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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Military Power Supplies and DC/DC Converters

A Simple, High Efficient Flyback Converter for Complex Applications Managing the Rising Demand for Energy The Step-Change in Power Needs Next Generation Integrated Energy Devices The Future of Power Generation and its Components Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


FOR THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF EXCLUSIVE MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL POWER ELECTRONICS

Applications include power supplies, LED and laser diode drivers, magnetics and a wide range of other products

Design Criteria, Inc. Innovations in Power Electronics 1821 W. 4000 S. Suite 200 Roy, UT 84067 Phone: 801-393-1414 Fax: 801-393-1415 www.designcriteria.com


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Military Power Supplies and DC/DC Converters

Contents Foreword

2

Mary Dub, Editor A Simple, High Efficient Flyback Converter for Complex Applications Managing the Rising Demand for Energy The Step-Change in Power Needs

A Simple, High Efficient Flyback Converter for Complex Applications

3

Carl I Belnap, President, Design Criteria Inc.

Next Generation Integrated Energy Devices The Future of Power Generation and its Components Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles. Š 2014. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

A Cost-Effective Approach The Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter (SOFC) Faster Response Design Criteria, Inc.

Managing the Rising Demand for Energy 6 Mary Dub, Editor

The Military Importance of Reduction in Energy Consumption The Upward Pressure for More Energy From New Technologies The Power Demands for Heating and Cooling of Residential Accommodation Soldier Power Soldier Power Implementation What Has This Meant for the Infantryman on Operation?

The Step-Change in Power Needs

8

Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

Reducing SWaP for Vehicles The Drive Towards COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) Acquisitions The Problem of Battery Weight The Battery Weight Conundrum

Next Generation Integrated Energy Devices

10

Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

A New Role for High Performances The Soldier Conformal Battery Rucksack Enhanced Portable Power REPPS The TEMPER Fly Solar Energy Self Sufficiency Vehicles Developed to Generate Power Improvement in Efficiency in Use of Current Generators Non-Traditional Power Sources New Robotic Solutions

The Future of Power Generation and its Components 12 Mary Dub, Editor

Mobile Mission Command User-Friendly Mobile Complex Computing for Command Posts The Importance of Interoperability and SWaP Gen Ray Odierno, Chief of Staff of the US Army, Lightens the Load for Soldiers The Move to Power Self-Sufficiency with Renewables for Dismounted Soldiers

References 14

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

Foreword T

HE DRIVE to enhance the communications

The second article in this report reviews the context

capability of the soldier at headquarters,

in which the rising demand for lightweight, rugged, but

on operation or on a humanitarian mission has

highly efficient converters is taking place. Inside the

never been stronger, despite budget pressures,

device they are the critical component linking battery

drawdown from Afghanistan and the drive to

to computer capability.

reduce size, weight and power demand. This

A detailed look at the step-change that is taking

Special Report looks inside the communications

place in the demand for different types and levels of

equipment to the DC-DC converters within.

power demanded by a range of different devices is

Meeting the need for DC-DC converters to be

the focus of the third piece.

precise, rugged and with high levels of technical specification is challenging.

The forthcoming generation of integrated energy devices is the subject of the next piece. This is

The Report opens with an article that describes

fascinating as developments in the use of s and

the flyback converter, a switch-mode power supply

nanotechnology become commonplace as part of a

(SMPS) topology that enables a reduction in the

soldier’s equipment.

number of components in a power supply thereby

Finally, the editor takes a perspicacious look to the

helping to increase the power density. This is

future. There are, of course, new developments in the

important in saving space and enhancing efficiency

pipeline. The drive for reduction in SWaP shows no

in applications ranging across the commercial, solar,

signs of going away. Meanwhile, research in robotics

military and medical market sectors. The article goes

and renewables mean that the battery carrying solider

on to describe a cost-effective, low component count

of the 21st century may become a thing of the past.

flyback converter developed by Design Criteria Inc., which has many key features not available in present flyback SMPS. This topology is called the selfoscillating flyback converter (SOFC).

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub is the editor of this Special Report. She has covered the defence field in the United States and the UK as a television broadcaster, journalist and conference manager.

2 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

A Simple, High Efficient Flyback Converter for Complex Applications

FOR THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF EXCLUSIVE MILITARY AND

Carl I Belnap, President, Design Criteria Inc.

INDUSTRIAL POWER ELECTRONICS

The following editorial outlines three principles employed by Allen-Vanguard Counter Threat Solutions (AVCTS) when conducting C-IED Consultancy and training support for military and government agencies.

