important vehicular junction in the district. The rectangular plot faces two roads - Janpath on the eastern edge & Vidyut Marg on the western edge. Amar Jawan Jyoti is located in front of the site on Janpath accross the road. Currently, there are only two transport nodes near the site. One being a bus stop 200m away & the other being Narayan Circle Bus Station 1.7KM away from the site. In the near future, the site can also be reached via Jaipur Metro, with Sawai Mansingh Stadium Station being the nearest at 1KM distance.


Architecture Thesis 2019

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SITE FEATURES & PHOTOS

Figure-77:

Site Photo 1- Showing southern Edge & Adjacent Building

Figure-78:

Site Photo 2- Showing illegal settlements at the northern edge

Source: Author

Source: Author

Natural features on site - Plane Topography - No existing trees on site - A drain flows accross the west side of the site that the government is redeveloping.

Man-made feature on Site - A stepped seating on the eastern edge of the site to view Amar JawanJyoti. - Illegal settlements on site to be relocated.

Figure-81: Existing seating for Amar Jawan Jyoti Source: Author

Figure-79:

Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha

Source: https://new-img.patrika.com/upload/mediafiles/2015/03/13/ vidhansabha-5502b447b360f_l_835x547.jpg

Figure-80: Source: Author

Amar Jawan Jyoti

Figure-82: Source: Author

Janpath on east edge

Figure-83: Source: Author

Vidyut Marg on west edge


Jaipur Urban Centre

66

Figure-84:

Sealed roads on Vidhan Sabha Session Days

Figure-85:

Traffic Jammed Roads on Match Days

Source: Author

Source: Author

SHAANT ZONE

MATCH DAYS

The Site comes under special area, which is known as Shaant Zone. This is a High

There is Sawai Mann Singh Stadium near the site, opposite the edge facing Jan-

Security Area, where blowing horn is not permitted. This area is marked by permanent barricades guarded by the Police. About 50 Days in a year, the Rajasthan Vidhan sabha hosts its sessions. On these days the Shaant Zone gets sealed for the common public, but as observed, the site & some important government offices like Vitta Bhawan, HUDCO & Vidyut Bhawan fall in this region. The people involved in the functioning of these offices are allowed on those days as well.

path. It is an International cricket stadium & hosts about 7 IPL matches & 2-3 International matches . The stadium complex also houses sports which do not need a bigger ground. The complex has multiple entries. The Entry behind Amar Jawan Jyoti is used by people on the match days & the site is used as a Parking for the public.


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CLIMATE DATA & ANALYSIS

JAIPUR, INDIA - BASIC INFORMATION Latitude: +26.92 (26°55’12”N) Longitude: +75.8 (75°48’00”E) Time zone: UTC+5:30 hours Country: India Continent: Asia Sub-region: Southern Asia Altitude: ~450 m

AVERAGE MONTHLY WEATHER IN JAIPUR

Jaipur in India has an hot semi-arid climate. July and August experience most rain (rainy season). Starting April becomes very hot in Jaipur with average temperatures above 37 degrees Celsius (98° Fahrenheit). The tourist season in Jaipur is from November until March as most part of the year, it is very hot.

Figure-86:

Maximum Tempratures

Source: https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/jaipur_india_1269515

ANALYSIS

All the three graphs suggest that through most part of the year, Jaipur has - much higher temperatures than the Ambient (24C indoors) temperature. - 210+ Bright Sunny Days & 120+ Partly Cloudy Days, that is, 330+ sunny days. - Very dry throughout the year with only about 30 precipitation days.

Figure-87:

Average Tempratures & Precipitation

Source: https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/jaipur_india_1269515

Figure-88:

Cloudy, Sunny & Precipitation Days

Source: https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/jaipur_india_1269515

The “mean daily maximum” (solid red line) shows the maximum temperature of an average day for every month for Jaipur. Likewise, “mean daily minimum” (solid blue line) shows the average minimum temperature. Hot days and cold nights (dashed red and blue lines) show the average of the hottest day and coldest night of each month of the last 30 years. The graph shows the monthly number of sunny, partly cloudy, overcast and precipitation days. Days with less than 20% cloud cover are considered as sunny, with 20-80% cloud cover as partly cloudy and with more than 80% as overcast.

INFERENCES - Open spaces may not be necessarily covered but shall be shaded. - The open spaces shall be fragmented to small courts to reduce heatgain. - Passive cooling strategies shall be focused upon - for cooler indoors.


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SHADOW ANALYSIS

SUMMER SOLSTICE - JUNE 21

10 AM

1 PM

4 PM

1 PM

4 PM

6 PM

WINTER SOLSTICE - DECEMBER 21

10 AM

OBSERVATIONS

6 PM

Figure-89:

Shadow Analysis Source: Author

From above set of illustrations, it can be observed the following. - In Summers, there is no shadow support from the neighbouring buildings. The orientation of the plot is perfect to counter the West Sun. - In Winters, the shadow of Vitta Bhawan falls over the southern edge & south-east corner of the site. - The wind flows predominantly in the East-West Direction throughout the year.

INFERENCES

Fig 12- Wind Rose of Jaipur Source: https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/jaipur_india_1269515

- The built shall be oriented orthogonally along the Site Boundaries. - The design requires facade treatment of the West & South facades to cut the direct heat & sunlight. - Offices can have Balconies on the West & Southern facades & can have large windows on the North & the East for elaborate views. - A belt of high & shady trees is advisable on the complete western edge to ease the facade treatment on the west. - As shadows falling on the southern edge in winters, preferably not much built shall be present there, as it would make the buildings much cooler in winters.


