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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Multiphase Pumps Technology

A Modular System for Twin Screw Pumps A Successful Offshore Multiphase Pump Installation in the Middle East Multiple Screw Pumps on FPSO Vessels Extracting Best Value From Every Resource Here for Years or Longer Extending the Capability of Production Resources A Game Changing Technology

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Multiphase Pumps Technology

A Modular System for Twin Screw Pumps A Successful Offshore Multiphase Pump Installation in the Middle East

Contents

Multiple Screw Pumps on FPSO Vessels Extracting Best Value From Every Resource Here for Years or Longer Extending the Capability of Production Resources A Game Changing Technology

Foreword

2

John Hancock, Editor

A Modular System for Twin Screw Pumps

3

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH

A Successful Offshore Multiphase Pump Installation in the Middle East

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH

Published by Global Business Media

Multiple Screw Pumps on FPSO Vessels

Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH

Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor John Hancock

Extracting Best Value From Every Resource

High Levels of Investment Mean High Commitments of Cost Governments Have Needs Beyond Bottom Line Profit Alone Higher Yields Mean Better Profits

Here for Years or Longer

15

John Hancock, Editor

Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes

Development

Exploration Production It’s Not Over Until It’s Over Seeking Profit Further Out and Deeper

Extending the Capability of Production Resources

The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated.

Francis Slade, Staff Writer

Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

Challenging and Inaccessible Reserves

© 2014. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

13

Growth Follows Demand; Driving Exploration and Exploitation

It’s Not All Profit in Offshore Oil and Gas Operations

For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

9

Peter Dunwell, Correspondent

Senior Project Manager Steve Banks

Production Manager Paul Davies

5

17

Extending Life, Extending Reach and Extending Capability Running Past Design Intent Subsea Processing

A Game Changing Technology

19

John Hancock, Editor

A Simplified and Ubiquitous Process How the Unviable is Made Viable The Multiphase Pumping Story

References 21

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Foreword I

N A business where all equipment seems to

question, one of the costliest undertakings with

be incredibly expensive and where profit

the prospect of ultimate rewards tempered by the

has to be won in the teeth, not only of the

exceptionally high value of investment and working

usual costs versus returns, but also against a

costs that need to precede any profitable operation.

backdrop of the highest demands for safety

In that context, any technology that can improve

and environmental responsibility, a piece of

returns on current investments and enable returns

equipment with the potential to contribute

on fields that might have seemed less profitable will

positively to all stages of the business must be

be of interest. Following that theme, our next article

worthy of consideration. Multiphase pumps fulfil

considers the time over which an oil or gas field will

that description, being able not only to simplify and

be in operation – from discovery to decommissioning

reduce the equipment on the seabed in offshore

– and how extending the period during which it

operations, but also to improve the efficiency and

generates profits can add value to the bottom line.

profitability of any operation.

In the next piece, Francis Slade looks at a specific

This Special Report opens with three articles that

benefit that can derive from multiphase pumping.

look at the latest multiphase pump technology

Extending the life of expensive installations and

designed and manufactured by Leistritz Pumpen

extending the area from which they can draw product

GmbH. The first article describes a modular

to be processed ensures optimum value from those

system for twin screw pumps, while the second

very large investments referred to above. And finally

article reviews an offshore multiphase pump

we look in a little more detail at the technology itself:

installation in the Middle East which, while presenting

how does multiphase pumping operate and do the

serious challenges, has been completed successfully.

pumps that make it possible work? Properly used,

The third article in the opening section deals

this is a real game changing technology.

with multi screw pumps on FPSO vessels and describes a number of their applications. Peter Dunwell then goes on to look at the wider context within which all oil and gas technology (onshore and offshore) has to operate. It is, without

John Hancock Editor

John Hancock joined as Editor of Offshore Reports in early 2012. A journalist for 25 years, John has written and edited articles and papers on a range of engineering, support services and technology topics as well as for key events in the sector. Subjects have included aeroengineering, auto-engineering and electronics, high value manufacturing, testing, aviation IT, materials engineering, weapons research, supply chain, logistics and naval engineering.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

A Modular System for Twin Screw Pumps

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH, with headquarters in Nuremberg/Germany, has been producing Screw Pumps since 1924. The first Leistritz Screw Pump was developed by Paul Leistritz as Main Lube Oil Pump for bearings of Steam Turbine Generator Sets. With the worldwide largest product range of Twin, Triple and Five Screw Pumps, Leistritz offers complete pump packages, for all kinds of industries. The latest technology in combination with strictly controlled quality is the basis for the globally recognized efficiency and reliability of Leistritz Screw Pumps. During the past years, more and more Twin Screw Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps have been installed in production and processing plants or upstream in the oil and gas industry. Depending on the particular duty, low, medium and high pressure pumps have been installed. Also, the flow rates vary for the particular cases. Typical applications are

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology tankfarms where transfer pumps, circulation pumps, loading and unloading pumps or stripping pumps are installed for handling crude oils, petrochemicals and chemical products. Other parts of the oil and gas industry are served by booster pumps, produced water or pipeline start-up pumps for onshore and offshore production sites. The variety of pump models always required a considerable minimum spare parts inventory. Leistritz Pumpen GmbH now addresses this situation with the re-designed L4 Series Twin Screw Pumps. Instead of individual designs, all pumps are designed and manufactured in accordance with a Modular System. While pump casings, liners and screws are still adapted to the particular operating conditions, bearing covers, bearings, timing gears and the seal components are interchangeable among pumps of different sizes.