Increasing the power density of switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) continues to be driven by the lack of space and increased efficiency requirements. This trend is evident in the commercial, solar and military market sectors as well as medical. A low component count in a power supply will facilitate the increase in power density. One SMPS topology that provides a reduction in the number of components is the flyback converter. This versatile converter has the ability to boost or buck the input voltage depending on the duty cycle. The flyback topology, illustrated in Figure 1, is well known for simplicity. It uses only one magnetic element and one rectifier. The flyback converter is used in both AC/DC and DC/DC power conversion which provides galvanic isolation between the input and output.

LOAD CONTROLLER WHICH REMOVES THE POWER TO THE LOAD IN LESS THAN 10ms

A Cost-Effective Approach In a flyback converter, the transformer, T, is actually a coupled inductor. A good flyback transformer design will minimize conduction losses, core losses and leakage inductance. The energy is stored in the transformer when switch Q is closed and released when Q is open. The flyback topology allows for multiple outputs on one transformer with minimal supplementary

circuitry. This topology is widely used for low power applications or power levels below 200 W.

Applications include power supplies, LED and laser diode drivers, magnetics and a wide range of other products

FIGURE 1. TYPICAL FLYBACK TOPOLOGY

The flyback SMPS provides a cost-effective approach to LED lighting and furnishing power to laser diodes. These applications sometimes requires a standalone power supply in the 30W to 60W range with features such as isolation, low total harmonic distortion, constant output current, short circuit protection, open circuit protection, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) compliance. A challenge with a flyback converter is that high leakage inductance in the flyback transformer creates high voltage spikes and ringing oscillations due to the parasitic resonance between the leakage inductance and the primary switch parasitic capacitance. This ringing and voltage spikes could damage the main transistor switch when turned off. Conventional snubbers or clamps are typically employed to protect the primary switch. Snubbers can be dissipative and some are non-dissipative. Recovering the leakage energy from the snubber circuit back to the DC bus will help improve the energy efficiency. Other improvements to a flyback converter can be realized by replacing the output diode with a synchronous rectifier, as shown in Figure 2, for low voltage and high current applications.

Design Criteria, Inc. Innovations in Power Electronics 1821 W. 4000 S. Suite 200 Roy, UT 84067 Phone: 801-393-1414 Fax: 801-393-1415 www.designcriteria.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

DCI’s novel flyback converter will meet the demanding and harsh requirements for high

Various unique topologies using a combination of the flyback and forward converters have been presented in the literature. A common goal for these various SMPS circuits is to improve efficiency. However, the improved efficiency with these novel converters comes at the expense of reduced power density and more complexity. The increased component count could potentially reduce a power supply’s reliability.

HIGH POWER, HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER

reliability in military

flyback. Multiple converters can be interleaved so as to further reduce the ripple. Interleaving will reduce the amount of input filtering and allow for higher output power.

power supplies, the compact and light weight requirements for dismounted soldier equipment and devices, and the rugged and high power requirements for LED and laser diode drivers

FIGURE 2. TYPICAL ISOLATED FLYBACK WITH A SYNCHRONOUS RECIFIIER

The Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter (SOFC) Through our research and development efforts, engineers at Design Criteria, Inc. (DCI) have developed a cost effective, low component count flyback converter. This novel converter has many key features not available in present flyback SMPS. DCI is naming this topology the self-oscillating flyback converter (SOFC). The SOFC is not controlled by off-theshelf SMPS controllers. However, it utilizes a proprietary self-oscillating controller to drive the primary and secondary switches which is a principal characteristic in reducing the parts count. Enhanced reliability is also a benefit of this self-oscillating circuit. For off-line applications, the oscillator is capable of starting simply by charging a capacitor from the high voltage rectified line. This avoids power loss in startup resistive elements. The secondary side utilizes synchronous rectification for high efficiency which is also controlled by the proprietary controller. Synchronous rectification reduces losses in low voltage, high current applications. Furthermore, a low leakage inductance transformer was developed for this application which enhances the efficiency and reduces ringing and voltage spikes on the primary switch. Q1 is controlled by the novel proprietary controller and operates in a quasi-fixed frequency mode. The frequency is partially a function of the load. With the quasi-fixed frequency mode, one may assume that the SOFC is a resonant converter. However, actual operation is fixed pulse width and variable frequency. Typically, a common flyback converter will exhibit high ripple currents. However due to DCI’s proprietary controller, the ripple currents are reduced over the conventional

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Faster Response Another attribute of the proprietary self-oscillating controller for the SOFC is that it provides cycle by cycle regulation. Present SMPS regulate the output voltage based on several switching cycles. Cycle by cycle regulation generates a faster response to load and line fluctuations and minimizes over shoot on the output voltage. The output does not require large of amounts of capacitance thus allowing for a quick discharge when the output needs to be turned off. This novel regulation method is stable in all conditions. Further research and studies by DCI will verify the control system of the SOFC.

