Guide "The Teaching of Living Abilities with Literacy: A Training ManualReading Strategies
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
Table of Content Introduction .............................................................................................................................1 Spain .........................................................................................................................................4 Estonia ....................................................................................................................................13 Turkey .....................................................................................................................................19 France......................................................................................................................................23 Germany ................................................................................................................................ 34 Conclusions .............................................................................................................................43 Annex ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
Introduction Reading - educational and didactic backgrounds of the topic Reading is a universal cultural technique, a key qualification and therefore a condition for a successful participation in social and cultural life in society. So it is understandable that against this background the politicians responsible for education and educationalists are concerned about the results of PISA. They have drawn the attention to the deficits of German students regarding the field of reading. The demand for a comprehensive promotion of reading literacy is getting louder. The concept of reading competence exceeds by far the merely technical reading process of reading. It also means using texts functionally by not only absorbing the content but also by reflecting it and connecting it with prior knowledge. Texts do not speak for themselves and therefore cannot be understood at first attempt. Effective reading means the understanding of meaning. By using prior knowledge a meaningoriented process is initiated. The reader must therefore enter into a dialogue with the text and develop a questioning attitude. The promotion of reading literacy should actually be interdisciplinary, yet the subject of the mother tongue remains mainly responsible. Determinants of reading competence Reading literacy depends on several factors: decoding ability, speed of correct word recognition in reading, working memory, the place of information processing, both of which are responsible for processing and building meaning structures. Another determinant of reading literacy is vocabulary. The larger the mental lexicon, the faster the ability to decode and the more capacity the working memory has for the structure of text comprehension. In order to build up vocabulary, strategies are important for opening up unfamiliar words, as well as methods for securing the vocabulary deeply. The availability of cognitive learning and reading strategies is a crucial factor in the development of reading literacy. Although the reading process runs automatically, the prerequisite for the development of a deeper understanding of the text is the control and reflection of the own reading process. Strategies and methods of text editing make the own reading and understanding process aware and problems of understanding visible. Another important determinant is the self-concept of the reader. Reading experiences and 1
their subjective interpretation are important for the training of reading literacy. Negative reading experiences have a negative effect on the self-concept and can lead to lower reading
skills. Thus, the expectations that readers place on their own reading success are of great importance. The teacher has to be aware of this and has to create experiences that have a positive effect on the self-concept. [cf. www.school-scout.de] SWOT-Analysis The SWOT-analysis we did at the beginning of our project aimed at questioning the reading experience of the students and to understand the effect reading experience has on their reading motivation. By this knowledge the teacher can interact and react by taking appropriate measures. One important result of our SWOT-Analysis is that a certain amount of students reads for pleasure (26%) and that one way of motivation is when they can choose the media they are going to read. Moreover, using technology is important for them (64%). Unfortunately, only a small part (18%) was motivated by working with peers. On the other hand the fact of being at school is important for their motivation: They can ask the teacher in case of difficulties and they learn by listening to the teacher. So one consequence of these results should be to offer students more opportunities to read at school and to let them choose their own texts. Moreover, teachers should present them the benefits of working with peers and show them different methods how to deal with a text. Different methods are important to increase the motivation of the students and to show them that working with peers can be both: very efficient and fun. This manual compiles different methods we practiced on different texts (fictional and nonfictional texts). They include analytic and creative approaches- depending on the text. By these methods we can prove the (basic) understanding of a text, but they can also be used to broaden the understanding of for instance the figures and their relationship in a dramatic play. All these methods try to make clear the own reading and comprehensive process. Thus problems in understanding become evident and can be solved. As mentioned above negative reading experiences influence the self-concept of the reader and lead to a low reading competence. Most of the methods include team work, so students can compare their understanding in a communicative way without being ashamed. By this 2
means negative reading experiences can be avoided. Expectations of readers towards their own reading process are of great importance.
But it is also important to remember that many texts are meant to be read and enjoyed, that too many exercises might spoil the pleasure of reading. A balance should be struck between leaving the students without any help on the one hand and on the other hand â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;squeezingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; the text dry.
SPAIN We can assume that reading is one skill that many of our students struggle with. In general we classify the reading strategies in three different stages; mainly prior reading; while-reading and after reading strategies. We strongly believe it is very important to activate these six fundamental strategies during active reading: connecting, visualizing, questioning, inferring, determining importance in text, synthesizing.
Strategies to activite prior knowledge: visualising, questioning and inferring strategies. Brainstorming: (one session 55’) In English subject this year 17-18 all of our students have been reading Frankenstein (different graded readers, from A2 to B2) due to 200th Frankenstein’s birthday in 2018. Our 1st ESO students (12-13 years old) started to read Frankenstein (Dominoes Level A2). To start with, the teacher asks an open ended question to start the topic. ●
Do you know who was Frankenstein?
Frankenstein, does it ring a bell?
Cue: show Frankenstein’s portrait (online) Other open-ended question can be used like the common "who, what, where, when, why.” Next, the teacher brings the participants together into a group. Students are encouraged to
share their answers and to build ideas off of each other’s responses. Under no circumstances should a student’s comments or ideas be criticized or diminished in any way. A list of commentary words that are allowed in a brainstorming session can be posted by the teacher on the blackboard.