Low Opex

Low Capex

Enhanced Recovery Low Weight

L4HG

L4MG

Small Footprint Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4

L4NG

FIG. 1 MODULAR SYSTEM FOR LEISTRITZ L4 SERIES TWIN SCREW PUMPS

Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350째C 662째F

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

With the worldwide largest product range of Twin, Triple and

MG 440 HG 410 SIZE PUMP

3

3

NG

MGMG 410

HG

450

HG410 365

365

5000 m3/h 3400 m3/h 2000 m3/h 3

NG

MG

HG

330

4000 m3/h 2600 m3/h 1600 m3/h 1600 m3/h

295

3/h 2750 m3/h 2200 m3/h 1300 m 3

256

2350 m3/h 1600 m3/h

900 m3/h 900 m3/h

220

1550 m3/h

1100 m3/h

700 m3/h 700 m3/h

186

1100 m3/h

700 m3/h

500 m3/h 500 m3/h

176 HG 150 164

150

700 m3/h

450 m3/h

300 m3/h 300 m3/h

MG 140

128

450 m3/h

300 m3/h

200 m3/h 200 m3/h

116

320 m3/h

200 m3/h

100 m3/h 100 m3/h

100

200 m3/h

106 m3/h

3 80 3/h /h 80 mm

3400 m3/h

2000 m /h

MG 365

405

Five Screw Pumps,

365 HG 330

2600 m3/h

MG 330

345

Leistritz offers complete

HG 295

330

2200 m3/h 1300 m /h

MG 280

310

280

HG 256

pump packages,

1600 m3/h

MG 240

260

for all kinds of industries

4200 m /h FLOW RATE 2500 m /h

HG 220 240

MG 200

220

200

HG 186

MG 164

150

140

HG 128

135

MG 126

126

HG 116

116

MG 106

106

HG 100

FIG. 2 FLOW RATE DEPENDING ON PUMP SIZE

Operators benefit from a more economical inventory requirement because of the reduced number of individual parts, as well as from reduced maintenance needed by the improved pump design. The modular system covers both Industrial and Multiphase Pumps of the Leistritz L4 Series Twin Screw Pumps.

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LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH Markgrafenstr. 29–39 D-90459 Nuremberg Phone +49 (911) 4306-0 Fax +49 (911) 4306-490 pumpen@leistritz.com www.leistritz.com

1100 m3/h

700 m3/h

450 m3/h

300 m3/h

200 m3/h

100 m3/h


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

A Successful Offshore Multiphase Pump Installation in the Middle East

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH

Low Opex

M

ULTIPHASE PUMPS have been successfully used for onshore and of fshore applications worldwide. The technology gained increasing acceptance among the global oil and gas producers for keeping marginal and declining oil fields producing and to reduce flaring as a contribution to a cleaner environment. The majority of Multiphase Pumps operating are based on Twin Screw Pump Technology. These self-priming pumps are of double volute design and hence, hydraulically balanced. The possibility of speed variation by means of Variable Frequency Drives offers a wide operating envelope. Twin Screw Multiphase Pumps are available for flow rates up to 5,000 m³/h (755,300 bpd) and differential pressures up tp 150 bar (2,175 psi). The pumps are designed to handle high Gas Volume Fractions (GVF) and to tolerate gas slugs with 100 % GVF.

CUT-A-WAY OF A HIGH PRESSURE MULTIPHASE PUMP

One of these installations, with Twin Screw Multiphase Pumps, has been commissioned on a Wellhead Platform of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) coastline. The United Arab Emirates consist of seven emirates. Abu Dhabi is both the capital and the second largest city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The country owns

Low Capex

the majority of the UAE hydrocarbon resources. First explorations for onshore oil started in the 1930s and the first offshore oil was discovered in the late 1950s. Local producers, often in cooperation with major international oil companies developed and operate many offshore fields in the area. The production from these fields is pumped from the Wellhead Platforms to central onshore or offshore facilities for processing, storage and export.

Abu Dhabi Installation

Enhanced Recovery Low Weight

ABU DHABI CITY VIEW – FOTOLIA, MICHAEL SCHÜTZE – FOTOLIA.COM

The field with the Multiphase Pump Installation is located a few kilometers offshore the UAE coastline. The field was discovered in the late 1960s and oil production commenced in the middle of the 1980s. Around the turn of the century, forecasts predicted a decline of oil production associated with an increase in water cut. To sustain the field’s oil production at the current level, implementation of short term development projects was initiated, which consisted of installing Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP) and a Multiphase Pump (MPP) at selected Well Head Platforms (WHP). The engineers proposed Multiphase Pumps as a cost-effective technology to transport multiphase fluid via a single pipeline instead of separating oil, water and gas at gathering stations and exporting oil and gas through separate pipelines to central production facilities. Multiphase pumps are essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed

Small Footprint Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4 Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350°C 662°F

www.leistritz.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Multiphase pumps are

well stream, which enables liquid/gas mixtures to be transported over longer distances without the need for prior phase separation.

essentially a means

Many Advantages Pumping the multiphase fluid directly to the central processing facility eliminates the requirement for separators, heater treaters, pumps, compressors and storage tanks at the in-field gathering stations and offers the following advantages: •R  eduction of installation space requirements due to less equipment •R  eduction of operation and maintenance interfaces due to less equipment •R  eduction of manpower due to the fact that MPP installations are suitable for remote control and require no permanent manning.

of adding energy to the unprocessed well stream, which enables liquid/gas mixtures to be transported over longer distances

Further arguments for the installation of Multiphase Pump Technology are: •D  e-bottlenecking of existing flow lines by maximizing the throughput • Integration of low and medium pressure wells into a high pressure manifold/separator

without the need for prior phase separation Conventional Concept

• Integration of marginal fields or remote tiebacks to existing facilities •S  egregated production schemes of medium and low pressure wells by using dedicated Multiphase Pumps •P  roduction restoration of dead wells by reduction of the well back pressure •M  aximum utilization of existing production facilities on a declining field by adding production from remote wells •E  limination of flaring and gas recovery by boosting the unprocessed well stream to central separation facility •R  eduction of unstable flow regimes in multiphase pipelines to higher superficial velocities Multiphase Pumps are designed to operate with variable suction pressures. This is a major advantage over conventional separation systems featuring compressors, which are designed to operate solely at a pre-determined fixed inlet pressure level. For the installation of the Multiphase Pump the operators chose production facilities on a Wellhead Platform with 6 wells. There were three low pressure wells intermittently flowing or not flowing at all due to the high pressure from the remaining wells into the common manifold. Konventionelle Aufstellung Therefore, it was considered technically and commercially feasible to install a Multiphase Pump at the Wellhead Platform connecting the low pressure wells.