OFF-LINE COMPACT POWER SUPPLY

Due to its reduction in complexity, the SOFC complies with military standards such as the EMI requirements of MIL-STD-461 and MIL-STD-810 for environmental requirements and conforms to MIL-STD-704 and MIL-STD-1275. In vehicles where size, weight, power and ruggedness are a serious consideration, the SOFC provides a very good solution. To date, DCI has assembled several prototypes of the isolated SOFC DC-DC converter and is submitting patent applications. We have measured a preliminary efficiency of 86% with an input voltage of 150VDC and an output of 18V at 50W. With a few improvements and modifications,


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

FOR THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF EXCLUSIVE MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL POWER ELECTRONICS

VERY HIGH POWER IR ILLUMINATOR

we are anticipating an efficiency of over 90%. This will be a light weight, compact power supply with high power density. We expect to launch this novel power supply by mid to late summer of 2014. DCI’s novel flyback converter will meet the demanding and harsh requirements for high reliability in military power supplies, the compact and light weight requirements for dismounted soldier equipment and devices, and the rugged and high power requirements for LED and laser diode drivers. It will be valuable in functioning as a point of load power supply, meeting the power supply requirements of medical devices, solar power converters, and other applications.

military power electronics and magnetics. Mr. Belnap has developed low voltage AC-DC and DC-DC converters to high voltage power supplies for airborne TWT and klystron applications. Design Criteria, Inc. has developed and manufactured several products to meet military standards and requirements such as power supplies for airborne and harsh environments, high frequency magnetics for switching power supplies, LED and laser diode drivers, and power controllers. DCI’s products can be found in US Navy, US Army and US Air Force equipment as well as equipment manufactured by several military contractors.

Design Criteria, Inc.

For more information:

Design Criteria, Inc., located in Roy, Utah (USA), is a small business innovation shop, with a broad range of experience designing and manufacturing exclusive power electronics i.e. power supplies, transformers and LED drivers. We have developed, tested and launched several state-of-the-art products. We, also, have some exceptional concepts that we are testing for long range wireless power transmission. DCI was founded in 1999 by Carl I Belnap who has more than thirty years experience in developing and manufacturing high reliability

Carl I Belnap President 1821 W 4000 S Suite 200 Roy, UT 84067 USA

Applications include power supplies, LED and laser diode drivers, magnetics and a wide range of other products

www.designcriteria.com cbelnap@designcriteria.com 801-393-1414 (Voice) 801-393-1415 (Fax)

Design Criteria, Inc. Innovations in Power Electronics 1821 W. 4000 S. Suite 200 Roy, UT 84067 Phone: 801-393-1414 Fax: 801-393-1415 www.designcriteria.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

Managing the Rising Demand for Energy Mary Dub, Editor

According to an estimate provided by the Army G-4 office in October 2011, 18 % of US casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan were related to ground resupply, with more than 3,000 casualties occurring in resupply missions

E

NERGY IN the 21st century is a source of conflict. Ubiquitous popular demand, restricted supply and lengthy supply routes make it subject to increasing value and rising prices. Such is the rising demand for energy that the UK Ministry of Defence’s strategic view1 on potential causes of war points to energy and water as two of the likely flashpoints. Switching from a strategic to a medium term perspective, the drawdown from Afghanistan in 2014, and the demand by the US Congress for deep cuts in defense spending are driving engineers and technologists to come up with new ways of delivering power for the US solider on expedition or the European soldier in coalition warfare.

