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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Inertial Sensors for Military Applications The Role of Inertial Sensors in Mission Critical Applications The Central Role of Inertial Sensors in 21st Century Warfare Global Market Trends in Inertial Systems Moore’s Laws and 21st Century Security Requirements Sensing the Future

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Innovative inertial sensors for the harshest environments

Built on decades of experience and innovation, InnaLabs industry leading inertial sensors offer high quality robust solutions for the aerospace, subsea, marine, space, energy, industrial, civil engineering and transportation markets. Our high performance quartz servo accelerometers and coriolis vibratory gyroscopes meet the stringent requirements of our customers for precision guidance, stabilisation, navigation and orientation applications. • • • • • •

European supplier - ITAR - free products Quality high performance inertial sensors for superior reliability Commitment to innovation through our highly skilled and experienced engineering team Off the shelf and custom solutions to meet your project needs Competitive pricing and fast delivery Excellent pre and post sale customer support

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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Inertial Sensors for Military Applications The Role of Inertial Sensors in Mission Critical Applications

SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

Contents

The Central Role of Inertial Sensors in 21st Century Warfare Global Market Trends in Inertial Systems Moore’s Laws and 21st Century Security Requirements

Foreword 2

Sensing the Future

Mary Dub, Editor

The Role of Inertial Sensors in Mission 3 Critical Applications InnaLabs Limited

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies

What are Inertial Sensors and what are they used for? Overview of Uses of Inertial Sensors in Military Applications Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscopes Benefits of CVG Gyroscopes Case Study – Low Calibre Gun Turret Stabilisation Quartz Servo Accelerometers Case Study – Inertial Navigation Unit for Missile Conclusion

The Central Role of Inertial Sensors in 21st Century Warfare

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Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

Key Technologies Enhanced by Inertial Sensors The Problems of Size Upgrading Performance at Controlled Cost for GPS Denied Circumstances DARPA’s Micro-PNT Program DARPA’s Timing & Inertial Measurement Unit (TIMU)

Global Market Trends in Inertial Systems

8

Mary Dub, Editor

The Global MEMS Market 2015-2019 The Importance of Links with the Military

For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

The Turkish Government’s Recent Program of Modernisation

The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated.

Moore’s Laws and 21st Century 10 Security Requirements

Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

Moore’s Second Law

© 2015. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Smart Dust: Taking Miniaturisation Even Smaller

Geopolitics – Often a Factor in the Transfer of Technology

Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

Situational Awareness Through the Use of Sensors Linking With Legacy Systems but Retaining the Latest Innovations 21st Century Security Requirements at a Price

Sensing the Future

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Mary Dub, Editor

Improving Ruggedisation for Military Use Submersible Navigation

References 14

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

Foreword I

NERTIAL SENSORS for military application

The vibrant global market for these devices is the

have an established and critical place in many

subject of the third piece, which demonstrates just how

new and ‘legacy’ military applications from

high the level of demand is for these sensors. While

communication technology to ground vehicles,

it is easy to look at the rate of growth and innovation

to missiles and to fighter aircraft. This Special

in the field and assume that a continuing trend is

Report reviews the developments in the field and

certain, this piece points out some of the constraints

the astonishing maturity and ubiquity of these

in manufacture in the field and looks briefly at the

new, yet mature, technologies.

many technological problems to be worked on.

The Report opens with an article which looks at

The final article peers into the future. In such a

advances in inertial sensors and describes their use

rapidly changing field it is difficult to say how the

in commercial and military markets, where there is

technology will develop and what new applications

an ever increasing demand for greater accuracy and

will be found. However, I am risking a prediction

reliability across a broad range of applications. It goes

on the rapid take up and spread of the use of

on to describe InnaLabs proprietary Coriolis Vibratory

these devices. This is an area where optimism need

Gyroscope (CVG) technology, which is based on the

not be guarded.

control of a number of standing waves in a highlytuned resonator, and sets out two case studies which illustrate some of the uses of inertial sensor technology. The second article examines recent developments in the industry and assesses the impact of these new technologies.

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has written about international security in the United States, Europe, Africa and the Middle East as a television broadcaster and journalist and has a Masters degree in War Studies from King’s College, London.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

The Role of Inertial Sensors in Mission Critical Applications InnaLabs Limited

Advances in inertial sensors are helping commercial and military markets meet an ever increasing demand for greater accuracy and reliability across a broad range of applications. Inertial sensors such as high performance accelerometers and gyroscopes provide critical information required for a range of stabilisation, guidance and navigation platforms.