After this, in pairs students will answer some questions posed by the teacher which form the basis of good journalism. To answer them, they are encouraged to search the information by means of searching in the book or online (to promote autonomy and digital skills). 4
● Who was Frankenstein? ● When was Frankenstein written? ● Who is Victor? Predict what the story will be a about by asking them: ● Who does the monster kill? ● What do you think happens to Victor in the end? At the end of the session, we check answers. (whole class)
Our 4t ESO students (15-16 years old) also did their own wiki-based brainstorming prior an extensive reading of the graded reader Frankenstein (B1). In this case, they were encouraged to update their own wiki profile with a Frankenfoliowhere a first task of KWL(KnowWant-Learn) was included. KWL is intended to be an exercise for a study group or class that can guide you in reading and understanding a text. You can adapt it to working alone, but discussions definitely help. It is composed of only three stages that reflect a worksheet of three columns with the three letters:
This is an initial assessment to check my students departing point before dealing with a reading task. 6
While-reading strategies: connecting, determining importance in text, synthesizing. 1st ESO students (12-13 years old) are encouraged to do extensive reading at home, and while-reading, they take notes of key words that made them understand the main events as well as taking notes of unknown words. They look them up and write down their definition in their notebook. Back to class, they share with their partner their notes (peer feedback) and these words are written down on the whiteboard (wordcloud). In order to promote understanding, while-reading in class, students are encouraged to: ● Infer new words’ meaning using context to figure out their meaning, reread. ● Looking at pictures, titles or bold words ● Break down by sentences; figure out the big picture and main ideas. ● Skip the word if they have difficulty, and read the rest of the sentence. ● Stop at intervals and discuss key points, vocabulary, meaning and details asking them spontaneous questions (to check their understanding). ● Predict orally what will happen next. Our 4th ESO students (14-15 years old) implemented what is called Reading Circles (one session per week during one term) as a while-reading activity. After reading Frankensteinextensively at home in an autonomous way and reflecting their KWL activity on their wikis, I explained them the Reading Circles Process and the different roles involved. In groups of 6 students, they’ll meet once a week during the English lesson.
❏ Discussion Leader: creates questions to increase comprehension
❏ Culture Collector: looks for both similarities and differences between your own culture and the culture found in the story.
❏ Summariser: takes notes of key points about events and characters that would help anyone to understand the story ❏ Connector: looks for connections between the story and the world outside ❏ Word Master: reflects unknown words from the book, their meanings and pronounciation. ❏ Passage Person: finds interesting or difficult passages to understand the story.
In the first meeting, roles are introduced. Students fill in the meeting form where they state meeting dates, and roles.
Prior to the second meeting, they reread at home the section agreed, for example from chapter one to three. While-reading, they fill in their role worksheet at home. During the Reading Circles session in class, they meet to share their findings and conclusions. The Discussion leader first ask him/her questions to the members of the group to check they all understood. The rest of roles share their worksheet’s conclusions. Before leaving, their roles rotate so the already know their task for next week. Once the process is done, they will fill in an individual reflection checklist to wonder about working in groups and what they learned.
Grading: group work (rubric 30%), individual worksheets (50%), wiki-based reflection (pre-reading and post-reading) (20%).
After-reading strategies. Whole-Class Novel Story Final Project The entire class will create a comic book-like outline of the text, so that anyone that has not yet read it, could read through it and gain an understanding of what took place in less than a few minutes.
Step 1: Assign Teams. Assign your students into group or have them choose their own groups. I have found that 5-6 students per group has been an effective number, but it can definitely be done with more or less (there may just be more or less responsibilities for the team). In my classroom, I have found it to be helpful to create the groups myself; this helps to ensure that productive students are a part of each group, while giving everyone an opportunity to work together in a fun, creative way.
Step 2: Create Sections: If you are using this for a whole-class novel study, divide your book into sections. I have found that 5 sections or chapters has been an efficient number.
Step 3: Prioritize Scenes: Once students are with their assigned teams and the sections are in order, students review their specific sections (or chapters) and identify the key scenes. Their goal is to choose the scenes with the greatest importance (including those that lead up to it). Once they have their list of most importance scenes, they will organize them in consecutive order from least important to most important.
Step 4:Pick Lines: Once the scenes are in order, the group members will come up with two or three lines that best illustrate that scene. 10
Step 5: Paraphrase: This is where the students will truly need to understand what they are reading on we can really check if they understood the novel. Here imagination plays an important role.
Step 6: Create Scene: Once students have a good idea of what they have read, they capture for their scenes using the phone camera. (5 scenes per group)
Step 7: Incorporate Text: Once the students have taken their photos, students can use a variety of editing apps and software to enhance their images (although, this is really not necessary).Students can add their descriptions that they brainstormed (Step 4) and their respective speech and thought bubbles. Lastly, I print out coloured images on their group scenes for each student to include in their final portfolio at the end of the semester. In addition, they have an opportunity to work collaboratively with their classmates, they get to use technology to re-create the scenes and they will likely develop a better understanding of the text through this group process.