The Military Importance of Reduction in Energy Consumption Recent research on energy use on operation in Afghanistan and Iraq has pointed up significant lessons to be learned. Surveys show that lowering fossil fuel consumption in theatre will reduce the number of trips across dangerous convoy supply routes and so reduce the risk to American soldiers. According to an estimate provided by the Army G-4 office in October 2011, 18 % of US casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan were related to ground resupply, with more than 3,000 casualties occurring in resupply missions. Project Manager Mobile Electric Power (PM MEP) has aligned itself with the Army’s and the Department of Defence’s (DoD’s) push for efficiency and enhancements in power generations and consumption.2

The Upward Pressure for More Energy From New Technologies In response to downward pressure to reduce costs and risks to other soldiers, there is a countervailing upward pressure from the proliferation of new technologies. The growth of technology in soldier equipment brings greater power demands. This need for more mobile energy is increasing the load that a soldier 6 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

takes into the fight. Most devices run on commercial or military standard lithium ion batteries. Units operating in the most austere environments traditionally have had to carry enough batteries to sustain all of their devices for up to 72 hours before having to resupply at a forward operating base. Individual power requirements have long been an afterthought to materiel developers as they continually strive to create high-tech, soldier-borne solutions. Expeditionary solutions include power generation systems, power scavenging, renewable energy, storage, power distribution, and management, that are lightweight and can be worn or carried by soldiers.3

The Power Demands for Heating and Cooling of Residential Accommodation And its not just equipment for the dismounted soldier and his communication systems and vehicles that are increasing demand for energy. The expectations that soldiers working in all climates should be able to have heating and air conditioning are also posing heavy demands on energy supply for troops on operation. A 2011 Marine Corps study cited that heating and air conditioning accounted for 13% of the Corps’ total fuel demand in Afghanistan and 46% of its electrical demands. “So a lot of it is wasting, and it’s a huge target area. But it’s not an area that the department has focused a lot of research, development, testing and evaluation. That was why we wanted to target these specific areas,”4 said Sharon E. Burke, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Operational Energy Plans and Programs in 2011.

Soldier Power The US Pentagon has an initiative called Soldier Power. Soldier Power provides power solutions to Soldiers operating in the most austere environments that have no power infrastructure. Soldier Power will ultimately decrease dismounted Soldiers’ energy loads, increase mission duration and reduce logistics.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

FOR THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF EXCLUSIVE MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL POWER ELECTRONICS

Bringing down fuel and water demands through advancing Soldier Power initiatives will reduce the number of resupply convoys, allow Soldiers protecting convoys to accomplish other tasks, and lower the risks to the Soldiers protecting those convoys.5

Soldier Power Implementation The rationale behind the Soldier Power program is the recognition that energy is both a force multiplier and a vulnerability that can be exploited. Soldier Power is the energy needed by a dismounted soldier to operate soldier-worn equipment in field operations. The program is focused on lightening the dismounted soldiers’ energy loads and helping them become more agile and selfreliant through advanced portable power systems, lighter batteries, universal charging devices and water purifiers. Energy is a foundational enabler for all military capabilities – as such, Soldier Power is a key enabler for operations, essential for patrols and required for Soldier sustainment.6

What Has This Meant for the Infantryman on Operation? The Army is continuing its effort to aggressively deploy Soldier Power solutions. These solutions include Soldier Worn Integrated Power System (SWIPES), the conformal battery, Soldier Power Manager, the Rucksack Enhanced Portable Power System, and the Modular Universal Battery Charger (MUBC). Additionally, the Army is developing a multi-fuel compatible capability in the 1KW JP8 generator, which allows the war fighter to leverage existing logistic infrastructures while providing a lightweight, man-portable solution. And this Soldier Power program includes all forces. Two Airborne Brigade Combat Teams have deployed to Afghanistan with a suite of these technologies. In a movement towards renewables, the US Army is shifting from non-rechargeable to rechargeable batteries. Since 2005, the Army has increased spending on C-E7 rechargeable batteries from 26 to 52 per cent ($60 million) in FY 12.

Applications include power supplies, LED and laser diode drivers, magnetics and a wide range of other products

Design Criteria, Inc. Innovations in Power Electronics 1821 W. 4000 S. Suite 200 Roy, UT 84067 Phone: 801-393-1414 Fax: 801-393-1415 www.designcriteria.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

The Step-Change in Power Needs Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

Each one of the designs had faster processors, more hard drive space, smaller components, less weight and more power

T

HE US Army’s Program Executive Office Soldier (PEO Soldier) is the lead organization in equipping the American soldier for conflict. The reduction in size, weight and power (SWaP) requirements has consistently been a top priority for PEO Soldier. Because an overburdened soldier saddled with excess weight carrying water and batteries, as well as ammunition and communication equipment, loses the advantages of networked communication and technical superiority in firepower if he has lost agility, speed and maneuverability. The dismounted soldier is now no longer treated as a single platform bearing a standard load, but a functional unit dependent on his role within a unit. For example, PEO Soldier can equip the individual soldier based on his mission, as well as his role in a squad. For example, the medic will carry certain things and the radioman will carry different things, so in their individual ensemble PEO Soldier has been trying to reduce the load. The goal is to leverage power, speed, interfaces and operating system control from a macro level for others that are going to be running in the mobile handheld space.8