Pipeline

Pipeline

Multiphase Concept Existing Pipeline

The Multiphase Pump System, which is now installed on the Wellhead Platform, consists of the following components: •T  he pump skid with the Multiphase Pump, the electric motor, the lube and seal oil system, an automatic filter, the liquid management system, the on-skid piping with motor operated valves and the on-skid instrumentation. •T  he air conditioned and pressurized control Multiphasen Lösung container for the VFD, PLC etc. • The transformer • The low voltage distribution board (LVDB)

Existier

Overcoming Major Challenges

Existing Pipeline oversimplified illustration

2 Phase Separator

Pipeline Pump

Surge Vessel

Glycol System

Compressor

Multiphase Pump

Valve P AND ID OF CONVENTIONAL AND MULTIPHASE CONCEPTS

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The space available for the installation of the Multiphase Pump System on the Wellhead Platform represented a major challenge. Due to the small surface area for the equipment, the skid had to be designed to be as compact as possible. Since there were no close limitations in the equipment height it was Pipeline Pumpe 2 Phasen Abscheider possible to install pump and drive above the Glykol System Ausgleichsbehälter liquid management system in order to reduce Multiphasenpumpe Kompressor the width of the skid. Another challenge was Ventil the small space provided for the transformer. However, finally a manufacturer was found who

Existieren

verei


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology Low Opex Automatic Suction Strainer Nominal Diameter: 6“ ANSI 600 lbs RF Max. operating pressure: 100 barg Operating temperature: 0 ... 100 °C Filtration Area: 8736 m2

Multiphase Pump Suction Pressure: 6,9 ... 32,1 barg Discharge Pressure: 37.93 barg Max. Capacity: 113 m3 Operating Press: 100 barg (max)

Low Capex

Recirculation Tank Capacity: 0,4 m3 Operating Press: 100 barg (max)

TYPICAL P AND ID OF A MULTIPHASE PUMP SKID AS INSTALLED ON THE WELLHEAD PLATFORM

could meet both the project specification and the required footprint. Due to the H2S concentration and the high Chloride content of the produced water, all wetted parts of the pump and the further skid components are made from Duplex Stainless Steel, meeting the requirements of NACE MR0175. The casing insert (liner) is wear-resistant coated with Stellite ®. The pump shafts are sealed by double acting, balanced mechanical seals in back to back arrangement. In case of slug flow, the liquid management system provides sufficient liquid seal to the area between screw tips and casing insert to guarantee uninterrupted production. Pump bearings, timing gears and the mechanical seals are lubricated and cooled by a combined lube and seal

oil system which is also accommodated on the pump skid. The automatic filter protects the pump internals from wear and damaging by solids travelling with the multiphase fluid from the wells. Before shipment to the United Arab Emirates, the pump skid and all accessories were extensively tested on the multiphase pump test bed of the pump and system manufacturer and the premises of the selected sub-vendors. All tests were witnessed by representatives of the end customer. The Multiphase Pump Skid was successfully commissioned during the third quarter of 2008. A new production manifold was installed to separate the flow between the high pressure flowing wells and the low pressure flowing wells. The low pressure wells are connected to the

Enhanced Recovery Low Weight Small Footprint Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4

MULTIPHASE PUMP SKID ON THE MULTIPHASE PUMP TEST BED

Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350°C 662°F

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Before shipment to the United Arab Emirates, the pump skid and all accessories were extensively tested on the multiphase pump test bed of the pump and system manufacturer and the premises of the selected sub-vendors

OFFSHORE PLATTFORM WITH A MULTIPHASE PUMP

suction line of the Multiphase Pump, resulting in a reduction in back pressure for the weak wells and hence, a considerable increase in production.

Summary When the project started a couple of years after the turn of the century, experiences with Multiphase Pumping Technology in the Middle East were only marginal. The application presented serious challenges in view of the design for the restricted space available and the selection of the construction materials. After almost four years of operation, the installation can be considered as successfully completed by both the operator and the manufacturer and supplier of the Multiphase Pump System. Leistritz Pumpen GmbH June 2013

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Multiple Screw Pumps on FPSO Vessels

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology Low Opex

Low Capex

TYPICAL FPSO

Enhanced Recovery

L

EISTRITZ PUMPEN GmbH offers the largest portfolio for Multiple Screw Pumps for Oil & Gas and Marine Applications. During the past five decades, the booming offshore activities of the Oil & Gas Industry has required new approaches to processing and transportation of the well streams from platforms and subsea fields. FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) vessels offer an economical and flexible alternative to further develop remote fields without pipeline connection to onshore treatment facilities. FPSO vessels are converted tankers or specially designed floating facilities which are divided on top with modules for hydrocarbon processing equipment, storage facilities and a marine section. They are permanently moored to the seabed. FPSOs make it feasible to work on small oil fields and allow easy relocation to another field. Flowlines and flexible risers connect drilling and wellhead platforms or subsea wells to the inlet manifold of the FPSO topsides. The well flow is boosted by single phase or Multiphase Pumps. Leistritz Twin Screw Pumps of the L4-Series are particularly suitable for this purpose. They can handle oil, produced water and gas at high flow rates and differential pressure. After entering the inlet manifold of the FPSO the three phases are separated in the First Stage Separator.

Low Weight Small Footprint

TYPICAL FPSO ARRANGEMENT WITH TOPSIDE AND SUBSEA FACILITIES

Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4

MULTIPHASE BOOSTER PUMP ON A WELLHEAD PLATFORM

The separated gas is released to a Gas Treatment Unit consisting of a compressor for either reinjection into the wells (gas lift) or into an export pipeline. The produced water is handled in the Produced Water System and the crude oil is directed to the Second Stage Separator with an Electric Dehydrating System

Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350째C 662째F

www.leistritz.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

FPSO vessels are converted tankers or specially designed floating facilities which are divided on top with modules for hydrocarbon processing equipment, storage facilities and a marine section

ELECTRIC DEHYDRATING SYSTEM WITH LEISTRITZ L4–SERIES TWIN SCREW PUMP

which is used to reduce the remaining water content of the exported crude oil to 0.2 % to 0.5 %. Leistritz Twin Screw Pumps of the L4– Series serve as transfer and feed pumps within the system. The generally high chloride content of the produced water requires Duplex Stainless Steel for the wetted pump parts. The exported crude oil is transferred from the Electric Dehydration System into the FPSO’s own storage facilities by Twin Screw Pumps (L4-Series) or Triple Screw Pumps (L3-Series). High volume Twin Screw Pumps transfer the crude oil to shuttle tankers, which serve refineries and storage terminals onshore. The topside has modules for power generation with gas engines or turbines. Triple Screw Pumps of the L3-Series are used as lube oil pumps on the lubrication systems. Similar systems are also installed on the gas compressors of the FPSO.