Chapter - 4

Program Development & Analysis


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70

PROJECT SCOPE - The scope of the project is to foremost, prepare a design solution to the brief floated by the Jaipur Development Authority for the development of the Jaipur Habitat Centre. - The project brief has been amended with respect to the brief given out by the JDA after looking into projects of similar nature and by realising a need for addictive interjection in the programme. - The facility, hence, being designed keeping Placemaking in mind would cater to a larger sections of the society. - The project site has been chosen in a very central and impactful precinct, hence the architecture and the social impact of the project would be dealt carefully. - The project would be an important addition to the fabric of the city as per the profile would require a certain iconic status and identity. - The centre will cater to conference facilities for small private meeting to national level congress. It’ll be imbibe food and beverage services in facilities like convention halls, restaurants, food court, etc. - Any place is successful if it receives a regular footfall which can be catered to by providing multipurpose spaces, which would be one of the prime driving forces of the design. - Hence, the centre will dwell in as public forum for recreation and leisure along with providing for a convention centre.

OBJECTIVES - To create a Place for the city of Jaipur - To integrate heritage with modern day technol-

ogies - To design efficient exhibition spaces - To create a space which acts as a magnet for meetings and M.I.C.E. events - To create a recreational space to educate people with both modern and heritage values - To attempt achieving a Net Zero building in terms of Water & Waste.

The booming convention market necessities creates requires not merely a convention center but a ‘Convention Destination’ with exhibition facilities, shopping areas, lodging facilities, linkages with the Airports, Mass Transit systems, & adequate parking.

BYE-LAWS

PROPOSED COMPONENTS

Plot Size - 220m X 158.5m Area - 34,900 sq.m. Volume - 2 FAR Buildable Volume - 69,800 sq.m. Ground coverage - 35% which is 12,215 sq.m. Height Restriction - 30m Setbacks o Front- 18m o Back- 9m o Sides- 9m

Mentioned below are the major functional components which are proposed - Bazaar or Market - Food Street - Convention & Exhibition Spaces - Offices - Food-court & Restaurants - Lodging Facilities

CLIENT Jaipur Development Authority

PROGRAM A place becomes lively & successful when it has a lot many purposes for a larger range of public. The climate of Jaipur is very harsh in the day time, especially in the summers. Since the market proposed would not be renowned like the one in the Walled City, it needs to be supported by a number of functions to run the market successfully in the day-time as well.

Thus, Clubbing the market with Jaipur Habitat Centre is being proposed.

INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE - The project would be owned, managed & operated by Jaipur Development Authority. - The office spaces & shops in market would be given by JDA on lease basis. - The process for allotment would be defined by JDA. - Some offices would be given to NGOs promoting the Culture of Rajasthan & skills of a craftsperson. - Remaining offices would be given to branches of Public Sector Units. - The convention & lodging component would be operated entirely by the JDA.


Architecture Thesis 2019

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USERS Users would be varied in nature given the kind of spaces proposed • Shopkeepers & Artisans of Old Jaipur • Employees working in offices • Public visiting the exhibition spaces and galleries • Delegates/Students • Arts and culture enthusiasts • Tourists • Local residents • Staff members

SHOPKEEPER/ARTISAN

DELEGATES/STUDENTS

OFFICE EMPLOYEE

STAFF AT THE PLACE

CASUAL VISITOR

MODE OF TRANSPORT - Private Vehicle

MODE OF TRANSPORT - Taxi/Auto - Public Transport

MODE OF TRANSPORT - Public Transport - Private Vehicle

MODE OF TRANSPORT - Public Transport - Private Vehicle

MODE OF TRANSPORT - Public Transport - Private Vehicle - Taxi/Auto

SPACES NEEDED - Shop/display space - Parking

SPACES NEEDED - Convention Spaces - Guest Accomodation - Market & Public Place - Food Street/Restaurants

SPACES NEEDED - Office Space - Food Court/Restaurants - Office support - Delegation facilities - Parking

SPACES NEEDED - Resting Space - Canteen - Change Rooms - Parking

SPACES NEEDED - Market & Public Place - Convention Spaces - Food Street/Restaurants - Parking

FREQUENCY OF VISIT

FREQUENCY OF VISIT

FREQUENCY OF VISIT

FREQUENCY OF VISIT

FREQUENCY OF VISIT

- Everyday - From morning to night - 6-10 Hours per visit

- Once a Year - For duration of the event - 2-5 days per visit

- Everyday - From morning to night - 6-10 Hours per visit

- Everyday - From morning to night - 8-12 Hours per visit

- Twice a Month - From evening to night - 2-3 Hours per visit


72

DETAILED AREA PROGRAM

Jaipur Urban Centre


Architecture Thesis 2019

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74

Table 5- Detailed Area Program Source: Author

Jaipur Urban Centre


Architecture Thesis 2019

AREA PROGRAM ANALYSIS

75


76

Table 6- Area Program Analysis Source: Author

Jaipur Urban Centre


Architecture Thesis 2019

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AREA DISTRIBUTION

SERVICE INTENSITY TRIANGLE HIGHLY SERVICED

Hotel Food Court/ Restaurants Auditorium Convention Hall

SERVICED

Multi-purpose Hall Offices Shops/ Food Street/ Office Support

BASIC SERVICES Figure-92:

Exhibition Space

Service Intensity Triangle

Source: Author

AREA RELATIONSHIPS LEADING TO ZONING Figure-90:

Based on Users, Area Program Analysis & Services

Area Distribution

Source: Author

ZONING DETERMINANTS PRIVACY TRIANGLE PRIVATE

Hotel Offices Food Court/ Restaurants Multi-purpose Hall

SEMI-PUBLIC

Auditorium Convention Hall Exhibition Space

PUBLIC

Shops/ Food Street/ Office Support

Figure-91: Privacy Triangle

Figure-93:

Source: Author

Source: Author

Relationship Diagram


78

Jaipur Urban Centre


Chapter - 5

Technological Applications


Jaipur Urban Centre

80

SUSTAINABILITY

PASSIVE COOLING STRATEGIES As inferred in the Site Analysis Chapter, that there is a need to apply Passive cooling strategies, so as to naturally reduce the Ambient indoor temperature. These measures would eventually help reducing the load on Active HVAC systems & help in reducing the installation, as well as, Running cost of the system. SITE PLANNING The clusters & the built shall be designed so that they facilitate for natural wind movement accross the site. Built shall be porous in nature, letting the breeze cross through the system. Wind shaded areas need to be prevented.

