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Think water, think WISA!

Water& Sanitation

The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete resource and wastewater management

Africa

An African first

Young Water Professionals

Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre

QUALITY LABORATORY SERVICES Leading the way in water analysis

We speak to Adrian John Viljoen about his appointment to Prentec s board of directors September / October 2011 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R30.00 • Vol 6 No. 5.

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CONTENTS Volume 6. No.5 Think water, think WISA!

Water& Sanitation

The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete resource and wastewater management

Africa

An African first

Young Water Professionals

Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre

QUALITY LABORATORY SERVICES Leading the way in water analysis

34 Omdurman Water Supply and Optimisation Scheme

Eldocrete Dignity Loo

Editor’s letter Letter to the editor COVER STORY Leading the way in water analysis

3 13 4

75

We speak to Adrian John Viljoen about his appointment to Prentec s board of directors September / October 2011 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R30.00 • Vol 6 No. 5.

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TECHNOLOGY Integrated informatics solutions in the water quality sector Accurate technology for AMD treatment Revitalisation of Xiba River Sewage in, water out

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65 68 69 73

WISA President’s comment Young Water Professionals (re)united in Pretoria The water sector’s young movers and shakers

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AWARDS Blue and Green Drop awards

86

PROFILE Prentec announces new board member

22

EDUCATION AND TRAINING Empowering emerging engineering contractors

91

PUBLIC SECTOR Securing enhanced water infrastructure for eThekwini’s citizens Leading the South African water utilities

7 8

25 31

PROJECT Providing fresh drinking water for desert city 33 Omdurman Water Supply and Optimisation Scheme 34 TECHNICAL PAPER Membrane bioreactor plants put to the test

43

AFRICA Innovative water partnership in Africa launched

53

INDUSTRY Optimum Water Reclamation Project Unlocking the potential of anaerobic digestion

SANITATION Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre 75

REGULARS News – International News – Africa Trends and products Level of dams Subscriptions Diary of events

17 19 79 93 95 96

56 61

South African Young Water Professionals conference SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

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Editor’s Keyplan letter

Publisher Elizabeth Shorten Editor Debbie Besseling Creative executive head Frédérick Danton Senior designer Hayley Moore Mendelow Chief sub-editor Cindy Maulgue Sub-editor Danielle Hugo Contributors Dr Jo Burgess, Claire Lipsett, Colin Thurston Marketing Martin Hiller Production manager Antois-Leigh Visagie Production assistant Jacqueline Modise Subscription sales Cindy Cloete Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham Administration Tonya Hebenton Printers United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales Avé Delport Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6224 • Cell: +27 (0)83 302 1342 Fax: 086 502 1216 E-mail: avedel@lantic.net

KICKER

Young Water Professionals making it happen n this issue of Water&Sanitation Africa we are very pleased to introduce a new section dedicated to the Young Water Professionals in the sector. Young Water Professionals (YWP) office bearers Dr Inga Jacobs and Dr Tobias TG Barnard have recently been selected as two of the 200 young South Africans for the Mail & Guardian's special edition, 200 Young South Africans 2011. The individuals were chosen for their impact, their creativity and the resonance of their values with the project of building the South Africa that we all want to live in . The selection criteriaalign perfectly with the ethos and aims of the YWP programme, which Inga and TG are responsible for guiding in South Africa. Also in this section, Dr Jo Burgess reports on the second regional conference of the Southern African Young Water Professionals that was held at the CSIR ICC from 4 to 5 July 2011. The conference was organised by the YWP under the auspices of the Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) and the International Water Association (IWA).

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Publisher

MEDIA Physical address: No 4, 5 th Avenue Rivonia 2056 Postal address: PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117, South Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail: debbie@3smedia.co.za

ISSN: 1990 - 8857 Annual subscription: R270 (SA rate) Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. All articles in Water&Sanitation Africa are copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publishers. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Water Institute of Southern Africa or the publishers. WISA CONTACTS: HEAD OFFICE Tel: +27 (0)11 805 3537 Fax: +27 (0)11 315 1258 Physical address: 1st Floor, Building 5, Constantia Park, 546 16th Road, Randjiespark Ext 7, Midrand BRANCHES Eastern Cape Chairman: Anderson Mancotywa Tel: +27 (0)41 506 2172 Secretary/treasurer: Owen Wentzel Tel: +27 (0)41 363 1984

www.ewisa.co.za

Free State Chairman: Gerda Venter Tel: +27 (0)51 405 9201 Secretary/treasurer: Riana Wessels Tel: +27 (0)56 515 0375 KwaZulu-Natal Chairman: Gordon Borain Tel: +27 (0)33 846 1826 Secretary/treasurer: Stephanie Walsh Tel: +27 (0)31 302 4077

UPDATE WISA 2012 ‒ WATER FOOTPRINTS Next important date: 14 October 2011 The last day for the submission of abstracts was 1 August 2011. All abstracts submitted will go through a peer-review process carried out by a local review panel. Each abstract will be reviewed by at least three members of the panel and the final selection of abstracts will be done by members of the Abstract Reviewing Committee and completed by 14 October 2011. All accepted abstracts will appear in their full form in the conference proceedings, which will be on the conference proceedings CD-ROM that will CDn o ti a it be available to all Water& San Africa delegates. de

Debbie Besseling, editor

Notification of provisional acceptance will be sent to the corresponding author by the end of 14 October 2011. Please note that only the corresponding author will receive this e-mail concerning the abstract and is responsible for informing all co-authors of the status of the abstract. Authors whose abstracts have been accepted will receive instructions for the presentation of their abstract. The presenter needs to be the first listed author on the submission. Any change to the presenting author must be communicated to the committee. It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that the presenter is fully registered and paid for. For further information on WISA 2012 visit: www.wisa2012.org.za

! Africa think WISA Institute of Southern Think water, e of the Water magazin The official

Western Cape Chairman: John Clayton Tel: +27 (0)21 531 6411 Secretary/treasurer: Farouk Robertson Tel: +27 (0)21 400 4574 WISA mission statement

Complet

ce e resour

tewa and was

gem ter mana

ent

African first

Young Waters Professional

The Water Institute of Southern Africa provides a forum for exchange of information and views to improve water

An nology Sanitation Tech Centre ion Demonstrat

Cover opportunity C

QUALITY RY LABORATO SERVICESy

wa Leading the lysis in water ana

resource management in southern Africa.

Endorsed by t his n Viljoen abou s Adrian Joh ctor We speak to s board of dire 5. to Prentec • Vol 6 No. price R30.00 appointment 57 • Cover • ISSN 1990-88 September

2011 / October

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Cover story

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WATER QUALITY REQUIRES EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS Water quality is an issue that requires immediate attention and decisive action if South Africa is to ensure a continuous supply to its people and industries. Factors such as the migration of populations to urban areas, acid mine water drainage, the destruction of wetlands and water pollution are placing ever-increasing demands

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Cover story

on government at national, provincial and municipal level.

ACID MINE WATER Few issues are as contentious as the problem of acid mine drainage, aggravated by a number of high-profile cases of negligence on the part of mine owners in ensuring that wastewater is adequately pumped. The major threat here is the introduction of toxic metals from mines into existing fresh water systems such as rivers, dams and wetlands.

WETLAND DESTRUCTION Wetlands play a critical role in South African ecosystems by providing natural filtration of water, regulating stream flows and creating habitats for animals, many of which are rare. Unrestricted urban development, pollution and acid mine drainage are the major contributors to the destruction of our country s wetland areas.

SERVICE DELIVERY Municipalities are under increasing pressure to ensure the delivery of basic services such as water and electricity. While progress is being made in many areas, unfortunately many smaller municipalities are ill-equipped and under-staffed to ensure the cleanliness of drinking water through effective monitoring, sampling and analysis. Unchecked, these problems will continue to worsen, affecting access to clean water and also reducing agricultural and industrial output. If the country is to provide clean water to meet both current and future demand, the government needs to seek private sector partners capable of meeting its requirements.

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WISA

PRESIDENT'S COMMENT

New WISA branch established o the Mpumalanga branch of WISA that was launched on 7 June 2011 in Mbombela (Nelspruit), welcome to the WISA family. Thank you to the volunteers, particularly Ms Susan Van Heerden and her team, who had worked tirelessly to make our dream of increasing WISA membership and branches a reality. During this launch, I was delighted with the broad representation from municipalities, including officials and councilors from the Department of Water Affairs, Human Settlements, SALGA, consulting firms, water utilities, education/research Institutions, suppliers and youth. There will be youth participation in June and I am looking forward to witnessing the establishment of the Young Water Professionals Chapter. All representatives committed themselves to providing the necessary support to ensure that WISA becomes active in the Mpumalanga province. Working together as a team, we can do more in addressing the service delivery issues.

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3RD MUNICIPAL WATER QUALITY CONFERENCE Hopefully all of those who attended this conference had their batteries charged and are ready to tackle the challenges facing the water sector. The theme of the conference was Reshaping the South African Municipal Water Quality Landscape . The results of the Blue and Green Drop assessment were announced at a prestigious gala dinner. We can be proud that the regulator has confirmed that, for the first time, it has a complete database of strengths and weaknesses per municipality and per water supply system from where gradual as well as sustainable improvement can be monitored.