Marine Section

VERTICAL TWIN SCREW PUMP AS CRUDE OIL EXPORT PUMP FOR AN FPSO

Triple Screw Pumps of the L2-, L3-and L5-Series are used at various locations in the Marine Section of the FPSO vessel: • As lube oil transfer pumps • As main lube oil pumps and pre-lube oil pumps for dry or submerged installation for the main engine and gear reducers • As fuel oil transfer pumps • As fuel oil feeder pumps • As fuel oil booster pumps • As boiler supply pumps • As separator supply pumps • As hydraulic pumps in hydraulic systems for hydraulic driven propellers, hydraulic motors, steering gears, etc. • As hydraulic pumps for the gears of the winches used for anchors or mooring lines The oil and gas industry and the marine industry offer a wide range applications for

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Screw Pumps. Screw Pumps are Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps which have certain advantages over other pump designs: oT  he capability of handling liquids with low or very high viscosities. oH  igh efficiencies, hence, low power requirements. oL  ow shear pumping of oil/water mixtures. oP  ump flow rates almost independent of the back pressure. o Self priming. oS  mooth and almost pulsation-free operation with low noise level. oC  apable of handling liquids with entrained gas. oEasy flow control by speed variation.

Triple Screw Pumps (L3-Series) and Five Screw Pumps (L5 Series) A set of three (five) screws is installed in a pump casing. The center screw drives the idler screws which are located on either side around the drive screw. The pumped product is carried in cavities formed between the screws and the casing from the suction to the discharge side of the pump. A hydrodynamic liquid film between the drive screw and the idlers prevents immediate contact between the screws and ensures friction-free operation with no wear. Internal hydraulic balancing guarantees low loads on the bearing. A mechanical seal seals the drive screw against the atmosphere. Three (Five)-Rotor-Screw Pumps can handle liquids with good lubricating properties and flow rates up to 700 m³/h (3,100 USGPM) at differential pressures up to 280 bar (4060 psi) and viscosities ranging from 1 to 15,000 mm²/s. The majority of triple (five)-screw pumps are used for the lube oil supply on combustion


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology Low Opex

Low Capex

FUEL OIL SYSTEM FOR ENGINE ROOMS

Enhanced Recovery Low Weight Small Footprint

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR WINCHES

engines and other large rotating equipment. The pumps are either directly attached to the equipment or part of stand-alone lube oil systems, e.g. acc. to API 614. For crude oil with a low API gravity and differential pressures up to 130 bar, three-rotorscrew pumps can also be employed as pipeline or transfer pumps.

Twin Screw and Multiphase Pumps (L4-Series) Twin Screw Pumps are of double volute design and the pump bearings are not exposed to axial forces. The torque from the drive screw is

transmitted to the idler screw by oil lubricated timing gears. The screws are not in contact with each other. This makes Twin Screw Pumps particularly suitable for handling non-lubricating, contaminated and high viscous liquids (up to 100,000 mm²/s) or liquids containing gas. The pump casing is steel welded with an option for various port positions. For sour gas service, materials in accordance with the NACE requirements are selected. The screws are cut from a single piece of bar stock for maximum stiffness and minimum shaft deflection under all operating conditions. Surface hardening increases the

Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4 Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350°C 662°F

www.leistritz.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

With decreasing oil reserves but an increasing oil price, Multiphase Pumps offer the possibility to recover

LEISTRITZ TRIPLE-SCREW PUMP - L3 SERIES

LEISTRITZ TWIN SCREW PUMP – L4 SERIES

efficiently oil and gas from matured fields with low pressure wells

LEISTRITZ FIVE-SCREW PUMP-L5-SERIES

wear resistance of the screws. Drive shafts and idler shaft are sealed by single or double acting mechanical seals. Each screw is carried in heavy duty and lifetime optimized bearings. For upstream applications, Twin Screw Pumps are used as pipeline pumps for crude oil, as pipeline booster pumps, produced water pumps or for gathering and transfer duties onshore, on offshore platforms or FPSOs. Flow rates up to 5000 m³/h (755,300 bpd) and differential pressures up to 150 bar (2,175 psi) can be handled.

LEISTRITZ MULTIPHASE PUMP SYSTEM

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With decreasing oil reserves but an increasing oil price, Multiphase Pumps offer the possibility to recover efficiently oil and gas from matured fields with low pressure wells. Conventional equipment such as separators, compressors, individual flow lines, etc. is replaced by an economical Multiphase Pump Unit, which also boosts the well flow to a central treatment facility through only one pipeline. The huge elimination of flaring contributes to the growing environmental consciousness. A small footprint and the low weight make Multiphase Pumps particularly suitable for installation on offshore platforms. Multiphase Pumps handle oil, water and gas mixtures with gas fractions as high as 100 %. Where longer gas slugs are expected, external liquid management systems are provided. Such systems are located upstream the pump discharge and within the skid limits and provide constant liquid injection as an internal liquid seal between screws and liner during the compression of the gas phase.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Extracting Best Value From Every Resource

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

Peter Dunwell, Correspondent

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology

Growing demand and high investment costs mean that operators must achieve maximum yields from known reserves