USE OF JAALI The use of jaali in this context has a huge advantage & it also possesses some historical importance. The patterns of the jaali are also used to beautify the facades. It is generally used as a cooling device which cuts the sun light, reduces direct heatgain & lets the breeze to pass through its pores. The Jaalis promote Natural Cross Ventilation by the using pressure difference formed by the wind flow. When the wind flows through a Jaali, due to reduced flowing space, the amount of wind flowing through a pore increases, increasing the velocity & pressure. This causes cooling effect. This phenomena is known as the Venturi Effect. In the design, these jaalis shall be used on the Southern & the Western walls to cut heat gain & direct sunlight through the majority part of the day.

Site planning shall also promote Mutual shading of the built, which helps reduce heat gain.

Figure-94:

Porous Site Planning

Source: Climate Consultant Software

Figure-95:

Use of Jaali

Source: Climate Consultant Software


Architecture Thesis 2019

SUSTAINABILITY

PASSIVE COOLING STRATEGIES

Figure-96:

81 FENESTRATION DESIGN & PLACEMENT ACCORDING TO WIND As fas as wind is concerned, every element in the design becomes a part of the system to let the wind flow happen. The site planning & the jaalis won’t work efficiently if the fenestration design & placement doesn’t facilitate for the same.

Modern Jaali used in Pearl Academy, Jaipur

Source: https://images.adsttc.com/media/images/5011/e999/28ba/0d5f/4c00/03d2/slideshow/stringio.jpg?1414473803

Figure-97:

Traditional Stone Jaali

Source: https://live.staticflickr.com/7136/7703598074_613c605a72_b.jpg

Figure-98:

Fenestration design & placement

Source: Climate Consultant Software


Jaipur Urban Centre

82

SUSTAINABILITY

PASSIVE COOLING STRATEGIES

BUILDING ENVELOPE

FENESTRATION DESIGN & PLACEMENT According to Sun Fenestration shading devices

Table 7- Daylight Requirement Source: ECBC 2017

BUILDING INTERIOR

Table 8- Reflectance Requirement for different surfaces Source: ECBC 2017

Figure-99:

Fenestration shading devices

Source: Climate Consultant Software

SUGGESTED INTERIORS According to the reflectances above, a color palette of Warm Colors ranging from Off-White to Oranges & Browns shall be deployed. Walls - Earthy Shades of Yellow - like Ochur Yellow Ceiling - Off White & Creamish Floor - Carpet of Brown in color Furniture - Light polished wooden textured Furniture


Architecture Thesis 2019

STRUCTURES

83 There is a height restriction of 30m on this site. Thus least of the vertical space shall be wasted & must utilize the heights judiciously. Generally, the structures & the services take about 1200mm per floor to accomodate. Measures shall be taken in order to bring this number down to about 750mm. Also, the specific areas in the design requires column-free internal spaces to provide for flexibility. Thus, the following systems shall be used.

SHEAR WALLS WITH CATENARY ARCHES

JAIPUR

Figure-101:

Shear Walls

Source: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/w/images/a/a9/Shearwalls.jpg

Figure-100:

Figure-102:

Catenary Arch

Source: http://www.earth-auroville.com/maintenance/uploaded_pics/10-catenaries.jpg

Seismic Zones of India

Source: https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/seismiczone.htm

Jaipur falls into Seismic Zone-2 in India, which is the least active Zone in terms of Earthquakes. Thus, any structural system can be considered as SAFE here. Figure-103:

Bi-axial Voided Slab

Source: https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSZvM4eF1VHbrO3t5-CyKe_4BRHTlM5Vy1-2BEkGACDBSlASKX4sA


Jaipur Urban Centre

84 To save the amount of concrete used, Bi-axial Voided slab can be used.

PRECAST CONCRETE PORTAL FRAMES Precast Concrete Portal Frames are a combination of two columns and a normal beam with additional bending strength, to form a U shape. The units are designed for individual projects meaning the entire Portal Frame structure can be tailored to exact customer specifications.

Figure-104:

Section through Bi-axial voided slab

Source: Author

WAFFLE SLAB For Column-free large interior spaces, large span slabs systems shall be deployed.

Figure-106:

Precast Concrete Portal frame

Source: http://abmprecast.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/ABM-A-P-Proj-2-1.jpg

Figure-105: Source: Google Images

Waffle slab

ADVANTAGES - Very strong joints, resulting in either an increased available beam span or reduced size of beam. - Very efficient construction technique to use for wide span buildings - Faster alternative to cast insitu abutments and bridge beam - Additional inverted T wall units can be jointed to the columns of the inverted U shaped portal frame to increase clearance heights of horizontal beams. APPLICATION Suitable for Auditorium.


Architecture Thesis 2019

DETERMINANTS OF STRUCTURAL GRID The structural grid is determined on the basis of Automated Parking System, based on the size of each module providing for 10 cars in Plan (depicted later on next page).

Figure-107:

85

Datenblatt | Data Shee

SERVICES

Multiparker 750/760

AUTOMATED PARKING

Plan of Structural Module

Source: Author

Figure-109:

Multi-Parker 760

Source: https://www.wohrparking.in/datasheets/multiparker-750-60.pdf Der Multiparker 750/760 als Hochregal in Turm- oder The Multiparker 750/760 is suitable for construction cubes Schachtversion bietet Stellplätze auf Betonstruktur. Die Fahrsimilar to a high rack made out of concrete, with tower or pit There are various reasons to use Automated Parking. Saving ramp space & the zeuge werden ohne weitere Hilfsmittel direkt auf den Betonversion. The cars are parked directly on the concrete slabs. zwischendecken aisle spaceabgestellt. is one, & improving the user experience of parking a car in the base-

Automatisches Parksystem zum Parken von 40 bis über

Automatically operated parking system for 40 to more than 100 cars

Als Turm- und/oder Schachtversion zum Parken in bis zu 30 Ebenen übereinander

As tower and/or pit version provided up to 30 parking levels above each other

dunkle Treppenhäuser, keine Beschädigungen durch Parkkarambolagen oder Diebstahl)

damage caused by theft or vandalism)