A total of 66 water supply systems were awarded the prestigious Blue Drop certificates for the 2010/11 assessment period, compared to 38 systems for the 2009/10 year. This equates to an increase of 74%. In terms of the Green Drop assessment, the number of systems that scored more than 50% increased from 216 in 2009 to 460 in 2011. The number of systems awarded Green Drop certificates increased from 33 to 40, and this equates to a 21% increase. This is a positive increase, considering the fact that the Green Drop programme is a year behind the Blue Drop. I am concerned with the misinterpretation of results for these awards. There has been a public perception that municipalities who did not receive Blue and Green Drop certification are performing very badly. It must be remembered that the Blue and Green Drop certificate are awards of excellence, 95% and 90% respectively. Average

performance is from 50% and there is ample room for improvement. We cannot relax whilst there are still systems which attained less than 50%. What caused these municipalities to score very low? Is it a skills capacity issue, finance, etc.? We need to investigate the cause of this and provide interventions. The Water Science Division of WISA runs short courses every year to demonstrate basic knowledge of the water and wastewater treatment process. I recommend that municipalities consider this as it will benefit their process controllers, improve municipalities assessment record and, ultimately, improve the quality of life for consumers. The excitement and joy displayed by the process controllers whilst receiving these awards was amazing. This is the beginning of them being recognised for their commitment in operating the water care works which are, in most cases, out of sight. Congratulations to all those who received these awards of excellence, as well as those that have improved their performance from the previous score. Let us continue to improve our sector as we all want the water sector to the one of winners. The participation by the youth during the conference proceedings was great. The future of the sector will be in good hands for as long as we invest in our youth. Finally, I would like to extend a special thank you to the DWA and WISA team for producing such a successful conference. Thank you also to the councilors from the various municipalities who participated in the conference - your contribution and involvement is much appreciated. Anderson Mluleki Mancotywa WISA President

WISA PATRON MEMBERS • ABS Wastewater Technology

• ERWAT

• Magalies Water

• Amatola Water

• ESKOM Holdings

• Mhlathuze Water

• BIGEN AFRICA Services

• eThekwini Municipality

• NCP Chlorchem

• TCTA

• BKS

• GE Betz South Africa

• Nelson Mandela Bay

• Tecroveer

• Bloem Water

• Golder Associates Africa

• Botjheng Water

• Grundfos Alldos

• City of Cape Town

• Hatch

• City of Tshwane

• Huber Technology

• Rand Water

• Water Research Commission

• Dow Water & Process SA

• ITT Water & Wastewater

• SALGA

• Water & Sanitation

• Department of Water Affairs • Development Bank of Southern Africa

South Africa

Metropolitan Municipality • PD Naidoo & Associates Consulting Engineers

• SAME Water

• SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants

• Umgeni Water • Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa

Services SA

• Johannesburg Water

• Sedibeng Water

• WEC Projects

• Keyplan

• Siemens

• Zetachem

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WISA

KICKER YWP

Young Water Professionals The second regional conference of the Southern African Young Water Professionals was held at the CSIR ICC from 4 to 5 July 2011. Dr Jo Burgess reports on this significant event on the international water calendar. he conference was organised by the Young Water Professionals (YWPs), under the auspices of the Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) and the International Water Association (IWA). The YWPs Programme was established in South Africa in 2008, and quickly became the largest of the national chapters, spreading to become regional by the end of 2009. The IWA has national YWP Chapters in operation in the UK, Russia, Austria, Mexico, China, The Netherlands, Belarus, Australia and other countries, and regional chapters (like the Southern African YWPs) in Asia-Pacific, the Baltic States and, the newest chapter of all, in East Africa. The SA YWP receives immense support from WISA, its home in South Africa, and is able to offer both the

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IWA s global overview and WISA s high-resolution national viewpoint. It is widely recognised that capacity building and sustainable knowledge transfer are critical concerns for several sectors in Southern Africa, and the water sector is no different. The loss of intellectual capital is a major threat to effective water management, particularly in water-scarce countries such as South Africa, where the onus has always been on the scientific community to find technological solutions for sectoral challenges. The repercussions for the sector include high staff turn-over, as well as the loss of skills and institutional memory. Young Water Professionals in South Africa are therefore faced with the three-fold challenge of developing their skills, finding mentors to help them do so and re-learning


WISA

(re)united in Pretoria knowledge that could have been retained through sustainable knowledge transfer policies and programmes. Fulfilling the present and future needs of the water and wastewater industries therefore requires the continuous development of a workforce which is adequate in size, capable in skills and strong in leadership. Recognising that YWPs (students and professionals in the water sector who are under the age of 35, or who attained their most recent qualification within the past five years) are the future of the water sector. In Southern Africa, the SA YWP has been highly successful in providing opportunities for YWPs to meet and communicate; providing career development opportunities for YWPs, supporting employers with recruitment and retention of YWPs, as well as ensuring that the programme remains relevant.

We believe that young professionals will play a vital part in facilitating change in the water sector. The youth are dynamic enough to take change in their stride, while having the mentorship of distinguished water professionals for guidance. YWPs are faced with the consequences of environmental threats, and are passionate about improving the situation. More than this, they aim to improve the way things are done in a fun and positive way, while still maintaining economic relevance and scientific excellence. YWPs are comfortable working in a multi- or trans-disciplinary environment, making them well suited to tackling the challenges facing us today in a communicative, team-based manner. The 2nd SA YWPC was extremely successful. The attendance was over 400 delegates and exhibitors, beating the previous world record (which was set at the 1st SA YWPC). Delegates in attendance were from government departments, water boards, universities, municipalities and private engineering and/or consulting companies. Thirty-five international delegates attended from 16 African countries outside South Africa, Europe and Australasia. In total, 207 abstracts were received. Of these, 103 were poster presentations and 48 platform presentations.

AWARDS The conference hosted an awards lunch, where awards were presented for the Best Platform Presentation and Best Poster Presentation. The Best Platform Presentation Award, sponsored by Iliso Consulting, went to Miss Tanya Yasvoin from the Department of Medical Virology and Pathology at the University of Pretoria. Her paper was entitled First detection of human sapoviruses in river water in South Africa . Miss Yavoin will represent South Africa at the Sixth IWA International YWP Conference in Budapest, Hungary (10 to 13 July 2012). The prize is valued at R20 000 and includes flights, registration fees and a subsistence allowance. The Best Poster Presentation Award was presented to Miss Katayi Mwila from Rhodes University s Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology. The award was sponsored by the Water Research Commission and includes travel, subsistence allowance and

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registration for Miss Mwila to present her poster at the WISA Biennial Congress in May 2012.

SOCIAL REPORTING In another world first for the YWP programme, two social reports (Garth Barnes of WESSA and Mariette Wheeler of APECS) provided video streaming of snippets of presentations and reflections of the delegates on the YWP Facebook page in real time, to provide those YWP members who wanted to attend but were unable to do so with a window into the conference. This proved to be tremendously popular, not only with absent YWPs, but also with those who had been able to attend but had conflicting parallel sessions.

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WISA

KICKER YWP

The water sector s young movers and shakers Young Water Professionals office bearers, Dr Inga Jacobs and Dr Tobias ‘TG’ Barnard, were selected as two of the 200 young South Africans for the Mail & Guardian's special edition, 200 Young South Africans 2011. ccording to Nic Dawes, editor-in-chief of the publication, individuals were chosen for their impact, creativity and the resonance of their values with the project of building the South Africa that we all want to live in: vibrant, prosperous, equitable, diverse and hungry for the challenges of growth and change . The selection criteria for this prestigious list of young South Africans align perfectly with the ethos and aims of the Young Water Professionals (YWP) programme, which Dr Jacobs and Dr Barnard are responsible for facilitating in South Africa. The YWP Programme originally started in 2008 as a volunteer group associated with the Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA), as well as the International Water Association (IWA), specifically their international YWP programme, to answer the needs of the YWP in Southern Africa. Since then, the SA YWP has been officially included as part of the WISA structure as a division to ensure that its activities are sustainable. The aim of the YWP programme is to fulfil the present and future needs of the water and wastewater industries in Southern Africa, an aim which requires the continuous development of a workforce which is adequate in size, capable in skills and strong in leadership. YWP are the future of the water sector, and therefore the future of socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. Addressing the needs of the country, the YWP started a scholars membership base to get the youth excited about working in the water sector. Without water, no other industry can function; without water, no plant or animal life can survive. Dr Jacobs and Dr Barnard see the YWP regional programme as one that transcends disciplines and national boundaries to bring together the next generation of the water community. Young voices ‒ in particular from Africa and other developing regions - are sought to provide insights into the opportunities and challenges facing water sectors globally. Exemplifying this, Dr Barnard, whose expertise is biochemistry and microbiology, works closely with Dr Jacobs,

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with her background in political science, with not a whiff of inter-disciplinary competition or conflict. Dr Barnard featured in the environment category, owing to his role as head of the University of Johannesburg s Water and Health Research Institute at the tender age of 33, his assistance to the Department of Water Affairs during diarrhoea outbreaks and his role as the founder of the SA YWP. He is currently the WISA YWP president and is passionate about water conservation and education. He knows that, with South Africa being among the 30 driest countries in the world, we each have a role to play in keeping this precious resource safe. Dr Jacobs also featured in the environment category. According to the profile in the Mail & Guardian report, this water missionary was voted global president of the International Water Association's Young Water Professionals Programme in 2010, a position that will, she believes, allow her to generate the kind of debate that will make a "real and positive difference

Individuals were chosen for “their impact, creativity and the resonance of their values with the project of building the South Africa that we all want to live in: vibrant, prosperous, equitable, diverse and hungry for the challenges of growth and change”

Dr TG Barnard D

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WISA to ordinary South Africans. As her full time occupation, she is currently part of the water governance research group at the CSIR s Natural Resources and the Environment department in Pretoria. In addition to Dr Jacobs and Dr Barnard, three other YWP members and supporters were featured on the 2011 list, including UCT students Gaathier Mahed and Traci Reddy, and Biomimicry SA leader, Claire Janisch, who made a return visit (she was also included in the 2010 list). With such bright young minds at the forefront of the water sector in South Africa, it appears that there are a lot of good reasons to be optimistic about the future. The full Mail & Guardian feature can be viewed online at http://ysa2011.mg.co.za/home.php. Water&Sanitation Africa takes this opportunity to congratulate these young South African role models for their important contribution to the sector.

The selection criteria for this prestigious list of young South Africans align perfectly with the ethos and aims of the Young Water Professionals (YWP) programme

Dr Inga Jacobs

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Water& Sanitation Africa Since its inception at the beginning of July, the new Water & Sanitation Africa weekly e-newsletter is proving to be very popular, with almost 4 000 subscribers already receiving their copy directly every week.