Delivery to grade: Comic scenes to be printed. Grading: originality & creativity (20%), grammar and vocabulary from the text(50%), edition of the picture.(10%), group work (20%).
Estonia Free reading Strategy: Create reading environment at school which supports students’ interest towards books. Topic: Introducing books to classmates Objectives: Develop reading skills Choose books fitting for a certain age Appreciate reading Promote oral and written language Broaden children’s minds Develop critical thinking Background information Starting in class 2, the teacher gives students compulsory home reading (one book per term). In addition to this, during the term the student chooses a book appropriate to his/ her age, reads it through and draws a picture illustrating the content of the book. The student introduces the book to the classmates. Introduction involves answering classmates’ additional questions e.g. What was the funniest part of the book? How would you react in the situation? etc. As a result, some students go to the library after the introduction to borrow the books.
Making connections Strategy: Connecting the text and its idea, studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own experiences and pictures Objectives: Develop reading skills in general. Promote listening skills as well Activity: chain reading This activity is mostly used in mother tongue lessons in the class 1 (7-8 year-old students). Reading every day helps to develop fluent reading. Using pictures, answering to questions, retelling the story and connecting it with own experiences help the students understand the text. Chain reading as a method is practiced very often. Its idea is that every student can read a sentence or a paragraph. The student should be an attentive listener to know where to continue reading the text. To practice reading, textbooks and workbooks are usually used as study materials since they have additional tasks to fulfil. Assessment Teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oral assessments in class. In some important cases, a written assessment is added into e-school. 14
Jigsaw reading Objectives: Develop reading and listening skills Increase retelling skill Preparation A teacher chooses a text, divides it into four parts. Prepares the parts writing the numbers 14. Also, the teacher thinks how to form groups.
Activities with students The teacher forms “home groups” (4), every member gets a number in meaning 1, 2, 3, 4. Next, forming” expert groups”- the same numbers work on the same part of the text in one group. After that, the teacher distributes the parts of the texts. The students in a group read the text, analyse and retell their part. The other students in a group help and add necessary information. The teacher collects the texts. The students go back to their home groups and retell their part to the others (student 1 first, then student 2 etc) Then, a short worksheet (answer the questions) is given to fill in and some groups can present the whole story to the class. The listeners can ask additional questions. Topic: Estonian author J. Parijõgi’s fairy tale “Three brothers”. 15
Worksheet: the students had to name all the characters and find all the characteristics of fairy tales.
Example: Fairy taleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s characteristic Numbers 3, 7, 12 Repetition Characters with powers
Example 3 brothers in a fairy tale Had to fulfil three tasks The rat turned into a young girl
Selective reading Objective: Develop the skill of finding useful information by scanning the text. Pre-reading tasks Pre-reading task: brainstorming. Who needs a guide book? What kind of information can you find from the guide book? 16
Students work in pairs, the pair is given a tourist brochure and a worksheet.
The students have to find answers to the questions, do a translation exercise, using QR reader find information from the website. Feedback Self-assessment (contribution to the task completion). Discussion in class.
Home reading in English Objectives: Develop and promote reading habits. Introduce different styles of literature. Broaden horizons of literature. Develop expressive skills. Learn to form the book review and present it. Learn to summarize the book.
Reading task The students in Form 7 and 8 have to read one book in semester written by the Englishspeaking author. The number of pages and deadline is fixed. The students have to create the PowerPoint presentation and introduce the book to their classmates.
Assessment The assessment grid consists of different parts of skills, eg fluency, vocabulary, grammar, presentation.
Turkey Reading is a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude, and language community which is culturally and socially situated.What readers understand from a passage or a text varies because readers knowledge and experiences differ from one another. Taking into those differences into consideration, we supply our students some reading materials as the following; 1)- integrated course books which include reading text 2)- supplementary reading comprehension and reading skills books containing texts and exercises 3)- texts from real life called “authentic texts “ 4)- simulated authentic texts which are also called “graded readers” BEFORE READING In English lesson at 9th grade class, the teacher does reading study from the school book. There are two texts to be read which are about eating habits of people from different countries.Before reading the texts, the teachers asks questions related to the texts so as to prepare them to the texts; “would you like to try new dishes from different countries?, what is your favourite dish? Have you ever cooked food from different countries?etc.” There is a matching activity” countries and dishes”, the students are wanted to match the countries with the given pictures. Herethe emphasis is to prepare the students to the texts.
After that the teacher writes some new vocabularies on the board and wants the students to write them on their notebooks.The teacher wants the students to work in pairs by using the vocabulary in a sentence and share with each other. Students might use dictionaries for some of the words .The school book activity is done after writing the vocabulary.
WHILE READING First the teacher reads the texts and wants the students to focus on stress and intonation. The teacher wants the students to underline the unknown words. Then volunteer students read the text respectively and the teacher wants the students to comment on different cuisine.