What are Inertial Sensors and what are they used for? An inertial sensor is a sensor whose operation is based on the physical property of inertia, and typically refers to accelerometers – transducers which measure linear acceleration (measured in meters per second squared) or gyroscopes – transducers which measure angular rate of rotation (measured in degrees per second). Inertial sensors are used to detect and measure five distinct motions – acceleration, tilt, rotation, vibration and shock. •A  cceleration sensing refers to the movement of an object from one point to another along a straight line or axis and includes translational movement such as position and orientation. •T  ilt sensing measures inclination or angle of change relative to gravity. •R  otation sensing measures the angular rate in degrees per second of change, or how quickly an object turns in reference to the three axes, namely yaw, pitch and roll. •V  ibration sensing detects acceleration or deceleration. •S  hock sensing measures and detects sudden impacts. The inertial sensors market comprises a wide range of products which vary greatly in terms of performance and price, ranging from the highest grade (often referred to as navigation grade) found in products such as inertial navigation systems, to the lowest grade which is found in automotive and consumer electronics. Inertial sensors are commonly classified under four performance categories:

• Navigation Grade • Tactical Grade • Industrial Grade • Automotive Grade according to the stability of the output of the sensors over time. Inertial sensors range in form, fit and function, from tiny, highly integrated MEMS sensors to large high-precision ring laser gyroscopes. InnaLabs quartz servo accelerometers and coriolis vibratory gyroscopes combine high precision with rugged design and compact sizing making them an ideal solution for a wide range of industrial, aerospace and defence applications. Inertial sensors are used in a variety of defence applications, with each application having its own specific requirements in terms of size, power, weight, dynamic range, bandwidth, bias stability, noise and ruggedness.

Overview of Uses of Inertial Sensors in Military Applications Military applications represent approximately 50% of the value of the annual inertial sensors market worldwide, or approximately $650M in 2014. The demand for high performance inertial sensors in military applications continues its steady growth, as defence forces push for progressively higher performance at lower cost. The largest military application for the highest performance (so-called navigation grade) gyroscopes is in the navigation of airborne, marine or land-based systems. Low end navigation grade and tactical-grade gyroscopes are predominantly used in either platform stabilisation or missile guidance

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

The inertial sensors market comprises a wide range of products which vary greatly in terms of performance and price

applications, in addition to AHRS or backup instrumentation applications. The predominant use of accelerometers in military applications is in inertial navigation systems (INS), in attitude heading and reference systems (AHRS) and in flight control systems for fly-by-wire military aircraft. These safety critical applications require accelerometers with very high accuracy over time, in addition to exceptional reliability, which makes quartz servo accelerometers the ideal solution.

Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscopes The principles of Coriolis gyroscope technology date back to Foucault’s experiments in Paris in 1851, where he used a pendulum to measure the earth’s rotation. In the latter half of the 20th century, gyroscopes based on the Coriolis principle have become increasingly common, with a variety of sensor types being used, based on tuning forks, planar rings, hemispherical and cylindrical structures. InnaLabs proprietary Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscope (CVG) technology is based on the control of a number of standing waves in a highlytuned resonator, whose performance is optimised for maximum sensitivity to Coriolis forces, and with maximum rejection of noise and interference from external sources. These resonators are the core of each sensor, and are shown in Figures 1 and 2 below.

forces acting on the resonator’s vibrating mass elements are sensed by piezoelectric elements, and are transduced into an angular rate signal.

Benefits of CVG Gyroscopes InnaLabs proprietary CVG technology is based on many of the principles which are used in HRG technology, but implemented in metal rather than quartz or silicon, and with piezoelectric pickoffs rather than capacitive transduction. This allows InnaLabs CVGs to offer excellent bias stability across a high bandwidth and with very high shock survivability. Furthermore, the key differentiators of InnaLabs CVGs are the very low noise and very high MTBF (500,000 hours) which the sensors offer.

Case Study – Low Calibre Gun Turret Stabilisation Military forces around the world are rapidly adopting remote weapon stations (RWS) for their tactical vehicles. These systems allow gunners to operate, aim and fire turreted weapons from inside the safety of their vehicle, taking the gunners out of positions where they are directly exposed to hostile fire. Gyroscopes are used to provide stabilisation of the gun turret while the vehicle is manoeuvring, aiming and firing. The InnaLabs CVG Gyroscope is perfectly suited to enhance the capabilities of mobile forces on the battlefield by enabling system design for accurate positioning, firepower control and system durability. The long lifespan and accuracy of CVG systems is driving a significant uptake of this technology in this application, and in both new platforms and retro fits of older platforms using other gyroscope technologies.

