Volume 1 Issue 2

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Copyright Ⓒ by Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) All rights reserved. No part of these publications may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. Printed in Seoul, South Korea October, 30, 2021 Michelle Bok Founder and President Nahyun Park Founder and President

www.globalstemyouthjournal.org globalstemyouthjournal@gmail.com @gsyj.official

1 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


Letter from the President and Founder, Michelle Bok

Dear Readers, It is my utmost honor as both the president and founder of this publication to present to you the first volume of the Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ). Today, through the span of six months in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, GSYJ has grown to consist of members from more than 13 different nations and from a wide range of backgrounds and cultures. With a highly skilled copy and editing department, the quality of the articles, that is to say, the depth of research and the ability to deliver the information to our audience was our utmost priority. In the process, communication through platforms including slack and google classroom were key considering the various time zones of the members, resembling the term “global”. I would like to capitalize on this opportunity to thank all those who contributed to the volume 1 edition of Global STEM Youth Journal: our industrious editing, business, design, and IT department, and most importantly our enthusiastic readers. It has been my pleasure to serve as the founder and 2021 president of the Global STEM Youth Journal, working closely with truly driven individuals and watching members of the publication progress. Sincerely, Michelle Bok Co-President and Co-Founder Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Letter from the President and Founder, Nahyun Park

Dear Readers, The Global STEM Youth Journal has been operating for six months, resulting in significant growth of our organization. I am highly honored to serve as both the president and founder and proud to exhibit our first volume of the publication. Despite the obstacles GSYJ faced during the destructiveness of COVID-19, GSYJ has developed into a diverse organization composed of members from 13+ nations. The remarkable cooperation between the members from various backgrounds allowed the Global STEM Youth Journal to deliver effective information to the readers. The proficient research and effort of four departments including the IT, business, design, and editing departments resulted in the successful publishing of exquisite articles. I would like to express my utmost gratitude to all the members who contributed to our monthly cycles that have been continued for about six months. Aiming to engage our readers, the Global STEM Youth Journal had focused on extracting the essential articles that performed an essential role for our first volume. The aspiration of our GSYJ members will be expanding steadily with such passionate individuals collaborating throughout the process. Sincerely, Nahyun Park, Co-President and Co-Founder Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

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Letter from the 2021-22 Editing Head, Emma Ferraro

Dear Readers, It’s wonderful that you’ve taken the time to read the intriguing content that the Editing Department of the Global STEM Youth Journal has worked very hard to put in front of you. Our department is composed of driven and passionate writers that want to let you in on their extensive knowledge of science, technology, engineering, and math. GSYJ was created during the pandemic, aiming to allow those with substantial interests in both the fields of STEM and writing to pursue their passions safely from their homes. The organization is fully virtual, which is undoubtedly one of its most notable aspects. This quality makes it easily accessible to people from across the globe, allowing for you to hear perspectives from people living thousands of miles away from you―people whom you could never even dream of meeting otherwise. Our organization has accomplished very much in the short time it has been around. We produce about ten articles per month, all of which are individually written by our talented writers. These articles are due at the midway point of each month to allow for all of the behind-the-scenes work to occur from then until the start of the next month. As you can see by the name of our department, our job is not just writing articles―it’s also editing them. As one of the heads of the Editing Department, my job is to write monthly articles, edit two each month, and work closely with the Social Media Department to assign publishing dates. As you can see, every single member of our organization plays a significant role in the things that we accomplish. Every department is crucial to ensure the success of the Global STEM Youth Journal. I, along with my other Editing Head, would love for those of you with similar passions as ours to be a part of this wonderful community! All the best, Emma Ferraro Editing Department Head

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Letter from the 2021-22 Editing Head, Lynne Kim

Dear Readers, I am delighted to announce the publication of our first official journals for the Global STEM Youth Journal. GSYJ is an international network of avid writers and many other members who have incredible passion for writing both informative and opinionated articles regarding STEM topics and issues. We have put in an immense amount of effort to shine light on events that have been disregarded with people’s apathy. By doing so, we not only were able to successfully create numerous articles regarding these topics, we have also learned a lot from reading one another’s articles. We hope that our readers will be able to have the same experience as us, by publishing our journal. I would like to begin by thanking each and every one of you for reading our journal, all written by excellent reporters who have devoted their time to researching a wide range of scientific ideas to produce their articles. The commitment has been amazing and the level of progress for each member has been commendable as well. All members of the editing, business, IT, and design department deserve a huge thank you for all of your efforts during the past few months. Without you all, it would have not been possible to be able to come to where we are today. During the pandemic that has taken the world by storm, we recognize how difficult it has been to access as many research tools as possible, compared to before. Many areas of science immediately focused on the virus itself, and much of the scientific field was left behind. Despite this, our researchers have used all the resources they have had to come up with brilliant ideas regarding the topics that not many people are aware about today. GSYJ has accomplished so much over the past few months and the growth of everyone has been an amazing process to watch. We initially hoped to bridge the gender gap in the STEM field, which in a way, we have. Many of our reporters whether male or female have all proven to equally produce outstanding results. We hope to continue our efforts into possibly spreading our influence further. It has been a great pleasure serving as the Editing Head during the beginning months and watching all our members grow. I look forward to seeing all of our members’ continued efforts towards educating our readers more about the STEM field. Sincerely, Lynne Kim Editing Department Head Global STEM Youth Journal

5 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


Table of Contents Cystic Fibrosis

8

Post-Pandemic Pollution: How has the pandemic affected pollution?

10

The Future of Vertical Turbine

13

Reference

14

Remembering Her Name

15

Inside the Line of Fire Against Superbugs

18

Tackling the hunger pandemic

23

The discovery of DNA - with a pinch of scientific gossip

25

The Side Effects of Adderall

27

A Year After Australia’s Wildfires

30

Why No One Cares

32

The Eyes of an Insect

35

A Guide to the Types of Hackers

37

Chem Architecture: The Interplay between Chemistry and Architecture in Our World

39

Sound your focus

41

- What are the effects of the so called binaural waves and what does current research look like

41

Pollution’s New Heights

43

The Vast Emptiness of Space

45

COVID-19: What to Know and How to Stay Safe

47

Brazil’s Health System Collapse due to COVID-19

49

How has this happened?

49

Bacteria Creating a Bigger Possibility for Creating Greener Nanostructures

51

The Rise of Self-Driving Cars

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FEATURE — Michelle Ren

55

FEATURE — RAFAEL PÉREZ

56

7 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


Cystic Fibrosis Emma Ferraro Simple and involuntary things, like the functions of our vital organs, are often taken for granted. Things such as breathing clearly, having the ability to reproduce, and being able to easily pass stools are all overlooked and unacknowledged by those

[Image source: YouTube]

without issues preventing the simpleness of such.

An individual with CF may be screened and tested as early as the first

For those with cystic fibrosis (CF), on

month of life, before the presence of any

the other hand, these issues are just a few of

symptoms. In some occurrences, however,

the many symptoms that they face every

parents may be able to detect CF when they

single day, as a result of this genetic and,

kiss their children and detect a salty

essentially, fatal disease (Mayo Clinic).

taste―for high concentrations of salt in

The disease is caused by the

sweat are often present in an individual with

presence of two mutated copies, meaning one

said disease. Symptoms often worsen with

from each parent, of the cystic fibrosis

age, or, in some cases, not appear until the

transmembrane

regulator

teenage years or adulthood. According to

(CFTR) gene (Cystic Fibrosis Foundation).

Mayo Clinic, “People who are not diagnosed

Most of the time, at least one of the two

until adulthood usually have milder disease

parents is a carrier, as two people with CF

and are more likely to have atypical

should never come in contact with one

symptoms, such as recurring bouts of an

another due to the bacteria that they carry

inflamed pancreas (pancreatitis), infertility

that is harmful to other patients’ lungs

and recurring pneumonia.”

conductance

(Cystic Fibrosis Trust).

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis most commonly occur in the respiratory tract. The cells

that produce mucus, sweat, and

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

digestive juices are affected if an individual

Cystic fibrosis cannot be cured, so it’s

has the disease. This causes those with CF to

important for couples with risks of the

have a sticky, thick mucus that clogs the

disease to be tested before having children.

airways leading in and out of the lungs, as opposed to the normal slippery and thin

Reference

mucus of those without the disease. This

[1] Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. "CF

mucus results in symptoms such as a constant

Genetics: The Basics." Cystic Fibrosis

wet cough of thick mucus, wheezing,

Foundation | CF Foundation,

intolerance

www.cff.org/What-is-CF/Genetics/CF-Gene

to

infections, persistent

exercise,

inflamed stuffy

common nasal

noses,

and

lung

passages,

cs-The-Basics/.

recurrent

[2] Cystic Fibrosis Trust. "Cross-infection at

sinusitis.

Events." Cystic Fibrosis Trust - Fighting for

There are many symptoms affecting

a Life Unlimited,

the digestive system that stem off of the issue

www.cysticfibrosis.org.uk/the-work-we-do/c

of the aforementioned thick mucus blocking

onference-and-meetings/cross-infection-at-e

tubes that are necessary to carry digestive

ents.

enzymes from the pancreas to the small

[4] "Cystic Fibrosis: MedlinePlus Medical

intestine. This results in intestines that aren’t

Encyclopedia." MedlinePlus - Health

fully able to absorb the nutrients existent in

Information from the National Library of

foods we eat. This can cause greasy stools,

Medicine, 2 July

poor weight gain and growth, intestinal

2021,medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000107.ht

blockage

m.

in

newborns,

and

chronic

constipation. These symptoms, especially when

[4] Mayo Clinic. "Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms and Causes." Mayo Clinic, 14

checked with a doctor less than once every

Mar. 2020,

three months, can lead to complications. The

www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cys

average life expectancy of someone with CF

ic-fibrosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20353700

that has lived to adulthood is 44 years old, with lung complications as the most common cause of death (MedlinePlus).

9 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


Post-Pandemic Pollution: How

due to the unprecedented situation that’s

has the pandemic affected

lasted far longer than anyone had anticipated.

pollution?

While people were confined to their homes, air quality significantly increased.

Umar Mohammad

Globally, nitrogen dioxide (an ‘indirect’ greenhouse gas) concentrations decreased by 20%, and particulate matter levels dropped by 31%. Road and air traffic dwindled considerably. Wuhan, the origin of the virus and once one of the most polluted cities in China, experienced a 25% dip in carbon emissions as well as a whopping 40% in nitrogen oxide emissions. According to the

[Photo credit: New York Post] Before we dive in, has it ever occurred to you the extensie number of types of pollution? Ranging from light pollution to the infamous plastic pollution, the spectrum stretches considerably. Almost all types of pollution are associated with global warming. The ‘National Geographic’ recognizes three

and 27% of China’s mortality rate are related to air pollution. In short, the lockdown decreased air pollution, whilst air pollution in turn intensified the effects of the virus on victims. So the decrease in pollution during lockdowns helped ‘flatten the curve’ of COVID-19 cases.

crucial forms:

In terms of land and water, pollution

● Air pollution

increased. There was a significant increase in

● Water pollution

single-use plastics, mainly consisting of

● Land pollution The

American Lung Association, 15% of the US

World

Health

Organisation

(WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic halfway through March of 2020. Different countries imposed lockdowns at varying times; though, by April, most countries were experiencing a total nationwide lockdown. Different experiments were made possible

masks and gloves as well as other medical PPE, due to the increased dependency. 129 billion masks are used monthly - enough to cover the land area of Switzerland with the current pace. Before the pandemic, it was predicted that by 2050, the net weight of plastics in the ocean would surpass the total

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

weight of fish.