Recognising the more important information in text; adjusting reading rate; skimming; previewing; using context to resolve a misunderstanding; formulating questions about information; monitoring cognition, including recognising problems with information presented in text or an inability to understand text are among the metacognitive skills which should be taken into consideration while reading. AFTER READING There are activities on the school book aiming to monitor whether the students understand the texts or not. As the students studied for them at home, the activities are done under the teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s supervision. Language of questions, types of questions, testing skills, role of grammar in reading tests, role of vocabulary in reading tests, use of dictionaries in reading tests, and reading and intelligence are the factors that affect the difficulty of reading test items. Language of the questions should be understandable. The language of the text should be organized from simple to complex. 21
As for homework, the teacher wants the students to prepare power point presentations about different cuisine. In the next lesson the students present their power point presentations in the class.
Link of the Reading Activity: https://youtu.be/LASlD3grN_M
France We have worked to improve reading skills of our students, regarding different documents they can use in everyday life (literature, newspapers, information panels, poster advertising, videos, graphics, pictures…). English languageactivity :“Eden’s 11 top tips for a better world” Presentation Students have to read this page of the children’s guidebook of the “Eden Project”located in Cornwall, UK. They have been studying about ecofriendly actions in their last lessons and should be aware of the vocabulary used in this page. They are also preparing their visit to this place next June. There are 11 paragraphs corresponding to the 11 given tips. First, they work individually; they read and try to complete the first activity of the comprehension grid alone.
Then, they work in groups of 4. They exchange about what they have understood of this page and they look up in the dictionary for the words no one in the group understands, to complete the first activity.
This activity helps them to look for information with what they know, sometimes using the pictures too, or what the others know, before going for the lexical search in the dictionary. They also remember how to give orders or advice.
Afterwards, they have to do activity nÂ°2. They have to make a difference between an action and a behavior. They explain to one another the difference and after discussing, they write the correct numbers in front of the correct title. At the end of the activities, we make a collective mind map to recap what they have written down on their grid.
We can observe that half of the students have difficulties in finding the precise corresponding word or expression. They stay on a global reading and need the help of their classmates in the group to find the synonyms. Some just get help from the pictures. Group working is interesting here as they interact intensely about the subject and the meaning of the words, the pictures and the actions involved. As it is a genuine document, they anticipate their venue to the place and it seems to give them a sense of responsibility. They are all very involved in the activities in different ways.
The activity n°2 gives place to a real debate between them: “What is an action? What is a behavior? Can an action be a behavior too?”. It makes them think and compare, give their opinion, give examples.
Documentation activity: Notice Fake news Presentation Students must read three different online newspapers articles about the same subject and find which one is fake. This activity helps them to notice what is a data, a news information and an opinion, and how these elements can help them to understand the text. Topicsare : “Irma storm”, “Mistrust about vaccines”, “Building a wall in Belgium” and “Fort Boyard tests’ controversy”. The work is organized with groups of two or three students so they can exchange about what they notice and understand in texts and their strategies to read efficiently. First we remind in class how text organization and tools can help them to read efficiently and notice easily important sentences. They verbalize those elements: titles, paragraphs, images captions and bolded words. We express together what is a data, a news information, an opinion and a fake news. While reading, they can highlight or underline words or sentences they consider as important.
Then, they have to answer questions which guide them to extract the meaning of text : Identify common data and quote relative key words ; Identify the original fact in those three articles ; Quote sentences which reveals authorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; opinions ; Note which elements can help to tell if articles are reliable ; Which strategy can help you verify the reliability if you are lost.
After this work, we correct it in class so students can exchange their strategies to get the meaning of texts and identify the fake news. They have to argue how they found the fake news, which strategies they have used and which elements have lead them to this conclusion.
During this correction time, students verbalize elements that help checking the reliability of a newspaper article and we write it on board: -
Identity of the author or editor (here Newspaper: Is it well-known or unknown? Did he publish only on the internet or on paper too? Date: Are all newspapersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; articles published at the same period or not? Text style: Is it well-written? Which level of language is used (high, current/common, familiar)? Text information: Does it seem reliable or absurd? Are there dissonances in different dates or not?
If you are lost after checking the previous elements, you can search on internet with a search engine how many articles says the same. If most of them tells an opposite thing, it’s most of the time a fake news.
Analysis We can observe that most of students tend to stay on a global reading and have difficulties to find words or sentences that can help them to notice the facts and opinions related to texts. They get impressions of the global meaning but they have difficulties to quote elements which
permits to identify it. Instructions have to be explained two times so they can get it because they don’t take the time to read it carefully. They also have difficulties with quotations in texts. They tend to think authors always share opinions of people they quote even if it’s opposite. They understand which elements are related to authors’opinions when we guide them with a focalized reading on the paragraphs where there isquotations. Some of them gets quickly the meaning of texts and can easily quote prior elements to get facts and opinions in the text. They also know which elements can help checking if the article is reliable. The good point is that students which have difficulties, get strategies that help them while exchanging with their fellows (mates) and teacher.