Growth Follows Demand; Driving Exploration and Exploitation Throughout the recent economic downturn in mature economies, global energy demand continued to rise with the ever increasing needs and expectations of growing populations in economies at all stages in the development cycle. Concomitant with that, energy prices have risen as supply lagged demand. One effect of this change has been that the economics of oil and gas exploration and production have made ever smaller and technically more challenging reserves, which might once have been regarded as not economically exploitable, now viable. Part of that viability has resulted from the economic side of production and part from technological advances reducing the cost or increasing the productivity of reserves, with particular relevance for small and/or challenging fields. But the capital cost of any developments is enormous (see below), and can significantly impact on any return. In these circumstances, the opportunity to wrest increased productive life from more difficult fields will be welcome. Moreover, while the world’s appetite for energy continues to grow, there is little realistic prospect that sustainable or renewable resources will be capable of filling that appetite in the near future: so there remains a growing imperative to find further reserves of hydrocarbon fuels. While much of the world’s carbon fuel reserves are already known, not all are yet exploited. There are several reasons for this but the most frequently cited is that, as yet unexploited reserves tend to be in inaccessible or inhospitable environments… or both. Few environments better fit the description ‘inaccessible or inhospitable’ than the oceans but significant reserves of oil and gas are to be found far beneath sea-beds, deep below the ocean’s surface and at increasing distances from land. It certainly is a significant challenge. That challenge would be true of all oil and gas reserves but this Report will concentrate

on offshore and subsea operations. Offshore energy discovery and production engages the gamut of engineering skills, driving development of specialist technology, equipment and operating methods to be employed in processes used under water and offshore. These “Subsea [activities] are usually split into shallow water and deepwater categories to distinguish between the different facilities and approaches that are needed.”1 For the purpose of this Report, subsea refers to all offshore oil and gas facilities: altogether among the most demanding and costliest economic activities.

Low Opex

Low Capex

Enhanced Recovery

High Levels of Investment Mean High Commitments of Cost Jason Waldie, Associate Director at energy industry analysts, Douglas-Westwood, speaking at the ‘Subsea Asia Conference’, Kuala Lumpur in June 20112, highlighted a growing side of the offshore carbon energy sector – the production and use of natural gas which he suggested is set “to soar” in the period to 2021, with deepwater gas identified “to be of growing importance.” Part of this reflects known quantities of all exploitable carbon resources available beneath the oceans. But, whether it’s for oil or gas, the subsea offshore energy sector is going to be growing for some time into the future and, given the depletion and finite nature of most reserves accessible from land, producers will be looking to ever more challenging conditions and depths and to maximise yield from all installations in order to win every possible drop of hydrocarbon fuel until long-term renewable resources are available in quantity. The subsea sector is growing: Again at the Subsea Asia Conference e (see above) Jason Waldie predicted that some $77 billion will be spent on subsea vessel operations, new field development, well intervention, and inspection repair and maintenance (IRM) in the period between 2012 and 2016. All of this means, that the

Low Weight Small Footprint Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4 Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350°C 662°F

www.leistritz.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Governments often view hydrocarbon reserves through a wider lens which, again, alters and impacts on the economics of the exploration and production process, making it important to extract the most value from every exploitable reserve

subsea industry is amongst the most promising in the offshore oil and gas world, with subsea capital expenditure (Capex) set to grow at a staggering 14.8% CAGR (compound annual growth rate) to 2017 according to industry analysts Infield Systems. Douglas-Westwood, again, is projecting a global fleet of more than 7,000 fixed and more than 200 floating platforms, and with 190,000 km of pipeline currently installed plus a number of major modification programmes to push growth in offshore operations and maintenance in the next couple of years. So, anything that can materially increase the yield from the reserves on which all of these costs stand will be a welcome addition to the sector.

Governments Have Needs Beyond Bottom Line Profit Alone While all the above is true for the operating economics of oil and gas businesses, governments often view hydrocarbon reserves through a wider lens which, again, alters and impacts on the economics of the exploration and production process, making it important to extract the most value from every exploitable reserve. These wider benefits need to be considered and the cost of both building and maintaining a subsea installation needs to be viewed in this context. The discovery and exploitation of oil and gas reserves can transform a national economy. Not only is the product itself valuable, but also it can drive improvements in employment and technical skills in the locality of the reserves. That will, in turn, benefit the economic capability of the country and generate tax revenues which will significantly affect the ability of a government to provide for its people those staples of modern life such as good communications, healthcare

14 | WWW.OFFSHORETECHNOLOGYREPORTS.COM

and education. So what might be a less than fully economic proposition from a pure business point of view might well be worth exploiting in the wider context of delivering to the local government the kind of economic benefits that they want from oil and gas discoveries in their jurisdiction.

Higher Yields Mean Better Profits Business is about applying investment, skills and time to generate value which can be realised as money. Nowhere is this truer than in the discovery and exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves. The investments are colossal; the skills required to leverage the best performance from the investment are considerable across a broad spectrum of capabilities and the time over which the whole process takes place is measured in decades. For a technology such as multiphase pumping to thrive and develop, there needs to be a demand for what it can deliver. As we can see already, this sits well with oil and gas businesses’ endeavours to get the highest and most sustainable yield and the most value from all of the resources available to them. In their paper ‘Multiphase Pumping with Twin Screw Pumps’3 the authors explain, “Multiphase pumping of crude oil/natural gas/water-mixtures as being delivered from the wellheads to far distant processing plants is a step to promote economic crude oil and gas production. As the subsea exploitation in total will grow faster and faster in the future (expected yield about 40%... from subsea locations), and as the investment for the platforms is progressively increasing with the depth of subsea locations of the wellheads, multiphase pumping will offer attractive chances to improve economy”… which is what it’s all about; getting the best return on investments.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Here for Years or Longer

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

John Hancock, Editor

The life of an oil and gas field is not all profit but producers can extend

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology

that profit by a number of means

Although they are in place for a long time, offshore oil and gas installations are not permanent. While it might play out over three to five decades, there is a lifecycle for offshore oil and gas fields. That lifecycle, according to Ahmad Shukrima in ‘Offshore Oil and Gas Development Projects’4 usually encompasses three broad phases: exploration; development; and production. To that tally we can add one more which is applicable in more mature fields; decommissioning. Plus, there are several more specific phases within each broad phase. The life stages through which installations pass mirror the life stages of a field… exploration, proving reserves, building and installing structures, production and maintenance, decommissioning, and dismantling or making safe.