Reducing SWaP for Vehicles PEO Soldier has also been working on the SWaP of the JTRS (Joint Tactical Radio System). With a vehicle it is easier to say, “this is your power load and this is where you’ve got to go.” On the Abrams and Bradley programs there were high levels of control in the size, weight and power allocations given9. Related to Soldier Power is the Nett Warrior program, whose predecessor was the Land Warrior program. The new products bought for Nett Warrior illustrate the great importance attached to SWaP for each item used. Mark Frye, team lead for the Project Executive Office Soldier’s Product Manager Ground Soldier Nett Warrior team, said, “Each one of the designs had faster processors, more hard drive space, smaller components, less weight and more power. Nett Warrior started as a 8 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

DOT&E (Director, Operational Test and Evaluation) over watch program ... so three vendors produced the original Nett Warriors.” He acknowledged that the process had resulted in some new developments and relatively large components. In the 21st century both size and weight matter, if a product is to be included into standard kit.

The Drive Towards COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) Acquisitions And this driving force to reduce SWaP is replicated in the commercial world of handheld computing devices and tablets. Their power needs – batteries, cables, adapters and components are all subject to a similar drive to reduce SWaP. So there has been a trend towards using COTS (commercial off the shelf) products, and components rather than specially commissioned military ones, to reduce costs and speed the uptake of new technologies to the war fighter. “Then the steering boards from DOT&E (Director of Operational Test and Evaluation), the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) and the Chief of Staff’s office all said, ‘Stop.’ They offered new guidance that moved this to a COTS program. They said they wanted us to buy off-the-shelf technology; it is lightweight and generally makes a better kit for the soldier,” Frye said. “The project manager was already leaning forward on future stuff,” said Mark Davis, operations manager for the Nett Warrior team, “and that meant we were able to bring the COTS stuff in very quickly.”

The Problem of Battery Weight The battery needs for the networked dismounted warrior are driven by the demand and the new capability for equipment and communications to provide a substantial tactical edge for the dismounted soldier. But the inescapable fact is that all of this equipment must be powered. And the more there is to be done with the equipment, and the more images and data you want to deliver through it, the greater the need


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

FOR THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF EXCLUSIVE MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL POWER ELECTRONICS

Applications include power supplies,

for power. The goal is not to have that situation add to the heavy load soldiers already carry. The decade-old Land Warrior kit that is being replaced by Nett Warrior required more than 13 watts per hour to power it, which meant that every soldier must carry three 2.2 pound batteries each day. The total weight of the entire Land Warrior ensemble is 18 pounds. The goal for Nett Warrior is to reduce battery needs to just two a day, and to have the total weight come in at no more than 12 pounds. The use of technology such as smart phones will help with that, but squeezing more out of battery technology will be crucial to meeting the kind of power-to-weight trade off goals the new gear requires.10

The Battery Weight Conundrum The standard military battery in the past provided the continuous supply of 2.6Ah (amp hours), but the typical military OEM now uses higher capacity batteries that run at 3Ah, and battery cells that can run at 4Ah are already on the drawing board. There are several ways to get around the

power-to-weight conundrum. One is to lighten the packaging of the battery. The typical military battery uses a metal can enclosure, but new battery packs using much lighter lithium polymer materials are now being pushed into the field after achieving a mil standard rating recently. “In this battery, the cell itself is made out of a coffee-bag type of material,” Jeffrey VanZwol, vice president of marketing for Micro Power Electronics, Inc., said. This is flexible so you can get the shape of the cells to be custom fitted to the battery package. That means you can maximize the amount of active material in the battery, which in turn makes for more battery runtime. Another option is to use a different material with better performance characteristics for the battery cells. The predominant chemistry in both notebook and cell phone batteries now is lithium cobalt dioxide, more commonly referred to as lithium ion. A newer technology that’s being introduced in military batteries uses lithium iron phosphate, which is based on the same chemistry as lithium ion, but which has a somewhat greater discharge current and longer life.