Übergabestationen können flexibel angeordnet werden

No handling of empty pallets occurs to fast access times

ment is another. 100 Autos

InMehrreihige this design, Automated Multiparker PitMultiple Parking System shall row arrangement with upbe to 3deployed. parking rows Anordnung mit bis zu 3 Parkreihen hinterbehind each other einander All it requires is a transfer floor, which consists of a number of entries & lifts that Well adaptable to individual project requirements Sehr anpassungsfähig an individuelle Projektanforderungen recieve theNutzer cars and then liftengen them down toSafe wherever und Fahrzeug (keine Rampen, for user andplace cars ( noneeded. narrow ramps, dark stairs, no Sicher für den

Figure-108: Source: Author

Framing Section through Offices

Schnelle Zugriffszeiten durch den Entfall des Handling von Leerpaletten Keine raumintensiven Rampen und Fahrgassen erforderlich Keine aufwendige Beleuchtung, Belüftung notwendig Unterschiedliche Fahrzeughöhen möglich, z.B. für Vans, SUVs

Customazible arrangement of transfer area No ramps and driving lanes No costly illumination and ventilation necessary Different car heights possible, e.g. Vans, SUVs For car weight up to 2.5 t Easy operation with several control options, e.g. trans-


Jaipur Urban Centre

86

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE SYSTEM - The Multiparker is suitable for construction cubes similar to a high rack made out of concrete, with pit version. - The cars are parked directly on the concrete slabs. - Automatically operated parking system for 40 to more than 100 cars - As tower and/or pit version provided up to 30 parking levels above each other - Multiple row arrangement with up to 3 parking rows behind each other - Well adaptable to individual project requirements - Safe for user and cars ( no narrow ramps, dark stairs, no damage caused by theft or vandalism) - Customazible arrangement of transfer area - No handling of empty pallets occurs to fast access times - No ramps and driving lanes - No costly illumination and ventilation necessary - Different car heights possible, e.g. Vans, SUVs - For car weight up to 2.5 t - Easy operation with several control options, e.g. transponder chip or remote control - Suitable for apartment- and office buildings and for public parking - Following the idea of “Green Parking”

Figure-110:

Details of Multi-Parker 760

Source: https://www.wohrparking.in/datasheets/multiparker-750-60.pdf


Architecture Thesis 2019

87

WATER CALCULATIONS

SERVICES

Daily Water Consumption As per NBC Part-9 Section-1 Table-1 (See Appendix), daily water requirements In hotel Total maximum guests - 24+96 = 120 So water reqd = 120 x 180 = 21,600 Lpd

PROMOTING SUSTAINABILITY

In offices Total maximum people - 2400 Water reqd = 2400 x 45 = 1,08,000 Lpd In food court Total maximum people - 250 Water reqd = 250 x 35 = 8,750 Lpd

NET ZERO CONCEPTS

Figure-111:

Net Zero Water Balance

Schematic Diagram Source: Author

In restaurants Capacity per restaurant - 30 In 10 restaurants, total maximum people - 300 Water reqd = 300 x 70 = 21,000 Lpd In auditorium, convention hall & multi-purpose hall Total maximum people - 1700 Water reqd = 1700 x 15 = 25,500 Lpd For bazaar Total maximum staff @2 per shop - 100 Water reqd for staff = 100 x 45 = 4,500 Lpd Total approx visitors @3 sqm per person - 1020 Water reqd = 1020 x 15 = 15,300 Lpd For landscape, irrigation water reqd = 0.5l x 6500 = 3,250 Total water requirement of the building per day = 2,07,900 Lpd or 207.9 kLpd

Figure-112: Source: Google Images

Conceptual depiction of site boundary for Water Balance


Jaipur Urban Centre

88

SIZE OF OVERHEAD TANK REQUIRED FOR THE PROJECT

AMOUNT OF WATER SAVED

For OHT, NBC recommends size equivalent to 50% of daily usage that is, 50% of 207.9 KL = 104 KL = 104 Cu.m Number of cores = 8 Average size of each OHT = 13 Cu.m

Amount of rainwater that can be re-used = 16,011 x 0.9 = 14,410 kL annually or 48 kL per day total amount of re-used water per day = 48 +127 = 175 kLpd amount of fresh water required per day = 207.9-175 = 32.9 kLpd

SIZE OF STP REQUIRED FOR THE PROJECT Lets assume only 85% of water goes to sewer, the rest gets wasted or evaporated. The amount of water which goes to the sewer = 2,07,900 x 0.85 = 1,76,715 Lpd Lets assume diversity to be 80% So, the water going to the stp is = 176715 x 0.8 = 1,41,372 lpd = 141.4 klpd Size of stp reqd. = 142 Cu.m Amount of water that can be reused = 141.4 x 0.9 = 127 kLpd

AMOUNT OF RAINWATER THAT CAN BE COLLECTED IN A YEAR Annual rainfall in Jaipur = 650mm Water collected from roof = [11500sqm x run-off coeff (0.85)] x 0.65 = 6354 kL Water collected from landscape = [6500sqm x run-off coeff (0.35)] x 0.65 = 1479 kL Water collected from roads = [4500sqm x run-off coeff (0.6)] x 0.65 = 1755 kL Assumed water collected from roads outside the site = [4070sqm x run-off coeff (0.6)] x 0.65 = 1587 kL Water collected from pavers = [12400sqm x run-off coeff (0.6)] x 0.65 = 4836 kL Total water collected = 16,011 kL Size of Harvesting tank required = 16,011 Cu.m

Water Savings = (175/207.9) x 100

= 84% FIRE FIGHTING REQUIREMENT OF WATER As per the references from NBC Part-4 Table-7 (See Appendix) suggesting the minimum requirements for fire fighting installations, we get Requirement for hotel - 1,50,000 + 20,000 Requirement for assembly buildings - 1,00,000 + 5,000 Requirement for offices - 1,50,000 + 20,000 Requirement for mercantile - 00 + 20,000 Total Requirement Underground Storage - 4,00,000L or 400kL or 400 Cu.m Overhead Storage - 65,000L or 65kL or 65 Cu.m = 8.2 Cu.m per tank per core Total water storage for fire fighting - 4,65,000L or 465 Cu.m