What isn’t disposed of

terms of harm, and inconsequential in terms

correctly will simply be added to the

of ‘help’. The small victories are insufficient

ever-increasing piles pockmarked around the

in winning the ‘war’. A different story can be

world.

said about the other forms. Nevertheless, the main concern of pollution, global warming, alarmingly has no signs of deceleration. Different companies may increase production of pollutants to make up for the reduced production during the pandemic. Everything is slowly returning back to normal. Reference [1] Streiff, Lara. “NASA Model Reveals How Much COVID-related Pollution Levels [Photo credit : Al Jazeera]

Deviated from the Norm.” NASA, Nov 17,

Oil, as we all know, pollutes many

2020,

aspects of nature, harming natural habitats

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/

and the organisms living in them; one of the

nasa-model-reveals-how-much-covid-related

main

-pollution-levels-deviated-from-the-norm

factors

in

air

pollution

is

the

combustion of fossil fuels. Oil prices hit an

[2]

all-time low due to the decreased demands in

COVID-19 worse. Now, lockdowns are

the pandemic. Recently, oil prices have

clearing the air.” National Geographic, April

started climbing back up again, which could

8, 2020,

potentially fall back down due to the

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/

alarming spread of the delta variant across

article/pollution-made-the-pandemic-worse-b

the world.

ut-lockdowns-clean-the-sky

All in all, the pandemic paved the

[3]

Gardiner,

Mehta,

Beth.

Radhika.

“Pollution

“10

made

Impacts

of

way to a brief insight to what the world

Coronavirus on the Environment” Earth5R,

would feel like with what seemed to be

September 19, 2020,

cleaner air. The consequences the pandemic

https://earth5r.org/impacts-corona-virus-envir

has had on pollution have been major in

onment/

11 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


[4] Leber, Rebecca. ““Back to normal” puts us back on the path to climate catastrophe.” Vox, June 15, 2021, https://www.vox.com/22522791/climate-emi ssions-post-covid [5] Ford, Dave. “COVID-19 Has Worsened the

Ocean Plastic Pollution

Problem”,

Scientific American, 17 August, 2020, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/c ovid-19-has-worsened-the-ocean-plastic-poll ution-p roblem/ [6] Bodreau, D., McDaniel, M., Sprout, E., Turgeon,

A.

“Pollution”,

National

Geographic, 18 August, 2011, https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclop edia/pollution/

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

The Future of Vertical Turbine

[Photo credit: Treehugger]

Adrian Muñoz

Are vertical turbines more efficient than

It has been known for several decades

traditional turbines?

that the Earth needs to shift its focus towards

The short answer is yes! Due to their

the use of renewable energy due to rising

design that allows a lower turbine center of

concerns regarding the limited amounts of

gravity and machine complexity as well as

nonrenewable energy, such as fossil fuels and

their small size that would take less space,

natural gas. Because people are worrying that

vertical turbines would indeed reduce the

renewable energy like wind turbines may not

cost of wind energy and be more efficient

be too efficient as a source of energy,

than traditional wind turbines. Additionally,

scientists and engineers have been trying to

vertical

come up with creative ways to prepare

maintenance since they contain fewer parts

renewable energy for the next generation.

that may cost humans a significant amount of

wind

turbines

require

less

money. However, as the wind approaches the What exactly are vertical turbines?

front row of the vertical turbines, turbulence

Vertical-axis wind turbines are turbines that

will be generated, which may negatively

have the main rotor set vertically to the wind

affect the performance of those turbines.

(From bottom to up) and their other main

Although this may be one flaw that exists

components located at their base. This is

upon vertical wind turbines, the fact that their

special by how vertical turbines don’t need to

creative design is meant to be more

point into the wind, therefore preventing the

cost-efficient has already proven to scientists

need

and

and engineers that traditional wind turbines

orientation mechanisms. Other terms for

may no longer be as effective as these new

vertical turbines include transverse axis wind

sources of wind energy.

turbine and cross-flow wind turbine.

How would vertical turbines impact the

for

complex

wind-sensing

world? According to the Global Wind Report 2021, countries must install wind power resources three times faster over the upcoming ten years to avoid the worst consequences of climate change and scarcity of energy from 13 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


the rapid rise of the human population. With

nd-turbine-installation-us-operating-texas-m-

that being said, the use of vertical wind

4857642

turbines would create a rather immense impact on society’s need for energy based on renewable

resources

and

contribute

to

making the rapid installation of efficient resources that would replace those that are nonrenewable possible in the next decade or potentially sooner. Reference [1] Cohen, Ariel. “Are Vertical Turbines The Future Of Offshore Wind Power?” Forbes, Forbes

Magazine,

20

May

2021,

www.forbes.com/sites/arielcohen/2021/05/20 /are-vertical-turbines-the-future-of-offshorewind-power/ [2] Cholteeva, Yoana. “Vertical Turbines to Boost the Efficiency of Wind Farms.” Power Technology, www.power-technology.com/news/vertical-tu rbines-to-boost-the-efficiency-of-wind-farms/ EurekAlert. “Vertical Turbines Could Be the Future

for

Wind

Farms.” EurekAlert!,

www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-04/ob u-vtc042621.php [3] Markham, Derek. “Largest Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Installation in U.S. Operating at

Texas

A&M.”

Treehugger,

www.treehugger.com/largest-vertical-axis-wi

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Remembering Her Name Michelle Ren knowledge to future generations, inspiring young girls to follow in their footsteps. To commemorate their achievements, this article will focus on introducing two remarkable STEM women of color who have left behind lasting legacies through their books. First

and

foremost,

Dr.

Flossie

Wong-Staal, a Chinese-American virologist and molecular biologist, dedicated her life to the study of virology and immunology. Most notably, Wong-Staal is credited as the first person to clone HIV in 1985, a feat that helped identify HIV as the cause of AIDS. [Photo Credit: The Lancet]

Following this accomplishment, Wong-Staal would go on to conduct gene therapy

In the past and present, women have faced countless difficulties in STEM-based fields. Women of color, specifically, have not only encountered the same sexism as their white counterparts but dealt with racial stereotypes as well. Nevertheless, many women of color have made their names known in the science world, challenging the status quo and reshaping the idea of “women’s

work.”

Through

their

groundbreaking discoveries, these scientists and physicians have passed down their 15 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

research to repress HIV in stem cells and use her

experience

in

virology

to

better

understand hepatitis C. Despite battling both sexism and racism, Wong-Staal was able to achieve

much

more than the average

scientist, making her name known by publishing her work in “AIDS Vaccine Research.” Even after her death, Wong-Staal is remembered as a distinguished virologist, whose scientific research is still used to


understand present-day viruses, such as COVID-19. Next, this article would not be complete

without

acknowledging

Dr.

Rebecca Lee Crumpler (born as Rebecca Davis), the first African-American woman physician in the United States. As the only black and female graduate of the New England Female Medical College in 1860, Crumpler experienced prejudiced comments from colleagues daily. Despite this challenge, Crumpler managed to find work at the Freedman’s Bureau for the State of Virginia. She

spent

her

days

treating

African

[Photo Credit: Adventist Health] Ultimately,

Americans and assisting them in the slow

both

Dr.

Flossie

transition from slavery to freedom at the end

Wong-Staal and Dr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler

of the Civil War. After years of gaining

have contributed tremendously to their

insight into the diseases of women and

respective fields as a result of their scientific

children, Crumpler compiled her knowledge

research and publications. In a world where

into “A Book of Medical Discourses in Two

women of color face extensive discrimination

Parts.” While the first section of her writing

in male-dominated workplaces, the presence

[Photo Credit: Adventist Health]

of these two women has given young girls

discusses diseases found in infants, the

the role models they needed. As long as girls

second part focuses on conditions that would

continue to make their way into STEM-based

affect mothers and women in general.

fields,

Through her practice and book, Rebecca Lee

remembered.

their

names

will

always

be

Crumpler has left behind a historic legacy in which her perseverance as a physician serves

Reference

as an inspiration to today’s women in STEM.

[1] Kenyon, Georgina. “Flossie Wong-Staal.” The Lancet: Infectious Disease, vol. 20, no. 9, 1 Sept. 2020, pp. 1, The Lancet,

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https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)3064 5-9. [2] Laskowski, Amy. “Trailblazing BU Alum Gets a Gravestone 130 Years after Her Death.” Boston University, Boston University's Alumni Magazine, 7 Aug. 2020, www.bu.edu/articles/2020/rebecca-lee-crum Ler-first-black-female-physician-gets-graves one-130-after-death/. [3] Markel, Howard. “Celebrating Rebecca Lee Crumpler, First African-American Woman Physician .” PBS News Hour, 9 Mar. 2016, www.pbs.org/newshour/health/celebrating-r Becca-lee-crumpler-first-african-american-p ysician. [4] “Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler, MD: Healing Those with No Access to Care .” Adventist Health, 20 Feb. 2021, www.adventisthealth.org/blog/2021/february Rebecca-davis-lee-crumpler-md-healing-thos -with/. [5] “Women of Color in STEM .” Maryville University, 10 May 2021, https://online.maryville.edu/blog/women-ofolor-in-stem/.

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Inside the Line of Fire Against From the frigid depths of the Arctic to inside

Superbugs

of an incredibly hot volcano, bacteria can

Rafael Pérez

live and adapt nearly everywhere. After all, they were one of the first living organisms on earth, so they know the show. When

[Image Source: BBC Science Focus Magazine] At first sight, it may seem as though we live by our own biological processes; however, bacteria live all around us. As outrageous as it may seem, they are actually living inside you right now. But fear not―they are here to help (most of them, that is). Bacteria are a series of unicellular living organisms and members of the domain Prokarya. These small and imperceptible units of life are actually helping you as we speak, so that you can break down the molecules of the burger you had for lunch in your mouth with saliva, then later allow you to digest the same burger in your gut. Importantly, bacteria can protect your skin from unwanted viruses or other living organisms, and even create oxygen or other essential components for life. Yet, where do these bacteria come from?