FIGURE 1. INNALABS SENSITIVE ELEMENT MANUFACTURING

FIGURE 3 LOW CALIBRE GUN TURRET STABILISATION

Quartz Servo Accelerometers FIGURE 2. INNALABS SENSITIVE ELEMENTS

Each CVG resonator is operated in a resonant mode, where a stable standing wave in the metallic structure is sensitive to rotation applied to the gyroscope. When the sensor is rotated about its sensitive axis, the resulting Coriolis 4 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

An accelerometer is an electromechanical device that measures the force of acceleration. This force can be static (such as gravity) or dynamic (caused by changes in velocity during shocks, vibration or movement). There are many different types of accelerometer which cater to different application requirements. These range from MEMS based accelerometers


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

FIGURE 4 INNALABS SERVO ACCELEROMETER TECHNOLOGY

commonly found in applications requiring lower performance sensors, to high grade quartz servo accelerometers in the most demanding aviation and navigation applications. Servo accelerometers operate on a principle where acceleration causes a seismic mass (known as a “pendulum”) to move. When it does so, its motion is detected by a positionsensing device, whose output is an electrical signal which is fed to a servo control system that functions to generate an electromagnetic force to restore the pendulum to a neutral position. This ‘corrective’ signal is directly proportional to the acceleration, and is output from the accelerometer. Servo accelerometers provide high accuracy and a high-level output and can be used to sense microgravity accelerations right up to ±100g.

Case Study – Inertial Navigation Unit for Missile Inertial navigation systems have been widely used in missile system design with traditional missiles focused on precision and strategic strikes where terminal accuracy is the primary requirement from the INS to the more advanced guided missiles designed to intercept air and ballistic threats where accurate pointing of the seeker is required for target acquisition. High performance accelerometers such as the InnaLabs AI-Q-2000 series quartz servo accelerometers provide a critical component

FIGURE 5 INNALABS AI-Q-2000 QUARTZ ACCELEROMETER FAMILY

for the inertial navigation system which provides the essential navigation data position, velocity and attitude information to flight control systems.

Conclusion Advances in inertial sensor technology are helping commercial, industrial and military markets to meet an increasing demand for accuracy and reliability across a broad range of applications, and at lower cost. As military systems have extensive qualification processes which take considerable time, the need to build long-term solution-oriented relationships which offer benefits of ease-of-doing-business and supply chain flexibility is ever important. InnaLabs inertial sensors are ITAR-free and cost-competitive per performance grade. We are a flexible, innovative and high-quality partner for your strategic programs.

Inertial sensors solutions for the aerospace, subsea, marine, space, energy, industrial, civil engineering and transportation markets. To learn more, visit

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The Central Role of Inertial Sensors in 21st Century Warfare Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

“The ability to update underlying capabilities in large and massively complex systems inexpensively and quickly is crucial to avoid outdated and inferior electronics. The increasing complexity of our major military systems precludes rapid change, so it is essential that we move towards a new model that allows for quick adoption of new and modern electronics.�1 DARPA Microsystems Technology Office 2015

Breakthroughs in microfabrication techniques may allow for the development of a single package containing all of the necessary devices

I

NERTIAL SENSORS are the rapidly developing hidden technology behind a host of applications in the military and commercial sphere. It would be a mistake to underestimate the maturity of the technology combined with the speed of further developments. MEMS (Micro electromechanical systems) inertial sensors are expected to enable so many emerging military and commercial applications that they are becoming too numerous to list. MEMS is probably the most exciting new inertial sensor technology ever, according to Neil Barbour reporting to NATO in 2010.2 In his view, this development is a worldwide effort. Apart from size reduction, MEMS technology offers many benefits such as batch production and cost reduction, power (voltage) reduction, ruggedization, and 6 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

design flexibility, within limits.3 The abstract of the NATO report on inertial sensors highlights three new technologies applying inertial sensors that have advanced their use in the 21st century.

