Volume 1 Issue 1

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Copyright Ⓒ by Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) All rights reserved. No part of these publications may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. Printed in Seoul, South Korea July, 30, 2021 Michelle Bok Founder and President Nahyun Park Founder and President

www.globalstemyouthjournal.org globalstemyouthjournal@gmail.com @gsyj.official

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Letter from the President and Founder, Michelle Bok

Dear Readers, It is my utmost honor as both the president and founder of this publication to present to you the first volume of the Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ). Today, through the span of six months in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, GSYJ has grown to consist of members from more than 13 different nations and from a wide range of backgrounds and cultures. With a highly skilled copy and editing department, the quality of the articles, that is to say, the depth of research and the ability to deliver the information to our audience was our utmost priority. In the process, communication through platforms including slack and google classroom were key considering the various time zones of the members, resembling the term “global”. I would like to capitalize on this opportunity to thank all those who contributed to the volume 1 edition of Global STEM Youth Journal: our industrious editing, business, design, and IT department, and most importantly our enthusiastic readers. It has been my pleasure to serve as the founder and 2021 president of the Global STEM Youth Journal, working closely with truly driven individuals and watching members of the publication progress. Sincerely, Michelle Bok Co-President and Co-Founder Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

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Letter from the President and Founder, Nahyun Park

Dear Readers, The Global STEM Youth Journal has been operating for six months, resulting in significant growth of our organization. I am highly honored to serve as both the president and founder and proud to exhibit our first volume of the publication. Despite the obstacles GSYJ faced during the destructiveness of COVID-19, GSYJ has developed into a diverse organization composed of members from 13+ nations. The remarkable cooperation between the members from various backgrounds allowed the Global STEM Youth Journal to deliver effective information to the readers. The proficient research and effort of four departments including the IT, business, design, and editing departments resulted in the successful publishing of exquisite articles. I would like to express my utmost gratitude to all the members who contributed to our monthly cycles that have been continued for about six months. Aiming to engage our readers, the Global STEM Youth Journal had focused on extracting the essential articles that performed an essential role for our first volume. The aspiration of our GSYJ members will be expanding steadily with such passionate individuals collaborating throughout the process. Sincerely, Nahyun Park, Co-President and Co-Founder Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

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Letter from the 2021-22 Editing Head, Emma Ferraro

Dear Readers, It’s wonderful that you’ve taken the time to read the intriguing content that the Editing Department of the Global STEM Youth Journal has worked very hard to put in front of you. Our department is composed of driven and passionate writers that want to let you in on their extensive knowledge of science, technology, engineering, and math. GSYJ was created during the pandemic, aiming to allow those with substantial interests in both the fields of STEM and writing to pursue their passions safely from their homes. The organization is fully virtual, which is undoubtedly one of its most notable aspects. This quality makes it easily accessible to people from across the globe, allowing for you to hear perspectives from people living thousands of miles away from you―people whom you could never even dream of meeting otherwise. Our organization has accomplished very much in the short time it has been around. We produce about ten articles per month, all of which are individually written by our talented writers. These articles are due at the midway point of each month to allow for all of the behind-the-scenes work to occur from then until the start of the next month. As you can see by the name of our department, our job is not just writing articles―it’s also editing them. As one of the heads of the Editing Department, my job is to write monthly articles, edit two each month, and work closely with the Social Media Department to assign publishing dates. As you can see, every single member of our organization plays a significant role in the things that we accomplish. Every department is crucial to ensure the success of the Global STEM Youth Journal. I, along with my other Editing Head, would love for those of you with similar passions as ours to be a part of this wonderful community! All the best, Emma Ferraro Editing Department Head Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

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Letter from the 2021-22 Editing Head, Lynne Kim

Dear Readers, I am delighted to announce the publication of our first official journal for the Global STEM Youth Journal. GSYJ is an international network of avid writers and many other members who have incredible passion for writing both informative and opinionated articles regarding STEM topics and issues. We have put in an immense amount of effort to shine light on events that have been disregarded with people’s apathy. By doing so, we successfully created numerous articles regarding these topics, and we hope that our readers share the same experience by publishing our journal. I would like to begin by thanking each and every one of you for reading our journal, all written by excellent reporters who have devoted their time to researching a wide range of scientific ideas to produce their articles. The commitment has been amazing and the level of progress for each member has been commendable as well. All members of the Editing, Business, IT, and Design department deserve a huge thank you for all of the efforts during the past few months. Without you all, it would have not been possible to be able to come to where we are today. During the pandemic that has taken the world by storm, we recognize how difficult it has been to access as many research tools as possible. Many areas of science immediately focused on the virus itself, and much was left behind. Despite this, our researchers have used all resources to come up with brilliant ideas regarding the topics that not many people are aware about today. We initially hoped to bridge the gender gap in the STEM field, which in a way, we have; and yet, many of our reporters whether male or female have all proven to equally produce outstanding results. It has been a true pleasure serving as the Editing Head during the beginning months. I look forward to seeing all of our members’ continued efforts towards educating our readers more about the STEM field. Sincerely, Lynne Kim Editing Department Head Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

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Table of Contents Memory Formation: Why we can’t remember our infantile years.

7

Black Hole: A mystery of the universe

9

The Effect of the Pandemic On Our Mental Health

11

Reference

12

Texas Energy Crisis

13

The Untold Reality of Dementia

15

Pollution is Segregated

17

Brief History of The Universe

19

Adderall for ADHD: what should you know?

21

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Your Body

24

The Neurology behind Student Stress

26

Humanoid Robots: Expanding The Potential Of AI

28

The Problem with “Female Hysteria”

30

Dark Matter

32

Tendencies and numbers: what is behind the music in your playlists

34

The Future of Genetics

35

The Mysteries of the Multiverse

38

Success lies over your pillow at night

40

Feature Article: A drian Munoz

43

Feature Article: Siyon Kim

44

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Memory Formation: Why we can’t remember our infantile years. Lynne Kim Memories

are

the

process

of

The

hippocampus

is

where

episodic

encoding, storing, and retrieving experiences

memories are formed and indexed for later

and knowledge. It makes us who we are ---

access. Next, the neocortex is involved in

without it, we would just be a body, unable to

higher functions such as sensory perception,

communicate or identify danger. Memory is

generation of motor commands, spatial

the reactivation of a specific group of

reasoning,

neurons, formed from persistent changes in

amygdala makes memories stronger because

the strength of connections between neurons,

it

which is also known as synaptic plasticity.

memories. Implicit memories are motor

The hippocampus and neocortex take part in

memories. It takes place in the basal ganglia

a carefully choreographed dialogue in which

and cerebellum. The basal ganglia are

the hippocampus replays recent events. This

involved in processes such as emotion,

replay only happens during sleep, so the lack

reward

of sleep doesn’t allow your brain to

movement, and learning. The cerebellum is

consolidate memories.

fine motor control.

and

attaches

language.

emotional

processing,

Lastly,

significance

habit

the to

formation,

Short-term memory allows the brain Types of Memories

to remember a small amount of information

There are various types of memories.

for a short period. This includes the working

Explicit memories and implicit memories are

memory, which is used to hold information in

two types of long-term memories. Explicit

our heads while we engage in other cognitive

memories are episodic and those we can

processes. It is stored in the prefrontal cortex,

consciously recall. Or, they are semantic

which controls planning, decision making,

because they relate to facts or general

and working memory.

knowledge. Explicit memories are affected by

neurodegenerative

Alzheimer's

disease.

diseases Explicit

such as memories

happen in three different parts of the brain. 7 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


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Forgetting

memories

explain

infantile

amnesia, which is why you can’t remember anything about being a toddler. Memories transform us from helpless newborns into capable adults, making us who we are today. Reference [1] Boundless. “Boundless Psychology.” [Photo Credit: Queensland Brain Institute] This diagram of the human brain shows

Lumen, courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-psych ology/chapter/memory-and-the-brain/.

where explicit and implicit memories are

[2] “How Memories Are Made: Stages of

stored.

Memory Formation.” How Memories Are Made: Stages of Memory Formation | Lesley

Memory Recollection and Forgetting The idea of memory indexing and recollection

is

still

a

theory.

The

hippocampus serves as a memory index. The analogy is to a digital database or filing cabinet: something triggers a search of the database, and we retrieve and recall the memory. The hippocampus then directs neuronal traffic back to the appropriate circuits of the neocortex, reactivating the memory. Memories we forget happen when

University, lesley.edu/article/stages-of-memory. [3] Learning, Lumen. “Introduction to Psychology.” Lumen, courses.lumenlearning.com/wsu-sandbox/cha pter/parts-of-the-brain-involved-with-memor y/. [4] “Memory.” Queensland Brain Institute, 23 July 2018, qbi.uq.edu.au/brain-basics/memory.

the brain does not reinforce a memory long enough to store it. There are two main theories. The decaying theory infers that if a certain

memory isn’t repeated, it will

eventually

deteriorate.