Alexander

Fleming

accidentally

discovered penicillin in 1928, no one knew that his discovery would shift the medical and biological fields forever. Fleming, an important biologist and pharmacologist, had been experimenting with a bacteria known as streptococcus; as he returned after leaving his petri dishes behind to go on a vacation, he encountered a very strange phenomenon. Fleming observed that fungi had grown in his petri dishes, and that the streptococcus did not grow near the fungi identified as penicillium. That's how the new era of antibiotics, or agents that kill bacteria, began. Time went by, but it was not until 1941 that Fleming's discovery was put into use. Albert Alexander, a 43-year-old policeman, had been savagely attacked by a rose with spikes in his garden. He had suffered from a bacterial infection from the cut, leaving penicillin to be his only chance of survival. That's when Howard Florey, a doctor from Oxford, decided it was time to put this new

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

medicine to the test. He and his colleagues

them, inhibit them, and burp them out of

were able to synthesize penicillin from the

their system, among others.

fungi penicillium and administer it to

Next, irresponsible use of antibiotics

Alexander, who, at this point, was on the

has had a major impact on the speed at which

verge of death. After a few days reusing

bacteria evolve and get antibiotic resistance.

penicillin from his urine, they ended up

As Alexander Fleming predicted in his Nobel

having no more antibiotics, leaving Albert

acceptance speech in 1945, “The thoughtless

Alexander to die as a hero in the world of

person playing with penicillin treatment is

science. With that discovery, doctors proved

morally responsible for the death of the man

that penicillin worked against a wide range of

who

bacteria; and in 1945, Fleming, Florey, and

penicillin-resistant organism.” But, how does

their colleague, Boris Chain, were awarded

antibiotic

with the Nobel Prize in medicine.

transduction, bacteria are able to insert a

succumbs

to

infection

resistance

with

work?

the With

More than 70 years later, we are now

portion of their DNA or plasmids into a

facing a dead end against bacteria. Outbreaks

vector such as a virus and transmit that

of different superbugs* for several reasons

portion to other bacteria to adopt their DNA.

have been raising numbers in the past few

With transformation, bacteria are able to pick

years. Why is this?

up “DNA packages” from the medium and

The short answer would be evolution;

adopt them as resources to survive. These

but in reality, giving an answer like that

packages can be used by most bacteria

would just wash our hands clean from the

regardless of their species. At last, with

problem. And the truth is that we, humans,

conjugation, bacteria are able to transfer their

have a lot on our plate when it comes to

genes by connecting with their pilus and

antibiotic resistance.

transferring plasmids to other bacteria.

At first,

evolution

has

had an

Knowing these ways of transferring

important part in antibiotic resistance. The

resistance,

we can

now

look

at the

incredibly rapid speed that bacteria can

irresponsible conducts involving humans.

create new generations** has been a great

Sharing or not, finishing antibiotics when

part of mutations that benefit it in the fight

prescribed might kill defenseless bacteria but

against antibiotics. Bacteria can destroy

leave the most powerful colonies inside you, allowing them to grow and spread. Asking or

19 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


forcing doctors to prescribe antibiotics when

future). This is why everyone should develop

not needed, such as through viral diseases,

more

are a way in which bacteria can begin to get a

informative

hold of the antibiotics we are using in the

everybody safe and let biologists take this

industry and learn how to fight against them.

shot against the enemy. Remember, we’re at

The extensive use of antibiotics in the

war―however, we are clearly outnumbered.

responsible

consumption

conduct in

and

order to keep

farming and food industry (at least 80% of worldwide use) has had a devastating effect

Reference

on the resistance, since these superbugs can

[1]

pass on to humans from animal meat. From

Development of Penicillin - Landmark.

that, we derive other irresponsible conducts

(n.d.). American Chemical Society. Retrieved

such as eating raw meat, buying from

July

irresponsible producers, etc. It is estimated

https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education

that, if we don’t stop this by 2050, people

/whatischemistry/landmarks/flemingpenicilli

will reach a dead end that will turn them back

n.html

to XIIth century medicine, without the use of

[2] The Antibiotic Apocalypse Explained.

medicine or antibiotics.

(2016,

However, this is far from being over―the

poor

funding

received

by

Alexander

Fleming

17,

Discovery

2021,

March

16).

and

from

YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZbcwi7 SfZE

pharmaceutical companies to develop new

[3] Antibiotic Resistance | Health | Biology |

antibiotics has not established a great

FuseSchool. (2019, February 19). YouTube.

incentive to continue production, since they

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXBW0

cannot

0yEgUU

keep

up

with

the

developing

resistance. Nonetheless, there's still hope for

[4] Antibiotic Resistance: A Public Health Crisis

|

Victoria

J.

Fraser, (2015,

MD June

|

humanity and medicine as we know it.

TEDxStLouisWomen.

5).

Scientists have been working in different

YouTube.

ways of fighting off bacteria in the lines of

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8QLvH

defense by using phages (viruses that infect

tipJo

bacteria) and different techniques that cannot

[5] Antibiotic Resistance and the Rise of

be deciphered by bacteria (at least in the near

Superbugs. (2015, April 15). YouTube.

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 20


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fyRyZ1z

https://www.ted.com/talks/maryn_mckenna_

KtyA

what_do_we_do_when_antibiotics_don_t_w

[6] Antibiotics and Resistance. (2016, April

ork_any_more#t-295115

11).

YouTube.

[12] Meet the Drug-Resistant Superbug

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDxQT1

That’s Taking Over the World. (2020, May

MRwhk

12).

[7] Antibiotics are Overused. (2015, January

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmmkl5

5).

FbMtY

YouTube.

YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOFf9Fj

[13] The New Superbug! (2016, June 3).

glM0

YouTube.

[8] Attack of the Super Bugs. (2014, April

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygKCC

18).

MJP_wU

YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-apdGw

[14] Penicillin and Antibiotic Resistance

BPz4

(from PDB-101). (2019, February 15).

[9] Discovery of Penicillin. (2015, May 11).

YouTube.

YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0V6D

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uf6BykJ

RJBBGY

0iK0

[15] Penicillin’s discoverer predicted our

[10]

How

do

we

combat

antibiotic

coming post-antibiotic era 70 years ago.

resistance?| Dag Berild | TEDxArendal.

(2015,

(2016,

YouTube.

https://www.businessinsider.com/alexander-fl

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Ss1cGy

eming-predicted-post-antibiotic-era-70-years

OyEk

-ago-2015-7?r=MX&IR=T#:%7E:text=If%2

Laxminarayan, R. (2014, November 10). The

0this%20post%2Dantibiotic%20era,experime

coming crisis in antibiotics. TED Talks.

nting%20with%20the%20influenza%20virus

https://www.ted.com/talks/ramanan_laxminar

.

ayan_the_coming_crisis_in_antibiotics#t-875

[16] What causes antibiotic resistance? -

075

Kevin Wu. (2014a, August 7). YouTube.

[11] McKenna, M. (2015, June 25). What do

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znnp-Ivj

we do when antibiotics don’t work any

2ek

more?

November

TED

30).

Talks.

21 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

August

7).

Business

Insider.


[17] What causes antibiotic resistance? Kevin Wu. (2014b, August 7). YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znnp-Ivj 2ek [18] Wright, G. (2020, March 16). How can we solve the antibiotic resistance crisis? TED Talks. https://www.ted.com/talks/gerry_wright_how _can_we_solve_the_antibiotic_resistance_cri sis#t-365901

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 22


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Tackling the hunger pandemic “The steps of food after it leaves your plate and the challenges in avoiding food waste during the pandemic” Yasmin Nilsson waste management systems, food insecurity and climate change. The Food Index Report, from the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), which reported all of that data, also advises [PHOTO:©Mint Images]

The fact that a significant chunk of all the food there is in the world is thrown away every second is not expected to be a surprise. Socially and economically, this turns into a disaster with unmeasurable consequences, and they became even harsher after the COVID-19 pandemic began. Effects of restrictions on supply chains, commerce and distribution - not to mention the manners of how society consumes and produces food definitely changed expectations on how waste would turn out in 2020 and 2021. In statistical terms, according to the World Economic Forum, around 931 million tonnes of food - which is 17% of global production goes to waste each year; 61% of which comes from households, 26% from food service, and 13% from retail. Furthermore, this tackles not only hunger issues, but also

measures that can be taken by each country in different scales in order to achieve the second Sustainable Development Goal - zero hunger by 2030. Some of them included redesigning

business

models,

getting

investors to set high demands for companies, repurposing public policies and investments and socially-responsible consumption. Also, at retail and supermarket level,there are plenty of bits to be done to reduce waste. Lowering energy consumption, maintaining quality and safety of products and also taking advantage of the Internet of Things. As a tool, the Internet of Things can allow chain integration to be more solid, as well as it can be used to monitor storage temperatures, stock levels, dates of expiry and many other aspects that contribute to a possible waste. Food insecurity, on the other hand, does not necessarily mean low consumption - it also reports signs of reduced quality, variety and

23 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


desirability of a diet. Thus, the big picture

https://www.un.org/en/observances/end-food-

does not essentially involve big corporation

waste-day

and distribution measures, but also public

[3]

measures towards responsible eating and

https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/03/108640

shopping habits. Local incentives instead of

2

solutions on a global scale work perfectly for

[4]

this case.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-food-wast

Furthermore, from a resource viewpoint, the

e-un-idUSKBN2AW1YK

number of people suffering from hunger only

[5]

increased by the year since 2014, as did food

https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/

waste. This costs the globe around $936

hunger/

billion a year, since it takes an incredible

[6]

amount of resources in the production scale

https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutritio

before the food arrives to your plate - energy,

n-assistance/food-security-in-the-us/definitio

land, transport, labour, capital and water, just

ns-of-food-security.aspx

to name a few. This is why climate change is also broadly involved in that big picture. In a nutshell, efforts can come from a broad variety of social sectors, including even extensive technology usage in those spheres. If this issue costs the world this much each year, in terms of social pain and financial costs, what is the world waiting for? Reference [1] https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/03/gl obal-food-waste-solutions/ [2] https://www.unep.org/resources/report/unep-f ood-waste-index-report-2021

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 24


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

The Discovery of DNA - with a

James Watson and Francis Crick. Not

pinch of scientific gossip

Franklin. How both of them received this photo is a problematic subject. They obtained

Yasmin Nilsson

it without Franklin’s knowledge or consent

“People like to put people in boxes, but they have so much more in their lives than ever seen.” - Rosalind Franklin’s niece (named after Franklin) In recent years, an increasing number of

from another researcher: Maurice Wilkins. In the end, Franklin died at the young age of thirty-seven due to ovarian cancer in 1958, a few years before the male duo was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine using Franklin’s research.

women have been awarded science and engineering degrees. Still, several disparities persist in the STEM field. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization showed that less than 30% of the

world's

researchers

are

women.

Moreover, only 3% of STEM Nobel prize winners have been women. Therefore, it is essential to discuss cases of disparities in

[Photo 51. U.S. National Library of

STEM, such as the story of Rosalind

Medicine, King’s College of London]

Franklin and the history of DNA. At the same time, there is much doubt As a chemist, Franklin developed tools that

as to whether Franklin would have been

allowed for the collection and accurate

awarded the Prize in the first place. While

interpretation of vital data, detailing the

Franklin’s niece describes her as a devoted

image of

the double-helix. Eventually,

researcher with a sharp and fierce work ethic,

Franklin’s work would lead to the x-ray

this behaviour did not fit the stereotypical

crystallography photo of the double helix,

image

helping future generations visualize DNA’s

male-dominated field, resulting in mutually

structure. Now, time for some scientific

averse relationships between Franklin and

gossip: The photo below was pioneered by

her male co-workers.