French literature and Documentation activity: ‘Lumières’ century philosophers
Students have to read and watch different documents about French philosophers of ‘Lumières’ century on a computer and write a summary on this subject. We provide them a selection of numeric documents with texts, images, videos, graphics, maps, quotes, lists. These documents give them information about 18 th century French philosophers, their ideas, fights and works, their history and evolutions in this century qualified as “Lumières”. They must read or watch it on computers, so they can use it as they want, get text bigger if they need, watch videos several times, etc.
We give them some questions to guide them in their researches and to write their summary. They have to tell who are the philosophers of this century, what are their ideas and what’s the link with the century name, what are their fights and which way they lead them, what are their works and give some biography elements.Most of the chosen documents repeat information in different ways and some of them add some details to the subject to help students. First, they have to discover documents and choose which ones they are more comfortable with to work. Then, they must pick information needed from it and write a summary.
We correct their written work to see if they got information asked and if they managed to summarize it. Then, with the entire class, we correct work, asking students to give sentences to build a common summary on board. 28
Analysis We can observe that most of our students open the first link and stay on it. They don’t think to have a look to all different documents to choose the efficient and comfortable ones for them. We must remind them it can be useful to have a look at all the documents to choose some of them. They clearly prefer to use videos or infographics where text is organized in little points or paragraphs and the purpose is visual. It helps them to understand important points of the subject and pick information. But we can see that it also helps them to read quicker massive texts such as encyclopedia articles or literature articles. We can say that provide visual documents with all texts documents can help our students to improve their reading skills because it helps them noticing organization tools which clear the text. It also helps them noticing how are enlighten important information in all text documents.
Arts activity: Poster advertising!
Presentation This activity’s goal is to create and draw a poster advertising from a picture of consumer society object. It must be staged with a funny detail. Only the object’s shape stays still, every other elementschange (logo, brand, slogan…).
First, students bring a picture of consumer society object. We show two poster advertisings and ask orally what students can see in it, what are the principal elements composing a poster advertising, why a poster advertising touch people and what is important in communication. Their answers are written on board by one student and are explained one by one (define slogan, logo, composition, color range). Students give examples of slogans and logos which they know. Once the complete list of elements is on board, students read the work order and it’s explainedand verbalize with the whole class. Students read evaluation criteria’s. They discover “diversion” term. They receive the work order on paper and they paste it in their notebook. Then, they do a sketch of their creation.
In each meeting time, we go back to the elements learned with a projection on board. We present two artistic references linked to diversion of art pieces in poster advertising. (Picasso and Mac Donalds, “De melkmeid” Vermeer, Magritte and Ray ban, Warhol and Coca cola). Students start to work on their own poster advertising on a A4 drawing paper. They work alone, but teacher answer questions. They continue their work till it’s finished.
Analysis Students are often engaged while talking about poster advertising because it’s something they use to see every day. They know a lot of examples and they quickly understand issues linked to visual communication of advertisings (colors, composition, staging…). When they know what they have to do, it’s more difficult because they have to create new elements (brand, logo, slogan) around an object which already exists. And above it, put a funny detail to catch the reader.
Composition isn’t an element they easily understand. They have sometimes some problems with it. Drawing a little product in their advertising whereas it’s the thing to notice. 31
Teacher has to check and help students to get what readers have to notice in poster advertising elements to be efficient. Teacher check slogans, brands created, funny details of products to guide them if they need it and reassure them to go ahead. In every class time, teacher encourage students to help each other by showing someone’s work and asking others to argue about the efficiency of the production. They have to explain why each element is efficient or not, so they can understand the importance they had in the reading.
French literature activity: Understanding implicit and explicit in Victor Hugo’s texts
First, Students must read literary texts and not literary texts written by Victor Hugo about death judgment. They have to answer four questions which are: What is the meaning of the text? Which word, appearing several times in the text, is linked to death judgment? Which word is the opposite? Why Victor Hugo wants to abolish death judgment? These questions guide them to understand what is the implicit meaning in a text and how they can get it. They have to quote words and expressions which help them understand the implicit meaning. They can use also use their handbook’s picture to answer questions and tell how it can help them.
Above the answers, students have to explain how they have found clues to answer and justify their answer about the implicit meaning. To do that, they have to help them with documents and link each other to get the meaning.
Then, they work on another Victor Hugo’s text, “Claude Gueux” talking about jail and cruel justice in France in the 19th century. They do the same work with different questions so they can see their improvement.
Questions: What is the character condemned to? Analyse second paragraph’s argument. ExplainClaude’s answer : «because»
Germany 1. Reading strategies My students are in class 13 and are doing their A-level and their final exam as a foreign correspondent soon (in March). I am teaching business English to them. Today’s topic is banking services. The main aim is to teach them which services banks offer. After their written exam they will have an oral examination about all relevant business topics among other things banking. So first of all they should use their background knowledge and think about the topic. To what extent is it connected to them? What do they know about banking services? It is important to activate their prior knowledge so that they are involved in the topic. So we collect all their ideas on the board. Board: -
Lending and borrowing money Giving advice how to invest money Providing current accounts 34
Giving out different currencies Changing money
Now the students get the text (roughly 100 lines) that is ideally divided into four or five parts. The reading should be done by interactive reading. This has the following advantages:
Improvement of social and communicative skills Improvements of thinking in global terms Increase of learning motivation and learning satisfaction Increase of student’s participation Increase of self- confidence Improvement of attitude towards the target language, the class mates and teachers Rise in use of target language
It works like this: Students are divided into groups of 4 or 5. Every student gets a task card. The first step is: Read the first paragraph alone twice. Step 2: Every group member has a different task now.