The

interference

theory infers that new information received by the brain replaces old information. THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 8


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Black Hole: A mystery of the

Einstein Equation, and its solutions. Our

universe

space-time

is Minkowski’s metric, and

because of the energy-momentum tensor, we

Anisha Kumari

get a curvature. Intuitively, when stretched uniformly by all ends, a bed sheet is used to put a ball, then the area surrounding the ball creates said curvature. Our space-time is a bedsheet, and the mass on it is the ball, and so a curvature exists. According to relativity, this curvature can attract another mass, roll a little ball around the big ball, and it will intend to go to a big ball―this is gravity.

[Photo Credit: ESO, ESA/Hubble, M.

Reflecting on relativity equations, every

Kornmesser/N. Bartmann]

solution to each equation describes a unique

Our space-time is defined using coordinates that we consider events in our universe to be connected through. We have four

dimensions,

co-ordinations;

which

these

we

use

dimensions

for are

3-spatial¹+ 1-time dimensions. Thus, we are making

cosmological events with each

coordinated change. A tick in the clock starts one event and ends another―these are the dynamics of space-time. We study relativity,

which

was

investigated by physicist Albert Einstein, to understand these dynamics. Relativity tells us how an event occurs in space-time and theorizes the critical relation between frames at the speed of light. Relativity provides us with a set of equations, one of which is the 9 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

space-time―one that we do not require to be real. The black hole is also a solution to these equations, which Karl Schwarzschild first founded. A black hole is a singularity in space-time that possesses a great mass. By singularity, we mean it to be not visible in structure. A supermassive black hole, which is the black hole situated at the center of every galaxy, can be up to 1 million solar masses. An ordinary black hole is also much heavier than existing stars. When these masses act on space-time, they dig an ever-lasting curvature at that singular point. As our curvature defines gravity, this black hole must have a tremendous yet clandestine gravitational power, and the black hole is


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

remembered for its enormous gravity. This

[3] Hawking, Stephen. The theory of

gravitational

everything. Jaico Publishing House, 2006.

field,

a field

created

by

gravitational force around the origin, is so strong that even light with its super speed of

Meaning:

3 × 108 ms−1 can’t escape once it has fallen

¹Spatial means space, hence our three

into this black hole.

dimensions are the usual space dimensions

Black holes are born out of stars. Every

star

has

a lifetime,

which

that we observe and use every day.

is

determined by the quantity of hydrogen it has. There is some thermonuclear process going inside the core of a star, and when such stars get near to their end, this core becomes unstable and collapses gravitationally, and produces

singularity

with much

dense

curvature over

there. Black holes are

surrounded

an

by

area called

”Event

Horizon.” If it passes this event horizon, any object will dwell inside the black hole and would feel relativistic effects, one of them is a time shift. Yet, they are still important areas of research with insufficient knowledge. We hope for additional shreds of evidence supporting the facts of “What’s Inside?". Reference [1] Curiel, Erik. ”What Is a Black Hole?.” (2018). [2] Luminet, Jean-Pierre. ”Black holes: A general introduction.” Black holes: Theory and observation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1998. 3-34.

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The Effect of the Pandemic On

home environment just to name a few. More

Our Mental Health

mental health issues have arisen in students, including disorders like depression, anxiety,

Roxanne Egamino

bipolar

As the COVID-19 pandemic goes into its second year, it has negatively affected many people’s daily lives, especially their mental health. The widespread impact of COVID-19 has caused millions of deaths, the economic

recession,

and

imposed new

limitations on social interaction. Throughout the first year of the pandemic, many students have transitioned from in-person schooling to remote learning due to lockdown restrictions and safety protocols. Research has shown that remote learning can be as good or even better than in-person schooling for students who choose to do so. However, millions of students have argued that virtual learning is a lot more difficult and say that teachers may even be assigned more homework than they would during in-person schooling. Schools have taken the necessary precautions to help students feel more comfortable, but some students feel more overwhelmed, due to the new imposition of virtual learning. Seeing the tragic news on television makes students feel stressed about their surrounding environment. There are many factors that influence a student’s mental health, including school and their 11 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

disorder,

disorder

(PTSD),

disorder

post-traumatic

stress

obsessive-compulsive (OCD),

attention-deficit/hyperactivity

and disorder

(ADHD). However, students aren’t the only ones to experience an increase in mental stress during the pandemic. Adults have also been affected, whether it be about their economic

status, job security, tend to

relatives, and many more. A KFF (Kaiser Family Foundation) study taken over the course of the pandemic reports that about 4 in 10 adults in the United States have reported symptoms of anxiety or depression, which have increased from the previous 1 in 10 adults who reported these symptoms from January to June 2019. People all over the world have lost a loved one or lived through isolation, and this may worsen underlying mental health issues. Additionally, the employment rate had skyrocketed on a global scale. A Bureau of Labor Statistics report states that “of the 16.9 million people unemployed in July, 9.6 million were unable to work because their employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic.” Overall, a shocking 57% of


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unemployed adults were unable to work

2021,

because of their employer closing or due to

www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-

economic shortage.

covid-19-pandemic.htm. [2] Oguntoyinbo, Lekan. “The Pandemic Has Taken a Serious Toll on Mental Health. What Happens

When

Healthline,

It's

Over?” Healthline,

15

Apr.

2021,

www.healthline.com/health-news/the-pande mic-has-taken-a-serious-toll-on-mental-healt h-what-happens-when-its-over. [3] Panchal, Nirmita, et al. “The Implications of

COVID-19 for Mental Health and

Substance Foundation,

[Photo credit: Statista]

Use.”

KFF, 10

Kaiser Feb.

Family 2021,

the

www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brie

pandemic, many people globally have been

f/the-implications-of-covid-19-for-mental-he

impacted in various ways, which may have

alth-and-substance-use/.

Throughout

the

course

of

ended up hurting their mental health. Both adults and students have reported an increase in stress and a decrease in mental health due to

various

factors.

More

recently,

vaccinations have gone up, and infections and deaths are down in several areas around the world. As life returns to normal in our post-pandemic stage, experts warn that there may be a PTSD-like effect for some people. Reference [1] “Effects of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 12 Apr.

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Texas Energy Crisis Shirya Rudrashetty abrupt warming occurs about six times a decade. However, rapid gusts of cold air are not always associated. The disastrous crisis left many Texans wondering the direct cause of the extensive blackouts and power loss. Texas governor, Greg Abbott, was quick to blame the [Photo credit: FactCheck.org]

inefficiency of wind and solar power and the cause of the statewide energy failure.

February 2021 marked the start of a

Numerous

government

officials

and

two-week-long energy crisis in the state of

conservative media cited green energy to be

Texas. As a result of severe winter storms,

the real issue. They expressed their support

occurring from February 10 to February 20,

for fossil fuels, one of the largest producers

millions of Texas were left struggling. The

of carbon emissions, as a necessity for the

crisis caused food, heat, water shortages, and

Texas power grid. Although roughly seven

blackouts. Temperatures reached an all-time

percent of the power loss can be associated

low of -11 degrees celsius in San Antonio,

with wind energy, the crisis was mainly

breaking the previous 1895 record.

caused by gas suppliers. Gas pipelines and other equipment

The series of winter storms that caused the energy crisis was not directly

were

correlated with global warmings. Experts

temperatures. Gas wellheads were not able to

point to the sudden disruption in the polar

withstand the sudden weather change. The

vortex. The spike in temperature in the polar

frozen

vortex caused the cold winds to veer off

functioning

course. The winds escaped the Arctic and

electricity. This lowered gas supplied, driving

traveled down to the Gulf of Mexico,

up prices greatly. At most, nearly 18.7 billion

surpassing the central United States on its

cubic feet were lost due to the cold and gas

way. According to Wood Mackenzie, this

that had cost less than three dollars before the

13 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

greatly

power

impacted

by

the frozen

equipment had difficulty and

generating

enough


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crisis had risen to six hundred dollars.

exas-energy-crisis-its-causes-and-conse

Similar results occurred in Kansas, Alabama,

quences/.

Louisiana, and Mississippi.

[2] Domonoske, Camila. “What Really

The crisis had proven that the Texas

Caused The Texas Power Shortage?”

energy system simply wasn’t built to handle

NPR,

such extreme weather. A similar event in

www.npr.org/2021/02/18/968921895/w

2011 prompted officials to recommend that

hat-really-caused-the-texas-power-short

power plant infrastructure be improved to

age.

accommodate sudden temperature changes.

NPR,

18

Feb.

2021,

[3] Searcey, Dionne. “No, Wind Farms Aren't

However, these additions were costly and

the

were

and

Blackouts.” The New York Times, The

officials are still looking for cost-effective

New York Times, 17 Feb. 2021,

ways to prevent a future crisis. But, this task

www.nytimes.com/2021/02/17/climate/

has proven to be difficult. The transition to

texas-blackouts-disinformation.html?au

renewable energy would be difficult since

th=login-google.

never

implemented.