Key Technologies Enhanced by Inertial Sensors Neil Barbour makes the point in his report for NATO that for many navigation applications, improved accuracy/performance is not necessarily the most important issue. However, the value of the device is a function of performance at reduced cost and size. Barbour also highlights the critical role that size reduction plays in the introduction of guidance, navigation, and control into applications previously considered out of


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

reach – for example artillery shells and guided bullets. The critical technologies that have brought about this step change in capability are Ring Laser Gyros, Fiber Optic Gyros (FOGs), and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyros and accelerometers.4 But this is a fast moving field and technology advances are still underway for FOGs. And MEMS are still under active development.

The Problems of Size Writing in 2009 for publication in 2010, it is almost certain that Barbour’s precise assessment of the problems of size have been worked around. However, the issue he highlights is a point worth reiterating – in general, as size decreases, then sensitivity (scale factor) decreases, noise increases, and driving force decreases. Also, the change in Young’s Modulus of silicon is ~100 ppm/°C, which leads to thermal sensitivity concerns. At present, the performance of MEMS IMUs continues to be limited by gyro performance, which is now at around 10 - 30 deg/h, rather than by accelerometer performance, which has demonstrated tens of micro g or better. One of the most recently developed MEMS IMUs is the Northrop Grumman Litef with performance announced at better than 5 deg/h and 3 milli g.5

Upgrading Performance at Controlled Cost for GPS Denied Circumstances Looking at military applications one of the key features that 21st century applications for guidance and control must offer is capability where GPS (Global Positioning System) is denied, for example in the event of cyber attack, or failure of satellite signals. Currently, it appears that a MEMS system with performance of around 1 deg/hr and hundreds of μg may be in development. This will be a serious threat to tactical RLG and IFOG systems. Therefore, MEMS rate sensors and all-MEMS IMUs will still be restricted to commercial systems or tactical grade INS/GPS systems, and will require the integration of augmentation sensors in GPS-denied environments. Interest in obtaining higher performing MEMS gyros is strong, and there are on-going initiatives to move beyond the traditional Coriolis Vibratory MEMS gyro.6

DARPA’s Micro-PNT Program To meet the need for inertial sensors to be able to provide information where GPS is denied DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects

Agency) has been taking forward its MicroPNT program to fill the gap. For decades, GPS technology has been incorporated into vehicles and munitions to meet rigid requirements for guidance and navigation. As a result, a substantial number of (American) DoD (Department of Defense) systems are dependent on GPS data to provide accurate position, direction of motion, and time information. This dependence creates a critical vulnerability for many DoD systems in situations where the intended targets are either equipped with high-power jammers or the GPS signal is compromised.7 The goal of DARPA’s Micro-Technology for Positioning, Navigation and Timing (Micro-PNT) program is to develop technology for self-contained, chip-scale inertial navigation and precision guidance for munitions as well as mounted or dismounted soldiers. Size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP+C) are key concerns in the overall system design of compact navigation systems. Breakthroughs in microfabrication techniques may allow for the development of a single package containing all of the necessary devices (clocks, accelerometers, and gyroscopes) incorporated into a small (8 mm3) low-power (1 W) timing and inertial measurement unit.

DARPA’s Timing & Inertial Measurement Unit (TIMU) DARPA researchers at the University of Michigan have made significant progress with a timing and inertial measurement unit (TIMU). What this means is that the three pieces of information that are needed to navigate between known points ‘A’ and ‘B’ with precision – orientation, acceleration and time can be put on a new chip which can measure all three simultaneously. This design is accomplished through new fabrication processes in high-quality materials for multi-layered, packaged inertial sensors and a timing unit, all in a tiny 10 cubic millimetre package. Each of the six micro fabricated layers of the TIMU is only 50 microns thick, approximately the thickness of a human hair. “Both the structural layer of the sensors and the integrated package are made of silica,” said Andrei Shkel, DARPA program manager. “The hardness and the high-performance material properties of silica make it the material of choice for integrating all of these devices into a miniature package. The resulting TIMU is small enough and should be robust enough for applications (when GPS is unavailable or limited for a short period).”8

Inertial sensors solutions for the aerospace, subsea, marine, space, energy, industrial, civil engineering and transportation markets. To learn more, visit

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Global Market Trends in Inertial Systems Jo Roth, Staff Writer

“The microprocessor industry will continue to grow at a rate that will remain exponential, at least while the current semiconductor technology allows, with direct implications not only on the advancement of knowledge but on the world”9 Brig. Gen. Basilio Di Martino, Director Italian Ministry of Defence

The vigour of the global market for inertial sensors is strong. The rising level of technical development of the product combined with the widespread commercial application for sensors, drive a highly competitive sector that is seeing rapid global growth in demand

T

HE VIGOUR of the global market for inertial sensors is strong. The rising level of technical development of the product combined with the widespread commercial application for sensors, drive a highly competitive sector that is seeing rapid global growth in demand. What is interesting here is that the demand for sensors for commercial products such as cars is serving the mass market while spurring innovation that benefits the military and space sector, which might not alone pay for the level of development required to fuel such costly and innovation intensive technology.