Architecture Thesis 2019

TOILET CALCULATIONS As per NBC Part-9 Section-2, the following Tables state minimum requirements for Sanitation. In Offices Total average population on one floor - 600 No. of toilets on one floor - 4 Load on one toilet - 150 persons Assuming two-third male population, load on one toilet is of 100 male & 50 females Requirement in each toilet For males - 4 wash basins, 4 water closets & 4 urinals For females - 2 wash basins & 4 water closets In Bazaar Total ground coverage - 3060, that, population is 1020 There are 3 toilets, so load on one toilet is 340 persons Assuming two-third male population, load on one toilet is of 226 male & 114 females Requirement in each toilet For males - 2 wash basins, 4 water closets & 4 urinals For females - 2 wash basin & 3 water closets In Restaurants Total population - 120 Assuming two-third male population, load on one toilet is of 80 male & 40 females Requirement in each toilet For males - 2 wash basins, 2 water closets & 2 urinals For females - 2 wash basin & 2 water closets

89 In Audi Total population - 600 Assuming two-third male population, load on one toilet is of 400 male & 200 females Requirement in each toilet For males - 2 wash basins, 4 water closets & 16 urinals For females - 1 wash basin & 6 water closets In Multipurpose Hall Population of each hall - 300 Assuming two-third male population, load on one toilet is of 200 male & 100 females Requirement in each toilet For males - 1 wash basin, 2 water closets & 8 urinals For females - 1 wash basin & 3 water closets In Convention Hall Total population - 500 Assuming two-third male population, load on one toilet is of 333 male & 167 females Requirement in each toilet For males - 2 wash basins, 4 water closets & 14 urinals For females - 1 wash basin & 6 water closets


Jaipur Urban Centre

90

LIFT CALCULATION

MACHINE ROOM-LESS LIFTS As there is a height limitation of 30m on the site, the least of the vertical space shall be wasted & the heights must be utilized judiciously. Thus, the heights on the terrace shall not be increased un-necessarily.

FOR OFFICES Taking 16 pax lift of speed = 3m/s p = 0.8x16 = 12.8 Total population above Ground floor = 2400 N=6 h = 6-0.1 = 5.9 s = 6x0.9 = 5.4 tv = 3.6/3 = 1.2s tp = 1.5s t = 3.2 + 1.2 = 4.4s RTT = 2x5.9x1.2 +(5.4+1)(4.4-1.2) + 2x12.8x1.5 = 14.16 + 20.48 + 38.4 = 73.04s According to table 2, our building is multi tanency. So if we assume 5 min handling capacity as 15% in peak time, we get 15 = (300 x 12.8 x L x 100) (73.04 x 2400) Where L is the total number of lifts required Or L = (73.04 x 2400 x 15) 300 x 100 x 12.8 OR L = 6.85 or 7 There are total four circulation cores in this system, thus, each core gets 7/4= 1.75 lifts or 2 lifts

Figure-113:

MRL Lift Catalogue

Source: http://starwayelevators.com/images/elevators/9.png


Architecture Thesis 2019

POWER CALCULATION POWER CONSUMPTION Using numbers given in industry standards like ASHRAE 90.1 or ECBC or NBC - Lighting – 1 W/SF - Equipment’s – 0.5 W/SF - A.C. – 2 W/SF Total Electricity consumed in Indoor Spaces – 3.5 W/SF or 37.6 W/Sq.m Common Spaces & Service Areas – 1.5 W/SF or 16.1 W/Sq.m Total Indoor areas (From Area Program) 21266 + 6000 + 2190 + 2825 + 260 = 32,541 Sq.m Total Common Spaces - 20% of Indoor Spaces = 32,541 x 0.2 = 6,508 Sq.m Total Service Areas = Basement Parking Area x 3 (No. of Levels) + Services in Basement = 16,633 x 3 + 7810 = 57,710 Sq.m Rate of Electricity Consumption in Indoor Spaces - 32,541 x 37.6 = 12,23,541.6 W Common Spaces & Service Areas - (57,710 + 6,508) x 16.1 = 64,218 x 16.1 = 10,33,910 W Total Rate of Electricity Consumption = 22,57,451 W or 2,257.45 KW Assuming, that electricity is averagely consumed 10 hours per day for 300 days a year, We get

91 Annual Electricity Consumption in Units (kWh) = 2,257.45 x 10 x 300 = 67,72,350 kWh USE OF SOLAR ENERGY Assumptions Refering to Vikram Solar, generation of 1kW takes 8 Sq.m unshaded Area of Solar Panels. TILT ANGLE CALCULATION Latitude of Jaipur - 26.91° Optimum angles = 0.76x26.91 + 3.1 (1) = 23.6° SHADOW ANGLE CALCULATION ε = 90° - Eclipti Angle - Shadowing Angle (2) ε = 42.9° Where, ε = shadowing angle, eclipti angle = 23.5°. From eq. (1) and (2), ε = 42.9° The solar panels are mounted at an angles of 43 degrees, so 25% space of roof is wasted. Also, 5% loose area is left because of panel sizes & arrangements. Now, Maximum Available Roof Area - 7,000 Sq.m Area on which solar panels can be mounted - 7,000 x (100-25-5)% = 7,000 x 70% = 4,900 Sq.m Rate of Power generated from Solar Panels - 4900/8 = 612.5 kW In case of Building Integrated Photo Voltaic Panels used as Shading Elements on Semi-open spaces, the efficiency would be 56% of what a regular Solar Panel would be. The reasons for the same are - BIPV installed in this case is assumed to be 75% Solar Cells & 25% Glass to transmit light


Jaipur Urban Centre

92 - BIPV in this case, would not be installed according to incident angle of the sun, which loses about 25% of Efficiency So, generation of 1kW takes 14.3 Sq.m Area of BIPV Total Area on which BIPV would be mounted = 7,245 Sq.m Rate of Power generated from shading BIPV - 7245/14.3 = 506.5 kW

WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES According to the Press Information Bureau, India generates 62 million tonnes of waste (mixed waste containing both recyclable and non-recyclable waste) every year, with an average annual growth rate of 4% (PIB 2016). The generated waste can be divided into three major categories: Organic (all kinds of biodegradable waste), dry (or recyclable waste) and biomedical (or sanitary and hazardous waste).