Subscribe now to the weekly e-newsleĆŠer for the most up-to-date news in the industry! To subscribe e-mail unity@3smedia.co.za | Send your press releases & event informaĆ&#x;on to debbie@3smedia.co.za

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MEDIA


Letter to the editor

WATER SUPPLY Dear Ms Besseling CAPE TOWN S WATER ‒ A VIEW FROM THE MAIN CATCHMENT Over the past 20 years, I have attended several conferences dealing with Cape Town s water, and read numerous articles about it, including your recent one in Water&Sanitation32. In these discussions, no mention was made of the concerns of the residents of the catchments which provide the water. Yet, unless the residents are allowed to control their own water resources, history has shown that there is likely to be tension, which could add external uncertainties to the complicated internal management of Cape Town s supplies. The residents of the Breede catchment, the main water supplier, could take some time to set up their own water administration, which could then guarantee the city s supplies. Until then, they must apply ad hoc measures to preserve the integrity of their catchment.

THE ROOT PROBLEM It has often been said that there is no way to stop cities growing4,19,28. Those who live in farming communities need a great variety of skills to survive, so they often prefer to move to a city where they can practice a single skill, while relying on neighbouring specialists to support them. Thus cities grow. A city s growing population needs additional supplies, including water, which it obtains generally at the expense of the farming communities where the water comes from. The question is, should cities be allowed to grow indefinitely, or should limits be imposed on them? If water runs short, are the cities entitled to refuse to accept immigrants, in the same way as states do, or should they be entitled to obtain additional water supplies by further impoverishing the farming communities?

WATER DISPUTES Some of today s best known disputes between catchments and cities have taken place in the Middle East. In 1964, Syria planned to divert water from the headwaters of the Jordan, thus cutting off supplies to Israeli cities. Israel mounted air attacks on the Syrian diversion works, and eventually captured the Jordan headwaters during the six day war13. Turkey has been damming the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, thus cutting supplies to Baghdad and Basra. There is some evidence that Syria and Iraq responded by backing the Kurdish rebels in Turkey27, and Turkey may have won out by promising

the Kurds a share in the increased water and electricity supplies. Ethiopia is building dams across the Blue Nile, thus cutting off supplies to Cairo. There is some evidence that Egypt has backed the Eritreans invading Ethiopia, but this invasion seems to have resulted in a stalemate6, 29. There has also been a long-standing unresolved water dispute in California between the city-dwellers of Los Angeles and the farmers of the Owens Valley. A hundred years ago, partly through intimidation and bribery, Los Angeles laid claim to water rights in the valley, and diverted much of the water. The situation became so dire that local farmers banded together to dynamite some of the diversion works. Los Angeles has consistently failed to meet deadlines imposed by the courts for rewatering the valley, at least the two contestants are now airing their points of view in public25.

THE BREEDE VALLEY AND CAPE TOWN Tension is building up in our Breede Valley, which provides water equivalent to 40% of the needs of Cape Town, a city which is allowed to grow uncontrollably4,19. Cape Town has paid us nothing for the water. The question is, will the relationship between the Breede Valley and Cape Town go the same way as that between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over the next few years? Our central government controls all water in South Africa4, but in practice will the protagonists ignore the government, in the same way that overseas protagonists have

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

ignored outside arbitrators? Studies have confirmed that water supplies in the Breede valley itself are stressed4. It has however been pointed out that the water transferred to Cape Town is being used to help the poor in Khyalitsha. But we have our own poor to consider, some of whose families say they have lived here since near the dawn of mankind. Shouldn t we give them priority? Why should we favour recent immigrants pouring into Cape Town, mainly from the Eastern Cape22? Shouldn t Cape Town rather limit this influx until it has sufficient resources to support it, and ask the central government to use some of its wealth to improve conditions in the Eastern Cape itself? While some of the diverted water is certainly needed for life-support in the Cape Town area, much of it must be used to promote infrastructure, such as education, medicine, business, etc. Why should the proceeds of this water be used to promote similar infrastructure in the Breede valley? Attempts have been made to show that unemployment in our valley is no worse than in the rest of the country4,22. My impression, based on 40 years service as an engineer/scientist, is that the problem is not unemployment, but underemployment. According to the Cape Town press22, we are regarded as a rather quaint backwater of history, tourism and farming. Thus many of the opportunities available to school-leavers involve heavy labour. Most of the labourers I have dealt with are capable of much more sophisticated work, and the dissatisfaction they feel over their jobs leads some of them to operate outside society (in drugs, crime, drink, etc.). The proceeds of our water

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could enable us to promote technical colleges and light industry. Mafikeng has been given R7 billion to promote industry2, whereas Cape Town pays the central government, rather than ourselves, R20 million per year for our water5. In explaining our subservience to Cape Town over water, we are told that we are lucky to be members of the Western Cape Development Area (WCDA), which includes Cape Town22. What in fact do we gain from our membership of the WCDA? According to the latest newsletter, the WCDA is building a 288-bed hospital for recent immigrants to Cape Town. A noble thought! But why do these recent immigrants find difficulty in going round the corner to Somerset West? How does that short journey compare with the prospect of the long-time resident families in our own community traveling for up to two hours in our own transport in the dark and rain, dodging trucks and road repairs for a 06:00 appointment in George, Worcester or Somerset West? Why not place a hospital in Swellendam? Cape Town s immigrant population (possibly 400 000)22 is around the same as that of the Breede Valley4. The subsidiary medical industries would give a valuable boost to our economy. Some attempts have been made to gerrymander the boundaries of the Breede catchment. In some recent maps and articles, the Theewaterskloof valley, which supplies Cape Town, has been cut out of the Breede catchment8, regardless of the needs of the Riviersonderend. In others, both the Theewaterskloof and Riversonderend have been cut out together4, regardless of the fact that the Riviersonderend flows into the lower Breede, and if supplies are cut off, the lower Breede has to be supplied in total by the central Breede, which is thus impoverished, as is also the upper Breede, which feeds it.

BOCMA You mention32 the present Breede-Overberg Catchment Management Agency (BOCMA), which was appointed by the government in Gauteng. BOCMA has been open about its policies, and this has led to some very fruitful discussion with the Breede residents5. It has set up a public database, which will help create and support policy, as well as allowing for well-informed and helpful criticism. We are impressed by the idealism of the BOCMA staff, but two questions stick out ‒ are their ideals realistic and are the staff appropriately qualified? Although BOCMA has published the names of its governing body and executives, it has not yet defined their qualifications, duties or domiciles4. From conversations during meetings, it appears that a number of them are publicity officers, and many are residents of Cape Town and/or are employed by organisations responsible to head or branch offices in Cape Town. Since Cape Town is competing with the Breede valley for its water, such staff have a conflict of interests and should, according to standard professional practice, resign. Recently, the chairman (or possibly CEO) of BOCMA did, in fact resign5, and it has been suggested that a new body should be appointed by our local municipal councils5, but the danger here is that our only organised local political parties are based outside our valley. The ANC is centered in Gauteng and the DA in Cape Town. Should these councilors therefore also declare a conflict of interest and refuse to vote?

POTENTIAL FOR GROWTH The main immediate thrust of BOCMA policy at present seems to be to redistribute existing water in the catchment to allow emerging farmers to make use of common land. It seems logical to reduce diversions to Cape Town to satisfy these new farmers, but BOCMA


Letter to the editor hopes that existing supplies (excluding diversions via Theewaterskloof) will be re-allocated by mutual agreement. If this is impractical, then an appeal would be made to the courts, and failing that, the police will be approached5. Might the consequent tension fuel unrest in our relatively quiet area? In carrying out its policy, BOCMA limits itself to existing water reserves, without considering additional sources which have not yet been tapped. Possible additional sources, of varying practicality, include vegetation removal4,9, eutrophication management18, Langeberg groundwater3, a barrier at the mouth30, cloud seeding1,26, reuse15, iceberg towing14 and seawater desalination12. If we can exploit even a fraction of these additional sources, we could well have more than enough water available to satisfy everyone, and additional controls would therefore be unnecessary. Homing in on just one of these sources: at present, nearly half the water (912 Mm3/a) which runs into the Breede river (1 904 Mm3/a) flows out to sea from the mouth4. If, therefore, a barrier were built across the mouth, we should be able to almost double the quantity of available water, as well as prevent salt-water intrusion. This would do away with the need for artificial transfers between three main divisions of the catchment, the Central Breede, the Lower Breede and the Riversonderend. The rising water might inconvenience weekenders from Cape Town who have holiday houses on the lower Breede, and their interests would need to be assessed in terms of the contribution they make to the economy of the valley. In France, the la Rance impoundment30 does not seem to have seriously damaged the local ecology. This barrier would be expensive, but not nearly as expensive as the water diverted to Cape Town without payment over the past thirty years since the Theewaterskloof dam

SOURCES: 1.