The Global MEMS Market 2015-2019 In a report on the Global MEMS Market 20152019 for Infiniti Research Limited, the prediction for the global market was strong and optimistic. TechNavio’s analysts forecast that the Global MEMS market would grow at a CAGR of 12.3 per cent over the period 2014-2019.10 This report highlights the key driving role played by the commercial automotive segment of the market and the intense global competition in the market place. Specifically looking at gyroscopes, the figures are very similar. The report defines MEMS gyroscopes as motion sensors that detect and measure the angular motion of an object. The gyroscope measures the rate of rotation of an object around a particular axis. There are 1-axis, 2-axis, and 3-axis gyroscopes, capable of measuring velocity in three directions, available in the market. Currently, 3-axis gyroscopes are combined with 3-axis accelerometers and 3-axis magnetometers to achieve 9 DOF (Degrees of Freedom), and these are generally used in

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consumer electronics. The increased demand for mobile devices has propelled the growth of the MEMS gyroscopes market. The analysts’ report predicts that the cost of MEMS gyroscopes is expected to decline drastically during the forecast period, leading to its increased adoption.11 The result of their research is a prediction that the global market in 2014-19 will grow at a rate of 9.1% CAGR. In contrast to the prediction for MEMS devices as a whole, the researchers point towards the growth of the use of gyroscopes in mobile devices as being the most important market driver.

The Importance of Links with the Military While it is quite easy to look at global growth figures like these and see the market as fluid, the military sector is qualified by constraints such as classification and restraints on trade and export. A number of manufacturers of IMUs for the military work with various departments are needed to develop the specific products required. For example Columbia Research Laboratories has worked with the US government to provide IMUs for an extended period of time (since 1957). They have produced guidance systems for helicopters, manned and unmanned aircraft (UAV) plus a long list of military aircraft and missile systems.12 However, it would be extremely unlikely for these products to be freely available on the open market. ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) restrictions apply. For many items like IMUs and MEMS accelerometers, direct application would have to be made to the American Department of State’s Directorate of Defense Trade which approves licences


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

for specific items on a case by case basis.13 Manufacturers of inertial sensors outside the ITAR restrictions can offer considerable advantage to the marketplace.

The Turkish Government’s Recent Program of Modernisation All trade in arms and associated technology comes with political ties. Western governments often wish to exercise an element of control, not only in denial of access to technology, but provision of selected technology to allies. Turkey, a country within NATO, has a strategic position on the frontline close to Ukraine, Syria and Iraq. It has increased its military spending intensively and has a shopping list of ballistic missile defense, strategic airlift, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. According to Lt. General Alpaslan Erdoğan, chief of the Plans and Policy Division of the Turkish General Staff, reported in Hurryiet Daily News in Turkey, the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) are managing more than 600 modernization projects to address the challenges of the world’s new security environment. “The TSK is determined to improve their shortfalls and conduct effective defense planning that would

ensure continuous transformation, in order to adapt to the new security environment.”

Geopolitics – Often a Factor in the Transfer of Technology The modernisation of the army of a NATO member is subject to political oversight. Originally, Turkey was in negotiations to purchase the missiles from Chinese manufacturers. However, problems arose. Turkey, which had provisionally awarded the US$3.4 billion missile defence system contract to China Precision Machinery Import and Export Corp, began to seek other offers. “As a member of the NATO alliance, Turkey should have the common sense to know its defence system doesn’t match [the] Chinese FD-2000 missile system,” said Feng Zhongping, director of European studies at the China Institute of Contemporary International Relations,. “I think [the] real reason behind Turkey’s decision to pull out of the deal … is the great pressure from its NATO allies, with Washington paying close attention to Chinese military technology.” Beijing-based military expert Xu Guanyu said it was possible Ankara would choose the US Patriot system by default, as both China and Russia had been effectively side lined.14

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Moore’s Laws and 21st Century Security Requirements James Butler, Staff Writer

“The complexity for minimum component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year. Certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase. Over the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years.” “Moore’s Law” 1965

NATO cannot ignore the increasingly strong presence of commercial remote sensing satellites

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T IS now 50 years since Gordon Moore, chairman of Intel made this statement. Yet this law, although now qualified, still has resonance for the market for inertial sensors for military application. First, the consequence of this has been a rapid and disruptive rate of change in consumer and communication electronics, such that consumer led-market development drives the development of new sensors and their application, and use by the military has become a race to keep pace. Second, while the rate of development of consumer products has had a strong downward pressure on consumer price, the costs of innovation and manufacture of sensors has had a strong upward pressure on manufacturing costs.