In case of Building Integrated Photo Voltaic Panels used as Shading devices on South Facades, the efficiency would be 75% of what a regular Solar Panel would be. The reason for the same is BIPV installed in this case is assumed to be 75% Solar Cells & 25% Glass to transmit light So, generation of 1kW takes 10.7 Sq.m Area of BIPV Total Area on which BIPV would be mounted = 579 Sq.m Rate of Power generated from shading BIPV - 579/10.7 = 54.1 kW Total Rate of Power Generated = 612.5 + 506.5 + 54.1 = 1173.1 kW Possible power generation in a year - 1173.1 x 4.5 (hours a day) x 300 (days a year) = 15,83,685 kWh

Figure-114:

Amount of Power saved = 15,83,685/67,72,350

From the Stats above, we can observe that almost 60% of total waste generated is Organic waste. If this waste only is limited and treated on site, then it would have some impact on the overall picture.

= 23.4%

Waste Distribution in India

Source: https://www.epw.in/system/files/Figure_1.png

BIO-DEGRADABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Eco Rich Composter The EcoRich Elite II Composter falls in the category of “in-vessel� composting. Using an accelerated composting process a volume reduction of 90% and thereby 10% of compost generation is achieved in 24 hours.


Architecture Thesis 2019

93 Highlights of the System -The volume of food waste is reduced by up to 90% within a single 24-hour cycle - Minimum labor: The chamber holding processed material only needs to be emptied every 8-10 days - A fully automated process, with minimum noise and little or no odors - These machines use a VFD (variable frequency drive), reducing energy consumption by 15% - State-of-the art, proven safety features - A touch-screen interface control panel for ease of operation Total Maximum persons present in the complex everyday (from Area Program Analysis) - 8,770 Applying diversity factor of 70%, we get Total persons present in the complex everyday - 6,139

Figure-115:

EcoRich Elite II Composter

Source: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Ds7q1ppWoKE6k2Z.jpg

This composter is an ‘intelligent system that acts on the direction of the sensors placed inside the machine and thereby achieving the following - No manual intervention thus saving on labour costs and Automated execution thus saving power and maintenance costs. - The lone rejects in this method of composting is the harmless water-vapour that is neatly expelled thru the connection to the sewerage/drainage. - The machine composts waste using an energy-efficient and automated control process. - The system employs high temperature microorganisms to decompose food waste and organic matter. - This is accomplished without the need of repeated additions of micro-organisms or other additives to the composting chamber eve. Normal mixed food waste should take no longer than 24 hours to virtually disappear. The end products is nutrient rich organic compost which can be used gardening organic farming purpose.

Assuming that every person present in the complex consumes atleast one meal per day & averagely waste 100g of food every meal. Thus, 6139 people would waste 614Kg or 1351 Pounds of Food Everyday.

Figure-116:

EcoRich Elite II Composter Catalogue

Source: https://www.ecorichenv.com/commercial-composter

We would need ER-1500 for the project.


Jaipur Urban Centre

94

LIFE SAFETY

PRESSURISATION FOR SMOKE PREVENTION

MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCES

Table 10- Travel Distances Source: NBC 2016

Table 9- Pressurization of Staircase & Lift Lobbies Source: NBC 2016


Architecture Thesis 2019

Figure-117: Source: Author

Typical Floor Plan Showing Cores & Fire Exits

95


96

Jaipur Urban Centre


Chapter - 6

Design Determinants


98

Jaipur Urban Centre

SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS - The site lies in the heart of the new city. - The area is good blend of open network and public transpost linkages. - The introduction of metro by the end of the year would make it easier to commute. - The site of the complex demands attention as it sits in the heart of the city & carries potential to be a good Public Place responding to important activities around the site including – administration, recreation, hospitality, mall, cinemas, sports facility and a golf course. - Absence of any facility with the capacity to hold such large strengths and provide for as many facilities in the same complex.

WEAKNESSES - The site is in the high security precinct & comprises of important architecture such as SMS stadium, Amar Jawan Jyoti and Vidhan Sabha. There maybe accessibility issues to the site when there is some kind of event happens in the surrounding elements. - The facility would be developed as a public place. Hence it will have to compete with the existing malls and other recreational facilities.

OPPORTUNITIES - The institutional precinct with no mercantile provides for an opportunity for a Commercial pocket to be on the site. - The site and the precinct gives an opportunity to experiment with the vernacular architecture of Jaipur and give it a contemporary touch. - The site & the program has the potential to provide for tremendous growth in the convention and meeting (MICE) market. - Presence of nearby bus station & a proposed Metro station would bring in high footfall. - The recurring yearly festivities, events and the growing footfall in Jaipur generates a need for such facilities.

THREATS - There is a nallah present very close to the site which may bring in foul smell. - There is a possibility of major traffic congestion on the main Janpath road. - There is an illegal settlement or a JJ Cluster very near to the site & can be observed through the approach road of the site, which is not a good experience.


Architecture Thesis 2019

Figure-118:

Response to the immediate context

Source: Author

Figure-120: Source: Author

99

Figure-119:

Activity analysis - Directing placement of functions by their publicness

Source: Author

Inferences for Built Mass Density accross the site

Figure-121: Source: Author

Zoning - derived from previous inferences


Jaipur Urban Centre

100

ZONING, PLACEMENT OF FUNCTIONS & THEIR RELATIONSHIP ON SITE EXPLANATION FOR ZONING - Bazaar being the most public function needs to be on the most active corner of the site, which (in this case) is also corresponding to Amar Jawan Jyoti. - Offices being the most private function after Hotel & being visited by same set of users - can be started to be placed from the least prominent corner of the site & then eventually spread through the site on the upper floors. - Hotel shall be located so that it can be seen first while approaching the site, but should not be on a prominent corner, because of service circulation associated with it. - The convention facilities also need to share services with the Hotel. Thus, Hotel can be on a corner & MICE facilities shall surround it.