BBC 2009 China lets it snow to end drought 2. BIGEN 2011 Mafikeng facts, MIDZ 3. Blake, Mlisa and Hartnady 2010 Large scale quantification of aquifer storage and volumes from the Peninsula and Skuurweberg Formations in the Southwestaern Cape. Water SA. 4. BOCMA 2010 Breede Overberg catchment management strategy ‒ first draft 5. BOCMA 2010-2011 Discussions at meetings 6. Boston Globe. 2010. The threat of a water war. 7. BRBS 2000-2004 Minutes, reports and discussions of meetings 8. Cape Winelands Biosphere, 2011, Hydrology 9. Currie, Milton and Steenkamp, 2011, Cost benefit analysis of alien vegetation clearing for water yield and tourism in a mountain catchment in the Western Cape of South Africa. ScienceDirect. 10. Department of Minerals and Energy 2007 Bethlehem Hydroelectric Project

was closed (R1.4 billion) at compound interest). While much of this figure is explained in terms of the cost of engineering the diversion, there is no record of the Breede valley residents being consulted or employed on the diversion. We could also consider creating a tidal power station30, and if we have water surplus to our needs, we should be entitled to sell it to the highest bidder, Cape Town or elsewhere. If water becomes ever more precious over the years, we should be entitled to build a pumping station seaward of the barrier, and sell water to tankers. We could also investigate using the latent power of rain falling over our section of the Langeberg to generate electricity in the order of 200 MW10,33.

we cannot make realistic plans. Thus we must prepare to plan for the catchment by setting up a local laboratory to examine the physics, chemistry and biology of our water, aspects which are closely tied up with weather and use. Until then, as you have said, we must rely on existing water allocation practices, with the proviso that obvious inequalities, such as sea-water intrusion into the lower Breede, and extra demands, such as those from emerging farmers, be catered for by reducing diversions from Theewaterskloof. Eventually, after say ten years, we should be able to defuse the above sources of doubt and tension, by setting up a control body loyal solely to the Breede valley residents, which can deal with the city of Cape Town on equal terms and ensure stability of supplies. This does not mean that the control body will necessarily be anti-Cape. But, just as in the case of the Middle East and California, points of view would be argued in public and we shall all know where we stand. Thus Cape Town could base its future plans on a sure footing.

THE ONLY PRACTICABLE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY As you suggested32, BOCMA has not yet produced a credible statement of water health, in spite of employing sixty staff over a period of six years5. This seems to be a small return on a large investment (R20 million per year5). BOCMA has told us that we must pay its expenses5. It stands to reason that, until we thoroughly understand the health of our water,

Yours sincerely, John Hely-Hutchinson

11.

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry 2009. Western Cape Water Reconciliation Strategy no 5. 12. Gosling, Melanie 2011 Desalinated Water in Cape Town in four years. 13. Grunfeld, Lilach. 1997 Jordan. 14. Janot 2071 Towing icebergs ‒ a new technique to solve water scarcity. Water footprint. 15. Menge, J after 2005. Treatment of wastewater for re-use in the drinking water system of Windhoek 16. Meyer, P.S. Hydrogeological map of the Republic of South Africa 3317 17. Middleton and Bailey 2008 Water resources of South Africa ‒ Water Research Commission 18. Thornton, J.A. and Walmsley, R.D. 1987. Hartbeespoort Dam Quo vadis? FRD/NIWR/WRC 19. Tilley 2011 SA cities join hands for growth ‒ South Africa info 20. Water for a thirsty city, Part 1 2010 Water Wheel 9:6 Water Research Commission 21. Water for a thirsty city, Part 2 2011 Water Wheel 10:1

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Water Research Commission 22.

Western Cape Business 2011 regional overview of the Western Cape

23.

Newsletter no. 5 2011 Does Cape Town have enough water? Western Cape Water Reconciliation Strategy

24.

Wikipedia 2010 Berg River Dam

25.

Wikipedia 2011 California Water Wars

26.

Wikipedia 2011 Cloud seeding ‒ modern uses

27.

Wikipedia 2011 Iraq-Turkey relations

28.

Wikipedia 2011 Urbanisation

29.

Wikipedia 2011 Water politics in the Nile Basin

30.

Wikipedia 2011 Rance tidal power station

31.

WISA 2011 (announcement) Municipal Water Quality Conference 27 June ‒ 1 July

32.

WISA 2011 Water supply for Cape Town and surrounding areas Water and Sanitation 6:2

33.

WRC 2011 (announcement) Workshop on small scale hydro-electric installations ‒ 11/12 May 2011

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Water Puriſcation Plant & Equipment INTRODUCTION SWANSA (PTY) LTD trading as SWAN’S WATER TREATMENT is a privately owned South African company specializing in the design and manufacture of the full spectrum of water puriſcation equipment. Cost effective innovations are incorporated in our process and equipment designs with the plant being customised for each installation. Our extensive in-house expertise, ensures that out advanced technology is applied to the clients best advantage. PRODUCT RANGE • Water ſlters • Moore Airlift Rapid Gravity ſlters • Steel pressure ſlters • Steel rapid gravity ſlters Liquid/Solid Separation • Sludge Blanket Vertical Upƀow Clariſers • Diminishing Intensity Floc Conditioners • Incline Sheet Clariſers • Upgrading of Horizontal Flow Clariſers Chemical Dosing • Helical screw feeders • Rotary disc dry feeders • Water operated dry feeders • Gravity solution feeders • Metering pumps • Gas Chlorinators Efƀuent Treatment • Bioſlter rotary distributors • Aerators • Clariſers Miscellaneous • Package plants • Ammoniators • Sulphonators • Pilot operated diaphragm valves • Laboratory ƀoc testers • Automatic pH control • Comparators • Domestic and industrial cartridge ſlters

Swan’s Water Treatment Prop. Swansa (Pty) Limited Reg. No. 80/11814/07 Plot 91, Honingklip, Muldersdrift P O Box 777 Muldersdrift 1747 Tel: 079 699 5179 Fax: 086 609 1595 P Swan


News

International China CISTERNS SECURE DRINKING WATER IN SW CHINA

Liu Meiqin, a 39-year-old farmer in Qianshan, a village in southwest China's Guizhou Province, turned on the tap of a 30 m3 cistern and began to wash vegetables in a bucket. "It's so convenient. I used to make an hour-long trip up a mountain two kilometres away just to fill a 20 kg basket of water," Liu said. "I had to go there twice a day to meet my family's needs. Now, in winter and spring, this cellar is enough for both my family and my livestock and it only cost me about 1 000 yuan (US$155)." The cistern is one of 12 804 water tanks built in Hezhang County last year. They were named the Tongxin Water Reservoirs by the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China's Central Committee. They will solve drinking water problems for 53 833 farmers in the county. The project, valued at 72 million yuan (US$11.19 million), obtained 50 million yuan of its funding from the department. The reservoirs are one of the latest experimental efforts to prevent severe droughts, like the one that brought misery and crop failure to the Bijie Prefecture, the area surround-

ing Qianshan, from September 2009 to April 2010. Source: People s Daily Online

aircraft and ships to expand its leasing services. Source: Bloomberg

ORIX TO INVEST $1 BILLION IN CHINA FOR WATER AND AIRCRAFT LEASING

The Japanese provider of financial services, ranging from leasing to insurance, plans to invest as much as 80 billion yen ($1 billion) in China over two years (water, machinery and renewable energy). Through private-equity deals, Orix aims to buy stakes in Chinese companies that provide infrastructure such as sewage treatment and solar-power plants, president Makoto Inoue said in an interview in Tokyo. Orix is looking to China as growth in Asia s biggest economy places strain on environmental and energy resources. Developing nations across the region will need financing of $776 billion a year through 2020 to meet demand for power, water and sanitation, according to the Asian Development Bank Institute. Inoue said Orix is looking to invest in water-treatment firms in China s inland areas. The Japanese company unveiled plans in May to buy a 14.5% stake in Hong Kong-based China Water Affairs Group Ltd. The company also plans to buy

Liu Meiqin turned on the tap of a 30 m3 cistern and began to wash vegetables in a bucket (Jiao Meng)

Makoto Inoue, president and chief operating officer of Orix Corp. Photographer: Akio Kon/ Bloomberg

Ireland

years preceding the calamity of the previous winter. Approximately 40 000 people were left without water over the 2010/11 Christmas holiday period in about 80 towns and villages across Northern Ireland - some of them for up to eight days. Engineers made redundant over the past two years insist that their warnings should have been heeded and that mismanagement and maladministration have left NIW in no position to cope with a repeat of the crisis. Source: Belfast Telegraph

NORTHERN IRELAND COULD SUFFER ANOTHER WATER CRISIS

Former senior officials and engineers at Northern Ireland Water (NIW) say that management mistakes helped exacerbate the 'Big Freeze' crisis during last year s Christmas and New Year. Ex-staff members warn that another big freeze could again see tens of thousands of people without water if changes are not made to the way NIW is run. Private correspondence viewed by the Belfast Telegraph reveals that internal alarm bells were being sounded over the falling level of inspections being carried out on plumbing. The whistleblowing ex-staff, who asked not to be identified, also said that NIW had failed to meet its statutory obligations in the two

United States LOOKING FOR GOLD IN WATER PROJECTS

Somewhere in the murky depths of Colorado s water, a pot of gold lurks and there have been many privateinterest attempts to wrest it free with the development of private water projects to serve growing municipal needs. Few have reached the finish line, however. The latest plan was unveiled last week by the GP Water Group, a Littleton-based company that plans to move water

Water Research Laboratory Stellenbosch University Environmental Analysis Laboratory Water division Contact 021 808 4788 or foitw@sun .ac.za for affordable analysis SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

17


News from rights it owns on the Lamar Canal to the El Paso and Elbert counties. Its $340 million proposal would divert the water 150 miles from where it has traditionally been used. Private enterprise has got to lead the way, said Karl Nyquist, GP Water chief executive. He touts both the municipal and agricultural benefits of the project he is proposing. Nyquist and his business partner, David Pretzler, saw the need for a private water project as a result of rising tap fees on their construction projects. Nyquist added that the up-front costs of developing a large project are often too exorbitant for a growing community. There is a competitive market for new sources of water as cities that rely on the Denver Basin aquifers slowly tap it out. Source: Water Information Program

PENNSYLVANIA: 11% OF WATER WELLS CONTAIN METHANE BEFORE DRILLING

Chesapeake Energy‒funded laboratory tests found dissolved methane in about 11% of northern panhandle