Moore’s Second Law In 1995, Gordon Moore reviewed microchip progress at a conference of the International Society for Optical Engineering. Although he saw “increasingly difficult” technical roadblocks to staying on the path predicted by his first law, he was most worried about something else: the increasing cost of manufacturing chips.15 When Intel was founded in 1968, the necessary equipment cost roughly $12,000. In 1995 the costs have risen to about $12 million, but it still “tends not to process any more wafers per hour than [it] did in 1968.” To produce chips, Intel must now spend billions of dollars on building each of its manufacturing facilities, and the expense will keep going up as chips continue to get more complex. “Capital costs are rising far faster than revenue,” Moore noted. In his opinion, “the 10 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

rate of technological progress is going to be controlled [by] financial realities.” Some technical innovations, that is, may not be economically feasible, no matter how desirable they are.16 The reality of providing 21st century manufacturing facilities for inertial sensors of high complexity remains an expensive and demanding industry.

Situational Awareness Through the Use of Sensors Achieving situational awareness is the baseline of modern defence capabilities. The United States must be able to detect and track any object in order to determine its nature, purpose and potential danger, as Brigadier General Basilio Di Martino underlined in his paper to RUSI17. A possibility, Martino argues, is the management of the existing network of sensors in a ‘smart’ way, through the use of adaptive algorithms, which can identify objects or events of interest. Therefore, it would be the network of sensors itself to decide where to focus, using artificial intelligence techniques.18 This military network of sensors must now operate in parallel to commercial satellite capability that could itself be used to compromise military communication. NATO cannot ignore the increasingly strong presence of commercial remote sensing satellites. Digital information is available in near real time to all sorts of users through simple commercial transactions and if, on the one hand, this capability is extremely useful to supplement the over-stretched resources of military and government constellations, on the other hand there is a good reason for concern. International agreements may try to regulate


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

this type of market, but this is a rather weak form of control that must be complemented by counter-ISR techniques, such as disturbing and deceiving synthetic aperture radars, deploying high-energy lasers and, last but not least, attacking data processing networks.19

Linking With Legacy Systems but Retaining the Latest Innovations The pace and cost of technological development has direct consequences for prime contractors tasked with delivering the latest capabilities. For example, last year Raytheon adjusted its time line with the American Defense Department. The ground system, known as the Operational Control Segment, or OCX, is planned to control the GPS 3 satellites, including their signals, while providing better cyber protection and information assurance than the current GPS ground segment. Raytheon had struggled with the program, whose resulting delays have been somewhat masked by the fact that the satellites themselves are two years behind schedule. The contract

renegotiation began in 2012 and because of the delays the Air Force was able to eliminate some OCX requirements, including backward compatibility with some of the older GPS satellites that will be out of service by the time the new control system is up and running.20 Matthew Gilligan, Raytheon’s OCX program manager acknowledged that completing the mission assurance element of the software, which involves confronting cyber threats, a key requirement, has taken longer than expected.

21st Century Security Requirements at a Price In a paper to be given later this year to the Institute of Navigation, Doug Martoccia discusses the latest security certification issues which include a thorough technical review of a modernized GPS device for compliance with information assurance, cryptographic and anti-tamper requirements. Assessment of new functions, such as modernised anti-spoof capabilities, are also now mandatory.21

Inertial sensors solutions for the aerospace, subsea, marine, space, energy, industrial, civil engineering and transportation markets. To learn more, visit

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Sensing the Future Mary Dub, Editor

Today’s news updates on tablets and mobile phones and the latest wearable technologies carry the most recent information on inertial sensors often, ironically, by demonstrating their use in their own software