Experts

Main

Cause

of

the

Texas

about five times more wind and solar energy would be needed to replace coal and nuclear power. Energy storage is another potential solution, but advancements in this area are still needed. Preparation is the key to prevent future energy crises. Reference [1] Crooks, Ed. “The Texas Energy Crisis: Its Causes

and

Consequences.” Wood

Mackenzie, WoodMac.Site.Features.Shared.ViewM odels.Metadata.Publisher,

19

Feb.

2021, www.woodmac.com/news/opinion/the-t

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The Untold Reality of Dementia

dementia,

Emma Ferraro

single-handedly define the disorder. (Mayo

When the word “dementia” pops up

and

it

certainly

doesn’t

Clinic

2020).

in conversation, one primary thought may flow through your head: old age. Your grandma may forget the name of her favorite restaurant, or your grandfather may not recall where he met an old friend. The way that dementia has been portrayed in the media is omnipresent―a natural result of the aging process. But it isn’t a natural part of aging, it’s a genuine

[Photo credit: Alzheimer’s Association]

neurological problem. Forgetting names and faces is normal for a person of any age, and it

There are several different types of

grows more prominent as one reaches the

dementia, with Alzheimer’s disease making

elderly part of their life. The distinction

up approximately 60-80% of cases according

between

and

to the Alzheimer’s Association. Alzheimer’s,

neurological dementia is often disregarded,

along with other types of dementia including

despite the importance that such distinction

vascular dementia and Parkinson’s, is caused

withholds.

by brain cell damage that makes neuron

normal

As

opposed

forgetfulness

to

being

a single

communication extremely challenging. This

neurological disorder with one specific

may

cause, dementia is defined as, “...a group of

including the abilities to normally think,

symptoms affecting memory, thinking, and

communicate, and feel emotions. Different

social abilities severely enough to interfere

regions of the brain control these different

with your daily life” (Mayo Clinic 2020).

functions, hence why having a form of

The fact that the symptoms one experiences

dementia doesn’t necessarily result in a loss

must affect their ability to properly live their

of

life

dementia-causing

is

an

extremely

important factor

affect

each.

important

Although factors

daily

many grow

functions,

of to

the be

characterizing dementia. As stated earlier,

progressively

memory loss isn’t the only symptom of

problems with memory and thinking may

15 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

worse as time goes on,


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lessen

with

medication

(Alzheimer’s

Association 2019).

Reference [1] Alzheimer’s Association writers. What Is

It’s important to remember that a

Dementia? Alzheimer’s Association, 2019.

dementia diagnosis doesn’t automatically

[2] Mayo Clinic writers. Dementia. Mayo

mean a terrible life is ahead. Sudden thinking

Clinic, 2020.

and behavioral disadvantages are frustrating

[3] National History Service writers. Living

and

well with dementia. National History Service

can

certainly

pose an

existential

challenge―but there are ways to still live a

UK, 2018.

great life with dementia. The National Health Service UK suggests that, in order to continue living a great life after a dementia diagnosis, one should keep up with a good social life, as keeping in touch with loved ones is always substantial in order to stay in a good mental state. Many movie theaters put together

film

screenings

that

are

dementia-friendly. Lots of leisure activities are dementia-friendly as well, including swimming sessions and community centers. Secondly, keeping loved ones informed about one’s dementia diagnosis is a great thing to do so others know how to best support them. Health is always a priority, so it should be taken as such as well (National Health Service UK 2018). Dementia is much different than the ways by which it may be displayed in the media. It’s substantial to understand the true causes and effects of the group of disorders in order to best support someone facing it.

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Another study by the Centers for

Pollution is Segregated

Disease Control and Prevention found that

Althea Ocomen

11.2 percent of African American children and

What is Environmental Justice?

4.0

percent of

Mexican-American

Environmental justice is a concept

children are poisoned by lead, compared to

that emerged from the early 1960s, following

2.3 percent of white children. This may result

a movement that sought to address the

in a wide range of health problems, such as

inequity of environmental protection within

anemia, seizures, and brain development

communities. The concept embraces the

issues.

principle that all communities should be

Moreover, a report by the Center for

entitled to equal protection and access to

Effective Government found that BIPOC

environmental burdens and benefits. It is a

individuals are nearly twice as likely as white

fight

residents to live near an industrial facility.

to

push

disproportionate

back level

of

against exposure

the to

hazardous waste and pollution faced by

Children’s Development Children have little control over

BIPOC and low-income communities.

where they live, what they eat, the financial circumstances of their families, or the

Health Problems

developmental

activities

communities are far more likely to live in

making

the most vulnerable

areas with higher rates of air pollution, toxic

environmental contaminants.

Today,

BIPOC

and

low-income

them

and

behaviors, to

waste facilities, landfills, and lead poisoning.

Exposed to environmental injustice

A Yale University study determined

well before birth, children disproportionately

that Hispanics had the highest exposure rates

living

for 10 out of the 14 pollutants being

hazardous

monitored, while African Americans had

industrial plants, and old housing with poor

higher exposure rates than white individuals

indoor air quality and lead-based paint are

for 13 out of the 14 pollutants. Some of the

subjected to more dangerous circumstances

pollutants studied have been connected to

compared to adults.

asthma, lung disease, and cancer.

in

communities waste

Undergoing

with

facilities,

rapid

landfills,

incinerators,

growth

and

development, children’s early development 17 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


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opens windows of greater vulnerability, magnifying

the

consequences

of

high

exposure to toxins, which may result in the earlier development of chronic diseases. Data indicate that children of these communities have higher rates of asthma, elevated

blood

lead

levels,

learning

https://thegardeningcook.com/wp-content/upl

disabilities, and hyperactivity than do white

oads/2020/10/protect-our-environment-fb.jpg

and more affluent children. Reference The Legacy of Environmental Injustice

[1] Bell, J. (2017, May 08). 5 things to know

It is time to take initiative and

about

communities

of

color

and

acknowledge the harms of environmental

environmental justice. Retrieved April 08,

injustice and bring attention to the plight of

2021,

environmentally vulnerable communities.

https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/rac

from

As communities and advocacy groups

e/news/2016/04/25/136361/5-things-to-know

fight to promote healthier environments for

-about-communities-of-color-and-environme

BIPOC,

ntal-justice/

low-income

individuals,

and

children through protests, litigations, the

[2] Landrigan, P., Rauh, V., & Galvez,

government

effective

M. (2010). Environmental justice and the

resolutions that safeguard those who are the

health of children. Retrieved April 08, 2021,

most vulnerable.

from

needs

Without

to

and

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P

common ground, the cycle of segregated

MC6042867/#:~:text=2-,Environmental%20i

pollution, disproportionated actions towards

njustice%20contributes%20to%20disparities

climate

%20in%20health%20status%20across%20po

change,

unity,

pass

and

consensus,

the

legacy

environmental injustice continues.

of

pulations,mental%20health%20and%20devel opmental%20problems [3] "Two different Realities": Why America needs environmental justice. (n.d.). Retrieved April

08,

2021,

from

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https://www.cbsnews.com/news/environment

Brief History of The Universe

al-justice-movement-climate-change-racism-

Anisha Kumari

peggy-shepard/ Everything has its beginning, even silence and darkness. The beginning of the universe is the beginning of everything. There are many theories on the origin of the universe, from Time’s arrow to The Big Bang theory. About 13.8 billion years ago, the universe is believed to have formed from an infinitely tiny, condensed head mass called singularity which exploded to form matter. This is called the Big Bang theory. It was then space and time began. However, it is impossible to figure out what happened before the big bang. The theory was initially put forward by the founder which included the young PhD scholar Stephen Hawkings. What happens after that? Before that question, the stumbling question is ‘why did it happen? This question can’t be answered, because we don’t know what would happen if it would not be in the movie. And since our physics prohibits us to look before the big bang, it is sincerely hard for us to determine the causality and the reason behind the big bang. Coming to the question 'what happened after?' Our physics is reasonable to calculate the

after-big

bang

universe.

Since

a

singularity has a negligible classical area, it 19 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

can be questioned that after the explosion how much area it could create. The answer was given by Andrie Linde and Alan Guth, independently. It is called ‘eternal inflation’. Inflation here indicates that our universe in the initial time was inflating like a balloon, and the energy which is inflating is called dark energy. If we look at the physics of inflation, then it is remarkable to see that inflation occurred just in a matter of milliseconds. Our observable size universe could

have

been

created

in

a

tiny

milli-second in that inflation. Universal expansion

followed

inflation

and

our

universe still expands. After inflation cooled, our universe had four forces in nature namely, Gravitation force, Electromagnetic force, Weak force and Strong force. The inflationary stage wasn’t like the current universe. At that time, there were no stable particles and evidently no matter. A particle is the creating block of the universe, as well as the operating block. A particle doesn't need to be fundamental. We study particles under the physics of the standard model.