25 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

of

a

woman

working

in

a


time for women to speak up and speak out.” Rosalind “wouldn't want to see herself as the iconic feminist representative,” but rather “just who women should be.” Reference [Franklin, 1949, on a hiking trip in the Alps.

[1] Cobb, Matthew. “Sexism in Science: Did

U.S. National Library of Medicine]

Watson and Crick Really Steal Rosalind

Wilkins, Watson and Crick never asked for

Franklin's Data?” The Guardian, Guardian

Franklin’s permission when using her data in

News

their further Cambridge work. Ironically,

www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jun/23/s

Watson attended a seminar of hers a few

exism-in-science-did-watson-and-crick-really

years before in which she presented nearly

-steal-rosalind-franklins-data.

identical data to the one she presented them

[2] Cumbers, John. “The Scientist Who First

with. Had he bothered to take notes of her

Showed Us The Double Helix: A Personal

presentation, he would have provided their

Look at Rosalind Franklin.” Forbes, Forbes

study

Magazine,

with

the

accurate

numerical

and

Media,

21

23

June

Nov.

2015,

2019,

information several months prior to their

www.forbes.com/sites/johncumbers/2019/11/

discoveries.

21/the-woman-who-first-showed-us-the-doub le-helix-a-personal-look-at-rosalind-franklin/

This event is one of many that demonstrates

?sh=5a1835e74856.

the

attitudes

[3] Lee, Jane J. “6 Women Scientists Who

STEM

Were Snubbed Due to Sexism.” National

consistent

stemming

from

misogynistic men

in

the

community. While representation in STEM

Geographic,

has drastically improved since Franklin’s

www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/article/

time, similar cases of research theft still exist.

130519-women-scientists-overlooked-dna-hi

Thus, the representation of women and other

story-science.

20

May

2013,

minorities in scientific fields is still a major issue, one that will only be resolved through the creation of a diverse STEM community. As Franklin’s niece said, “It’s our time. A

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 26


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

The Side Effects of Adderall

a trunk with teeth called a proboscis and two

Rafael Pérez

eyelike structures as well as sensory pili all

Known as aquatic or marine bears,

around their body. Raging around 0.5 to 1.2 millimeters

the tardigrade is a phylum from the kingdom unique

in adults, this phylum consisting of more

characteristics that make them special. Have

than 1,000 species has been particularly

you ever wondered what it's like being

popular because of its extremophile complex,

floating in space without any protection, or

meaning that it can survive in the craziest

living

more

environments for humans. Known for being

outrageous, being frozen in water for over 30

invincible, tardigrades have had different

years? Well, all these questions can be

chances to prove their ability to survive. For

answered by these microscopic organisms,

instance, according to the CBC journal,

since, as wild as they may seem. These

Japanese scientists were able to revive frozen

adorable creatures have done all of that and

tardigrades from 1983 in the Antarctic.

more.

Researchers found a moss sample in the ice

Animalia

in

that

boiling

has

several

water?

Even

at -20°C and were able to find living tardigrades after unfreezing the moss. But, why are they able to do that? Well, several strategies come into play when talking about their

ability

to

survive

in

different

environments, but one of the most important of them is what is called cryptobiosis. A latent state is used by some cryptobiotic [Photo credit: GettyImages]

organisms in adverse conditions to protect

Known as the most resistant animal in

themselves,

slowing

their

metabolic

science, Tardigrades consist of a primary

pathways remarkably and adapting to survive

fatlike trunk with 8 minuscule appendages

in the environment. In this stage, tardigrades

that simulate paws with little 3 to 4 little

shrink

claws on them. They have a digestive system

retracting their paws and trunk — their

consisting of a mouth and an anus, as well as

metabolic rate reduces to almost 0.01% —

intestines; this mouth-like structure looks like

allowing them to save energy and survive.

27 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

by

dehydrating

themselves

and


At a molecular level, the quirk about

30

Mar.

2019,

tardigrades and their resilience to adverse

www.youtube.com/watch?v=tXoK5BOFd7I.

environments is a protein called DSUP

[4] Gargantilla, Pedro. “Criptobiosis, la

(Damage suppressor) among other factors

«resurrección biológica».” abc, 2 Oct. 2020,

such as an antioxidant enzyme and a

www.abc.es/ciencia/abci-criptobiosis-resurre

repairing DNA protein. According to a 2020

ccion-biologica-202010022026_noticia.html.

journal report, this protein has been found

[5] Hooper, Rowan. “Secret to Tardigrades’

effective

Toughness

against

X-Ray

damage

and

Revealed

by

Supercomputer

radiation damage to cells in 40- 50%. And its

Simulation.” New Scientist, 20 Aug. 2020,

applications serve due to its flexibility and

www.newscientist.com/article/2252583-secre

hardness.

t-to-tardigrades-toughness-revealed-by-super

However, their achievements are far

computer-simulation.

from being over, as technology advances,

[6] Kachur, T. “Scientists Revive Tardigrades

scientists are able to synthesize, study and

Frozen for More than 30 Years.” CBC, CBC,

isolate their genome to analyze particular

18

characteristics. Hence, from the seabed’s vast

www.cbc.ca/news/science/scientists-revive-ta

conditions

darkness,

rdigrades-frozen-for-more-than-30-years-1.3

tardigrades can survive under everything

453522#:%7E:text=It’s%20been%20previou

without losing their style.

sly%20established%20that,for%20more%20t

to

the

space’s

Feb.

2016,

han%2030%20years. Reference

[7] La Ciencia Detrás De. “¿Por qué los

[1] Colorado, J. “En Busca de Tardígrados

tardígrados

(Parte

ANIMALES.” YouTube, 23 Aug. 2019,

1).”

YouTube,

24

Aug. 2019,

son

tan

resistentes?

|

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZM-9dqnisNc&

www.youtube.com/watch?v=mvDcsZdLLU

t=929s.

Y.

[2] El País. “El Tardígrado, El Ser Vivo Más

[8]

Resistente | Materia.” YouTube, 24 July

Computational Structural Study on The...”

2017,

Scientific

www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9Eq8UZBsEY.

www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-70431-

[3] El Robot de Colón. “Qué Pasa Con Los

1?error=cookies_not_supported&code=377d

Tardígrados l Mini Documental.” YouTube,

7599-e306-49e9-838b-924e3380a2e6.

Mínguez-Toral, Reports,

Marina. 7

Aug.

“A 2020,

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 28


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

-hace#:%7E:text=C%C3%B3mo%20lo%20h miquel prohens. “Tardígrado Habitantes Del

ace%3F-,Dsup%2C%20una%20prote%C3%

Musgo. Mundo Microscopico. Microscopía.”

ADna%20%C3%BAnica%20de%20tard%C3

YouTube,

2020,

%ADgrados%2C%20protege%20al%20DN

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qx4n3_8ru-Q&

A%20de,atenci%C3%B3n%20en%20biolog

t=41s.

%C3%ADa%20y%20biotecnolog%C3%AD

[9] Qué pasaría si. “¿Qué Pasaría Si Los

a.

7

Feb.

Tardígrados Fueran Del Tamaño de Un Humano?”

YouTube,

16

Mar.

2021,

www.youtube.com/watch?v=lEvZaAOz3h4. Rivadeneira,

Dancizo

PROBLEMA

DE

LA

Toro.

“EL

CONTINUIDAD

METABÓLICA EN CRIPTOBIOSIS Y SU ESTUDIO

DURANTE

LA

SEGUNDA

MITAD DEL SIGLO XX.” Universidad Del Bosque,

Redalyc,

28

Feb.

2017,

www.redalyc.org/journal/414/41452003003/h tml/#:%7E:text=La%20criptobiosis%20ha% 20sido%20definida,la%20vida%20y%20la% 20muerte. [10] Rovira, Mireia Querol. “Tardígrados: Animales con superpoderes.” All you need is Biology,

17

Jan.

2016,

allyouneedisbiology.wordpress.com/2015/10/ 04/tardigrados. User, Super. “Dsup, una proteína única de tardígrados, protege al DNA de la radiación: ¿Cómo

lo

hace?”

CBGP,

2020,

www.cbgp.upm.es/index.php/es/rss-1/14-noti cias/1452-dsup-una-proteina-unica-de-tardigr ados-protege-al-dna-de-la-radiacion-como-lo 29 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


A Year After Australia’s Wildfires

impacted native species, $28 million for

Rosie Brady

further scientific research and programs such as

population

monitoring

and

species

conservation planning, and $12 million in grants to support both on-site wildfire recovery activities and knowledge exchange on Indigenous land and fire management. Between February - May 2021, $14 million was given to Landcare Australia for recovery

projects

across

seven

[Eucalyptus trees sprout ‘emergency foliage’

heavily-impacted

after a wildfire while their leaves regrow.

million to multiregional species support

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-new

projects, $10 million to community grants to

s/how-australias-wilderness-recovering-wildf

support recovery projects, $6.3 million to

ires-180974464/]

captive breeding and similar projects, and $2

From July 2019 to March 2020, Australia experienced an extraordinarily

bushfire

regions,

$10

million contracted to Indigenous land and fire management knowledge projects.

intense wildfire season. The wildfires burnt

To carry out these projects, the

over 17 million hectares of land and

Australian government is working with local

displaced 64, 579 humans, 143 million other

communities and local, state, and regional

mammals, 2.46 billion reptiles, 180 million

governments,

birds, and 51 million frogs.

Indigenous communities, universities, and

The final wildfires were extinguished on March 4, 2020. A year afterwards, there is still a lot of recovering to do, but some progress has been made.

natural

wildlife

resource

caretakers, management

zoos, and

conservation groups. One of these projects is the New South Wales Alpine Ash restoration project,

As of today, $200 million AUD has

in which teams assess the recovery of the

been allocated to bushfire recovery by the

Alpine Ash tree and the probability of

Australian government. $50 million was

long-term recovery. Over 10,000 Alpine Ash

allocated to the initial bushfire response,

seeds have been recovered to ensure genetic

$110 million to frontline support for the most

variety when on-site restoration begins.

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 30


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Another is the Kangaroo Island project,

As of May 2021, next steps for

assessing the wildfires’ impact on 13

recovery

priority-listed

on

projects to support multiregional priority

Kangaroo Island. Throughout this project, the

species and recovery initiatives led by the

survival of the Marauding Katydid and the

Landcare organization.

invertebrates

living

involved

commencing

more

Robust Fan-winged Katydid on Kangaroo Island have been discovered, which inspires

References

hope for the perseverance of invertebrates all

[1] “Activities and Outcomes.” Department

across Kangaroo Island. A third project

of Agriculture, Water and the Environment,

involves the restoration of the Gondwana

www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/bushfi

Rainforests in Queensland, The Healthy

re-recovery/activities-and-outcomes.