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drinking-water wells before drilling for gas in the Marcellus shale even began. Two wells tested in the Brooke, Ohio, Marshall and Wetzel counties contained potentially dangerous levels of methane. Chesapeake released its data to the State Journal as a follow-up to a May study that also indicated methane contamination of drinkingwater wells in northeast Pennsylvania and nearby New York state. Methane concentrations in the study were higher nearer active shale gas wells, with some concentrations at dangerous levels. The methane also bore a chemical signature that resembled gas from the Marcellus depths. That study, conducted by researchers at Duke University and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, recommended research into the potential health effects of methane in drinking water. Although the industry disputed the study, its arguments do not address the study s central findings. The state Department of Environmental Protection requires oil and gas operators to test the drinking-water well of any landowner or

resident within a 1 000 ft radius of a proposed gas well. Consultants collect water samples and send them to third-party laboratories for analysis. Source: The State Journal

YALE UNIVERSITY: THE WORLD'S LOOMING WATER CRISIS MAY BE ANSWERED BY SEAWATER DESALINATION

Over one-third of the world's population, already struggling to keep up with the demand for fresh water, may be able to quench their thirst if a method to filter seawater though an inexpensive process called reverse osmosis is found. The Yale University study argues that seawater desalination should play an important role in helping combat worldwide fresh water shortages and provides insight into how desalination technology can be made more affordable and energy efficient. Reverse osmosis - forcing

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

seawater through a membrane that filters out the salt - is the leading method for seawater desalination in the world today. For years, scientists have focused on increasing the membrane's water flux by using novel materials, such as carbon nanotubes, to reduce the amount of energy required to push water through it. Menachem Elimelech, a professor of chemical and environmental engineering at Yale and lead author of the study, and William Phillip from the University of Notre Dame, have now demonstrated that reverse osmosis requires a certain amount of energy and that current technology is starting to approach that limit. Instead of higher water flux membranes, Elimelech and Phillip have suggested that real gains in efficiency could be made during the pre- and post-treatment stages of desalination. Source: Yale University


News

Africa Kenya JAPAN GRANTS NATION KSH2.4 BILLION FOR SOCIAL PROJECTS

Japan has extended to Kenya KSh2.4 billion (R183.6 million) aid to complete projects on water, education and health. The funds will be channelled through the respective ministries for three identified projects that are aimed at improving quality of life for the population. Japan has agreed

to finance the upgrade of vaccine storage in Kenya, for which it has extended KSh1.07 billion. This is projected to benefit 93% of Kenyans by curbing preventable diseases. KSh723 million will be extended to the Ministry of Water for the Rural Water Supply Project, which is in its second phase. The project is being carried out in water-deficient areas of the Machakos and Makueni districts to dig up 58 boreholes and distribute water to the communities. The first phase was carried out in 2006 in theKitui and Mwingi districts. Toshihisa Takata, the ambassador of Japan to Kenya, said some KSh690 million will be

directed to the Ministry of Education for the upgrading and refurbishing of the Centre for Mathematics, Science and Technology Education in Africa (CEMASTEA), based in Karen. "With the extension of training facilities, the project aims to expand the facility's capacity of training teachers by strengthening mathematics and science in secondary education," he said. Despite recent reports on the misallocation and poor use of grants and loans in some government ministries, Takata is confident that the funds will be utilised efficiently. The envoy also said his country was supporting the country in the drought through SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

multilateral contributions from food relief agencies and on a bilateral level. He said food worth $15.8 million (approximately Sh1.3 billion) will arrive in Mombasa from Japan this month to feed the hungry in the Horn of Africa. Source: Nairobi Star

Mozambique MORE DRINKING WATER FOR MATOLA

Eight small-scale water supply systems were officially inaugurated recently in the southern Mozambican city of Matola, as part of a project undertaken by the government's Water Supply Investment and Assets Fund (FIPAG). These

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Serving our living environment


News systems, based on boreholes, reach people who are not covered by the main public water supply network in the outlying Matola neighbourhoods of Ndlavela, Khongolote, Sao Damaso, 1st May and Nkobe. A further eight such systems have been built in the Maputo city neighbourhoods of Albazine, Zimpeto and Magoanine. Taken together, the 16 systems will benefit about 100 000 people. Work on the systems began in March 2010 and was concluded in December 2010. The cost was 84.5 million

Maputo, Mozambique

meticais (about US$2.8 million or R19.04 million). The money was spent on opening the boreholes, installing the 16 systems and hiring operators to manage them. This initiative is an integral part of the project to rehabilitate and expand the water supply system in Maputo, Matola and the adjoining district of Boane, budgeted at €95 million (about US$138 million). This project is co-financed by the European Investment Bank, the European Union, and the governments of France, Holland and Mozambique itself.

The eight small systems installed in Matola have a total production capacity of 224 m3/d and a reserve of 680 m3. There is a primary network of 25 km of piping, and it is expected that the systems will supply 50 000 people. Speaking at the inauguration ceremony, the mayor of Matola, AraoNhancale, said that these systems honour a promise he made to the citizens of Matola during the campaign for the 2008 municipal elections. "We are implementing our promise to supply more drinking water to the citizens of this municipality, and to ensure that it is brought ever closer to them," said Nhancale. The chairperson of the FIPAG Board of Directors, Nelson Beete, told reporters that the expansion of the Maputo, Matola and Boane system is nearing completion. The work includes expanding the water treatment station on the Umbeluzi River, so that it can produce an extra 96 000 m3 of water a day, building a 19 km-long new water main from Umbeluzi to Matola and improving the existing mains, building new distribution centres in Tsalala, Boane, Katembe, Belo Horizonte and Matola Rio, and installing 600 km of new pipes for the distribution network. Beete said the conclusion of this project will help Mozambique comply

A suburb in Kigali, Rwanda

with the target set in the Millennium Development Goals to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the number of people without permanent access to clean drinking water and decent sanitation. In Mozambique's case, the target is for 70% of the urban population to have access to clean drinking water by 2015. Source: Mozambique News Agency

Rwanda MEETS SANITATION MDG

Rwanda has achieved the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) on sanitation and in fact surpassed it by 8%, according to an announcement by state minister for Energy and Water, Colette Ruhamya. According to Ruhamya, about 58% of Rwandans have access to adequate sanitation. MDG target 7C calls for a reduction by half (50%) of the proportion of people who are living without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. The minister made the remarks at the official announcement of the AfricaSan 3 Conference. "It's a privilege for us to host this conference; Rwanda is the only country in sub-Saharan Africa that has achieved the MDG on sanitation. However, this is not where we want to be; we are aiming higher than this," said the minister.She added that


News despite the experience the country would be taking to the conference, all stakeholders would forge ways of renewing commitment to sustainable sanitation in Africa. The conference would specifically focus on the challenges of accelerating sanitation and hygiene programs on the continent. "During the conference, delegates will mark the official regional launch of the five year sanitation drive and advocacy programme endorsed by the UN General Assembly for engaging countries to improve access to sanitation worldwide," she said. The representative of the African Council of Ministers in charge of Water, OselokaZikora, said that Rwanda has made significant strides on the issues of sanitation that other African countries could learn from. According to the World Bank's senior sanitation and hygiene specialist, Yolande Coombees, countries are currently struggling with turning policies and strategies into action to achieve sustainable sanitation, and the Kigali conference would discuss strategies on how to achieve this. Regarding budget allocation on sanitation, she said that during the previous conference in South Africa it was agreed that countries allocate 0.5% of their GDP to sanitation. Source: The New Times

Uganda CHINESE FIRM IN WATER PROJECT PARTNERSHIP

The feasibility study will be undertaken by three experts from China in October. Source: The Monitor

Zambia GOVERNMENT STARTS SHANG'OMBO WATER PROJECT

The government has Ankole-Masaka cattle

Eleven districts in the Ankole-Masaka cattle corridor are in negotiations with China Heavy Machinery Corporation (CHMC) to provide technical expertise and funds for a proposed farming water project. The group, under its umbrella Association of Eleven Water Stressed Districts, also intends to extract underground water and carry out rainwater harvesting with support from the Chinese governmentowned company. Targeted water sources are lakes Mburo, Kachera, Kaijanibarora and Nakivale and rivers Rwizi and Bukoora. The Gomba, Kyegegwa, Lyantonde, Isingiro, Lwengo, Ssembabule, Rakai, Ibanda, Kiruhura, Mbarara and Kamwenge districts in June formed the association to address water scarcity in the area collectively. District officials and MPs met CHMC vice-president Wang Weiguo in Lyantonde on Friday and agreed to co-fund a feasibility study on the project.

embarked on a K1.8 billion (approximately R2.5 million) water reticulation programme in Shangombo District in Western Province. Shang'ombo district commissioner Kabayo Masheke confirmed the development in an interview in Sesheke. Masheke said the programme was being carried out by Logic and Chriscall Company, and that it was scheduled for completion in three months. "We are hopeful that the works on the water reticulation system will be completed by the end of July," he said. He said that piped water had now been made available to the people of Shang'ombo. The government was also working on Kanyimba Dam, which would be used for agricultural purposes. According to Sesheke district commissioner Wanyambe Mwiya, "The Kanyimba Dam is now complete and it will be used for agriculture. We are hoping to procure 10 000 fingerlings to grow fish and help boost the agriculture sector in Zambia." SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

The government was also hoping to use the dam for irrigation and effectively contribute to the development of agriculture. Mwiya, however, bemoaned the inadequate infrastructure in the district, saying it was hindering development. Senanga district commissioner Kwalombota Muwanei has said the 223 km Sesheke-Senanga road that is under construction by the government will go a long way towards opening up Western Province to trade. Muwanei said in an interview that the road would especially open up Shang'ombo and Senanga, districts which had been isolated for a long time. He said the road would be beneficial to the people of Shang'ombo, who had for a long time been using the Senanga-Kalongolo road, which was unreliable as it was seasonal and at times required the use of a pontoon. The multi-billion road construction project, which will cost K706 billion, started in July last year and is scheduled for completion in July next year. Source: Times of Zambia

Kanyimba Dam

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Profile

NEW APPOINTMENT

Prentec announces new board member After 35 years in business, Prentec recently announced the appointment of Adrian John Viljoen to its board of directors. Debbie Besseling speaks to Viljoen and MD Stewart Buchanan about the new appointment and Prentec’s current position in the industry. AV: What are your overall responsibilities as Prentec s process director? My goals are to develop the process capabilities of Prentec and widen its offering to the market. Prentec has highquality, tried and tested technology in the following fields: • sewage treatment • industrial wastewater treatment • water demineralisation using ion exchange • potablewater production through clarifiers, filters and other conventional water treatment equipment. This offering is augmented by the technologies that I have extensive experience in and am able to engineer, such as ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, nano-filtration, seawater desalination and mine water reclamation. In addition, we intend to expand Prentec s multidisciplinary engineering capability. This will enable us to offer increasingly large-scale project solutions in the water field. So, with our unique combination of design and engineering, manufacturing and multidisciplinary project and installation capabilities, we are striving to be highly competitive while maintaining our reputation as a supplier of lasting quality equipment.