Photo credit: Wiki commons The standard model describes the particle under two categories; 1) Fermions and 2) Bosons. Fermions are matter blocks and Bosons are force carriers. Fermions include electrons, muons, all quarks etc, and they are the most fundamental particles. The quarks; up, down, top, bottom, charm and strange forms different baryons and mesons. Protons (that are made of two up and one down) and neutrons (made of one up and two down) are baryons, and they largely comprise the area of the atom. So without quarks matter is impossible. Bosons are force carriers, for instance, photons that carry electromagnetic force. Besides

these achievements,

our

standard model doesn’t define everything. For instance, it doesn’t define dark matter, though it should be there to balance the universe. It can’t tell us why there are just particles rather than anti-particles. The whole THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 20


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

physics

should be defined

using one

formalism, physicists call it ‘Theory of Everything’. It hasn't been found yet. If it gets in our lap, we would almost define the

Adderall for ADHD: what should you know? Isabella Guimares

universe under just one tree, and it would be the

most

important

achievement

of

humankind. Reference [1] Kragh, Helge. Cosmology "Origin of the Universe:

and the

Historical and

[Photo credit: BBC]

Conceptual Perspectives." The

[2] Williams, Matt. "What is the Big Bang

drugs

used

in

Theory?"

neurodevelopmental disorders can bring the

[3] Hawking, Stephen. Mlodinow, Leonard.

effect

"The Theory of Everything." 2010.

treatment for such substances. Scientifically

[4] Sutter, Paul. "How did Inflation happen--

proven about its effectiveness, Adderall

and why do we care?"

appears as one of the most remembered to

[5] Institute for Advanced Study. Inflation

assist in the intervention of Attention Deficit

Theory.

Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Adderall

[6]

US

Particle Physics: Building for

Discovery

expected

by

people who need

and ADHD are associated with each other to a significant extent.

[7] S. F. Novaes. Standard Model: An introduction. 2000

What is Adderall? The drug is a stimulant that acts on the central nervous system and is used for both ADHD and narcolepsy. This is due to the fact that the substance is a combination of several

stimulant

drugs,

including

amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. It is worth mentioning that this compound was 21 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

approved

by

the

Food

and

Drug

Administration (FDA) in 1996.

How does Adderall work for children with ADHD?

What are the benefits of Adderall in

Studies have shown that the drug has

ADHD patients?

the power to improve up to 80% the

Adderall, when prescribed by a

symptoms of children living with ADHD.

specialist, is meant to improve people's

For children who are included in the age

concentration and reduce impulsive behavior

group of 3 to 5 years, the doses usually start

in ADHD patients.

at 2.5 mg daily. However, for small children from 6 years of age and upwards, the start of

How does Adderall work for adults?

dosages is 5 mg (once or twice a day). The

As we all know, ADHD is not a disorder

restricted

to

children

and

adolescents; although there are indispensable

dose

gradually

increases,

reaching

a

maximum of 40 mg per day. The first dosage is given as soon as the child wakes up.

treatments for symptom control, ADHD can continue into adulthood. The medication,

What are the side effects?

then, acts as an important ally in reducing characteristics

related

to

the

The Folha de São Paulo newspaper,

disorder

in reference to the renowned The New York

itself. The remedy has an interesting function

Times, brought in 2012 a story about

for people living with ADHD. The substance

Adderall®, the “good grade” pill - as it is

is responsible for acting on development and

known in the student community. The article

personnel; in addition, it helps the individual

reports a case of an American student who

to discern certain situations, boosts memory

spent seven months in rehabilitation due to

and increases the ability to perform tasks

the continuous and abusive use of Adderall®.

with a certain degree of complexity. The dose

The

of Adderall, in adult patients, varies from 10

estimates that 3 to 7% of children have

to 20 mg per day. It should be noted that this

ADHD in American schools, and it is often

dosage is the initial one. Throughout the

necessary to resort to pharmacology for

treatment, the doctor indicates a gradual

treatment. According to the Drugs website,

increase according to the patient's need. The

the side effects requiring immediate medical

maximum daily amount is 40 to 60 mg.

attention include pain in the bladder, bloody

American

Psychiatric

Association

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 22


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

or cloudy urine,

burning or pain when

[6] GALILEU, Redação. “ Young people

urinating, fast or irregular heartbeat, and side

with ADHD who use amphetamines are at

pain

risk of developing psychosis” (2019) Conclusively, among the effects are

[7] Medically reviewed by Timothy J. Legg,

loss of appetite, headaches, dry mouth,

Ph.D., CRNP — Written by Ann Pietrangelo.

weight loss, diarrhea, reduced growth in

“Effects of Adderall on the Body” (2019)

children, insomnia, nervousness and apathy.

[8] Durbin, Kaci. “Adderall: Uses, Dosage,

Studies show that these symptoms decrease

Side Effects & Safety Info” (2021)

until they disappear as the body adapts to the drug.

In any case, only specialists are

professionals indicated to prescribe it. Reference [1] Ramirez, Gonzalo. “Adderall: what it is, for what purpose and associated effects” (2021) [2] Neurosaber. Articles [3] Panegassi, Jéssie. “Adderall: substance is used in the treatment of ADHD” [4] Marcelo T. Marin, coordinator of the Pharmacy and Biochemistry course at the Faculty

of

Pharmaceutical

Sciences

at

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP Araraquara). [5] Tais M. Bauab, coordinator of the Pharmacy and Biochemistry course at the Faculty

of

Pharmaceutical

Sciences

at

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP Araraquara).

23 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Your Body Althea Ocomen If you’ve ever spent a night tossing and turning, you already know how you’ll

exhausted, so it can’t perform its duties as well.

feel the next day — tired, cranky, and out of

You may also find it more difficult to

sorts. But missing out on the recommended 7

concentrate or learn new things. The signals

to 9 hours of shut-eye nightly does more than

your body sends may also be delayed,

make you feel groggy and grumpy.

decreasing your coordination and increasing

The

long-term

effects

of

sleep

your risk for accidents.

deprivation are real. It drains your mental abilities and

Immune system

puts your physical health at real risk. Science

While you

sleep,

has linked poor slumber with a number of

system

health problems, from weight gain to a

infection-fighting substances like antibodies

weakened immune system.

and cytokines. It uses these substances to

Read on to learn how it affects specific body functions and systems.

produces

your immune protective,

combat foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses. Certain cytokines also help you to

Central nervous system Your central nervous system is the main information highway of your body. Sleep is necessary to keep it functioning

sleep, giving your immune system more efficiency to defend your body against illness. Sleep

deprivation

prevents

your

properly, but chronic insomnia can disrupt

immune system from building up its forces.

how your body usually sends and processes

If you don’t get enough sleep, your body may

information.

not be able to fend off invaders, and it may

During sleep, pathways form between

also take you longer to recover from illness.

nerve cells (neurons) in your brain that help

Long-term sleep deprivation also

you remember new information you’ve

increases your risk for chronic conditions,

learned. Sleep deprivation leaves your brain

such as diabetes mellitus and heart disease.

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VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Respiratory system The relationship between sleep and the respiratory system goes both ways. A nighttime

breathing

disorder

called

obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can interrupt your sleep and lower sleep quality. As you wake up throughout the night, this can cause sleep deprivation, which leaves you more vulnerable to respiratory infections like the common cold and flu. Sleep deprivation can also make existing respiratory diseases worse, such as chronic lung illness. Digestive system Along with eating too much and not exercising, sleep deprivation is another risk factor for becoming overweight and obese. Sleep affects the levels of two hormones, leptin, and ghrelin, which control feelings of hunger and fullness. Leptin tells your brain that you’ve had enough to eat. Without enough sleep, your brain reduces leptin and raises ghrelin, which is an appetite stimulant. The flux of these hormones could explain nighttime snacking or why someone may overeat later in the night.

25 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

[Photo Credit: gingras sleep medicine] References [1] Peri, C. (n.d.). 10 Surprising Effects of Lack

of

Sleep.

WebMD.

https://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/feat ures/10-results-sleep-loss. [2]

NHS.

(n.d.).

NHS

Choices.

https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/sleep-and-tired ness/why-lack-of-sleep-is-bad-for-your-healt h/. [3] Nazario, B. (2020, August 24). How Much

Sleep

Do

I

Need?

WebMD.

https://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/slee p-requirements.