Land and Water organization is conducting

[2] WWF-Australia. “New WWF Report: 3

weed removal and boundary installation in

Billion Animals Impacted by Australia’s

the affected areas to assist in recovery from

Bushfire

the wildfire damage, seed bank loss, and

Crisis.” WWF-Australia,

weed intrusion. This project has seen 95% of

Accessed 4 Aug. 2021.

rainforest

https://www.wwf.org.au/news/news/2020/3-b

plant

species

resprouting

post-wildfire, as well as the discovery of a

illion-animals-impacted-by-australia-bu

thriving

shfire-crisis#gs.169zsv

Southern

population Pink

of

the endangered

Underwing

Moth

in

Lamington National Park. By now, over 11,000 pest animals

[3] Parc, Elisabeth du, and Louisa Yasukawa. “The 2019–2020 Australian Bushfires: From Temporary

Evacuation

to

have been removed from New South Wales

Displacement.”

alone, with 1.37 million total hectares treated

Monitoring

for pests, 12,600 treated for weeds, and 9.8

www.internal-displacement.org/sites/default/f

million surveyed for flora and fauna. More

iles/publications/documents/Australian%20b

than 9,000 animals have been rescued so far,

ushfires_Final.pdf.

with 3,700 treated and 1,000 rehabilitated

https://www.internal-displacement.org/sites/d

from bushfire injuries, and 5,300 have been

efault/files/publications/documents/Australia

released into the wild.

n%20bushfires_Final.pdf

31 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

Internal

Longer-Term

Centre,

Displacement

2020,

p.

5,


Why No One Cares

issues, why are people still in denial about

Michelle Ren

climate change? This through

a

question

can

be answered

psychological

lens.

Since

discussion revolving around climate change sparks

fear

through

association

with

long-term loss and incomprehensible future threats, protective biases kick in and impact people’s perception of this issue. Specifically, many people tend to take a biased approach [Photo Credit: Reuters] From

to climate change through a phenomenon

increasingly

dangerous

called

“confirmation

bias.”

This

wildfires in Turkey to torrential rainfall in

unintentional

Japan, climate change has taken a toll on all

causes individuals to seek out information

of us in recent years. More than ever,

that agrees with their existing opinions while

scientists have been warning us about our

ignoring

bleak future if nothing gets done. Recently, a

beliefs,

United Nations report on climate change

misinformation

emphasized the serious consequences nations

denialism.

will face in the next 25 years if no actions

amplified when the “algorithm bias” comes

take place. Yet, efforts against climate

into play, a method used by social media

change have not gained

much media

platforms to promote information, even when

recognition or public attention. Even though

it is false, that aligns with the individual’s

most people now acknowledge climate

preferred contents. The combination of these

change as a real issue, many have not taken

two factors causes people to fall down a

action against it and instead, argue that

rabbit hole of conspiracy theories designed to

current

environmental

humanity’s

responsibility.

overwhelming negative

issues

evidence

implications

of

form

of

decision-making

factors inconsistent with their leading

to and

the acceptance climate

Misinformation

is

of

change further

are

not

miseducate and reemerge as carriers of false

Despite

the

information.

supporting

the

environmental

Additionally,

individuals

who

exercise high levels of Social Dominance Orientation tend to disregard climate change

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 32


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

as a crucial problem. Social Dominance

acknowledge denialist views and work them

Orientation (SDO) is a measure of the

into the conversation. Although this idea

support for hierarchical systems in society. In

might not be a full-proof solution, this simple

the context of climate change, this orientation

step will allow communities with opposing

extends

beliefs

to

the acceptance of “human

to

come together

and

discuss

dominance” over nature, prompting the idea

environmental issues in a respectful setting.

that the pursuit of human activity triumphs

After all, it is only when communities work

the need

together that conversations about climate

for

environmental protection.

Ultimately, “confirmation bias,” “algorithm

change

can

be

followed

bias,” and Social Dominance Orientation

environmental measures.

by

actual

lead to the widespreadness of misinformation and thus, the deeply held beliefs of climate change denialists.

Reference [1] Ashton, Adrian. “Climate Change and Cognitive Biases.” CBT Professionals, 24 Sept.

2020,

https://cbtprofessionals.com.au/climate-chan ge-cognitive-biases/. [2] Kahan, Dan, et al. “Cultural Cognition of Scientific Consensus.” Semantic Scholar: Journal of Risk Research, vol. 14, no. 205,

[Photo Credit: Nature] This leaves the question: How do we tackle climate change denialism? The answer lies in communication. Recent research highlights that simply presenting scientific facts is not enough to change the opinions of denialists.

Instead,

having

open

and

nonjudgmental conversations seems to be the solution.

Rather

than

disregarding

a

denialist’s beliefs as blatant lies or not bothering to talk to them, people should 33 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

2011,

pp.

147–174.,

doi:10.2139/SSRN.1549444. [3] Lies, Elaine. “One Dead, Two Missing as Torrential Rains Slam Japan, Risk Alerts Broadened.” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 14 Aug.

2021,

www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/one-dea d-two-missing-torrential-rains-slam-japan-ris k-alerts-broadened-2021-08-14/.


[4]

Morton,

Adam.

“How

Australia's

Election Will Decide Its Role in Climate Change.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group,

16

May

2019,

www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-015436. [5] “The Psychology behind Climate Change Denial.” ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, 4 Oct. 2016, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161 004103313.htm. [6] Treen, Kathie, et al. “Guest Post: How Climate Change Misinformation Spreads Online.” Carbon Brief: Clear on Climate, 26 June

2020,

www.carbonbrief.org/guest-post-how-climate -change-misinformation-spreads-online. Turrentine, Jeff. “Climate Deniers Unveil Their Latest P.R. Weapon.” NRDC, 28 Feb. 2020, www.nrdc.org/onearth/climate-deniers-unveil -their-latest-pr-weapon.

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 34


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

The Eyes of an Insect

cannot see the red-orange-yellow section of

Emma Ferraro

the human visible light spectrum, they are able to see ultraviolet rays. Consequently, instead of having blue, green, and red cones like humans, insects have blue, green, and ultraviolet cones. Ultraviolet light is invisible to the human eye since its wavelength covers the range of 100-400 nanometers in the electromagnetic spectrum―however, flies can detect this light. Specifically, they can see

[Image source: Purdue]

UVA

rays,

which

are

315-400

nanometers, and partially see UVB rays, at Despite the constant innovation of the

280-315 nanometer. The sun’s rays naturally

modern world, one thing's for certain―you

emit UVA, UVB, and UVC rays, though

can’t invent a new color. Humans are only

UVA rays make up 95% of the rays that

able to see the rainbow of colors that we

beam onto the Earth.

know to exist, known as the visible light

Not only can house flies see unique colors

spectrum, caused by the signal that our red,

unknown to humans, but they can clearly

blue, and green cones send to our brain when

identify them with fine resolution. Due to

our eyes point at a colored object. These

their compound eyes, with thousands of

colors have wavelengths ranging from about

lens-capped “eye-units,” it has long been

400-800 nanometers, allowing us to see

believed that insects can only see pixelated

purple, red, and everything in between. Now,

and low-resolution images. Compared to the

what if I were to tell you that a housefly,

single lens present in human eyes that allows

generally ranging from a miniscule 6 to 7

for

millimeters in length, can see colors that you

assumed that the compound eyes of insects

can’t?

were much

The term “bug eyes” isn’t spoken without

high-resolution images.

reason. A typical insect can see colors with

It was not until recently that researchers from

wavelengths

300-650

the University of Sheffield’s Department of

nanometers. This means that although they

Biomedical Science proved the previous

ranging

from

35 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

sharp

focus, less

scientists capable

previously

of capturing


assumption wrong. They discovered that the

www.sheffield.ac.uk/news/nr/insects-can-see

unique composition of insect eyes can

-better-than-scientists-thought-1.727290.

capture clear images. This ability is derived from the ways in which the photoreceptor cells in insect eyes react to image motion. Although the thousands of “eye-units” cannot move in and out of focus to accommodate images like humans do, the photoreceptor cells inside of their compound eyes can. This allows the housefly to sample an image of the world with a fairly high resolution. A tiny housefly is far more sophisticated than we may assume. Despite the fact that their brains are the size of our freckles, they can see

colors

that

we

cannot begin

to

comprehend. Reference [1] Lucas, Jim. "What Is Ultraviolet Light?" Livescience, Future US Inc, 16 Sept. 2017, www.livescience.com/50326-what-is-ultravio let-light.html. [2] Turpin, Tom. "Insects See the Light." Agricultural Sciences Education and Communication, Purdue, June 2012, www.asec.purdue.edu/natural_resources/4-H, NR,Projects/Projects/entomology/TurpinArti cles/Insects%20See%20the%20Light.pdf. [3] University of Sheffield. "News Archive." The University of Sheffield, 5 Sept. 2017,

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 36


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

A Guide to the Types of Hackers

permission, exploiting security

Adrian Muñoz

vulnerabilities, and bypassing

Hacking, as most people know, involves the

security protocols. Examples may

use of advanced programming knowledge to

include, but are not limited to,

attain something or get through an obstacle.

sending DDoS cyberattacks,

These attainments can range from obtaining

distributing computer viruses, selling

unauthorized access to someone’s personal

financial and personal information on

information to debugging and improving a

the Dark Web, and blackmailing

company’s security system. What many

innocent victims with ransom to force

people fail to realize is that several diverse

those victims to give money in

types of hackers have unique motives/goals

exchange for retrieving back their

that influence their ways of hacking. It’s

personal information and other

important to be aware of the kinds of hackers

important data. They’re even more

that you likely will cross paths with at one

dangerous because they have a

point in your life so that you’re prepared to

significant amount of knowledge and

take action depending on the hacker’s

experience with these activities,

background.

hence why victims hardly escape from them. 2) White Hat hacker White Hat hackers are essentially the complete opposite of Black Hat hackers when it comes to goals and

[Photo credit: Emsisoft]

motives. They are meant to protect

Here are the 6 main types of hackers:

people’s systems from threats set in

1) Black Hat hacker

place by Black Hat hackers. Unlike

This category is known by most

Black Hat hackers, White Hat hackers

people as Black Hat

have the user’s permission to perform

hackers―hackers that use their

hacking techniques with good

coding skills to commit malicious

intentions. They tend to fix a system’s

activities by smashing through

vulnerabilities, develop security tools,

computer networks without the user’s

and build security antivirus software.

37 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


All of their actions must be legal no

These are new hackers with little

matter the situation they’re in.

experience in hacking and are still

3) Grey Hat hacker

learning techniques that could be

These hackers are basically between

either noble or malicious. They may

Black Hat hackers and White Hat

not know the potential consequences

hackers, in the sense that they have

of their actions and could lead to

good intentions like White Hat

accidental damage without knowing

hackers, while in turn using unethical

the solution.

computer techniques like Black Hat hackers. The most popular example is

References

going through websites or systems

[1] Mehta, Medha. “Different Types of

without the user’s permission, but

Hackers: The 6 Hats Explained.” InfoSec

without intentions of harming them in

Insights, 11 June 2021,

any way. In other words, Grey Hat

sectigostore.com/blog/different-types-of-hac

hackers are White Hat hackers who

kers-hats-explained/

occasionally use immoral moves to

[2] “10 Types of Hackers to Be Aware of in

make solutions.