Member 1: you read the paragraph out to the others. Member 2: you find out the meaning of new words and tell the others. Member3 : you ask two questions about the paragraph; the others have to answer them. Member 4: you summarize the paragraph in your own words. Member 5: you write down the two questions that member three asked you. Step 3: Students go on with the next paragraph. They do step 1 first, then rotate the tasks: member 1 is now member 2, member 2 is now member 3, and so on. Watch the videoon youtube how it works in the classroom. Interactive Reading Member 1: You read out the paragraph to the others. Remember to read slowly and clearly! 35
Member 2: You ask the others if there are words or phrases that they do not understand. Try to find the explanations together. You can use the following vocabulary: See enclosure
Member 3: You ask two questions about the paragraph. The others have to answer them. Here is an example: How much is spent on advertising per year worldwide?
Member 4: You give a short summary of the paragraph. You can start like this: This paragraph describes â&#x20AC;Ś In this paragraph, we find out â&#x20AC;Ś
Member 5: Write down the two questions that member 3 asked you.
2. Reading strategies The Writing Plan With the help of the writing plan, you structure your thoughts and your analysis, because with its help, you already prioritize the important aspects. And so you create your writing plan: â&#x2020;&#x2019; Firstly, you determine the theme of the text
→ Secondly, you find out why (= intention) the text was written → Thirdly, it must be determined which problems and which consequences the text describes → Fourthly, you examine whether the text offers suggested solutions or what the conclusion is It's best to collect your results in a spreadsheet (for more complex texts, you'll probably need more than one column, as there is usually more than one topic, etc.!). Task: Read the following factual text and create a writing plan by completing the table. Then compare your results with your learning partner and add your table if necessary. Theme
Frankfurter Rundschau, Online Artikel vom
Gemeinsam stark Von Astrid Ludwig Die Hochschul- und Informationstage in Darmstadt sind ein Renner. Buchstäblich, denn die Schüler rennen den Organisatoren die Türen ein. Die Besucherzahlen steigen: 12.000 waren es 2009 und in diesem Jahr werden es wohl nochmals mehr. Mit der Messe treffen die 38
Veranstalter den Nerv der jungen Menschen. Nirgendwo sonst im Rhein-Main-Gebiet können sie sich so komprimiert, kostenlos und in dieser Vielfalt direkt an Firmen, Hochschulen, Unis wenden und sich über Studium und Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten informieren. Dass die hobit so angenommen wird, zeigt, wie groß das Bedürfnis der Schüler und die Verunsicherung ist, wenn es um die Zukunft und die Frage nach dem richtigen Studienfach geht. Mehr Hochschulen müssten sich auf diese Weise verbünden, denn ein solch kompaktes Angebot statt vieler Einzelveranstaltungen bedeutet Service und Vergleichsmöglichkeiten für neue, potenzielle Studenten. Und auch die Schulen müssen ihre Jahrgänge besser vorbereiten. 280 Schulen haben die hobit-Organisatoren eingeladen. Die Erfahrung lehrt: Eine Vor- und Nachbereitung der Messe ist eher selten, wäre aber sinnvoll.
Solution: Writing Plan Often it helps to work with different colours to underline the information in the text! This could look like this, for example:
Kommentar Gemeinsam stark Von Astrid Ludwig Die Hochschul- und Informationstage in Darmstadt sind ein Renner. Buchstäblich, denn die Schüler rennen den Organisatoren die Türen ein. Die Besucherzahlen steigen: 12.000 waren es 2009 und in diesem Jahr werden es wohl nochmals mehr. Mit der Messe treffen die Veranstalter den Nerv der jungen Menschen. Nirgendwo sonst im Rhein-Main-Gebiet können sie sich so komprimiert, kostenlos und in dieser Vielfalt direkt an Firmen, Hochschulen, Unis wenden und sich über Studium und Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten informieren. Dass die hobit so angenommen wird, zeigt, wie groß das Bedürfnis der Schüler und die Verunsicherung ist, wenn es um die Zukunft und die Frage nach dem richtigen Studienfach geht.Mehr Hochschulen müssten sich auf diese Weise verbünden, denn ein solch kompaktes Angebot statt vieler Einzelveranstaltungen bedeutet Service und Vergleichsmöglichkeiten für neue, potenzielle Studenten. Und auch die Schulen müssen ihre Jahrgänge besser vorbereiten. 280 Schulen haben die hobit-Organisatoren eingeladen. Die Erfahrung lehrt: Eine Vor- und Nachbereitung der Messe ist eher selten, wäre aber sinnvoll.
Theme Informationsveranstaltungen über Studium und Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten sind sinnvoll
Intention Aktueller Anlass: Die Hochschulund Informationstage in Darmstadt
Consequences Das Bedürfnis nach Informationen ist sehr groß, da viele Schüler verunsichert sind, wenn es um ihre Zukunft geht.