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

The Neurology behind Student

the implementation of stress on students is

Stress

extremely beneficial. However, it is also important to take into consideration the

Michelle Ren

harmful effects of repeated stresses on a student’s neurodevelopment. When

students

are

exposed

to

extended periods of stress, also known as chronic stress, the body creates excess cortisol, a steroid hormone, which prevents the brain from functioning properly. By disrupting the body’s homeostasis, high [Photo Credit: Education Week]

amounts of cortisol kill brain cells and shrink the prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain’s

Have you ever heard of the “flight or fight” theory?

temporal lobe which is responsible for

First coined by Walter

memory and learning. Thus, high levels of

Cannon, chairman of the Department of

stress may significantly reduce a student’s

Physiology at Harvard Medical School, this

learning capability in the long run and

theory states that the perception of danger

disprove the aforementioned belief.

activates the sympathetic nervous system and triggers

the release of

Moreover,

the reduction

of

the

catecholamines,

prefrontal cortex is combined with an

hormones made by the adrenal glands.

enlargement in the amygdala. As a part of the

Ultimately, this physical response prompts an

brain's limbic system, the amygdala creates

individual to either fight or flee, playing a

“emotional memories,” which attach specific

critical

during

emotions to stressful events. Following this

life-threatening situations. In today’s world,

concept, an increase in size of the amygdala

this evolutionary adaptation can additionally

causes the brain to be more receptive towards

help us cope with daily stressful events.

stress. Thus, changes in sizes of the cortisol

Specifically, this physical response can

and amygdala create a domino effect where

prompt students to perform effectively in

the brain becomes sensitive to stress and

taxing situations such as exams. As such,

constantly operates in a fight or flight state.

many scholars and researchers believe that

Through this evidence, it is clear that

role

in

our

survival

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 26


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

students who experience high levels of stress

cognitive and learning abilities, negatively

will not only incur learning issues, but will

impacting their well-being.

face stressful situations more frequently in the future. Furthermore, chronic stress can

Reference

result in mental health issues for students.

[1] “A List of Mental/Emotional Disorders.”

This said form of stress essentially alters

Pompano

chemicals such as serotonin, which regulate

2020,https://pompanomedicalcenter.com/a-lis

cognition and mood. Therefore, students who

t-ofmental-emotional-disorders/.

develop chronic stress are likely to encounter

[2] Bernstein , Rebecca. “The Mind and

cognitive problems or mood disorders such

Mental Health: How Stress Affects the

as depression or anxiety disorders.

Brain.” Touro University WorldWide, Health

Medical

Center,

1

June

and Human Services , 26 July 2016, www.tuw.edu/health/how-stress-affects-the-b rain/#:~:text=According%20to%20several% 20studies%2C%20chronic,the%20size%20of %20the%20brain. [3] Cherry, Kendra. “The Fight-or-Flight Response Prepares Your Body to Take Action.” Verywell Mind, 18 Aug. 2019, www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-fight-or -flight-response-2795194. [4] Sahakian , Barbara Jacquelyn, et al. “How Chronic Stress Changes the Brain – [Photo Credit: Pompano Medical Center]

and What You Can Do to Reverse the Damage.” Edited by Misha Ketchell , The

Through the analysis of stress on students,

it

is

evident that numerous

Conversation,

12

Mar.

2020,

https://theconversation.com/how-chronic-stre

psychological issues may stem from chronic

ss-changes-the-brain-and-what-you-can-do-t

stress. While small amounts of stress can

o-reverse-the-damage-133194.

positively

[5] Schwartz, Sarah. “Survey: Students Want

periods

of

influence

students,

extended

stress decrease a student’s

27 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

More

Opportunities

to

Connect

With


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Teachers During the Pandemic.” Education

Humanoid Robots: Expanding

Week, Education Week, 16 Dec. 2020,

The Potential Of AI

www.edweek.org/leadership/survey-studentswant-more-opportunities-to-connect-with-tea

Althea Ocomen

chers-during-the-pandemic/2020/12. [6]

Sukel

,

Kayt.

“Beyond

Emotion:

Understanding the Amygdala's Role in Memory.” Foundation,

Dana 13

Foundation,

Dana

Mar.

2018,

www.dana.org/article/beyond-emotion-under standing-the-amygdalas-role-in-memory/.

When people think of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the major image that pops up in their heads is that of a robot gliding around and giving mechanical replies. There are many forms of AI but humanoid robots are one of the most popular forms. They have been depicted in several Hollywood movies and if you are a fan of science fiction, you might have come across a few humanoids. Humanoid robots are professional service robots built to mimic human motion and interaction. Like all service robots, they provide value by automating tasks in a way that leads to cost savings and productivity. Humanoid robots are a relatively new form of

professional

service

robots.

While

long-dreamt about, they’re now starting to become commercially viable in a wide range of applications. Initially, the major aim of AI for humanoids was for research purposes. They were being used for research on how to create better prosthetics for humans. Now, humanoids are being created for several purposes that are not limited to research. Modern-day humanoids are developed to

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 28


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

carry out different human tasks and occupy

might soon find them everywhere in our

different roles in the employment sector.

daily lives. Reference [1] Sanjit Singh Dang, PhD. “Artificial Intelligence In Humanoid Robots.” Forbes, Forbes

Magazine,

25

Feb.

2019,

www.forbes.com/sites/cognitiveworld/2019/0 2/25/artificial-intelligence-in-humanoid-robo

[Photo Credit: Forbes Magazine]

ts/?sh=21836d5924c7.

Humanoid robots are also being used in the inspection, maintenance, and disaster response at power plants to relieve human workers of laborious and dangerous tasks. Similarly, they’re prepared to take over routine tasks for astronauts in space travel. Other diverse applications include providing companionship for the elderly and sick, acting as a guide and interacting with customers in the role of receptionist, and potentially even being a host for the growth of human transplant organs. There’s a wide range of tasks a humanoid

robot

can

automate,

from

dangerous rescues to compassionate care. The ways in which these robots are deployed are

constantly

expanding,

and

as

the

underlying technology improves, the market will follow suit. Humanoid robots are here to stay and over time, with AI making progress, we 29 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

[2]

“Humanoid

Robot.”

ScienceDaily,

ScienceDaily, www.sciencedaily.com/terms/humanoid_robo t.htm. [3] “Service Robots: Humanoid Robots.” Automate, www.automate.org/a3-content/service-robots -humanoid-robots.


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Even in recent years, doctors and

The Problem with “Female

clinicians still have a tendency to label

Hysteria”

women’s physical symptoms as indicators of

Michelle Ren Historically, women who fell ill were rarely given proper medical treatment and instead,

were

diagnosed

with

‘female

hysteria,’ an alleged mental disorder that explained away any symptoms of sickness. But how does this impact modern medicine? Although “female hysteria” was dropped by the American Psychiatric Association as an official diagnosis in 1980, the ingrained belief

that women are predisposed to

emotional commonly

distress

causes

misdiagnosed

them to be with

mental

illnesses to this day. By dismissing womens’ symptoms as if they are ‘all in her head,’ women are more likely than men to be on the

mental disorders without proper examination. In fact, studies in the 1990s suggested that as many as 30% to 50% of women diagnosed with

depression

were

misdiagnosed.

Although mental illnesses like depression or anxiety are themselves symptoms of other diseases, that often goes unrecognised in women. Additionally, extreme numbers of misdiagnosis in women translate to high rates of chronic conditions, resulting in the worsening of existing conditions and even fatalities in female patients. In the United States alone,

diagnosis

errors

lead to

anything from 40,000 to 80,000 deaths annually,

most of

which

are women.

receiving end of medical mistakes and wait longer for appropriate medications.

[Photo Credit: Verywell Health] Other than the misconception of [Photo Credit: Glamour]

“female hysteria,” the lack of female subjects in medical research also leads to the misdiagnosis of women in mental disorders. THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 30


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Since women were excluded from most

in the misdiagnosis of women in mental

clinical trials prior to 1990, the majority of

health illnesses. It must also be noted that the

medical data considers men to be the average

faults in the past and present medical field

patient. This poses a major implication for

have severely undermined women’s health.

women since biological differences can cause

Thankfully, this issue has gathered awareness

doctors to overlook physical symptoms in

through articles much like this one. Hence,

women and thus, misdiagnose women with

today’s doctors and researchers have taken

“catch-all” terms like stress or anxiety. For

initiatives to decrease diagnostic errors, such

example,

women

as including higher numbers of female

symptoms

when

present they

more

subtle

experience heart

attacks such as shortness of breath, nausea,

subjects

in

medical

studies,

ultimately

protecting women’s health.

and fatigue as compared to the expected image of one clutching one’s chest in

References

extreme pain, a heart attack symptom that

[1] Carter, Kiera. “The Horrifying Reasons

men have. This single difference brings about

Why

50% more diagnostic errors for women than

Women.”

men following a heart attack. Hence, the

www.prevention.com/health/a26100121/misd

absence of research done on women’s health

iagnosed-women/.

prompts doctors to downplay or overlook

[2] Dusenbery, Maya. “'Everybody Was

women’s symptoms, increasing the amount

Telling Me There Was Nothing Wrong'.”

of

BBC

medical

misdiagnosis

in

women.