AV: You have been associated with Prentec for more than 20 years.What is the background to your joining the company? Previously I held the position of managing director of Keyplan, where I was a long-time partner of Prentec founder, John Buchanan. I therefore know Prentec and its people very well and saw this as a natural progression and tremendous opportunity to combine

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our passions for developing new and exciting solutions in the water and wastewater industries.

SB: Prentec s main business since 1974 has been as a provider of sewage and industrial effluent treatment technology. Tell us about some of the company s milestones during this time. • Being able to provide over 36 years of hands-on engineering experience under both local and international conditions has taught us the value of genuine follow-on contractual actions, such as commissioning, testing, training full support and maintenance, so providing a true turnkey operation. • The continual development of the Prentec House complex, housed on 15 000 m 2 of land andthe prestigious 800 m 2 double-storey office block, in addition to over 7 000 m2 of fabrication bays under roof, a precast concrete panel casting bay and various plant assembly bays. • On-going repeated business: Prentec s second order at the start of the business in 1974, and our largest wastewater treatment plant recently completed in Lephalale, were both executed for the same client. This has labelled Prentec as the partner that delivers on its promises.

SB: Following Adrian s appointment, does Prentec intend on having any new areas of focus? Prentec has, for over 36 years, been providing turnkey robust water and wastewater treatment solutions to the industry around the world. However, we have not been as active as I would

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

Adrian Viljoen Education: • 1983 BSc Engineering (Chemical), University of Witwatersrand • 1986 BEng (Hons) Water Utilisaton Engineering, University of Pretoria Experience: • 1989 to 2010: Technical director, Keyplan Career highlights: • Developed from first principles ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis application technology. • Key inventor of multistage precipitating reverse osmosis processes, which are now the world benchmark for acid mine drainage reclamation. • Instrumental in the development of the 56Mℓ/d seawater desalination plant in Namibia for Areva. Professional memberships: • WISA, ECSA, SAIChE have liked in developing and implementing membrane technologies. I believe that, with Adrian joining the Prentec team, a new portfolio of linked


Prentec’s board of directors • Stewart Buchanan: Managing director Responsibilities: Company general management, strategic development, etc., as well as mechanical and process design, project management and commissioning • Glen Ford: Engineering director Responsibilities: Company general management, strategic development of fabrication business, workshop management, sales and marketing • Adrian Viljoen: Process director Responsibilities: Company strategic development, process design and development, as well as sales and marketing

Solution for partially filled pipes

technologies will complement and expand our potential in meeting the ever-growing demand for innovative treatment solutions for the industry.

SB: At a strategic level, what can you tell us about Prentec s plans for the next five years? It was critical to align ourselves with a key innovative process engineer for the long-term sustainability of Prentec. In addition to Adrian s experience in technology development, including membrane-based water treatment, he brings a wealth of knowledge and experience in the field of mine water treatment and reclamation. Ultimately, our aim

Ultimately, our aim is to partner with people and the communities and economies in which we operate and leave a sustainable legacy for future generations is to partner with people and the communities and economies in which we operate and leave a sustainable legacy for future generations.

SB: What challenges does the company face in the water industry right now? One of the greatest challenges is on the completion of projects, where it is essential to hand over the operations of our plants to competent and skilled operators. However, we are proactive in terms of our service offering and provide a full operations and maintenance facility.

achieve more

No need for civil work and flumes anymore! The TIDALFLUX 4000 flow sensor with integrated and non-contact capacitive level measuring system provides accurate flow measurement in partially filled pipes. It is designed to measure reliably between 10% and 100% of the pipe cross section. The integrated level sensors in the liner are in no contact with the liquid and are therefore insensitive against fat and oil floating on the surface. The sensor has been designed for measuring all water and wastewater applications including groundwater, potable water, wastewater, sludge and sewage, industry water and salt water in partially filled pipes. Available for a wide diameter range of DN200 up to DN1600 for flow rates up to 90,000 m3/hr! The TIDALFLUX 4000 causes no pressure loss and allows for bi-directional flow metering. With no Filters or straighteners required the flow meter can be installed underground and allows for constant flooding (IP 68). The TIDALFLUX4000 provides years of reliable measurements as it has no internal moving parts and nothing can wear. KROHNE - Process engineering is our world Please see our website for more information

About Prentec Since 1974, Prentec has led the way as South Africa s premier provider of water, sewage and industrial effluent treatment technology. Combined with its modern manufacturing facility, equipped to provide process plant and equipment fabrication in both carbon and stainless steel, Prentec offers its clients world-class process engineering solutions, from concept to completion.

KROHNE South Africa 8 Bushbuck Close Corporate Park South, Randtjies Park, Midrand John Alexander Tel: +27 011 31 4 1391 Fax: +27 011 314 1681 Cell: +27 082 556 3934 johna@krohnesa.co.za


Public sector

KWAZULU-NATAL

Securing enhanced water infrastructure for eThekwini s citizens The AC pipe replacement project that began in July 2007 is a very significant project undertaken in the area of eThekwini. In this issue of Water&Sanitation Africa, we provide an overview of the project. he area of eThekwini Unicity, comprising the City of Durban and 64 incorporated local authorities covering an area of 2 300 km 2, is an area which in the past experienced up to 150 daily water main bursts and frequent leaks. It was subsequently revealed that a prime cause of these problems was the failure of un-dipped asbestos cement (AC) water pipes used to distribute the area s water. Because eThekwini s water is 'soft' i.e. lacking in calcium and magnesium, it reacted chemically with the lining of the 25 to 50 year old AC pipes, causing softening and deformation which ultimately led to leaks and bursts. The cost of these bursts was estimated at R584 million per annum. From GIS records, it was identified that approximately 2 000 km of 160 mm un-dipped AC pipe needed replacing. Through a tender process based on the New Engineering Contract (NEC3), Aurecon was appointed as programme manager, together with four design consultants and four large contractors, to implement the AC pipe replacement project, which began in July 2007.

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PROJECT DELIVERY EXCELLENCE To ensure delivery excellence on such a large project, it was necessary to divide eThekwini into four geographic areas with a large contractor, design consultant and four sub-contractors allocated to each area. Based on the burst records, reservoir zones within each area were prioritised for pipe replacement. A detailed proving exercise was then carried out to verify the existing pipe position and material composition. All undipped AC secondary pipes found were identified for replacement and the necessary works information prepared to enable the contractor to formulate an accurate target cost and activity schedule. Following approval by Aurecon in the capacity of programme manager, an access date was given so that work could Working on the Asbestos Cement (AC) Pipe Replacement Project, Xdela Beyi and Tobaan Msomi prepare to launch the moling machine under a concrete driveway in Kissing Lane, Amanzimtoti

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

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Public sector commence. A key deliverable of the project was to replace 80 km of pipe per month. Because the bulk of the work was carried out using labourintensive methods, this deliverable was challenging. It was eventually achieved, however, and in some months exceeded. At the end of 30 months, approximately 1 600 km of pipe was replaced at an average rate of 53 km/month.

BENEFIT TO THE COMMUNITY, ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMY From the beginning, the project was community focused, with clearly defined social deliverables. These included a mentorship programme involving 16 emerging sub-contractors and the recruitment of local labour in areas where the project was to be implemented. In addition, local businesses provided project resources wherever possible. A total of 45 000 jobs were created over the project s three year lifespan, with the 16 subcontractors who participated in the mentorship programme all achieving at least a two notch upgrade using the Construction Industry Development Board s rating system.

A professional communications programme was implemented on the project with the aim of assisting the municipality to achieve community buy-in by providing accurate information to consumers. This included an eye-catching logo used on all project communication tools as well as a website which was frequently updated with new material. The replacement of the old AC pipes with new mPVC pipes will result in an estimated saving of R248 million annually, with obvious resultant benefits to both the economy and the environment.

The cost of these bursts was estimated at R584 million per annum

The municipality's Asbestos Cement (AC) Pipe Replacement Project is underway on Kingsway and Dawn roads in Amanzimtoti. Here workers unload a valve, which will be used on the newly laid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. These will tie in to the existing main line. The new PVC pipes, which are replacing old asbestos cement (AC) pipes throughout eThekwini, can be seen on the back of the truck

COLLABORATION, DIVERSITY AND TEAMWORK The nature of the project required close collaboration between the project team and various entities within eThekwini. Monthly meetings were held with stakeholders including water operations, customer services, non-revenue water, insurance and legal. Within the project, biweekly meetings were held with each of the

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

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AQUA DIRT TRAP/STRAINER Patent No. RSA 95/9706 Unit 2, Zone 5, Murrayfield, 4 Prospecton Road, 4115 . P.O. Box 357, Umbogintwini, 4120 Tel: +27 (0)31-902 6550 Fax: +27 (0)31-902 1349 Email: 0794949628@vodamail.co.za

Web address: www.aquastrainer.com MAKE THE INTELLIGENT CHOICE

Install before every water meter and pressure relief valve (PRV) The Aqua Dirt Trap/Strainer was designed for the protection of turbine-type flow meters and pressure relief valves and was developed using mild steel pipes and flanges. The sight glass situated on the top flange enables one to see directly into the pipeline and identify blockages easily. This can be removed by simply unbolting the top flange and cleaning the stainless steel grid, thereby reducing the downtime making problem solving and troubleshooting much easier.