2021.” Jigsaw Academy, 8 Mar. 2021,

4) Red hat hacker

www.jigsawacademy.com/blogs/cyber-securi

Red hat hackers are very similar to

ty/different-types-of-hackers/

Grey Hat hackers, but their actions

[3] SafeBreach. “What Is a White Hat

tend to be more illegal and extreme,

Hacker?” SafeBreach, SafeBreach, 18 Dec.

despite their noble intentions.

2020,

5) Blue hat hacker

www.safebreach.com/blog/2020/what-is-a-w

These hackers are either those with

hite-hat-hacker/

the intention of seeking revenge

[4] Haylee Freelance writer and security

among a person or organization, or

enthusiast based in Wellington, et al. “Are

those who check security systems and

All Hackers Criminals?: Emsisoft: Security

vulnerabilities while being outside of

Blog.” Emsisoft, 3 July 2017,

the organization.

www.blog.emsisoft.com/en/23266/are-all-hac

6) Green hat hacker

kers-criminals/

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 38


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Chem Architecture: The

Chemistry and architecture seem to

Interplay between Chemistry and

be apart, but surprisingly, chemistry is

Architecture in Our World Si Yon Kim

the key for architects

to

build

stronger

and safer

buildings. Chemistry helped architects to understand the materials and make wiser decisions

about materials. They taught

architects

about

the

relations

between

materials and atmospheric changes such as acidic

rain,

snow,

and

other weather.

Chemistry also broadened the spectrum of materials that can be used by creating new substances through numerous experiments. These materials made possible by Chemistry Constructing a building requires the most exquisite and minuteness of work. BuildingCos in the modern world have started playing important roles in people’s lives as they became a workplace or a home to people. Architects now carry heavier responsibility for the impact they can put into people’s life depending on how well they have designed the buildings. As the demand for buildings increased, the knowledge and technology

of

construction

alone have

created limits. These limits restricted the height, shape, and components of the buildings. It seemed like these limits could never be recovered until the intervene of chemistry in architecture.

allow buildings with stronger sustainability and resiliency. These are several examples of materials that allowed stronger buildings by Chemistry: ● Spray

polyurethane

reduced

air

emissions,

foams (SPF)

leakage,

and

green

air

contaminants

for

indoor air quality. They also have increased the building’s resistance to air

uplift

during

severely

cold

weather. They play a role in creating insulating air and air-sealed houses and buildings which made houses possible to maintain and constant temperature. ● Vinyl Flooring helps to provide a much more hygienic environment

39 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


which benefits people by having no

References

fibers that trap dust or other allergens.

[1] Council, the American Chemistry. “How

● Polycarbonate

plastic

used

in

Chemistry Helps Enhance Building

windows and frames made them both

Sustainability

shatter-resistant and lightweight. It

and Resiliency.” The American Institute of

has a low thermal conductivity which

Architects,

reduces heating and cooling costs and protects buildings from inclement

https://www.aia.org/articles/154081-how-che

weather changes.

mistry-helps-enhance-building-sustai

Further on, architects could learn the specific

[2] “Materials Science.” Building With

advantages, disadvantages, and the strength

Chemistry, 2 Mar. 2021,

of the materials. For example cement and

https://www.buildingwithchemistry.org/buildi

concrete. They are both made from limestone

ng-future/materials-science/.

while cement is made from heating the

[3] “Materials Science.” Building With

powdered limestone with clay and concrete is

Chemistry, 2 Mar. 2021,

mixing cement with sand and rock. People in

https://www.buildingwithchemistry.org/buildi

the past did not know the difference between

ng-future/materials-science/.

these two and often got confused about when to use what. However, through chemistry, materials could be tested and examined. Chemistry and architecture are two subjects that have to go along together. While architecture is directly involved in choosing the design and in the process of construction, chemistry indirectly gets involved by playing the role of judge. It judges whether the design is appropriate for the building and which materials are safer. Therefore, the role of

chemistry

can

not be ignored

in

architecture and should be highly recognized.

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 40


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Sound your focus

frequencies to each ear, and the difference

- What are the effects of the so

between those frequencies is the binaural

called binaural waves and what

beat that the brain will perceive. For instance, if the left sound registers at 200 Hertz, and

does current research look like

the right one at 210 Hz, the beat will be

Yasmin Silva Nilsson

10Hz, and it should never exceed 30 Hz. The

Keeping our focus in a single activity

brain does this by syncing the activities in

has been becoming harder by the day, either

both hemispheres, a phenomenon called

for studying, sleeping or anything that

“neural entertaining.” Although humans

requires attention for a determined period of

cannot perceive a ten Hertz wave, the brain

time, specially with distractions such as

does not necessarily have to listen to a

social media everywhere. However, an

frequency to be affected by it. Additionally,

emerging resource can function as a support

they exist in five different categories of

to some behaviours and is even considered as

frequency pattern:

a kind of pre-experimental therapy - the binaural beats. Some studies indicate that they can highly benefit a person’s subsequent behaviour, sleep cycle and even towards stress and anxiety reduction, increased focus and better long term memory - according to a 2019 study. Regardless, they maintain the brain in a deep meditative state.

● Delta pattern: associated with relaxation; ● Theta pattern: meditation and creativity ● Alpha pattern: positivity and anxiety decrease ● Beta pattern: attention, memory and cognitive thinking ● Gamma pattern: high-level cognition and awareness

[Source: Neurologica Blog] In this sense, they work as a sound illusion. An audio emmits different 41 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


state and are considered an unofficial course of treatment. Whether a person would like to find out if it is adequate, they should always contact a healthcare professional, but regular and prescribed treatments should not be abandoned. It is very easy to find videos entitled “Instant Migraine Relief” or “Headache Smoothing Beats”, but there is absolutely no evidence that this is of help to these issues. In fact, people suffering from migraine can be highly sensitive to sound, so staying in peace and quiet can be of greater assistance. [Source: Healthline]

A binaural beats audio is best used in a

Reference

comfortable quiet place. There are several

[1]

audios available on popular platforms such as

https://www.healthline.com/health/binaural-b

Spotify and YouTube, and they should be

eats#side-effects

listened to with earphones or earbuds. Also,

[2]

to make sure that it enters into

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/

synchronization, the audio should be listened

320019#takeaway

to at least 30 minutes a day for a lasting and

[3]

stronger effect.

https://www.bustle.com/wellness/binaural-be ats-migraine-cure-doctor-music

Currently, research is recent and small, but

[4]

highly indicative of the beneficial effects. We

https://theness.com/neurologicablog/index.ph

should be careful, however, with the common

p/binaural-beats-mood-and-memory/

belief that they might “hack the brain” or be a cure to a specific disease. As mentioned before, they consist of an illusion that inserts your central nervous system into a meditative

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 42


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Pollution’s New Heights

29,032 feet (8,849 meters) is the tallest summit on Earth. Only about 4,000

Emma Ferraro

people in history have been able to survive the challenging and dangerous journey to the top. However, despite the inability for most of humankind to climb this mountain, a byproduct

of

us

has

reached

the

top―microplastic. Microplastics are pieces of plastic that are less than five millimeters long; despite their tiny size, they can easily Mount Everest

damage the environment. One such example

[Image source: Britannica]

of microplastics can be seen in various

Pollution is one of the most pressing

beauty products and toothpastes.

issues of our time. It’s no secret that major

Due to the common nature of microplastics

corporations produce most of the globe’s

in every-day products, microplastics largely

annual carbon emissions, ultimately plaguing

contribute to pollution, specifically, on

our planet. Through recognizing humanity’s

Mount Everest.

heavy contribution to climate change, it has been identified that 100 energy companies are responsible for 71% of all industrial emissions. Additionally, the top 15 U.S. food-and-beverage production companies, including Hershey Co., Coca-Cola Co., and Campbell Soup Co.,

generate nearly 630

million metric tons of greenhouse gases

[Image source: The News Minute]

every year. Shockingly, these 15 companies

In 2019, the National Geographic

alone emit more greenhouse gases than the

completed an expedition which aimed to

entirety of Australia (NRDC). You could say

determine the concentration of microplastics

that climate change and pollution have

in water bodies atop Mount Everest. Within a

reached new heights―metaphorically and

few hundred meters of the mountain’s peak,

literally.

these fibers were discovered in abundance.

43 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


The hunt for these miniscule pollutants led to

The fact that pollution has reached new

the collection of snow samples from 11

heights, monumental levels that few people

locations across the mountain, which ranged

will ever see in their lifetimes, is very telling.

from 17,388 feet (5,300 meters) to 27,690

Thus, we must do all that we can to protect

feet (8,440 meters) in height. Unsurprisingly,

the Earth, our home, from the effects of

microplastics were found in every single

climate change. While large corporations are

sample of snow. After careful analysis of the

mostly responsible for ruining our planet, we

samples, it was estimated that an average of

must do our part to protect the environment

30 microplastic particles were present for

as well. It is crucial that we reflect on our

every liter of water. Moreover, results

individual lifestyles and take the necessary

revealed

steps to lessen our carbon footprints.

a whooping

119

microplastic

particles per liter of water in the most cominatimated

sample.

Reference [1] Axelrod, Joshua. "Corporate Honesty and Climate Change: Time to Own Up and Act." NRDC,

26

Feb.

2019,

www.nrdc.org/experts/josh-axelrod/corporate -honesty-and-climate-change-time-own-andact. [2]

Carrington,

Damian.

"Microplastic

Pollution Found Near Summit of Mount Microplastics discovered from a snow sample at an elevation of 8,440 meter [Image source: The Guardian] These fibers were found most abundantly around Base Camp, where mountain climbers spend

most of

their

time. With that

revelation, researchers have concluded that these fibers most likely came from clothing, tents, and ropes used by hopeful and

Everest." The Guardian, 20 Nov. 2020, www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/no v/20/microplastic-pollution-found-near-sum mit-of-mount-everest. [3] Engage the Chain. "Top US Food and Beverage Companies Scope 3 Emissions Disclosure and Reductions." Engage the Chain,

29

Sept.

2019,

engagethechain.org/top-us-food-and-beverag

determined trekkers. THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 44


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

e-companies-scope-3-emissions-disclosure-a

within it. With these estimates, we are able to

nd-reductions.

calculate the ratio between the Sun and the

[4] NOAA. "What Are Microplastics?"

observable universe: 1 to anywhere between

NOAA's National Ocean Service, 26 Feb.

ten sextillion and one septillion stars. Hence,

2021,

these estimates and calculations, highlight

oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/microplastics.ht

the immensity of the observable universe.

ml.