Doctors

Constantly

Prevention,

Future,

BBC,

31

30

Misdiagnose Jan.

May

2019,

2018,

www.bbc.com/future/article/20180523-howgender-bias-affects-your-healthcare. [3] Fahmy, Asmae. “Women With Chronic COVID-19 Struggle To Be Heard By Doctors.” Verywell Health, 23 Aug. 2020, www.verywellhealth.com/female-covid-19-lo [Photo Credit: Today] Essentially, the common belief in ‘female hysteria' coupled with the lack of medical research on women’s health results 31 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

ng-haulers-doctors-dismiss-symptoms-50752 24. [4] Lines , Lisa M. “The Myth of Female Hysteria and Health Disparities among


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Women.” RTI International , 9 May 2018,

Dark Matter

www.rti.org/insights/myth-female-hysteria-a

Anisha Kumari

nd-health-disparities-among-women. [5]

Mickle, Kelly. “Why Are So Many

Women Being Misdiagnosed?” Glamour, 11 Aug.

2017,

www.glamour.com/story/why-are-so-many-w omen-being-misdiagnosed. [6] Tasca, Cecilia, et al. “Women and Hysteria in the History of Mental Health.” PMC, Clinical Practice Epidemiology in Mental

Health

,

19

Oct.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC348 0686/. Heads: It's Not All in Our Heads Women Speak out about How Doctors Dismissed Their Pain, Downplayed Their Symptoms or Simply Sent Them to a Psychiatrist.” 2021,

www.today.com/health/women-speak-out-ab out-feeling-dismissed-doctors-t153701.

Throughout Universe,

[7] Tosello, Jovanna. “It's Not All in Our

TODAY,

[Photo credit: NASA]

2012, the

philosophers

history

of

the

believed

in the

indiscernible presence of matter. Dark matter is the hypothetical invisible matter of the Universe, for it doesn't emit, reflect, or absorb electromagnetic radiation. Yet, its gravitational effect can be detected through stars and gases. It is believed that the Universe is made up of 27% of dark matter, 68% of dark energy and 5% of baryonic matter (normal matter). Unlike dark matter, baryonic matter emits, reflects and absorbs electromagnetic radiation. Baryonic matter is the ordinary matter that we can see in our lives. Dark energy is the hypothetical form of energy that is believed to behave opposite of gravity. Like dark matter, dark energy cannot be seen. Swiss astronomer, Fritz Zwicky, was the first person to prove the existence of dark

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 32


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

matter. He studied the coma cluster of

been proven that stars orbit at the same or

galaxies, which is made of thousands of

greater speed regardless of where they lie in

galaxies

the

the galactic centre. The influence of dark

gravitational pull. He noted that they were

matter can be detected by observing how the

moving faster than they were supposed to.

gravity of the massive galaxy clusters bends

This gave Fritz insight on invisible matter,

the light of the more distant galaxies found

now known as dark matter. One more clue

behind the cluster. This provides very

that suggests the existence of dark matter is

compelling evidence for the existence of dark

the virial theorem, which relates the total

matter and is also known as gravitational

kinetic energy of a self-gravitating body due

lensing. There are many arguments against

to the motion of its constituent particles.

dark matter, and one of them is Modified

and

held

together

by

Newtonian dynamics. Modified Newtonian Dynamics claim that gravity does not depend on the mass of the object,

but also

depends

on the

gravitational pull of other massive objects in the Universe. If modified gravity is widely accepted in the future, scientists would no longer need to look for dark matter. [Photo credit: Cornell Astronomy] The Galactic Rotation Curve, which is the difference in the orbital circular velocity of stars and gases at different distances

from

the centre,

provides

substantial

particularly

evidence

for

the

existence of dark matter. According to Kepler's Law, stars at the outskirts of the spiral galaxy should travel slower than those at the galactic centre. It has 33 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Tendencies and numbers: what is

range from fifteen seconds to one minute,

behind the music in your playlists

although the first type is often more popular.

Yasmin Nilsson

corners of the music industry, in which

Ever since Seikilos epitaph, the oldest musical piece to be ever found, until tuning in our Daily Drive Spotify playlist when getting in the car, music has been known to be everywhere. In fact, its impacts in our brains and in our relationships go way further than just a 3-minute long song - it can be examined

as

Then, this effect is spreading itself in the

a

social

and

cultural

phenomena. Moreover, the intensity through which musical information and content reaches us increases by the second as its usage gets an integral relationship with social media. The real question is: how does society’s way of music consumption shift in this current era? It turns out that making a hit is demanding much more than a pair of pure talent and a recorder. Primarily, the progression of music in this exact moment is seen as something reliant on calibration. This means that by analyzing the most streamed songs in the present, the vast majority consists of hits seen in places like TikTok. This is what some people have been calling the Tik Tok Effect when a song becomes popular after being good enough to be in video trends and after becoming memeable. There, videos can

formulaic compositions make their way up the streams through their predictability and reliability. An

example

of

this

is

Olivia

Rodrigo’s burst - the Disney popstar that literally rendered a huge success in a matter of days with hits like “driver’s licence” and “good 4 u”. These pop-rock ballads far from innovative

have

become

commercially

successful by the media thanks to having been born from the Effect. Algorithms and trends, in this sense, have been conditioning the pop consumer base to be fond of predictable

and

commercially

viable

rhythms. Conclusively, standardization is continually

topping

innovation

and

authenticity. At the same time, music platforms are seeing

authentic phenomenons such as

Eurovision

winner

Måneskin

rapidly

speeding along the trends. Even though they do not bring the standards and forms that disco-pop internet hits carry, they are echoing the voice of uniqueness. The fact that they have songs in Italian in top-50 trends backed by rock rhythms - as well as conducting what some specialists are calling a possible

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 34


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

ressurge of rock music - shows that the

The Future of Genetics

dictation of social media effects is not

Emma Ferraro

entirely a rule. It is evident that technology is dictating

many

creative

and

artistic

progressions. However, to what extent is the music industry leaving the contentment with the creative process in order to embrace commerciality? Fig. 1: Cas9 Protein [Photo credit: BMJ Journal) Each strand of DNA that every human has is unique to them by the time of egg fertilization. Unlike the clothes we put on our bodies or the ways in which we interact with our peers or the activities we choose to spend our time doing, this DNA is said to be unmodifiable. Well, up until recently, that is. Molecular biologists since the 1960s have been making observations about the repeating clusters found in strands of DNA called palindromic repeats. For instance, around

two-thirds

of

human

DNA

is

composed of repetitive elements (Broad Institute, 2020). This discovery makes up the basis of the modern, incredibly intricate gene-editing technology: CRISPR. CRISPR Regularly 35 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

stands

Interspaced

for

Clustered Palindromic


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Repeats― a term coined by researchers

before it actually infects and reproduces in

Francisco Mojica and Ruud Jansen in 2001.

the bacteriophage, eventually killing the

The repeats are 20-40 nucleotides in length,

bacteria. In the circumstance that there isn’t a

read from left to right (palindromically).

matching spacer DNA, a class 1 cas protein

Between the repeats, there are unique

is formed, and not only breaks apart the viral

segments of spacer DNA as the interspaces.

DNA, but also copies it into the CRISPR

According to Bozeman Science, the spacer

system. This copy of viral DNA would

DNA is fundamentally just the DNA strand’s

become spacer DNA between the repeats, for

history of priorly fought off infections,

these segments are simply the history of

allowing it to perfectly match up with the

previous

viral DNA that once infected it. Cas9 is the

(Bozeman Science, 2016). Essentially, this is

second necessary component in the CRISPR

an immune system for bacteria. However,

process; this is a 160 kilodalton protein,

scientists

“Cas'' meaning “CRISPR-associated.” This

technology has the potential to be used in

protein may act as both helicases, which

more than just bacteria.

infections,

soon

as

stated

discovered

that

earlier

this

unwinds DNA for replication, as well as a

Nobel Prize winners Jennifer Doudna

nuclease, which cuts DNA as if it’s a pair of

and Emmanuelle Charpentier looked further

molecular scissors. Scientists discovered that

into the idea of using the CRISPR-Cas9

this is a way for bacteria to fight off

system to both edit and create new DNA.