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NERTIAL SENSORS are a market and industry which is seeing high investment, vigorous innovation and rapid global growth. It is also a field where change can be disruptive. So it would be a mistake to risk predicting the medium to long-term future. The other factor in the face of intense global competition is secrecy. Those in the industry working on the latest secret developments will be guarding their investment with tenacity. Today’s news updates on tablets and mobile phones and the latest wearable technologies carry the most recent information on inertial sensors often, ironically, by demonstrating their use in their own software. What the news reports is often a new application of sensor technology rather than the development of a new technology itself. One well-reported example, Google Glass, can project directions and e-mails in front of your face. But researchers from MIT’s Media Lab and the Georgia Institute of Technology’s School of Interactive Computing say that they can accurately ferret out data to enable the device to track a person’s stress level as well by monitoring a Glass wearer’s head movements with the gyroscope, accelerometer, and camera. This enables the device to monitor biological signs like heart and breathing rates. The work suggests a new way for wearable devices to observe a person’s stress level and provide

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instant fitness feedback.22 The immediate military applications of this research are not immediately apparent, but capability to monitor soldier’s stress and fitness levels will doubtless have an application.

Smart Dust: Taking Miniaturisation Even Smaller In a world of nanotechnology it is easy to assume that small is feasible, but ‘smart dust’ takes sensing to a new size. Kris Pister, a professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at the University of California, Berkeley and funded by DARPA, has been working on ‘smart dust’ that can sense the environment, process data and share it accordingly. In 2001, Pister and his colleagues conducted a field demonstration for DARPA at the Marine Corps’ base at Twentynine Palms23. A small drone dropped six “motes” the size of a pill bottle near a road. After synchronizing with each other, they detected the presence, course and speed of a Humvee and a heavy transport truck passing by. When the drone passed overhead, the motes transmitted their data to the drone, which then beamed the information down to a base station. The game changing aspect was the idea to create the network with ultra-low power and without wires. And these micro environmental sensors are being developed elsewhere. Recently, a University of Michigan team showed


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

off its Michigan Micro Mote, a solar-powered wireless computer not much bigger than a coarse grain of salt. The Japanese company Hitachi showed off experimental radio frequency chips the size of dandruff flakes.

Improving Ruggedisation for Military Use Future developments on inertial sensors are being worked on throughout the world. A team of researchers in China at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, recently published in the American Review of Scientific Instruments their work on a high resolution space quartz-flexure accelerometer based on capacitive sensing and electrostatic control technology. They describe a quartzflexure accelerometer operating in the low frequency range, with a resolution of better than 1 ng/Hz(1/2). This had been designed based on advanced capacitive sensing and electrostatic control technologies.

Submersible Navigation While much of this report has been focussed on sensors for ground, air and space use, there is a demand for submersible sensors that provide similar situational awareness. Submarines are often tasked with covert operations, so their generally infrequent satellite/radio navigation opportunities and at depth missions mandate an inertial measurement unit as the kernel of the navigation subsystem. A “port-to-port� inertial navigator has been the aim for submersible navigation, but trade offs of size, weight, power and cost necessitate some reliance on augmenting technologies.24 Peering into the future it is more exciting to write about the smallest, fastest, newest and most exciting application for inertial sensors. But perhaps the more prosaic and also potentially the most profitable future for

A team of researchers in China at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, recently published in the American Review of Scientific Instruments their work on a high resolution space quartzflexure accelerometer based on capacitive sensing and electrostatic control technology sensors will be their ordinariness and ubiquity in everyday items from cars, to fridges to satellites to phones. This will also be true for military applications. It is this very ubiquity, when networked that becomes the Internet of things, but also becomes a highly optimistic future demand for more sensors for everyday life, for warfare, as well as for medical devices and everyday business and leisure communication.

Inertial sensors solutions for the aerospace, subsea, marine, space, energy, industrial, civil engineering and transportation markets. To learn more, visit

www.innalabs.com/products

F12-103269 InnaLabs Strip PRINT READY.indd 1 WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

References: DARPA Decentralisation no date given: www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/MTO/Thrust_Areas/Decentralization.aspx

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Inertial Navigation Sensors published by NATO 2010 Neil M. Barbour Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (P-4994) Cambridge, MA 02139, USA http://tiny.cc/kdhqyx

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Inertial Navigation Sensors published by NATO 2010 Neil M. Barbour Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (P-4994) Cambridge, MA 02139, USA http://tiny.cc/ehhqyx

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Inertial Navigation Sensors published by NATO 2010 Neil M. Barbour Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (P-4994) Cambridge, MA 02139, USA http://tiny.cc/lfhqyx