Furthermore, the sextillions of stars and billions of galaxies within the observable

The Vast Emptiness of Space

universe are dispersed over large expanses of

Rosalyn Brady

underdense regions, also known as cosmic voids. Making up the vast majority of our universe, these cosmic voids result in millions of kilometres between planets, trillions of kilometres between stars, and quintillions of kilometres between galaxies. These voids are made up of 71.4% dark energy, a hypothetical repulsive force that

[Image Source: New Atlas] In the grand scheme of things,

accelerates the universe’s expansion, 24% dark

matter,

another

hypothetical

and

humans are a microscopic speck in the

little-known force does not absorb, reflect, or

incomprehensible vastness of space. To us,

emit light, and 4.6% common atoms that

even our planet and solar system seem

form

immense. However, the Earth’s equatorial

Ultimately, these cosmic voids span 45

circumference of 40,075 kilometre distance

billion

and the Solar System’s diameter of 287.46

kilometres - and that’s only the part humans

billion kilometres are merely short distances

have the chance to see. Beyond 45 billion

in the universal scale. This is because our

light years, the stars and galaxies are so far

own Sun is one of an estimated a hundred

from Earth that the light emitted by their

billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy, a small

formation has not reached us yet, and beyond

portion of the observable universe with an

16 billion light years, light that the stars and

estimate of two hundred billion galaxies

galaxies there emit today will never reach us.

45 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

things light

like years,

stars or

and 400

galaxies. sextillion


Our universe is an incomprehensible

www.universetoday.com/43517/more-observ

thing. There are far-away stars and galaxies

ations-of-grb-090423-the-most-distant-know

that our species will never get the chance to

n-object-in-the-universe.

see, and we will likely never even be able to

[3] New Atlas. “Hubble Captures the Most

visit many of the stars in our own galaxy, let

Comprehensive Image of the Universe Yet.”

alone the rest of the galaxies in the universe.

New

Moreover, the universe is mostly made out of

https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/scienc

voids, containing particles such as dark

e-at-nasa/2009/28apr_grbsmash.

Atlas,

2

May

2015,

energy, that we might never come to understand.

[4] Progress in New Cosmologies: Beyond

As humans, we have a long way to go

the

Big

Bang.

Springer,

2013,

before we can truly comprehend the vast

https://books.google.ca/books?id=JCMDCA

emptiness that is the universe, but perhaps,

AAQBAJ&pg=PA67&redir_esc=y#v=onepa

figuring it all out could solidify our place in

ge&q&f=false.

it.

[5] Sharp, Tim. “How Big Is Earth?” Space.Com,

6

July

2021,

Reference

https://www.space.com/17638-how-big-is-ea

[1] Extra Dimensions in Space and Time

rth.html.

(Multiversal Journeys) by Bars, Itzhak,

[6] “Diameter of the Solar System.” Universe

Terning, John (2009) Hardcover. 2010th ed.,

Today,

Springer, 2021,

https://www.universetoday.com/15585/diame

https://books.google.ca/books?id=fFSMatekil

ter-of-the-solar-system/.

IC&pg=PA27&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&

[7] “What’s the Difference between Dark

f=false

Matter and Dark Energy?” Astronomy.Com,

“How Many Stars Are There?” Physics of the

3

Universe,

https://astronomy.com/news/2020/03/whats-t

31

Aug.

2021,

25

Dec.

Mar.

2015,

2020,

https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/how-

he-difference-between-dark-matter-and-dark-

many-stars-are-there.html

energy#:~:text=And%20what's%20the%20di

[2] “More Observations of GRB 090423, the

fference%20between,dark%20energy%20spe

Most

eds%20it%20up.&text=This%20is%20becau

Distant

Known

Object

in

the

Universe.” Universe Today, 26 Apr. 2016,

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 46


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

se%20dark%20matter,%2C%20absorb%2C

Beta,

%20or%20emit%20light.

accounting for over 99% of new COVID-19

[8] “WMAP- Content of the Universe.”

cases in the U.S. It was first detected in

National

Space

December 2020 in India, gaining traction,

Administration - Universe 101, 31 Aug.

spreading throughout the US and UK, and

2021,

now poses more than 2x the deadly risk

https://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_matte

compared to all other variants. Medical

r.html.

experts continue to advise in favor of taking

Aeronautics

and

the

Gamma, and

COVID-19

increased

Delta, with Delta

vaccination,

protection

against

preventing

including contacting

COVID-19: What to Know and

SARS-CoV-2,

spreading

the

How to Stay Safe

virus, reduced symptoms, and an overall strengthened immune system.

Geena Baide Let’s face it, since the COVID-19 pandemic has become widespread across the globe, things have changed, not only in terms of health safety but in our day-to-day lives. With all that turmoil, it’s easy to become confused

and

uninformed,

and

more

importantly, knowing the actions we should take to protect ourselves in the face of such

[Source: Forbes]

an impacting health emergency. It’s led many

How do the vaccines work?

to lend ears to alternative sources and

There are three well-known vaccines

become misinformed, in turn, leading to

administered in the U.S., known as the

blatant nastiness, division, and panic. No one

Pfizer-BioTech, Johnson & Johnson, and

wants to be a wreck, so here’s some things

Moderna vaccine. 55% of Americans are

you should know:

fully vaccinated, and other countries, such as

There are four main SARS-Cov-2 variants

Canada and Cuba, are outstanding in terms of

of concern.

vaccination rates, reporting on a basis of 148

They’re being tracked for cases with this variant across the globe, namely Alpha, 47 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

and

168

per

100

people

vaccinated,


respectively. Two doses are required when

[1] “CDC COVID Data Tracker.” United

taking them, with a set window of time

States

lasting from about 4-6 weeks between each

Laboratory

dose. Such as with other pharmaceutical

Territory, and Jurisdiction, 25 September

products, there will be side effects. Your arm

2021. CDC Covid Data Tracker, U.S.

might be in pain or swelling, you may

Department of Health and Human Services,

experience headaches and frequent pains,

https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#cas

you might develop a fever, and these are all

es_casesper100klast7days.

normal signs the vaccine is strengthening you

September 2021.

COVID-19

Cases,

Testing

Deaths,

(NAATs) by

Accessed

and State,

25

with antibodies against contacting COVID. There’s a relatively new concept of

[2] Centers for Disease Control. “Myths and

taking ‘booster shots’, suggested by CDC

Facts about COVID-19 Vaccines.” Myths

medical experts, for those of ages 18-64 who

and Facts about COVID-19 Vaccines | CDC,

have existing underlying conditions, or who

7 September 2021, National Center for

work in a high-risk environment. As for

Immunization

those under the age of 12, vaccines are

(NCIRD),

readily being developed for those ages. The

Accessed 25 September 2021.

vaccine comes with full force, by stimulating

[3] Centers for Disease Control. “What You

your immune system to produce antibodies,

Need to Know about Variants | CDC.”

as if you were exposed to the disease.

National Center

Conclusion

Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of

I’m hoping this article helped you better understand

the

exact

science

behind

Viral

and

Respiratory

Division

Diseases,

for 20

of

Viral

Diseases Diseases.

Immunization and September

2021,

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/

COVID-19, and that (wearing masks, social

variants/variant.html.

Accessed

25

distancing, washing hands), helps. It doesn’t

September 2021.

always have to be scary or nerve-wracking,

[4] Katella, Kathy, and Yale Medicine. “5

and there are always new discoveries to be

Things To Know About the Delta Variant.” 5

made.

Things To Know About the Delta Variant > News > Yale Medicine, 24 September 2021,

Reference

https://www.yalemedicine.org/news/5-things-

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 48


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

to-know-delta-variant-covid.

Accessed 26

Every country on this planet has felt the

September 2021.

effects of COVID-19, some experiencing the

[5] The New York Times, and Josh Holder.

brunt of the blow. Brazil is no exception―it

“Tracking Coronavirus Vaccinations Around

is now handling the biggest health system

the

Vaccination

collapse in history. A health system, as the

2021,

name blatantly suggests, is a hierarchy that

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/w

consists of ‘publicly owned facilities that

orld/covid-vaccinations-tracker.html.

deliver

Accessed 24 September 2021.

promoting, restoring, and maintaining health’

World.”

Tracker,

Covid 24

World September

personal

health

services,

by

as defined by the World Health Organisation [6] World Health Organization. “Tracking

(WHO). When the health system collapsed,

SARS-CoV-2

Tracking

in the case of Brazil, patients that required

SARS-CoV-2 Variants, WHO, 22 September

emergency treatment had to ‘line up’ for beds

2021,

and ventilators―an unfortunate amount met

https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-S

their death awaiting vacancies.

Variants.”

ARS-CoV-2-variants/.

Accessed

25

September 2021.

The virus arrived in February 2020, but it became the lodestone of cases and death rate

Brazil’s Health System Collapse

in May 2021. The country began easing up

due to COVID-19

on its restrictions in August of 2020, seeing

- How has this happened? Umar Mohammad

that both cases as well as death rates were dropping. By November the cases began to rise steeply once again as a consequence. This rapid incline resulted in more health system collapses of individual cities that had just recovered. Health systems subsiding are not only dependent on unprecedented diseases; in the case of Brazil, the government also has a part

[Photo credit: The Telegraph] 49 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

to play, particularly Jair Bolsonaro―the


country’s president. His negative attitude

lockdown)

towards preventative measures in place to

provides people with an income. Prioritizing

battle the virus has resulted in a cataclysm in

lives over the economy, affects, well, the

the country. He hindered federal response

economy, which in turn affects those who

against the pandemic, whilst dismissing the

need wages to live. Brazil, akin to the USA

effects of the virus and fabricating ‘cures,’

(during Trump’s term), placed preference on

validating

health

the economy rather than lives. However, now

ministers―forcibly. Ironically, the president

that many countries are slowly recuperating

himself was fined for not wearing a mask in a

from the effects of the pandemic, studies

motorbike rally. And to top that off,

show that the countries that set about tackling

Bolsonaro

after

the virus were rewarded with a lower death

recovering he promoted hydroxychloroquine

toll as well as smaller fluctuations in their

as a working cure. The pandemic was used as

economy.

the

claims

contracted

through

the

virus;

results in more deaths but

a political tool―a smokescreen for anything dirty the government takes part in.

Reference

Another factor is the fact that the South

[1] Guardian staff reporter. “Jair Bolsonaro

American country is a Lower Economically

Fined for Not Wearing Mask at São Paulo

Developed Country (LEDC). The health

Biker Rally.” The Guardian, The Guardian,

system lacks funding, as funds are diverted

13

for the purpose of upholding the economy.

www.theguardian.com/world/2021/jun/13/jai

Another problem that takes root from this;

r-bolsonaro-fined-for-not-wearing-mask-at-sa

inequality. The unemployed, the poor, and

o-paulo-biker-rally Accessed 13 Sept. 2021.

the black Brazilians, are most affected by

[2] “Coronavirus in Brazil: What You Need

this;

preventative

to Know.” The New York Times, 2021,

equipment―forget social distancing, for they

www.nytimes.com/article/brazil-coronavirus-

live in densely populated areas.

cases.html#link-6cf7a36a Accessed 13 Sept.

they

don’t

have

June

2021,

2021. Many LEDCs had to choose between the

[3] Alfredo Saad Filho, and Fernanda Feil.

economy

lives. Both are inversely

“COVID-19 in Brazil: How Jair Bolsonaro

proportional, where one falls, the other rises.

Created a Calamity.” The Conversation, 23

Choosing the economy over saving lives (ie.