bacteriophages, which are essentially viruses

According to Bozeman Science, they used

that infect bacteria. When a bacterium is

one Cas9 complex, as seen in Fig. 1, which

invaded by a bacteriophage by the latter

first and foremost contained a nuclease

injecting

cell

section to cut DNA. crRNA fits into the cas,

membrane, the bacteriophage will take the

in addition to tracer RNA (tracrRNA). The

cas

of

spacer segment is also in the cas protein,

transcription and translation. The DNA is

which is there in an effort to match up to any

transcribed to make CRISPR RNA (crRNA),

viral DNA that may invade the cell. Once

which can fit into a cas protein as it prepares

matched, this complex will easily break it

to fight off any DNA injected from the

down before it has the chance to invade the

bacteriophage by breaking it into pieces. This

cell. The two scientists soon realized that

allows the cas protein to destroy the infection

they could use this system to change any

its

proteins

DNA through

through the

the process

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 36


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

sequence of non-viral DNA in which they

Cas9 cuts the DNA segment once it’s in

pleased by replacing the spacer DNA with

between the nuclease, breaking the gene and

their own carefully-formulated sequence. By

causing it to become inactive. When the cell

connecting their own sequence with the

tries to fix this, many mutations may arise,

tracrRNA, they created a new simple system,

which is where both Doudna and Charpentier

coining the term tracrRNA-crRNA chimera.

chose to inactivate the genes before the gene

A chimera is essentially a single organism

itself makes any attempt to. Since this is

made up of two sets of DNA with codes for

crafted carefully by scientists, said scientists

two separate organisms, hence why the new

can choose exactly the nucleotides by which

RNA that they invented as a mix of two

the Cas9 may cut and put it into the gRNA.

separate RNA types is considered to be one

To insert another gene in place, not only are

(Bozeman Science, 2016). The simple system

the Cas9 and gRNA required but also is the

that Doudna and Chapentier created has two

host DNA which will be inserted. As the

parts, the first of which being Cas9 and the

Cas9 breaks the DNA, the host DNA is

second as the tracrRNA-crRNA chimera,

added,

which is also known as the guide RNA

Essentially, this adds a new gene to any

(gRNA). These parts are displayed in Fig. 1,

organism’s genome that’s fully able to be

where the gRNA has the information as to

formulated by scientists (Bozeman Science,

where the scientists want to cut, while the

2016).

allowing

the DNA

to

fix

it.

Cas9 protein does the cutting. A gRNA is

From lessening the symptoms of

made to correspond with the segment of

diseases such as sickle cell anemia to

DNA that the Cas9 wants to cut, allowing the

growing

DNA to feed through. The protospacer

CRISPR-Cas9 technology is undeniably the

adjacent motif (PAM) is a DNA sequence

future of genetics. New technology like this

from 2-6 base pairs in length that follows the

will continue to advance and modernize the

targeted DNA region; without it, the Cas9

fields of chemistry and genetics forever.

the

agriculture

industry,

would be unable to bind to the target DNA sequence. It distinguishes bacterial self from

References

non-self DNA, which prevents the location of

[1] Bozeman Science. (2016, February 18).

the CRISPR repeats from being destroyed by

What is CRISPR? [Video]. YouTube.

the Cas9 nuclease (McDade, 2020). The 37 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

[2] Broad Institute Writers. (2020, September

The Mysteries of the Multiverse

21). Research Highlights: CRISPR. Broad

By: Adrian Muñoz

Institute, https://www.broadinstitute.org/research-highl

What is the multiverse theory?

ights-crispr

It’s commonly known that the Earth’s

[3] Richardson, M. W. (2019, July 15). What

inhabitants are nothing compared to the great

Is CRISPR Currently Being Used For?

size of the universe --- it’s almost as if our

BrainFacts.org,

existence can be questioned by the universe

https://www.brainfacts.org/in-the-lab/tools-an

itself. But what has been less commonly

d-techniques/2019/crispr-explained-071519

discussed is the theory of the multiverse, which states the potential existence of multiple or infinite numbers of universes that are composed of everything that exists like space,

time,

matter,

and

energy.

The

multiverse can also refer to as parallel universes because different universes may exist

alongside

our

own.

[Photo credit: ScienceNewsforStudents] What is the evidence for the existence of the multiverse? One well-known thought is that different universes are sorted on top of each other while having the same physics laws and constants,

also

known as

the Hubble

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 38


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Volumes. This means that each universe will

biggest parts of the universe would keep

differ from our own in terms of matter and

creating new bubble universes as described

Hubble volumes with similar configurations

in the last sentence. Interestingly, there is no

to our own.

certainty to exactly how many universes

Additionally, universes with different physical

constants

can

exist

and

there are --- there could likely be trillions of

the

universes to this day and still increasing from

multiverse as a whole is continuously

there. What’s even more fascinating is that

expanding, except some parts of space where

the universal laws of physics known to our

they stop stretching and create bubbles.

own universe may not apply to some other

Furthermore, these observations made by scientists can’t be predicted absolutely

universes since all of them are expanding at different rates.

through a range of possible observations, where each one corresponds to a different universe.

Max

Tegmark,

an

Does the multiverse actually exist?

MIT

The fact that we’re microscopic

cosmologist, came up with a mathematical

beings that haven’t been around for long in

hypothesis called the Ultimate Ensemble,

our own universe shows that we ourselves

which considers that all universes can be

lack the ability to confirm the notion of the

defined by mathematical structures. In a

multiverse existing with the lack of advanced

simpler explanation, universes with the same

technology. But what’s for certain is that this

or different constants may tend to exist.

mystery will no longer be a mystery in the

The biggest evidence is the cosmic

future when we reach a point in our evolution

inflation theory, which originates from the

that we would be able to travel outside of our

Big Bang. This proposes that our universe’s

solar system and into interstellar space.

expansion originally started off fast, but then slowed down over time. The quick expansion

Reference

is not only what led to the creation of our

[1] Kuhn, Robert Lawrence. “Confronting

universe, but also potentially other universes

the Multiverse: What 'Infinite Universes'

in a “vast bubble-like” multiverse. Although

Would Mean.” Space.com, Space, 23 Dec.

a few sections of the universe stopped

2015,

expanding rapidly, larger sections continued

www.space.com/31465-is-our-universe-just-o

expanding further since then. From there, the

ne-of-many-in-a-multiverse.html.

39 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

[2] Siegel, Ethan. “This Is Why The

Success lies over your pillow at

Multiverse Must Exist.” Forbes, Forbes

night

Magazine,

15

Mar.

2019,

www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2019/ 03/15/this-is-why-the-multiverse-must-exist/ ?sh=257691bf6d08. [3] Williams, Matt. “What Is the Multiverse Theory?” Universe Today, 21 July 2020, www.universetoday.com/77523/multiverse/. [4] “Does The Multiverse Exist?” Adler Planetarium,

9

Jan.

2020,

www.adlerplanetarium.org/blog/does-the-mul tiverse-exist/. [5] Brookshire, Bethany. “Scientists Say: Multiverse.” Science News for Students, 3 Dec.

2019,

www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/scie ntists-say-multiverse.

Rafael Pérez Have you ever wondered what is the key for success in the everyday life of people like Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates, or Lebron James? Some might argue that it's their hard work, others might say that their success relies on their talent and ideas. However, according to all of the listed subjects above, the key for their success is sleep. Jeff Bezos, who sleeps at least 8 hours per day argues that a full night of sleep makes a big difference for him, and that it should always be made a priority. In the end, he is right, the truth is that you ́re playing with your health. But have you ever wondered, to what extent? According

to

the

professor

in

neurology Mathew Walker, author of the book “Why do we sleep?” the extent of the consequences of not having a good night of sleep range from hormonal, neurological, and performance imparities to higher risk of cancer and dementia, as well as Alzheimer's disease, however, the extent of the causes is far more complex than that. Understanding sleep and its processes In one side there's the circadian rhythm, also known as the biological clock, THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 40


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

this clock regulated by the suprachiasmatic

doubling cancer risk, high alterations in sugar

nucleus, above the hypothalamus in the

levels in blood, increasing risk of heart

frontal lobe, it also helps regulate hormonal,

failure, heart stroke or hypertension, memory

metabolic and neuronal functions with the

corruption

help of chemicals such as melatonin. On the

consumption from the body, change in

other hand, adenosine builds up in your brain

hormonal levels, reduction of performance

from the moment you wake up to the

for over 400%, increasing fatigue time and

moment you go to sleep. And it is known as

injury chance by 30% and 74% respectively

the sleep pressure. With time, and other risk

and lowering strength, resistance, speed and

factors, the frontal lobe in which sleep

power.

and

impairment,

muscle

consolidation takes place degenerates and

At the end, as Mathew Walker states,

affects the ability to fall asleep. However, it

“Sleep is truly an object of awe”, and if we

is important to point out that this does not

want to have a better life and performance,

mean in any way that people are able to have

sleep is the key.

less hours of sleep. With the constant sleep deprivation culture

in

society

nowadays,

Reference

sleep

[1] Aguirre, Claudia. “What Would Happen

impairment issues have been more regularly

If You Didn’t Sleep?” TED Talks, uploaded

among teenagers. Moreover, people have

by

entered a stage of imperceptible chronic

www.ted.com/talks/claudia_aguirre_what_w

fatigue for their bodies. According to

ould_happen_if_you_didn_t_sleep#t-205669.