LED and laser diode drivers, magnetics and a wide range of other products

Design Criteria, Inc. Innovations in Power Electronics 1821 W. 4000 S. Suite 200 Roy, UT 84067 Phone: 801-393-1414 Fax: 801-393-1415 www.designcriteria.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

Next Generation Integrated Energy Devices Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

With the rising cost of fuel oil, the Pentagon is focused on reducing costs of the use of current generators by as much as 30%. To this end, there is a momentum to use power generators more efficiently by replacing spot power generation and managing power supply based on demand

T

HE TREND in power generation according to the Army acquisition community is not just to downsize batteries for the dismounted soldier, but to reduce the size and increase the efficiency of power generators. The US Army has developed smaller, lighter-weight power sources and more efficient powered equipment for the past decade. A half size version of a soldier battery (BA 5590) that can last twice as long as the standard battery, and the Advanced Medium Mobile Power source, which uses 21% less fuel than the current Tactical Quiet Generators, are just two examples of the new investments in energy technologies on the battlefield. Engineers working on the problem of power availability in austere environments are thinking more radically. As the need for power and energy on the battlefield continues to explode, these efforts alone are not sufficient. The emphasis has shifted to understanding how to design architectures to advance a more modular approach to the application and distribution of operational energy. It might well be that maximizing the energy efficiency or storage capacity of individual components might not be the only and most effective solution to powering the battlefield.

A New Role for High Performances NSRDEC (U.S. Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center) is also working on high-tech, next generation concepts aimed at integrating power into the fabric of a Soldier’s uniform through the use of high-performance s. This approach draws upon a cutting-edge form of scientific research known as nanotechnology, which involves the manipulation of microscopic matter on the molecular scale. “The vision is to provide power on demand for soldier applications with the weight of the battery or mobility restrictions of cables,” said Dr Marilyn Freeman, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology. In order to get a fibre to be a conducting agent, you have to be able to get

10 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

all the things that manage power into a fibre. The only way we know how to do that is by making things microscopic or nanoscopic, so there is a lot of nanotechnology that goes into making the fibres.11”

The Soldier Conformal Battery One innovative application of lithium ion batteries, developed by the U S Army’s Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center (NSRDEC), in conjunction with the Communications Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, is the soldier conformal battery. This is a thin battery design engineered to align with the contours of soldier-worn body armor plates. The concept with this application is to increase soldier mobility and agility by distributing weight around a soldier’s core, this freeing up space and weight for other essential soldier gear such as electronics and ammunition.12

Rucksack Enhanced Portable Power REPPS A new and convenient way to recharge batteries is the Rucksack Enhanced Portable Power System (REPPS) developed by CERDER. This is a lightweight, portable, blanket-type solar-powered system that can recharge most common military battery types in five to six hours.

The TEMPER Fly Solar Energy Self Sufficiency The TEMPER fly is a solar power generating flysheet, which is put over and shades a tent in use either on operation or for humanitarian assistance. A useful device to reduce the energy needs of Forward Operating Bases, the TEMPER Fly is a roughly 16-by-20 foot tent structure and is able to generate 800 watts of electricity. A QUADrant is a smaller variant of the TEMPER Fly, able to generate 200 watts of power. The Power Shades range in size and are capable of generating up to 3 kilowatts of exportable electrical power. The PV integrated military shelter items use a


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

FOR THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF EXCLUSIVE MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL POWER ELECTRONICS

down and restarts generators. This reduces generator run time and “wet stacking,” in which a diesel engine operates below the rated power output level, causing carbon buildup and damage to the generator.

Non-Traditional Power Sources

lamination process to combine the photo voltaic (PV) materials into the textile substrate.13

Vehicles Developed to Generate Power The US Army is building fuel efficiency parameters into its next-generation Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) designed to export up to 10 kilowatts of onboard electrical power. Similarly, TARDEC the US Army Tank Automotive, Research, Development and Engineering Center, in Warren, MI is heavily involved in researching, designing, and testing next generation power and energy technologies, such as more fuel efficient engines, improved electronics and lighter-weight protective materials such as armor composites.

Improvement in Efficiency in Use of Current Generators With the rising cost of fuel oil, the Pentagon is focused on reducing costs of the use of current generators by as much as 30%. To this end, there is a momentum to use power generators more efficiently by replacing spot power generation and managing power supply based on demand. This new approach automatically shuts

Non-traditional power alternatives are being considered for fielding as part of the Nett Warrior program. 300-Watt Propane and Methanol Fuel Cells provide power to the squad or platoon and can be carried in the soldier’s rucksack. There are also the XX55 Methanol Fuel Cells, which provide power to the individual, team or squad and can be mounted and carried on the IOTV (Improved Outer Tactical Vest) or in an assault pack.