-The Aqua Strainer is used and stocked at several Municipalities and Water Authorities. -The water departments have specified the Aqua Strainer for all its projects and installations. -This Strainer / Dirt Trap is an essential protection for all water meters in order for it to operate efficiently.

A TYPICAL INSTALLATION

ESSENTIAL PROTECTION FOR ALL WATER METERS AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES


four teams and the eThekwini project executive to discuss issues such as progress, budget, risk and community liaison. This encouraged communication and fostered teamwork. Thus strong, stable teams were created which encouraged a positive, problem-solving mind-set, and allowed all to act in a spirit of mutual trust and co-operation , which is a core requirement of NEC3. A professional mentorship company was appointed as a project mentor, while the development model used focused on fostering business skills to ensure sustainability and

A total of 45 000 jobs were created over the project’s three-year lifespan construction management skills to improve profitability. Regular meetings were held with sub-contractors, the mentor and the programme managers, while the sub-contractor development programme was independently assessed by the Construction Industry Development Board. As programme manager, Aurecon played a coordinating role between all of these parties, fulfilling a critical role in the successful completion of the project.

INNOVATION Open trenching and conventional pipe laying techniques were used for most of the project. Three trenchless methods were, however, also employed. These included pipe cracking, compact pipe lining and moling. The selective use of different technologies to accommodate the needs of different communities and locations lent the AC project a unique blend of traditional and modern approaches to pipe laying. On completion, all of the pipes laid were accurately captured by a Global Positioning System to enable the eThekwini GIS database to record the position and length of the municipality s new asset. To date, the project has received three awards, including the prestigious Kamoso award for Best Construction Project in South Africa. Coupled to this, no leaks or bursts have been recorded to date on the 1 600 km of pipes laid during the project s three-year lifespan. Aurecon s role in this AC project fulfils the company mission of fostering human achievement in the communities in which we work. Communities throughout eThekwini, from the poorest to the wealthiest, will benefit from the improvement in the municipality s water infrastructure, comments Professor André Görgens, Aurecon s sector leader water africa - Middle East. He goes on to say that the project met the twin demands of encouraging economic growth, while simultaneously improving the quality of service delivered to communities. The AC Project has delivered a long-term, sustainable asset to residents of the municipality and is acknowledged as one of eThekwini s success stories, he concludes.


Advertorial

SEDIBENG WATER

Sustaining the source and flow of life forever ABOUT US Sedibeng Water is driven by its vision of Excellence in Water Services Provision . This emphasis on excellence is underpinned by a mission statement focusing on: • the appropriate treatment of wastewater and supply of potable water • ensuring viability and sustainability • creating an environment that is conducive to the growth and retention of skills • providing effective and efficient communications. Established on 1 June 1979, Sedibeng Water primarily serviced the Free State Goldfields and parts of the former Western Transvaal. In 1996 the water utility extended its operational area to include certain districts in the North West province. As a result, more than a decade after these expansions, the company operations grew to include Vaal Gamagara and, recently, Namaqualand

(Nama Khoi Local Municipality and the De Beers Namaqua mines) in the Northern Cape. To date, Sedibeng Water services an area spanning more than 86 000 km2 across three provinces, namely: Free State, North West and Northern Cape. We have a staff complement of about 500 people across three regions.

OUR SUSTAINABILITY Sedibeng Water s assets have grown to R1.3 billion and its turnover has increased to R428 million. These assets include 8 plants, 56 pumps stations and 326 reservoirs. The organisation s pipelines extend over 2 020 km through the Free State, Northern Cape and North West regions.

OUR UNINTERRUPTED SUPPLY Annually Sedibeng Water supplies approximately 78 million kilolitres of water to municipalities, farms, mines and other industries. Its regions contribute as follows to this amount: • North West region: 9 million kℓ • Northern Cape region: 12 million kℓ • Free State region: 57 million kℓ

OUR STATEMENT OF CAPABILITY Sedibeng Water offers clients the following services: • technical services • water and wastewater management services • social services and community involvement • operations and maintenance services • wastewater treatment • water purification • water quality management in network • training and development services • environmental services.

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Rembuluwani Takalani, Acting Chief Executive of Sedibeng Water

level. We continually ensure that the quality of water we supply meets and exceeds the required standards nationally and internationally. Here, approximately 6 000 chemical and 2 000 bacteriological analyses are performed per month.

FUTURE ROLE Over the past 32 years Sedibeng Water has progressively earned its reputation as one of the largest, most reliable and fastest-growing water utilities in South Africa. Underlying this success is a mission driven by the desire to ensure customer satisfaction through the provision of uninterrupted, sustainable, equitable, affordable and acceptable quality water and sanitation services. With the challenges facing the water sector worldwide, Sedibeng Water sees itself playing an increasingly important role by providing some of the solutions.

WATER QUALITY

CONTACT DETAILS:

At Sedibeng Water, ensuring that the quality of our water is safe and drinkable is our priority. We pride ourselves on the investment we have made in ensuring that our South African National Accreditation System (SANAS) accredited laboratory is world class and performs at its optimum

Head Office Private Bag X5, Bothaville, 9660, South Africa Tel: +27 (0)56 515 0200 Fax: +27 (0)56 515 0369 E-mail: ceosec@sedibengwater.co.za www.sedibengwater.co.za. 

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11


Public sector

WATER UTILITIES

Leading the South African water utilities The function of the South African Association of Water Utilities is to promote the interests of water boards and other public sector water utilities in South Africa. In this issue of Water&Sanitation Africa, we provide an insight into the operations of the organisation. ccording to Ntombenhle Thombeni, chief executive of the South African Association of Water Utilities (SAAWU), the overall purpose of the association is to ensure effective integration and co-operation within the water services sector. The primary aims of the association are: • To build a united association of public sector water utilities which co-ordinates , mobilises and uses its collective capacity to optimise the ability of municipal authorities to provide South Africa with sustainable, efficient and affordable water and sanitation services. • To improve the quality of life of South Africans by ensuring they have access to equitable water services. • To proactively promote and represent the individual and collective, mandated interests of SAAWU members in all matters that impact on the water sector. • To provide a centre of information and communication on water and sanitation matters. An Executive Committee that is appointed by the general membership of the association manages the day -to-day business of SAAWU. The overall objectives of the association are as follows: • To proactively engage with the Department of Water Affairs, government, its agents, institutions and programmes to deal with and promote matters affecting the water sector and water service delivery issues.

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• To settle (on request) disputes and differences that arise between and among members. • To initiate, co-ordinate and monitor the implementation of projects and initiatives that establish institutional capacity, best practice and codes of conduct in the water sector. • To assist in the enforcement of water rights in South Africa, keeping with conventions and recommendations. • To advance the economic wellbeing, social interests and working conditions of workers within the water institutions. • To set up commissions or subcommittees, as required to investigate matters affecting the members. • To conduct and co-ordinate research into water and sanitation matters and publish the relevant findings. • To collect, collate, publish and distribute information concerning the services provided to members. • To arrange seminars and courses to educate members and their staff regarding their rights and responsibilities. • To research any matters that serve the objectives outlined, and to publicise such through publications or educational workshops, seminars and other events. • To provide information for educators or volunteers to enable them to effectively promote an awareness and understanding of water and sanitation matters.

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

• To provide the broader community with information on water and sanitation matters through, but not limited to, talks, lectures, participation in and organisation of seminars, lectures, film, photographic and other presentations. • To collect materials and resources relating to water and sanitation in a resource centre and to make these easily available to members and the community.

BENCHMARKING PROJECT In addition to the normal services offered by SAAWU, specific products are available to certain categories of members. One such service is the benchmarking project. By participating in this project, water utilities are able to share and compare specific information on their technical and functional operations to improve their business performance and enhance the water services they provide. This comparison is done using the agreed key performance indicators (KPIs) on a monthly and annual basis. The focus of the Benchmarking Project is to progressively encourage performance improvement. Participation is voluntary. This project was also awarded one of the top-five South African projects by the Institute of Management Consultants in 2002. The association is in the process of engaging in other organisational benchmarking in Africa as well as other international projects.

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Keyplan Project

DRINKING KICKER WATER

Providing fresh drinking water for desert city

A project involving a complete power, automation and mechanical solution for a large water transfer project in a remote and rainless region of the Sahara Desert is currently in progress. he project will pump and store water from deep underground, ready for transfer to a city of 115 000 people that is 750 km away. Currently under construction and scheduled for completion this year (2011), the Réseau de Collecte water transfer scheme in Algeria is one of the biggest water projects ever undertaken in the Sahara region ‒ one of the hottest and driest places on Earth, where temperatures can reach 50° C. About 90% of Algeria s 35 million population lives on the northern coastal belt close to the Mediterranean Sea, but several million live inland in oasis towns and cities, where rainfall is rare and water resources are limited. Tamanrasset and In Salah are two such oasis cities. Tamanrasset is a large city of 115 000 inhabitants that lies deep in the southern reaches of the Algerian Sahara. The city is located near an aquifer that faces shortages in water reserves, while In Salah, a small urban community of about 43 000 inhabitants, is located close to an aquifer with a surplus of water. The Réseau de Collecte will help to rectify the shortage of potable water in Tamanrasset. Earmarked as one of the Algerian government s key infrastructure projects, the water transfer scheme will pump and deliver 50 000 m3 of water each day via a pipeline from In Salah to Tamanrasset, which is a distance of almost 750 km. By 2030, it is expected that 150 000 m3/d of water will be needed, a tripling of water supplies to meet the needs of the city s rapidly growing population. ABB is supplying a turnkey solution that covers mechanical, electrical, control, instrumentation and communications equipment and know-how for the entire water collection system at In Salah. The 25 km2 site consists of 24 wells, pumping water from a depth of 600 m at a rate of 35 ℓ/s. The water will then be collected and stored in eight huge covered reservoirs, where it will be protected from evaporation, ready for transfer via the pipeline to Tamanrasset. The solution will power the whole water collection system by connecting the site to the local power grid to ensure a safe and reliable supply of electricity to site operations. The company s instrumentation will measure the flow, temperature, pressure and quality of the water and an ABB-distributed control system will monitor and control the entire process. The company was able to use the breadth of its

power and automation offering and water industry expertise to improve on the original specifications by adding its low-voltage drives to each well pumping system. The drives significantly improve pump performance, availability and energy consumption by starting the pumps smoothly and by automatically adjusting them to rapid changes in operating conditions, so saving energy and reducing wear and tear. ABB is a leader in power and automation solutions for the water industry and has a huge installed base in products and solutions for water plants and networks, wastewater treatment plants and desalination. In Algeria, the company is currently providing an optimised electrical solution that will boost the energy efficiency and reduce the maintenance downtime of the world s largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant at Magtaa in the city of Oran. And in Abu Dhabi, ABB is supplying a turnkey mechanical, electrical and automation solution for the expansion of the huge Shuweihat water transfer system, which when completed will supply the emirate with 680 000 m3/d of potable water. The Tamanrasset water collection solution is in conjunction with the Chinese joint venture MCCSOCOM on behalf of Algérienne des Eaux (ADE), a state-owned utility under the management of the Algerian Water Resources Ministry.