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Inertial Navigation Sensors published by NATO 2010 Neil M. Barbour Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (P-4994) Cambridge, MA 02139, USA http://tiny.cc/0fhqyx

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Inertial Navigation Sensors published by NATO 2010 Neil M. Barbour Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (P-4994) Cambridge, MA 02139, USA http://tiny.cc/yghqyx

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DARPA MICROSYSTEMS http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/MTO/Thrust_Areas/Decentralization.aspx

DARPA MICROSYSTEMS http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/MTO/Thrust_Areas/Decentralization.aspx

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RUSI Defence Systems June 2010, Air Power and Technology: A Tentative Approach to the Year 2025 and Beyond by Colonel Basilio Di Martino http://www.reportlinker.com/p0819258-summary/Global-MEMS-Accelerometer-Market.html Global MEMS Market 2015-2019 January 2015 - Infiniti Research Limited - 79 pages

11 Global MEMS Gyroscope Market 2014-2019 March 2015 - Infiniti Research Limited - 61 pages http://www.reportlinker.com/p02754082/Global-MEMS-Gyroscope-Market.html 12

Columbia Research Laboratories Inc http://www.crlsensors.com/quartz-accelerometers.cfm

The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) and the Defense Trade Function http://www.pmddtc.state.gov/documents/ddtc_getting_started.pdf 13

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South China Morning Post: Turkey hints at scrapping China missile system deal Chinese military experts blast Ankara, saying the US$3.4 billion defence contract was dropped due to pressure from US and Nato PUBLISHED : Thursday, 08 May, 2014, 4:42am UPDATED : Thursday, 08 May, 2014, 4:42am Minnie Chan and Reuters in Ankara http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1506989/turkey-hints-scrapping-china-missile-system-deal

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http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/400710/the-end-of-moores-law/page/6/ The End of Moore’s Law MIT Technology Review By Charles C. Mann on May 1, 2000

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http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/400710/the-end-of-moores-law/page/6/ The End of Moore’s Law MIT Technology Review By Charles C. Mann on May 1, 2000 https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/DiMartinoRDSSummer2010.pdf RUSI Defence Systems June 2010 Air Power and Technology: A Tentative Approach to the Year 2025 and Beyond by Colonel Basilio Di Martino https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/DiMartinoRDSSummer2010.pdf RUSI Defence Systems June 2010 Air Power and Technology: A Tentative Approach to the Year 2025 and Beyond by Colonel Basilio Di Martino https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/DiMartinoRDSSummer2010.pdf RUSI Defence Systems June 2010 Air Power and Technology: A Tentative Approach to the Year 2025 and Beyond by Colonel Basilio Di Martino http://spacenews.com/41708restructured-ocx-contract-defers-some-capabilities-by-2-years/ Restructured OCX Contract Defers Some Capabilities by 2 Years by Mike Gruss - August 29, 2014 http://www.ion.org/jnc/tutorials.cfm to be discussed in June 2015 Modernized GPS Security Certification and Approval Process by Doug Martoccia who is currently the Chief Engineer for Modernized User Equipment at Aerospace Corporation where he does systems engineering and integration for NAVWAR, including finalizing the M-Code architecture across the mission planning system, control segment, space segment and user equipment. http://www.technologyreview.com/news/530521/google-glass-can-now-track-your-stress-level/ Google Glass Can Now Track Your Stress Level A new way to track heart and breathing data, demonstrated with Google Glass, could heighten interest in wearable sensors. By Rachel Metz on September 5, 2014 http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Articles/Detail/?id=184160 Future Military Sensors Could Be Tiny Specks of ‘Smart Dust’ Creative Commons - Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic Creative Commons - October 2014 The 2015 program of the Military Division of the Institute for Navigation https://www.ion.org/jnc/upload/JNC15Program.pdf

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InnaLabs Blanchardstown Industrial Park, Snugborough Rd, Blanchardstown, Dublin 15, Ireland Tel: +353 (0)1 8096215 Email: enquiries@innalabs.com


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION INERTIAL SENSORS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

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Defence Industry Reports – ‘Next Generation Inertial Sensors for Military Applications’ – InnaLabs  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation Inertial Sensors for Military Applications – InnaLabs

Defence Industry Reports – ‘Next Generation Inertial Sensors for Military Applications’ – InnaLabs  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation Inertial Sensors for Military Applications – InnaLabs