Applications include power supplies, LED and laser diode drivers, magnetics and a wide range of other products

New Robotic Solutions Another possibility is to use battlefield robots such as Northrop’s Carry-All Mechanized Equipment Landrover, which is also in development. This is intended as an overall squad support robot, but one of its responsibilities could be to act as a charging device for batteries. Other companies have similar robot platforms in development. Northrop Grumman is also partnering with BAE Systems to turn the future Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV), which will carry the dismounted soldier into battle, into what is described as a “power export capable node” on the battlefield. Under their proposal, the vehicle will use a hybrid electric drive propulsion system that will have huge reserves of power left over after its primary use that can then be stored in large batteries which would be an integral part of the GCV design. Dismounted soldiers would then simply drop their smart phones and radio batteries into recharge jacks built into the GCV.

Design Criteria, Inc. Innovations in Power Electronics 1821 W. 4000 S. Suite 200 Roy, UT 84067 Phone: 801-393-1414 Fax: 801-393-1415 www.designcriteria.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

The Future of Power Generation and its Components Mary Dub, Editor

What can be said about the future of DC-DC converters within these electronic devices is that the drive will be for smaller, lighter and less bulky cables and components

T

HE ACTION of Moore’s law means that electronic components can get and almost certainly will get smaller and more powerful within a cycle of 18 months or so, let alone the short to medium term future of 5-10 years. The writer takes this to mean that it is perhaps wiser to see the future within the present and project it forward. Mobile computing, mobile sensing, and mobile recharging of batteries are all concepts which are with us in 2014. What can be said about the future of DC-DC converters within these electronic devices is that the drive will be for smaller, lighter and less bulky cables and components. There will also be a demand for greater engineering detail to meet the military standards of precision, accuracy and ruggedness.

Mobile Mission Command Of course, a dismounted patrol is mobile, but there is an assumption that command centers are located in temporary or permanent headquarters. These facilities need to be able to work with coalition forces, so their technology needs must be both interoperable across forces and nations and also scalable. What does this mean in practice? As a vital link between dismounted soldiers and their higher headquarters, tactical vehicles are evolving into mobile mission command centers, strapped with the latest in situational awareness and messaging technology. In 2013/4 the Army plans to field Joint Battle Command-Platform, or JBC-P, the next-generation system providing mounted mission command, friendly force tracking and situational awareness capabilities. JBC-P will also serve as the first version of the Mounted Computing Environment, known as the MCE – one of six computing environments that make up the Army’s Common Operating Environment, or COE, a new set of standards that enable the rapid development of secure and interoperable applications. JBC-P provides the foundation for the MCE, allowing soldiers

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to access new applications, as well as tools they rely on today such as Tactical Ground Reporting, or TIGR.

User-Friendly Mobile Complex Computing for Command Posts This user-friendly JBC-P framework will also operate seamlessly with the smartphone-like Nett Warrior devices that deliver timely blue force tracking and situational awareness information down to dismounted Soldiers. “If you compare the mobile, handheld computing environment to an iPhone and compare the stationary command post computing environment to a desktop computer, MCE, is the iPad, with JBC-P being the core capability,” said Lt. Col. Michael Olmstead, product manager for JBC-P. “You might not necessarily need the same app for the handheld that you need for the command post, but just like the commercial model, they would be compatible and interoperable.”
By incorporating TIGR into JBC-P, soldiers out on patrol can access a searchable database of unit activities that uses a Google Earth-like interface, pictures and text. TIGR can disseminate tactical information across multiple army echelons and systems, and allows units to track people such as local police chiefs, religious leaders or other key figures for counterinsurgency and stability operations. “The ability to upload everything that was significant after a patrol, and to know that anybody on that network can see what I uploaded, is a great asset,” said Staff Sgt. Scott Harrison, with the task analysis branch of the Maneuver Center of Excellence Directorate of Training and Doctrine.15


The Importance of Interoperability and SWaP The Mounted Family of Computer Systems is on the horizon. This new capability will bring interoperability through standardized tactical computers that are scalable and tailorable to the mission and vehicle. It also reduces size,


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

FOR THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF EXCLUSIVE MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL POWER ELECTRONICS

The increased use of radios, sensors and other electronic equipment has resulted in greater weight as soldiers carry additional batteries

weight and power demands, a key element of COE and a crucial enabler for MCE. As JBC-P accepts the migration of more capabilities through the MCE, the need for ever increasing performance is evident.