Solution/Conclusion Mehr Schulen und Hochschulen sollten solche Informationsveranstaltungen durchführen
3. Reading strategies
Stating the figure constellation in novels or drama A common theme in the consideration of novels and drama isthe creation of person constellations. Students learn in concentrated, reduced form how to visualize relationships and development. Objectives: Students learn how to consolidate and structure textual knowledge. They prepare interpretations and secure work results. They communicate their own textual knowledge and compare it with their classmates
Descriptionofactivity: The text (or a significant part of it) must be known. Describing the figure constellation is suitable as a preparatory homework, but itis also possible to work in groups at class. Each group is assigned an act. The results may vary. Basically there are three main characters in our novel. Students are going to describe their relationship by a figure constellation. By using different kinds of symbols they can state the character of relationship (positive, negative, intensive, conflicting, emotional etc.). During the process of reading more information can be added to the figures respectively (reasons for acting, characteristic marks etc.). Finally, students compare and discuss their results. If necessary, they can add some information.
4. Reading strategies Writing a profile of a figure
It can be used as a basis for the description of persons, characterization or role biography and is often used in German lessons to provide a first introduction to describing figures or circumstances. Furthermore, the profile can serve to deal with literary protagonists or theatrical figures. This form of writing presupposes that we have already collected a lot of information about a person, an object or a topic. Reading and collecting should be the first step. Students should have read the whole novel. In this kind of description not only external characteristics but also character traits should play a role as well as the goals and desires of a figure. Objectives: Students resume the basic information on a figure. Students deepen and expand their understanding of a figure. They expand their understanding of the figure by answering and refilling all aspects of the profile. Description of activity: The main characters of the novel or drama are assigned to the groups of students (each group consists of 3-4 students). Students then discuss the aspects which are relevant to characterize the figure and create a list of all the aspects. When they have come to an agreement they begin to fill in all the information they have on the figure. Hereby they not only consider an excerpt of the text, but the whole drama as basis for characterization. It is recommendable to produce profiles of all main figures of the novel or drama.
5. Reading strategies Reenacting a dramatic scene Reenacting often is used at school to gain a deeper understanding of the plot and the characters.
Objectives: Students deepen their understanding of the scene they read. They develop empathy when taking the role of one of the figures of the drama They develop their acting talents. They deepen their self-confidence while presenting the scene to their classmates.
Description of activity: Students are going to reproduce a scene of the drama. The teacher gives them some basic information according to the situation. They work in little groups (3-4 pupils). In order to prepare the scene they collect arguments for both figures. Moreover, the students discuss the characteristic traits of each figure and choose one or two traits they want to emphasize. They should also state the basic mood of each figure. They donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to reproduce the scene literally, but can vary within a certain range. Generally, they should take into consideration the main background and situation of the scene. Language can be changed into modern language which is appropriate to the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; way of speaking. So itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s easier for them to express themselves. It is not necessary to write down the whole dialogue. This gives them the opportunity to act spontaneously. Feedback: After presenting the scene students give each other feedback according to the presentation of the figures.
Conclusions regarding reading strategies France: Group work seems essential and constructive Estonian strategies are leading to literacy Learning by doing is really important e.g. visualizing, being creative Interconnection between reading, writing and speaking skills Connecting literature with real life e.g. re-enacting figures Literacy is a link to everyday life Turkey: Turkish curriculum is not really flexible concerning time; this means that there is not enough time left for certain methods;
Turkey: on average 34 students in a class; lessons take 45 minutes; not enough time and big classes make good lessons difficult; leads to frontal teaching Estonia: mother tongue teaching with 24 students; foreign language are taught in smaller groups: divided classes e.g. 12 students France: 30 students, one lesson takes 50 minutes Spain: 23-27 students, one lesson takes 50 min Germany:20-32 students; 45 minutes- lessons In order to raise students‘ attention on reading, the activities should be related to students and interaction of the students should be supplied by the teacher.