Apr.

or

2021,

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 50


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

https://theconversation.com/covid-19-in-braz

microorganisms, being able to utilize them

il-how-jair-bolsonaro-created-a-calamity-159

for ‘green synthesis’. ‘Green synthesis’, or

066 . Accessed 13 Sept. 2021.

the

biosynthesis

of

nanomaterials

by

microorganisms is emerging as a novel

Bacteria Creating a Bigger

approach

towards

the

‘greener’

Possibility for Creating Greener

manufacturing rather than the traditional chemical and physical approach.

Nanostructures

The field of microbiology deals with

Si Yon Kim

the microscopic analysis of microorganisms that are both living and nonliving. Among all microorganisms, bacteria and microalgae are the main microorganisms used for nano biosynthesis,

foremost

biomedical

applications. Some bacteria and microalgae have shown the capability and the potential to synthesize unique nanostructures such as bacterial

[Photo Credit: medindia.net] The

definition

of

Nanoscience

and

nanotechnology according to nano.gov, are the study and application of extremely small things. They can be used in various fields of medicine or pharmaceutics, environmental monitoring and management, agriculture and food sector, and industrial. It involves the ability to control and observe individual atoms and molecules of all objects on earth. Recently, microbial nanotechnology is being focused on how they help humans with new applications in water, food, medical biology, and immunology. Furthermore, scientists are looking

forward

to

the

potentials

of

51 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

nanowire

and

bacterial

nanocellulose. It is because nano-particles could

be

biosynthesized

when

microorganisms seize targeted irons from their environment and then turn the ion metals to an element mental through the enzymes created by cell activities. Bacteria have been proved that they are capable of mobilization and immobilization of metals.


However, providing

a

despite its

greener

way

benefit of to

produce

Biocatalytic

Synthesis

of

Nanoscale

Materials for Sensoristic and Biomedical

nanoparticles, there are also challenges that

Applications.”

Nanomaterials

must be figured out. One of the main

Switzerland), MDPI, 18 Dec. 2019,

(Basel,

challenges is the control of the dispersity of nanostructures. According to the report

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P

written by scientists Gerardo Grasso, Daniela

MC7023511/#B19-nanomaterials-

Zane, and Roberto Dragone, dispersity, the

10-00011.

size distribution of nanoparticles, is a major

[2]

property that affects the particle’s behaviors

Nanoparticle Synthesis: Current Status and

in fluids. It strongly influences electronic and

Future Prospects.”

optical properties and the isolation and

International Scholarly Research Notices,

purification of its plural form. They stated

Hindawi, 29 Oct. 2014,

that

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/

improvement

and

optimization

of

Iravani,

Siavash.

“Bacteria

in

extraction and purification protocols are

359316/.

required

[3] “What Is Nanotechnology?” National

both

for

intracellular

and

extracellular biosynthesis. Moreover, they

Nanotechnology Initiative,

also suggest that the challenge can be

https://www.nano.gov/nanotech-101/what/de

overcome by the adoption of suitable

finition.

strategies,

microbial

biosynthesis

of

nanoparticles for improvement. Selection of appropriate microbial strains, optimization of culturing conditions, and uses of genetic engineering tools can be another solution for the challenges that bacterial nanotechnology will face. Reference [1] Grasso, Gerardo, et al. “Microbial Nanotechnology: Challenges and Prospects for Green

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 52


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

The Rise of Self-Driving Cars

There are 6 different levels of self-driving

Adrian Muñoz

cars that take into account the scope of the car’s autopilot: ● Level 0: The car is completely being controlled by the driver (Steering wheel, pedal, brake, etc.). As of now, this is the most common level being implemented. ● Level 1: The vehicle has an advanced driver assistance system that can

[Photo Credit: medindia.net]

occasionally help the driver with

For centuries, the world has been relying

steering or accelerating/braking, but

heavily on cars because of their reliable

not both at the same time.

transportation that makes everyone’s lives

● Level 2: Same as level 1, but can help

easier. That means that billions of people

the

around the world have been learning how to

accelerating/braking. Despite that, the

drive to get their licenses so they can travel

driver still needs to pay attention to

anywhere they want with their steering and

his

brake skills. The DMVs would be packed

autopilot is the primary example of

with

this level.

16-18-year-old

teenagers

eagerly

driver

or

her

with

steering

surroundings.

AND

Tesla

waiting to take and pass the driver’s test.

● Level 3: The vehicle can drive under

Driving has become a necessary skill for

limited conditions and the driver must

everyone to have for a very long time… until

be prepared to take over the steering

the arrival of tomorrow.

wheel and pedal. Level 3 vehicles

People see movies like Transformers where

allow the driver to keep their hands

vehicles drive on their own without a driver

off the steering wheel during traffic

maneuvering them. This is called autopilot.

jams but need the driver to be ready

Even though the movie was only a movie, it

to grab onto the wheel when there’s

inspired several engineers to revolutionize

less traffic. The Mercedes Drive Pilot

how we drive.

is one example of a level 3 vehicle.

53 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


● Level 4: The vehicle can drive by itself in certain conditions and known

elf-driving-cars-begin-to-emerge-from-a-clou d-of-hype/

roads. They may not contain a steering wheel or pedals and the driver doesn’t need to maneuver the car. Level 4 rideshare vehicles like Waymo are being tested, but not approved yet for public use. ● Level 5: The vehicle can perform all driving functions under all conditions and the driver no longer needs to be the driver. ● Although we are currently using level 2 vehicles with the rise of Tesla, it’s still thrilling to know that there are 3 more levels the society is waiting to make innovations in the future. Reference [1] Self-Driving Cars: Everything You Need to

Know

|

Kelley

...

https://www.kbb.com/car-advice/self-drivingcars/ [2]

“Automated

Vehicles

for

Safety.”

NHTSA, https://www.nhtsa.gov/technology-innovatio n/automated-vehicles-safety [3] Shladover, Steven E. “' Self-Driving' Cars Begin to Emerge from a Cloud of Hype.” Scientific American, Scientific American, 25 Sept.

2021,

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/s

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 54


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

FEATURE — Michelle Ren

Adrian Munoz is an editor in chief (EIC) of the GSYJ Executive Team. As one of the chief editors of GSYJ, I have found participating in this journal to be incredibly rewarding. I first heard about GSYJ from Curricular, an online organization dedicated to helping high school students in the college application process. Although I had never participated in a journal before, I was incredibly interested in writing about the intersections of societal issues and STEM-related fields. Thus, I decided to apply for the “chief editor” position, fingers crossed. Even though I was not given this position initially, I was later able to earn the title through constant engagement in this journal. Moreover, the wide diversity of students working in GSYJ has not only allowed me to learn from the writings of others, but has also allowed me to learn about key STEM-related issues present in other countries. Through GSYJ, I have learnt valuable lessons in writing and researching. Most notably, GSYJ has fostered my confidence as a writer. The first article I wrote for GSYJ centered around women in STEM. At the time, there was no official article category for women in STEM, leading me to worry about 55 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

the acceptability of my article and my writing ability. However, the GSYJ founders ultimately appreciated my work and created a “women in STEM” article category, allowing me to cultivate a sense of confidence in my writing that I carry with me to this day. This confidence has allowed me to continue researching and writing articles focused on gender disparities in STEM fields, which continues to be a major issue. Thus, it has become increasingly important for STEM-focused journals such as GSYJ to discuss the possible implications of these gender-related issues. Whether it’s writing articles on the misdiagnosis of mental health illnesses in women, specific prominent female figures in STEM fields, or increased infertility rates in female doctors, I have been able to raise awareness on these significant issues through GSYJ. Ultimately, the intersectionality of societal issues and STEM fields continues to fascinate me, allowing me to consistently engage in issues that I am passionate about. With the help of GSYJ, I have been able to deepen my knowledge in these subjects! GSYJ continues to be an integral part of my student life as it allows me to write influential articles on important issues. As GSYJ’s chief editor, I could not be more proud of how far we have come as an organization!


FEATURE — RAFAEL PÉREZ How did you learn about GSYJ, and what motivated you to take part in this journal? As I read the words science and writing, my eyes sparkle and the text blurs away. There were opening positions to write about STEM! I don't think about it twice and I thoroughly complete the application. I got accepted! That's all it took: Some interest, some work, and a message to change my life. Writing articles and researching about them was far behind my priorities at the time. All I wanted to do was to belong to a bigger community of writers and young future scientists. And so, I did. What was the most significant and valuable lesson you took away from your past work in the GSYJ? There are uncountable lessons that I've taken from working at the journal. Going from writing skills, to time management and research, every aspect has made it easier for me not only to develop as an individual and a young writer, but also as an informed and knowledgeable subject. Nonetheless, surely one of the most important lessons I've taken is the amount of people and organization it takes to run a journal. And how writing is not simply putting words together, but making them sound logical, attractive and friendly at the same time. What do you think are the potential benefits of working with other students from such diverse backgrounds? Working in such a diverse environment has allowed me to see the infinite perspectives that people may have on one topic. It has

made me realize that there are people with different opinions and ways of thinking, which has also made me a better collaborator and team worker. This has also made me realize the importance of diversity within a community and a work group.

Rafael Pérez is an editor in chief (EIC) of the GSYJ Executive Team. If you were to pinpoint one major problem in the STEM community, what would it be, and what are some possible solutions to fixing such an issue? Undoubtedly inequality. Working at a contemporary and new journal has opened my eyes to the reality inside the STEM community. People at GSYJ have made it's personal mission to judge and accept writers and collaborators not because of their gender or race. But because of their talent and ability. Which is the most valuable thing in the XXI century. With GSYJ I see light at the end of this inequality tunnel, which is one of the reasons we´re different.

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

What aspect(s) of STEM fascinated you, and how has such interest shaped your work today? For as long as I can remember, I´ve always been passionate about life studies and engineering. Very complex and different topics, but with very similar outcomes. How a body part might work follows similar

57 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

principles than mechanical engineering, which is what is fascinating about science, that, at the end, everything leads to the same questions, but different answers, depending on the perspective that it is seen from.


GSYJ EXECUTIVE TEAM Founder and President Michelle Bok Nahyun Park

Editing Department Head Emma Ferraro Lynne Kim

Editor in Chief Adrian Munoz

Michelle Ren

Siyon Kim

Ananya Yadav Rosalyn Brady Umar Mohammad Rafael Pérez Vicente

Ericka Tamayo Guevara Shriya Rudrash Jamie Li

Rebecca Wang Geena Marquez-Baide

Helena Rosa Grace Jooeun Kang

Reporter Anisha Kumari Eana Shah Leandra Cardenas Yasmin Silva Nilsson

IT Department Head Hritik Bagjai

IT Director Yawen Zhang Rubina Shaik

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 58


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Design Department Head Nikitha Muralimohan

Social Media Manager María Vidal

Design Directors Princess Anaebella Pioquid

Lillian Hiraoka Seunghoon Han

Business Department Marketing and Event Director Jaein Kim

Content Director Marian Chu

Marketing Managers Sanjana Kaloth Auni Anuar

59 | THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

Jeewon Kang


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

It is possible for ordinary people to choose to be extraordinary - Elon Musk

THE HEREAFTER — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 60


Vol.1 - Issue 2

G Global STEM Youth Journal


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