Gen Ray Odierno, Chief of Staff of the US Army, Lightens the Load for Soldiers When Gen Odierno, Chief of Staff of the US Army was briefed by Experts from Program Executive Office, or PEO, in November 2013, the Program Executive Officer Soldier Brig. Gen. Paul A. Ostrowski told Odierno that reducing the weight carried by soldiers is a personal issue for him,

and is something to which he devotes a great deal of time and effort.

The Move to Power SelfSufficiency with Renewables for Dismounted Soldiers Ostrowski told Odierno that PEO Soldier, the Maneuver Center of Excellence and U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, are working together to find “evolutionary and revolutionary” approaches to lightening the soldier load. Odierno was briefed on two programs which emerged from that effort. One of those briefings dealt with providing power to soldiers in the field, and the other with the rucksacks they carry on their backs. The increased use of radios, sensors and other electronic equipment has resulted in greater weight as soldiers carry additional batteries. Maj. Joseph J. McCarthy, of the Soldier Power Section of Soldier Warrior, told Odierno that future soldiers will use fewer batteries for their devices, and thereby reduce the weight they carry. “This is one of the most important areas we have because it helps solve the problem of weight,” Odierno said. Two of the products McCarthy briefed were the conformal battery, which shapes to the soldier and provides power to numerous devices; and the solar blanket, which converts solar energy to power. The latter is important because PEO Soldier is working to make soldiers energy selfsufficient. During a briefing on rucksacks, Odierno learned that PEO Soldier is collaborating with the Marine Corps on redistributing weight from shoulders to the hips. This is similar to hiking backpacks that use a waist belt to lighten the load on shoulder straps.16

Applications include power supplies, LED and laser diode drivers, magnetics and a wide range of other products

Design Criteria, Inc. Innovations in Power Electronics 1821 W. 4000 S. Suite 200 Roy, UT 84067 Phone: 801-393-1414 Fax: 801-393-1415 www.designcriteria.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MILITARY POWER SUPPLIES AND DC/DC CONVERTERS

References:

UK MOD Future Strategic Trends Programme: Future Character of Conflict

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http://asc.army.mil/web/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/army_al_t_magazine_Final_April-June2012.pdf PAUL RICHARD is DoD’s Deputy Project Manager Mobile Electric Power.

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http://asc.army.mil/web/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/army_al_t_magazine_Final_April-June2012.pdf DoD Outlines Strategy to Reduce Energy Demand Need to reduce energy demand —SFC Tyrone C. Marshall Jr., American Forces Press Service

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Soldier Power http://www.army.mil/standto/archive/issue.php?issue=2012-10-24

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Soldier Power http://www.army.mil/standto/archive/issue.php?issue=2012-10-24

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Conformité Européenne

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http://defensesystems.com/articles/2012/02/08/interview-bg-camille-nichols.aspx

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http://asc.army.mil/web/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/army_al_t_magazine_Final_April-June2012.pdf By Stephen Mapes

BG(P) Camille Nichols was appointed to lead the Army’s Program Executive Office Soldier (PEO Soldier) in March 2011. However, she moved on as commanding general of Army Contracting Command at Redstone Arsenal, Ala..

http://defensesystems.com/articles/2012/02/08/interview-bg-camille-nichols.aspx BG(P) Camille Nichols was appointed to lead the Army’s Program Executive Office Soldier (PEO Soldier) in March 2011. However, she moved on as commanding general of Army Contracting Command at Redstone Arsenal, Ala.. GCN http://gcn.com/microsites/2012/snapshot-c4isr/03-battlefield-batteries-nett-warrior.aspx

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http://asc.army.mil/web/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/army_al_t_magazine_Final_April-June2012.pdf

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http://asc.army.mil/web/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/army_al_t_magazine_Final_April-June2012.pdf

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http://asc.army.mil/web/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/army_al_t_magazine_Final_April-June2012.pdf

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GCN http://gcn.com/microsites/2012/snapshot-c4isr/03-battlefield-batteries-nett-warrior.aspx

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http://www.army.mil/article/116250 Mission command goes mobile December 2, 2013 By Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, PEO C3T

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http://www.army.mil/article/114443/Chief_sees_future_of_Army_equipment_at_PEO_Soldier/ US Army FORT BELVOIR, Va. (Nov. 6, 2013)

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Special Report – Next Generation Military Power Supplies and DC/DC Converters – Design Criteria