Spain: Internal differentiation: how to deal with it? Different tasks, stronger and weaker students work together, the curriculum says that you have to do internal differentiation but not how; Very practical activities, clearly structured, you can use them at any level; they promote imagination, creativity. Students create their own style; Using different strategies is quite useful; Interactive reading is quite useful, easy to practise; Estonia: Group work was most interesting Parts in the group should be divided It is useful to ask students to formulate questions; 44
Germany You should combine different media; students are more motivated by this; Involving students‘personal emotions and feeling is quite important;
ANNEX 1 SCHOOL
giving students short descriptions of different situations and they apply new words from the read text to it
understanding the text
reading skills consolidate and structure textual knowledge
Drama "Miss Sara Sampson"
content of the novel
deepen the understanding of a figure
Drama "Miss Sara Sampson"
content of the novel
Students deepen their understanding of the scene they read. Drama "Miss Sara They develop empathy when taking the role of one of the figures. Sampson"
content of the novel
LEARNING GOALS Basic knowledge about banking services and learning corresponding vocabulary
CATERING FOR DIVERSITY STRATEGIES
Students learn how to consolidate and structure textual knowledge. They secure work results. They communicate their own textual knowledge and compare it with their classmates. Students resume the basic information on a figure. Students deepen and expand their understanding of a figure. They deepen their understanding of the figures.They develop their acting talents. They deepen their self-confidence when acting in front of their classmates. GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL CRITERIA/STUDENTS GROUPINGS
group work; activity of EVERY student; work with a partner or in groups single work, compare and discuss single results in teams acting, developing creative skills MATERIALS & RESOURCES task cards; text; exercise college block; literary text profile with different criteria index cards for preparation
ANNEX 2 SCHOOL SUBJECT(S) Necmi AsfuroÄ&#x;lu Bridging Cultures Anadolu Lisesi CORE TRANSVERSAL COMPETENCIES TOPICS understanding what sharingthey have read exchanging ideas read in a foreign learning by reading language LEARNING GOALS By the end of the lesson the lesson the students are able to; -talk about different coisine -use the vocabulary they have learnt -understand what they have read in a foreign language
LEVEL/YEAR 9th Grade (B1) KEY CONTENT
there are two practice activities understanding after reading which help different cultures teacher understand whether the through reading students have learned or not CATERING FOR DIVERSITY STRATEGIES
GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL CRITERIA/STUDENTS GROUPINGS The students read the excersises by pair or individually and do the excersises by pair or individually. Different strategies are applied such as question-asnwer, matching activity MATERIALS & RESOURCES -school book
ENGLISH, CATALAN & SPANISH LANGUAGE
9 -12 grades (12-15 years old)
Reading dimension skills Attitudinal & Plurilingual Digital Competence Literary dimension skills
Arts & Crafts ICT
LEARNING GOALS Read to learn and read for pleasure ( comprehension strategies) Use oral strategies to interact with others, transfer knowledge, ask questions etc Understand and value graded literary texts
Raquel Abad, Gemma Tona, MÂª Josep Raich
Throughout 2nd & 3rd TERMS
Formative assessment, peer Reading strategies assessment and self-assessment tools before, during and after reading Students' Project checklists Outcomes Frankenstein reading project Worksheets Assessment CATERING FOR DIVERSITY STRATEGIES Gamification and ICT tools Pre-reading activites, guided activities. Use of modelling Self-evaluation tools to regulate their learning
GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL CRITERIA STUDENTS GROUPINGS Task-based methodology
Reading Comprehension support Guided Reading Acting Out
Group work (6 pax) Individual work
Intensive & Extensive reading MATERIALS & RESOURCES
Smartboard, projector, role worksheets, computer, phone camera.
Kersti Rohtmets, Angela Männik, Jana Classes 1-9 (7-15 Suve, Ingrid Lilles, yrs old) Külli Jürisoo 3rd term
Paikuse Basic Estonian, English School CORE TRANSVERSAL COMPETENCIES TOPICS KEY CONTENT EVALUATION CRITERIA During reading autonomy Literature strategies, home reading, free Teachers' oral assessment, peer cooperation Art reading assessment, worksheets ICT LEARNING GOALS develop reading increase retelling skills skills value reading develop critical thinking
CATERING FOR DIVERSITY STRATEGIES using IT tools,
GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL CRITERIA/STUDENTS GROUPINGS Reading comprehension,reading aloud, scanning, free reading. Individual work, pair work, group work MATERIALS & RESOURCES Textbooks, workbooks, additional stories (fairy tale), worksheets
ANNEX 5 SCHOOL
College Sainte Anne
LEVEL/YEAR TEACHER(S) TIMING 8
Mind map to recap Complete a worksheet with questions
Reading (different documents)
Reading to act daily
Philosophers of the eighteen century
Notice fake news Advertising and diversion
Create a poster LEARNING GOALS
Oral correction to discuss strategies Poster production
CATERING FOR DIVERSITY STRATEGIES
Grammar: Give orders/advices; Lexical skills:
Different activities: link the pictures to their paragraphs
vocabulary linked to ecological actions and behaviors
Using different documents with the same topic
Discover Philosophers and improve reading
Using computers to help students with special needs
Understand implicit content in a text
Understand whatÂ´s a data and a news
Using Verdana character in size 12 to help
Notice facts and opinion in a news
students with special needs
Remind tools to notice fake news
Different examples to understand
Art history.oly and diversion, Art. Shape,space
Different tools and materials to create
Vocabulary:SLogan,Logo,diversion,composition GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL CRITERIA/STUDENTS GROUPINGS English: 1st: individual work (complete the worksheet), 2nd: group work (compare your choices) Literature: Students read a text. In classroom, they come back to it and have to answer 2 questions about explicit and implicit content of it. Get information in documents and do a summary upon the subject. Doc: Read documents in groups to quote information and answer questions, discuss strategies. Art: In class, telling advertising codes and vocabulary, create individual poster, verbalize idea. MATERIALS & RESOURCES Handbook, computers, texts, graphics, maps, lists, newspapers, worksheets, art tools material, art examples and poster advertising, extract from a park panel