It’s Not All Profit in Offshore Oil and Gas Operations However we define the lifecycle or life stages, there are no quick profits in offshore oil and gas. On the contrary, to make a profit out of a field requires a very long commitment in excess of three decades of which perhaps only 12 or 15 years will see the producer achieve the kind of returns that make the whole operation worthwhile. Fidan Aliyeva’s 2011 presentation, Introduction to Oil & Gas Industry5, opened with a graph (shown below) illustrating the life

of an oilfield and starkly showing that peak production is an all too brief phenomenon. The graph covers a period of 30 years (not unusually lengthy and possibly short by the standards of mature fields such as the North Sea) with ten years of work (exploration, appraisal and development) and expense before even year zero, when production commences. Production grows to about year five and then commences a steady decline to year twenty when it ceases prior to more expense during abandonment and decommissioning. Any technology that can increase yield during the production period and/or increase the production period itself will add significantly to the overall viability and profitability of the field.

Exploration Ahmad Shukrima (see above) defines exploration as ‘Locating the oil bearing strata beneath the ocean.’ But that is really only the start of a long, complex and costly process. In the ‘How Stuff Works’ article ‘How Offshore Drilling Works’6, Robert Lamb explains the process: “Once oil companies have identified a possible undersea oil deposit, they have to obtain drilling rights. Most of the coast and ocean belong to states or nations, so companies have to lease desired areas from the respective government.” Then the task is to find the

Low Opex

Low Capex

Enhanced Recovery Low Weight Small Footprint Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4 Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350°C 662°F

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Energy businesses have been driven to seek ways in which the most value can be economically extracted from known reserves. There are several ways in which additional value can be leveraged from a field. Most of them require either extending the reach, the life or the capability of the reserve and the installations that serve it

right conditions for an oil trap – the right source rock, reservoir rock and entrapment. Having obtained a license and established the offshore presence of oil and gas deposits, oil companies still must identify the sites most likely to produce oil before even starting to assemble a production installation.

Development In the development phase, the producer will design, construct, transport, install, hook-up and commission the facilities for extracting hydrocarbon from underneath the ocean: Ahmad Shukrima again.

Production Extracting, processing and transporting hydrocarbon from underneath the sea to onshore for further processing and refining is Ahmad Shukrima’s summary of this phase. This is where the return on investment has to be made so any technology, such as multiphase pumping, that will enhance and extend the productive period and improve profitability will be welcome. It is also the phase during which significant risks arise as a result of pumping oil and gas from reserves under the sea to the surface. Leaks, spills and polluting events not only harm a producer’s reputation but can add tens, even hundreds, of millions of dollars to the process. Once again, a technology that adds to the cleanness and safety of the process will be welcome.

It’s Not Over Until It’s Over It isn’t only new discoveries that offer the possibility of profit; existing fields can also continue to yield product if the correct technology is applied. There is a trend in the subsea oil and gas industry towards marginal field development and smaller tie backs to already developed

16 | WWW.OFFSHORETECHNOLOGYREPORTS.COM

fields. To achieve an improved ratio of cost to output, energy businesses have been driven to seek ways in which the most value can be economically extracted from known reserves. There are several ways in which additional value can be leveraged from a field. Most of them require either extending the reach, the life or the capability of the reserve and the installations that serve it. They are all interlinked and interdependent. Patrick O’Brian, Group Director Strategic Business & Marketing at Wood Group Kenny in his December 2012 Oil & Gas UK Presentation ‘Contribution of Subsea Technology to UKCS [UK Continental Shelf] Exploitation – Now and in the Future’7 said “many UKCS projects have the potential for life extension… Subsea technology [development] is making a very sizeable contribution towards the further exploitation and elongation of the UKCS.”

Seeking Profit Further Out and Deeper There is little point in extending the life of a field and installation unless to extract further profitable value from the reserve, over and above what was originally planned. Among the developments that can support this is extending the reach of an installation. The Journal of Petroleum Technology, February 2012 edition8 sums up the situation. “To keep capital and operational expenditures at a minimum, there is an increasing requirement from operators to use existing infrastructure, and, consequently, there is a trend to use subsea tiebacks to existing platforms. Therefore, platforms become ‘hubs’ and often their operational life is extended.” The lifecycle of an oilfield is not a fixed thing and, with improvements in technology, can be altered as well as being made more profitable.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Extending the Capability of Production Resources

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

Francis Slade, Staff Writer

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology

In the drive to get maximum economic yield from reserves, producers are extending the life, reach and technical capabilities of installations

Low Opex Continuing the theme of this Report; the immense investment commitments represented by any offshore oil or gas installation make it a key consideration to get maximum return from reserves. This can be achieved through extending the life and reach of established fields and tackling ever more inaccessible, smaller or technically challenging fields. An obvious way to increase oil and gas production is to find and exploit new reserves but that faces constraints, particularly reducing numbers of reserves remaining to be discovered and often located in ever less accessible places. That said, new reserves will continue to come on-stream for the next few decades or possibly longer as technology makes even challenging reserves accessible and exploitable.

Extending Life, Extending Reach and Extending Capability It’s increasingly viable to bring on-stream fields that were once thought uneconomic, if the probable product could not justify the full investment in field facilities, especially offshore. That is becoming less of an issue as technology improves yields. Also, as older fields decline, their infrastructure becomes available for other fields at far less cost than new infrastructure. With long pipelines tying wells tapping smaller and more challenging reserves back to established facilities, more fields can be profitable. Given the long lives of offshore platforms (often longer than was ever intended); also, with the current trend to add new production facilities into old infrastructure in order to make less viable reserves economic to exploit, existing installations might need to be equipped to handle products that were not in their original design specification or to handle product in a more efficient way that might not have been previously available. Indeed, platforms might even be physically extended with the addition of or a link to another module in order to enable the structure to handle more of

Low Capex

the production process and with longer distances between wellheads and surface installations.