MOVEMENT SYSTEMS - Janpath in Jaipur holds a significance similar to Central Vista in New Delhi, with Vidhan Sabha on one end & Statue Circle on the other. A lateral movement accross this road should not be induced as it would lead to a chaos. Thus, NO VEHICULAR ENTRY SHALL BE TAKEN FROM JANPATH. - To make the site free-flowing for pedestrians, it shall not be divided by Vehicular drop-offs or pathways. Thus, the Vehicular movement including drop-offs & ramps shall be as peripheral as possible. - Janpath edge being the front edge & also responding to Amar Jawan Jyoti shall be treated as PEDESTRIAN FRONT of the site.

Figure-122: Source: Author

Zoning, Inter-relation b/w functions & Movement systems placed on Site


Chapter - 7

Concept Design


Jaipur Urban Centre

102

CONCEPT INSPIRATION “To Invent a new future & to Rediscover the past is One Gesture.” - Maharaja Jai Singh (1687-1742)

REDISCOVERING JAIPUR THE CONCEPT OF FOR THE DESIGN IS TO REDISCOVER THE ATTRIBUTES THAT DEFINE JAIPUR & USE THEM TO REALISE THE DESIGN OF JAIPUR IN 21ST CENTURY.

ORTHOGONAL PLANNING & DESIGNING

Figure-124:

Quote Written at Jawahar Kala Kendra

Source: https://architexturez.net/data/styles/large/public/media/10_chapter%20 2%20pp%2060.jpg

The overall planning & designing of the project shall be Orthogonal like Jaipur.

PUBLIC PLACES AROUND WATER

Figure-123: Source: Author

The public places of Jaipur, namely Chaupars, are developed around Water Bodies (here Baori). Similar idea shall be followed in the design project.

Quote Written at Jawahar Kala Kendra

Figure-126:

TRANSITIONAL ENTRANCES

Figure-127: Figure-125:

Badi Chaupar in 19th Century

Source: http://ww.india-seminar.com/2014/660/660_shikha_7.gif

Sagar Alwar

Source: https://ohmyrajasthan.com/uploads/4/1514810302sagar-lake-Anil-Yadav. JPG

Entrance at City Palace Jaipur

Source: https://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/rajasthan/images/city-palace/Entrance-gate-of-City-Palace.jpg


Architecture Thesis 2019 In Jaipur, it can be observed that the most important transitional relationship between two distinct realms is expressed through entrances. An abstraction of these Gateways can be used to mark entrance to design project.

103

STREET MARKETS

The buildings in the walled city are either finished with stone, or are painted like stone. This makes the building merge in the dry & arid landscape of Jaipur.

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS

FORTIFICATION AROUND THE CITY

Figure-129:

Tripolia Bazaar Street Market

Source: https://static2.tripoto.com/media/filter/nl/img/148920/TripDocument/1468051387_tripolia_bazar.jpg

Figure-128:

Fort Wall at Jaipur

Source: https://storage.googleapis.com/karmagroup-d66ca.appspot.com/karmagroupblogcdn/2018/01/jaipur1-940x671.jpg

Both Amer & Jaipur are surrounded by fort walls. Since the project is public oriented, the fort wall cannot be used literally & directly. But, a symbolism of fort wall can be used to limit the number of entrances to the site.

As stated earlier, market is included in the design programme. As per research, there are multiple ways to design a market. For this design, street market design shall be followed, as it is one of the attributes of Jaipur.

EARTHEN COLOURED FACADE

NOMENCLATURE OF SPACES & ELEMENTS The spaces & places in the walled city are named in either Hindi or in Rajasthani/Marwari language. This makes sure that the people of that region feel a better connect to those spaces, as they can pronounce them in their daily conversations. Some examples areGali instead of Street, Bagh instead of Garden, Baori instead of Step-Well.

Figure-130:

City Palace Jaipur

Source: https://mytriphack.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Pink-City-Jaipur.jpg

Figure-131:

Jaali

Source: https://live.staticflickr. com/7136/7703598074_613c605a72_b. jpg

Figure-132:

Chhatri

Source: https://jaipurthrumylens. files.wordpress.com/2015/06/architecture-of-jaipur-chhatri.jpg?w=720

Architectural character of the built space plays a huge role in setting an identity & mental image about the place in the users’ minds. Using Jaalis, Chhatris & other architectural elements popular in Rajasthan would also identify as Jaipur.


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Chapter - 8

Design Development


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KEY PARAMETERS The following are the key parameters based on which the design development takes place - from a basic massing to a resolved product. There are sub-parameters to each, which have been discussed with the relevant stage of development.

CONTEXT

URBAN CONDITIONS OF JAIPUR

MASSING & VOLUME

OPEN-BUILT RELATIONSHIP IN SITE

MOVEMENT ON SITE

INTER-RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTIONS

VISITOR EXPERIENCE


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STAGE - 1

Figure-133:

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STAGE - 2

Design Development-1

Figure-134:

Design Development-2

Source: Author

Source: Author

PROS - North-South oriented open Spaces. - Inter-relation between funtions & their placement with respect to each other. - Idea of temporary & permanent Mercantile - promoting trade fair scenario in co-existence with a market. - Offices getting their private open space. CONS - Not responding well to the context. - Doesn’t go as per the design directives - Poor volume composition - Movement systems not working well enough. THINGS TAKEN FORWARD - Idea of shaded Courtyard/open spaces - Peripheral Vehicular Movement - Inter-relation between functions