Mathew Walker, as stated in his Ted Talk

[2] DeDieu, Valda, and Bahati Bashir. Why

“Sleep is your superpower,” Having less than

We Sleep. Valda DeDieu, 2021.

5 hours of sleep triples the chance of having

[3] Foster, Russell. “Why Do We Sleep?”

a car accident. And being awake for more

TED Talks, uploaded by TedTalk, 14 Aug.

than 20 consecutive hours accounts to the

2013,

same brain dysfunction as being legally

www.ted.com/talks/russell_foster_why_do_

drunk.

we_sleep. However, the consequences are far

from being over, having 1 hour less of sleep chronically can awakes consequences such as 41 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

Ted

Talks,

7

Sept.

2017,

[4] Gamble, Jessa. “Our Natural Sleep Cycle Is Nothing like What We Do Now.” TED


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Talks, uploaded by TedTalk, 15 Sept. 2010, www.ted.com/talks/jessa_gamble_our_natura l_sleep_cycle_is_nothing_like_what_we_do_ now. [5] Huffington, Arianna. “How to Succeed? Get More Sleep.” TED Talks, uploaded by Tedtalk,

3

Jan.

2011,

www.ted.com/talks/arianna_huffington_how _to_succeed_get_more_sleep. [6] Lee Chiong, T. Sleep a Comprehensive Handbook. Denver, Colorado, Wiley, 2006. Wiley, drive.google.com/drive/u/1/my-drive. [7] Mednick, Sara. “How Long Should Your Naps Be?” TED Talks, uploaded by Tedtalk, 29

Apr.

2021,

www.ted.com/talks/sara_c_mednick_how_lo ng_should_your_naps_be. [8] Mejri, M. A., et al. “Effects of Two Types of

Partial

Sleep

Deprivation

on

Hematological Responses during Intermittent Exercise: A Pilot Study.” Science & Sports, vol. 29, no. 5, 2014, pp. 266–74. Crossref, doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2014.05.001. [9] Walker, Matt. “A Walk through the Stages of Sleep.” TED Talks, uploaded by TedTalk,

15

July

2020,

www.ted.com/talks/matt_walker_a_walk_thr ough_the_stages_of_sleep.

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 42


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

FEATURE — ADRIAN MUNOZ How did you learn about GSYJ, and what motivated you to take part in this journal? One day, I was viewing and scrolling down good-quality memes on Instagram until I found an extracurricular opportunity post by Curicular describing what GSYJ is all about. For many years, I have always been passionate about STEM and wanted to use my interests for helping out the community. Therefore, I joined GSYJ as a Chief Editor because I wanted to dive deeper into the fascinating STEM topics and share what I found in my research with the public. What was the most significant and valuable lesson you took away from your past work in the GSYJ? After writing and editing multiple articles on STEM, I realized how much I can learn from the internet itself. We should use the internet to our advantage of opening our minds to the vast field of STEM. What do you think are the potential benefits of working with other students from such diverse backgrounds? Reading and editing other reporters’ articles has not only allowed me to learn different STEM topics that I haven’t researched but also to understand and engage with people who have STEM interests that are similar to mine. Working with people who came from different backgrounds helped me gain experience at emerging myself in collaboration.

Adrian Munoz is an editor in chief (EIC) of the GSYJ Executive Team. If you were to pinpoint one major problem in the STEM community, what would it be, and what are some possible solutions to fixing such an issue? For a long time, the community composed of minorities has been lacking sufficient access to educational resources as well as motivation to learn more about STEM. This is an issue because not every person is given the same opportunity to explore his or her interests through education. Therefore, one solution would be to expand GSYJ’s influence by having its social media account(s) reach out to more people and engage with other organizations with similar missions. What aspect(s) of STEM fascinated you, and how has such interest shaped your work today?

43 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

The E in STEM has fascinated me the most because engineering makes numerous advancements, from simple machines to computer microprocessors, that allow technology to thrive because it applies to almost every aspect of society. This has always been my area of interest because I want to contribute to the technological revolution that has been positively influencing the world. Moreover, researching in the field of STEM/engineering would help me obtain knowledge that would be useful in coming up with technological innovations that would create an impact on society.

FEATURE — SIYON KIM How did you learn about GSYJ, and what motivated you to take part in this journal? I had a chance to learn about GSYJ through my friend’s recommendation, from Nahyun Park, one of the executive heads of GSYJ. The incentive for me to become a chief editor and a reporter was that there are many organizations created by youths that deal with topics such as human rights, world news, etc but not a typical organization dedicated to STEM subjects. Therefore, I thought it would be a meaningful work to join GSYJ and raise people’s interests toward STEM subjects rather than just thinking of them as complicated through my articles. What was the most significant and valuable lesson you took away from your past work in the GSYJ? Until now, I specifically wrote two articles for both nanotechnology and the usage of chemistry in architecture. By writing these two articles I learned that STEM subjects interdiscipline with each other to form major parts of our society. Until now, I thought that STEM subjects only work by themselves, but now I realized in various parts of our world is formed by different STEM subjects interacting with each other. This became an opportunity for me to broaden my view toward STEM. What do you think are the potential benefits of working with other students from such diverse backgrounds? I believe that cooperating with other students from diverse backgrounds can

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 44


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

provide an opportunity to learn the similar subject from various perspectives. As a chief editor, I could read articles written from several students. Although they have written about the same subject, I learned how the points they focused on were different. Some of them have focused on the effect on society of the society while the others focused on factual information of the subjects. By reading them, I could constantly think in various ways without being limited to single thought process and broaden my views and interests. If you were to pinpoint one major problem in the STEM community, what would it be, and what are some possible solutions to fixing such an issue? I personally think there is a big gender gap in the STEM community. While 35 percent of men pursues STEM studying only 18 percent of women pursues studying STEM. Therefore, I believe if our society opens up more opportunities for women to study STEM by such as people starting to change their prejudice that men are better in science and mathematics than women can close the gender gap. Moreover, often it is harder for people to learn information about STEM subjects because people use too professional words to explain STEM subjects which creates the thought that STEM subjects are hard among people. However, by utilizing media to explain STEM subjects in easier ways can solve this problem.

45 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

Siyon Kim is an editor in chief (EIC) in the Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ). What aspect(s) of STEM fascinated you, and how has such interest shaped your work today? I am especially fascinated with epidemiology since our world is currently undergoing the pandemic era. Since Coronavirus has impacted people’s lives hugely, such preventive measures and technologies including new methods of vaccination and medication have been developed. Therefore, I have recently been researching how new coronavirus vaccines works and how other countries have done their preventive measures responding to the epidemic. By this, I would like to write an article about what I have researched next month.


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

GSYJ EXECUTIVE TEAM Founder and President Michelle Bok Nahyun Park

Editing Department Head Emma Ferraro Lynne Kim

Editor in Chief Adrian Munoz Michelle Ren Siyon Kim

Reporter Anisha Kumari Eana Shah Leandra Cardenas Yasmin Silva Nilsson

Ananya Yadav Rosalyn Brady Umar Mohammad Rafael Pérez Vicente

Ericka Tamayo Guevara Shriya Rudrash Jamie Li

Rebecca Wang Geena Marquez-Baide

Helena Rosa Grace Jooeun Kang

IT Department Head Hritik Bagjai

IT Director Yawen Zhang Rubina Shaik

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 46


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

Design Department Head Nikitha Muralimohan

Social Media Manager María Vidal

Design Directors Princess Anaebella Pioquid

Lillian Hiraoka Seunghoon Han

Business Department Marketing and Event Director Jaein Kim

Content Director Marian Chu

Marketing Managers Sanjana Kaloth Auni Anuar

47 | THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ)

Jeewon Kang


VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

You must be the change you want to see in the world - Mahatma Gandhi

THE OBSCURE — Global STEM Youth Journal (GSYJ) | 48


Vol.1 - Issue 1

Global STEM Youth Journal


Articles inside

FeatureArticle:Adrian Munoz

1min
page 44

Success lies over your pillow at night

3min
pages 41-43

The Mysteries of the Multiverse

2min
pages 39-40

The Future of Genetics

5min
pages 36-38

Tendencies and numbers: what is behind the music in your playlists

2min
page 35

Humanoid Robots: Expanding The Potential OfAI

2min
pages 29-30

The Problem with “Female Hysteria”

2min
pages 31-32

The Neurology behind Student Stress

2min
pages 27-28

Dark Matter

2min
pages 33-34

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Your Body

2min
pages 25-26

Pollution is Segregated

2min
pages 18-19

Adderall forADHD: what should you know?

4min
pages 22-24

Brief History of The Universe

2min
pages 20-21

Black Hole:Amystery of the universe

2min
pages 10-11

The Untold Reality of Dementia

2min
pages 16-17

The Effect of the Pandemic On Our Mental Health

1min
page 12

Memory Formation: Why we can’t remember our infantile years

2min
pages 8-9

Reference

1min
page 13
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