Running Past Design Intent Field life extension is probably the most straightforward way of increasing production, taking advantage of technologies such as multiphase pumping to improve yields. The Journal of Petroleum Technology in February 20129 put numbers on this trend: “More than half of the offshore oil and gas installations in the UK Sector of the North Sea have been operating for at least 20 years. Most assets are approaching or operating beyond their original design intent. With the rise in oil and gas prices and advances in technology, there is an increasing requirement to extend the operational life of these assets.” Life extension programmes are driven by demand and economics. Demand is obvious: with growing numbers of economies seeking to move from ‘third world’ to ‘emerging’ status (and, ultimately, on to ‘developed’), the need to fuel all of those economic expansion programmes means that ever more oil and gas reserves have to be found and produced. That, in part, drives the economic case for field life extension because, when increased demand meets finite resources, prices rise. And when prices rise, reserves whose exploitation might not previously have been worthwhile become economically exploitable. However, with the cost of capital items being so great, purchasing new equipment and structures can significantly counteract any economic benefit; so the opportunity to wrest increased productive life from older equipment will be welcome. As well as life extension for installations, their reach can also be increased with the application of technology. The Journal of Petroleum Technology, (see above) sums up the situation. “To keep capital and operational expenditures at a minimum, there is an

Enhanced Recovery Low Weight Small Footprint Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4 Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350°C 662°F

www.leistritz.com

WWW.OFFSHORETECHNOLOGYREPORTS.COM | 17 multiphase_report_1_3_2.indd 1

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

Field life extension is probably the most straightforward way of increasing production, taking advantage of technologies such as multiphase pumping to improve yields

increasing requirement from operators to use existing infrastructure, and, consequently, there is a trend to use subsea tiebacks to existing platforms. Therefore, platforms become ‘hubs’ and often their operational life is extended. Offshore Technology explained in the March 2007 article, ‘Tieback Time’10, “Subsea tiebacks connecting new discoveries to existing facilities can extend the life of production infrastructure. They are becoming increasingly viable, both technically and economically… Exploiting new discoveries using existing production facilities is an important way of obtaining maximum value from existing infrastructure.”

Challenging and Inaccessible Reserves Perhaps the most challenging environment calls on all of the best technology to make reserves under the Arctic viable in what has been described as the race for arctic oil. It’s long been known that there is oil beneath the Arctic Ocean but now technologies such as subsea processing are making it possible to exploit reserves even beneath the ice itself. Overall, “The exploration of inaccessible and inefficient oil fields with increasing demand for safety, assurances of environmental protection and automation is among the challenges of the future,”11 according to Winfried Neumann. He continues; “With these constraints, the handling

18 | WWW.OFFSHORETECHNOLOGYREPORTS.COM

of crude oil direct from the well becomes increasingly more important. Multiphase transportation… provides an economical and safe alternative for these problems.”

Subsea Processing We’ve already alluded to it, but another way of improving efficiency and profitability has been moving processing and its associated equipment and structures down to the seabed. This development has been dubbed ‘The Game changer’ in the Offshore Magazine article of the name12 in which it is stated that, “… the short-term future for subsea processing is most likely to involve equipment being installed on fields to de-bottleneck topsides facilities. These fields are less likely to be long-distance tie-backs or low-pressure reservoirs and more likely to be deepwater fields or fields with high water content.” The article continues to explain that, while the areas where subsea processing is likely to be used has decreased, the likelihood of operators using the technology has increased, with nearly all of them expecting to install some subsea processing equipment within the next five years. With multiphase pumping being a key component in subsea processing, this is a technology to watch for the future as producers seek ever more ways to economically exploit every accessible reserve.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

A Game Changing Technology

LEISTRITZ PUMPEN GMBH

Francis Slade, Staff Writer

Leistritz Twin Screw Pump Leading Edge Technology

Multiphase pumps enable the development of more fields and can extend the life of fields already in production

A

S PREVIOUS articles suggested, offshore oil and gas producers work in a high cost, high risk environment; so there will always be interest in technology to extend the profitable production phase and/or increase the profitability achieved. One such technology is multiphase pumping and its eponymous enabler, the multiphase pump.

A Simplified and Ubiquitous Process The output from an oil and gas well is far from pure; rather it is a mixture of gas, crude oil (of varying quality and viscosity), water, sand and other chemicals trapped with the hydrocarbons or introduced as part of the production process. In a conventional process, these different substances need to be separated before pumping, which involves a whole array of equipment… including separators, multiple flow lines, stock pumps. At each phase of separation, each ingredient taken from the flow is separately pumped away to the processing plant in an operation known as single phase pumping (i.e. each substance is pumped along its own pipe). Multiphase pumping offers a less complex and more cost effective solution; transporting the entire product in one flow from well to processing. Wikipedia explains the process and its efficiency benefits13… “Multiphase pumping… also referred to as tri-phase, [has] grown due to increased oil drilling activity. In addition, the economics of multiphase production is attractive to upstream operations as it leads to simpler, smaller in-field installations, reduced equipment costs and improved production rates. In essence, the multiphase pump can accommodate all fluid stream properties with one piece of equipment, which has a smaller footprint. Often, two smaller multiphase pumps are installed in series rather than having just one massive pump.”