PROS - Better Massing & Volume Composition. - Zoning responding the design directives. - The idea of pedestrian Zone. - Offices getting two private courtyards. CONS - One linear office block on south too close to the adjacent building. - Open Spaces are either too tight or too loose in terms of space provided. - A tight Bazaar doesn’t go well with an extremely large pedestrian zone. - The placement & orientation of Auditorium & Convention are not going well with movement systems. THINGS TAKEN FORWARD - Volume distribution on the site - High Volume on South West Corner. - Idea of Pedestrian Zone & a tight Street Bazaar - Peripheral Vehicular Movement - Zoning & Inter-relation between functions


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STAGE - 3

Figure-135:

STAGE - 4

Design Development-3

Figure-136:

Design Development-4

Source: Author

Source: Author

PROS - Movement System of Vehicles working well. - Zoning responding the design directives. - An attempt to create a place by some kind of a marker in space responding to Amar Jawan Jyoti. CONS - Zoning too Rigid - virtually dividing the site into two parts. - One linear office block on south presenting an unintresting plain facade. - The Circulation in Bazaar is very confusing, thus, doesn’t work well. - Placement of Ramp on the front edge dividing the site. - The placement of Auditorium is not going well with movement systems. Also it breaks the Volumetric composition. - Hotel’s mass stands out awkwardly & blocks views of its own rooms. THINGS TAKEN FORWARD - The idea of Bazaar on the pedestrian front of the site. - The attempt to create a place by some kind of a marker in space. - The placement of Open Ground, Hotel & Convention with respect to site.

PROS - Movement System of Service Vehicles are working well. - Zoning is now flexible enough to let users of different functions to interact. - The placement of functions on the site is working well with respect to relationship of each function with each other & also working well with respect to the movement systems. - Introduction of Baori as marker in space, around which the bazaar is placed. - Placement of Auditorium behind the bazaar & Convention Hall next to the hotel. CONS - One linear office block on south presenting an unintresting plain facade. - Hotel rooms have to face the west - The prominent corner of the site not treated well.


Chapter - 9

Design Portfolio


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CONTENTS CONCEPT NARRATION - PROPOSITION - SITE & CONTEXT - THE PROJECT - CONCEPT DRAWINGS - SITE PLAN - GROUND FLOOR PLAN - SECTIONS - ELEVATIONS - BASEMENT PLANS - OTHER FLOOR PLANS TECHNOLOGY - STRUCTURE - SERVICES - WATER MANAGEMENT - FACADE - SOLAR ENERGY - LIFE SAFETY MODEL PHOTOS


Architecture Thesis 2019 PROPOSITION

Figure-137: Source: Author

111 SITE & CONTEXT

Proposition

Figure-138: Source: Author

Site & Context


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112 THE PROJECT

Figure-139: Source: Author

CONCEPT

The Project

Figure-140: Source: Author

Concept


Architecture Thesis 2019 SITE PLAN

Figure-141: Source: Author

Site Plan

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114 GROUND FLOOR PLAN

Figure-142: Source: Author

Ground Floor Plan


Architecture Thesis 2019 SECTIONS

Figure-143: Source: Author

Sections

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116 ELEVATIONS

Figure-144: Source: Author

Elevations


Architecture Thesis 2019 BASEMENT PLANS

Figure-145: Source: Author

Upper Basement Plan

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Figure-146: Source: Author

Lower Basement


Architecture Thesis 2019 OTHER FLOOR PLANS

Figure-147: Source: Author

First Floor Plan

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Figure-148: Source: Author

Second Floor Plan


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Figure-149: Source: Author

Third Floor Plan

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Figure-150: Source: Author

Fourth Floor Plan


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Figure-151: Source: Author

Fifth Floor Plan

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Figure-152: Source: Author

Sixth Floor Plan


Architecture Thesis 2019 STRUCTURE

Figure-153: Source: Author

125 SERVICES

Structure

Figure-154: Source: Author

Services


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126 WATER MANAGEMENT

FACADE

Figure-155:

Figure-156:

Source: Author

Water Management

Source: Author

Facade


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SOLAR ENERGY

LIFE SAFETY

Figure-157:

Figure-158:

Source: Author

Solar Energy

Source: Author

Life Safety


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MODEL PHOTOS

Figure-159: Source: Author

Model Photo-1


Architecture Thesis 2019

Figure-160: Source: Author

Model Photo-2

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Figure-161: Source: Author

Model Photo-3


Architecture Thesis 2019

Figure-162: Source: Author

Model Photo-4

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Figure-163: Source: Author

Model Photo-5


Architecture Thesis 2019

JURY COMMENTS - Well thought & resolved scheme. - Functions go well with each-other.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Adler, D. (1969). METRIC HANDBOOK PLANNING AND DESIGN DATA. OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI: Architectural Press. Gehl, J. (1987). Spaces for walking, places for staying. In Life Between Buildings. Copenhagen: Danish Architectural Press. Jacobs, J. (1961). In The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. Project for Public Spaces. (2009). Retrieved from pps.org: https://www.pps.org/article/ Project for Public Spaces. (2018). Retrieved from pps.org: https://assets-global.website-files.com/5810e16fbe876cec6bcbd86e/5b71f88ec6f4726edfe3857d_2018 placemaking booklet.pdf Rotenburg, R. (1993). Place in the city. In The Cultural Meaning of Urban Space. ABC-CLIO. Rudofsky, B. (1964). In Architecture without Architects. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Shaftoe, H. (2008). What Makes a Space Convivial. In Convivial Urban Spaces. London: Earthscan. Tindwani, S. (2015). Places & Placemaking in India. Retrieved from www.sustasis.net: http://www.sustasis.net/Non-Oral Compendium/Tindwani.doc


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APPENDIX Source - NBC 2016

NORMS FOR ON-SITE PARKING

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OCCUPANT LOAD IN A BUILDING


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WATER REQUIREMENTS IN A BUILDING

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FIRE FIGHTING REQUIREMENTS IN A BUILDING


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RECOMMENDED DIMENSIONS OF MRL PASSENGER LIFTS


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RECOMMENDED DIMENSIONS OF MRL SERVICE LIFTS

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR SANITATION

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