How the Unviable is Made Viable Such efficiency and cost savings help to make hitherto unviable fields – too small, too challenging, too old – worth exploiting. As OnePetro14 explains, “With the necessary development of small oil accumulation, either onshore or offshore and the increasing depth of offshore exploration… it is widely accepted that there will be a need to pump the effluent from the wellhead to the nearest processing facility without treatment on site. This results from both a technical limitation of the traditional platforms when faced with deeper waters and from economic considerations of lower cost offered by this new technique. “ OneSubsea approaches the subject from a more technical direction 15: “Multiphase pumps are based on a rotodynamic pumping principle and use helico-axial technology. The principle has been developed to add energy to a fluid mixture of water, oil, and gas (i.e., an unprocessed wellstream). The pump is arranged as a multistage unit. The design is inherently robust and wear-resistant in conditions where particles such as sand may be present, a common occurrence in most production systems. The technology has been developed to handle hydrocarbon flow with gas volume fractions (GVF) of up to 100% mechanically and up to 95% operationally. The pump is capable of generating a differential pressure of up to 2,900 psi (200 bar), depending on the actual GVF at suction conditions.” The Authors of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg paper16, ‘Multiphase pumping with twin screw pumps’ confirm: “Crude oil and gas production can be enhanced by multiphase pumping from the well subsea to far distant production platforms.” And multiphase pumps are not only for use at the well head. As well as conferring benefits further up the process, the pumps themselves can also be used in midstream and upstream operations and can be sited either offshore

Low Opex

Low Capex

Enhanced Recovery Low Weight Small Footprint Gas Handling Capability (GVF) up to 100 %

PERFORMANCE DATA L4 Flow Rate Max.:

5,000 m3/h 755,300 bpd

Differential Pressure Max.:

100 bar 1,450 psi

Viscosity Max.:

150,000 cSt

Pumping Temperature Max.:

350°C 662°F

www.leistritz.com

WWW.OFFSHORETECHNOLOGYREPORTS.COM | 19 multiphase_report_1_3_2.indd 1

26.03.14 11:11


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

As well as conferring benefits further up the process, the pumps themselves can also be used in midstream and upstream operations and can be sited either offshore or onshore to serve several wellheads in a field

or onshore to serve several wellheads in a field. It is this ubiquity, the capability to handle the complete well stream without the need for prior separation of its various ingredients that makes multiphase pumps ideal for the development of previously uneconomic fields. Multiphase pumps achieve that capability because they are able to add energy to the unprocessed output from the well so that it can be transported over longer distances than might otherwise be the case. They are also able to operate with variable suction pressures unlike conventional systems which, with separation, use compressors that can only function at fixed pressures.

The Multiphase Pumping Story Although mentioned as long ago as 1957, multiphase pumping is regarded as a relatively new technology. Its history lies in the history of productive oil and gas extraction and the new economics that are driving ever more challenging developments. In their paper, ‘Comparison of Multiphase Pumping Technologies for Subsea and Downhole Applications’17 the authors state; “Since the onset of petroleum production, typical oilfield practice has been to ‘degas’ the well stream as close to the wellhead as practically possible to facilitate the handling of [separate streams of] oil, water, and gas… single-phase production. 20 | WWW.OFFSHORETECHNOLOGYREPORTS.COM

A basic requirement of this concept is that the central processing facilities or topside host be within reasonable distance to each satellite well… but more recently, the economic viability of this scheme has been challenged by … significant  petroleum  accumulations  in  mature  basins [which]  are increasingly difficult to access [plus] resources… ‘stranded’ in locations that do not favor traditional facilities and cannot be economically recovered unless more-costeffective development methods are found.” Winfried Neumann in his paper ‘Efficient multiphase pump station… for Offshore application’18 probably best sums up the importance of multiphase pumping for the modern oil and gas business. Writing about the various challenges to efficient and profitable production from accessibility to efficiency to safety and environmental concerns, he concludes that, “The technology of multiphase transport provides an economical and safe alternative for these problems.” Whether it’s to boost the productivity of declining mature fields, to reduce the costs of developing what might otherwise be marginal fields or to make inaccessible fields more easily incorporated into a production and processing system, multiphase pumping and multiphase pumps will be a large factor in any producer’s calculations of how to profitably exploit a field.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION MULTIPHASE PUMPS TECHNOLOGY

References: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsea_%28technology%29

1

2

Jason Waldie at the ‘Subsea Asia Conference’, Kuala Lumpur

http://www.subseauk.com/documents/subsea%20asia%20-%20jason%20waldie.pdf 3

‘Multiphase Pumping with Twin Screw Pumps’ http://turbolab.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/pumpproc/P17/P17/P17153-169.pdf

4

Ahmad Shukrima ‘Offshore Oil and Gas Development Projects’

www.efka.utm.my/thesis/images/4MASTER/2005/2JSB-P/Part1/AHMADSHUKRIMA011094D03TT2.doc 5

Introduction to Oil & Gas Industry http://www.slideshare.net/fidan/oil-gas-disciplines go to slide 2/15

How Stuff Works http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/offshore-drilling.htm/printable

6

7

‘Contribution of Subsea Technology to UKCS [UK Continental Shelf] Exploitation – Now and in the Future’

http://www.oilandgasuk.co.uk/downloadabledocs/1394/2.%20Patrick%20O%27Brien,%20Wood%20Group%20Kenny.pdf 8

The Journal of Petroleum Technology

http://www.mydigitalpublication.com/article/Offshore+Oil+and+Gas+Installation%E2%80%94Aging+and+Life+Extension/951953/0/article.html 9

The Journal of Petroleum Technology

http://www.mydigitalpublication.com/article/Offshore+Oil+and+Gas+Installation%E2%80%94Aging+and+Life+Extension/951953/0/article.html 10

Offshore Technology, ‘Tieback Time’ http://www.offshore-technology.com/features/feature1033/

11

‘Efficient multiphase pump station… for Offshore application’ http://turbolab.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/pumpproc/P8/P8/P843-48.pdf

12

Offshore Magazine ‘Subsea processing – the gamechanger’

http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-63/issue-11/technology/subsea-processing-ndash-the-gamechanger.html 13

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pump

14

OnePetro www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/OTC-7037-MS

15

OneSubsea www.onesubsea.com/products_and_services/processing_systems/pumps_subsea_systems/multiphase_pump.aspx

16

‘Multiphase Pumping with Twin Screw Pumps’ http://turbolab.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/pumpproc/P17/P17/P17153-169.pdf

17

Comparison of Multiphase Pumping Technologies for Subsea and Downhole Applications

18

http://www.spe.org/ogf/print/archives/2012/02/02_12_16_146784.pdf ‘Efficient multiphase pump station… for Offshore application’ http://turbolab.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/pumpproc/P8/P8/P843-48.pdf

WWW.OFFSHORETECHNOLOGYREPORTS.COM | 21


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