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Map of Algeria showing In Salah and Tamanrasset, both located deep in the Sahara. In Salah is about 1 500 km from the capital Algiers. Remote desert communities pose logistical challenges for projects such as the Réseau de Collecte

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

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Project

WATER SUPPLY

Omdurman Water Supply and Optimisation Scheme

Pictures courtesy of BKS

The Omdurman Water Supply and Optimisation Scheme in Sudan has provided safe, clean, potable drinking water for about 1.5 million people in Omdurman, a suburb of Khartoum. Water&Sanitation Africa provides an insight into the CESA Aon 2011 award-winning project. he project comprises the development of a 240Mℓ/d intake works in the Nile River and a 200Mℓ/d water treatment works, pump station, reservoir and related pipelines outside Omdurman. In addition, the project team successfully addressed the following great challenges in taking on this project:

T

View of the Nile

•d design and construction in dry, desert-like cconditions •e extreme variations in turbidity in the Nile River •e extreme variations in water quality in the Nile River N •p pipeline construction in extremely limited sspaces in formal and informal settlement areas iin Omdurman.

P PROJECT BACKGROUND: SUDAN'S DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES D Su Sudan, the 10th largest country in Africa, has been working to implement macro-economic rebe forms since 1997 and began an economic boom fo in 1999 with the initiation of crude oil exports. However, several factors, such as theDarfur H conflict, the aftermath of 20 years of civil war co in its southern regions, its general lack of basic infrastructure and the reliance of most of its in population on subsistence agriculture has prepo vented Sudan from achieving economic freedom ve and prosperity, and have kept the majority of the an population at or below the poverty line. po The Omdurman Water Supply Scheme was T initiated in 2005 to develop the infrastructure rein quired to improve access to clean, safe drinking qu water in Omdurman, where the majority of the w population comprises low-income households that rely on water vendors selling untreated wath ter drawn from boreholes for their regular supply te

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SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11


Project of domestic water. The state-owned Khartoum State Water Corporation (KSWC), which is responsible for providing potable water in the capital city and Khartoum State, identified the need for additional potable water supplies and distribution systems. Biwater was appointed to undertake this huge project on a turnkey basis and appointed BKS for the conceptual and detail designand construction supervision of a 200Mâ„“/d water treatment plant anddistribution system to supply water to parts of Omdurman. The aim of this project, therefore, was to provide a sustainable and economical water treatment and distribution network that would maximisethe social and health benefits of an accessible and affordable supply of clean, safe drinking water for the medium to long term in Omdurman. The project increased the production of treated, safe water and extended the service coverage through an optimised distribution network. The result is likely to be a marked improvement in the health and productivity of the population served by the scheme.

OMDURMAN OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT AREA Sudan has extremes in terms of land conditions, which vary from very arid desert in the north to tropical wet and dry areas in the far southwest of the country. The lower Nile River has two main contributories, the White Nile and the Blue Nile, which meet at Khartoum. Water in the White Nile flows from Lake Victoria in Uganda, south of the confluence, and is pale brownish-grey in colour with less variation in quality, dampened by the Sudd (vast swamp in Southern Sudan). Water in the Blue Nile, however, flows from Ethiopia, southeast of the confluence, and varies from brownish-green/blue to dark brown in colour. After the confluence of the White and Blue Niles, the mainNile River flows north towards Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea. Divided by the two Niles, Khartoum is a tripartite metropolis with an estimated population of over five million people. It consists of Khartoum proper and is linked by bridges to Khartoum North and Omdurman. Omdurman lies on the western bank of the Nile River at the confluence of the White Nile and Blue Nile, has a population of about 2.5 million (2010 census) and covers approximately 320 km². Although Khartoum has a thriving economy and has seen significant development in recent years, driven by Sudan's oil wealth, Omdurman is still lacking in basic infrastructure. The severe shortage of clean potable water in the Omdurman area meant there was a dire need for a large-scale water supply scheme. The vast majority (80%) of residents in Omdurman

Sludge thickener

are low-income households, most of which were paying more for untreated surface water from vendors than KSWC charges its piped customers.

PROJECT ARRANGEMENTS AND FINANCING The Omdurman Water Supply and Optimisation Scheme was undertaken by Biwater, which undertook the scheme on a build, operate and transfer (BOT) basis, using a deferred payment capital structure. The company defined the project scope, arranged the project finance, undertook equipment procurement, was the lead contractor during construction and is the plant operator for the first 10 years of operation. In 2006, Biwater appointed BKS as the service provider responsible for the

The Omdurman Water Supply Scheme was initiated in 2005 to develop the infrastructure required to improve access to clean, safe drinking water in Omdurman Untreated groundwater drawn from hand-dug pits for domestic use

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

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Project conceptual and detail design and constructionmonitoring for the works that form the water supply scheme. The project cost was in the order of €70 million and financing was sourced from South Africa, the Netherlands and Malaysia.

SCOPE OF DESIGN WORK BKS undertook the design of the 200 Mℓ/d AI Manara Water Treatment Works (WTW), pump stations and bulk pipelines, which formed a major part of the Omdurman Water Supply Scheme. The detailed design work included water quality analysis, process, hydraulic, geotechnical, civil, mechanical, electrical and structural design, as well as seismic design for a Zone 2A seismic area. The design had four main components: • The 240 Mℓ/d raw water intake works • The 200 Mℓ/d AI Manara WTW • The 210 Mℓ/d treated water pump station, a 40 Mℓ pre-stressed reservoir and a 200 Mℓ/d booster pump station

Sludge cones in flat-bottom clarifier

• More than 20 km of bulk treated and raw water pipelines. More than 34 000 m3 of concrete was poured, requiring 4 100 t of steel reinforcing. All design work was done in accordance with international standards SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

and practices, and was in line with BKS's in-house quality management system, which is ISO 9001 certified. Sudanese standards were also utilised, where applicable and available, to ensure compliance with local regulations.

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Water and Wastewater Treatment Zandvliet sewage treatment works.

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Potable Water Treatment Sewage Treatment Sludge Dewatering Industrial Efuents Mining Drainage Water Treatment Boiler Feed Water Treatment Industrial Process Water Demineralisation Integrated & Optimized Systems

Bateman Engineered Technologies is a leading supplier of mining and processing equipment and materials handling systems, and is part of the global Bateman Engineering Group. Sasol One demineralisation plant.

Bateman Engineering serves a range of industries worldwide. Its focus is on delivering innovative solutions to unlock the value of natural resources through converting them into marketable products. Services offered include but are not limited to process engineering, specialist niche technologies, equipment supply and related services, procurement, ďŹ nancial and commercial facilitation, contracting and project management. Bateman is committed to delivering excellence in everything that it does.

Paper-mill effluent treatment plant.

Bateman Engineered Technologies 1 Kramer Road, Bedfordview Johannesburg, South Africa +27-011-201-2300 sales@bateman-bet.com www.bateman.com

Cape Flats Sewage Treatment Works.

Delivery Excellence


Project All designs were reviewed by Royal Haskoning, a Netherlands-based engineering and environmental consultancy, which was appointed by the Netherlands financiers.

RIVER INTAKE WORKS (240 Mℓ/D) The Nile River has large variations in turbidity and water levels through the year. The water's turbidity varies from 100 to 25 000 NTU and suspended solids to 30 000 mgtℓ, while the water level varies by over 8 m. These extreme variationsprovided the design team with a number of challenges. BKS was responsible for the following tasks for the river intake works: • A bathymetric survey to determine the river bed levels. • Pile design for all static and dynamic forces, including river water loads, pipeline surge pressures and seismic load. • Surge pressure analysis and surge tank specification for the integrated

Intake works

pump and 1 400 mm diameter ductile iron raw water pipeline. • Intake and bridge structural steel design • Conceptualisation and design of the pump platform lifting mechanism • Mechanical layout of pumps and pumping equipment, including surge SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

tanks, gantry cranes and valves • Four moveable platforms with eight vertical turbine pumps (six duty and two standby), with a combined operating powerrating of 1.2 MW. The intake structure and pumps are protected from floating debris with a

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Advertorial

MAGALIES WATER

Taking strides to improve the delivery of Water Services Over the past years, the business of Magalies Water has gone through numerous changes that not only affected the performance of the organisation but also its culture and staff morale. hange is undesirable if it has adverse impact on the business and its operating environment. It is for this reason that Magalies Water had to implement a Turnaround Strategy in order to influence and implement changes that yield desirable impact on Magalies Water and its operating environment.

services institutions and other users, that positively impact the quality of life and economic growth for communities in our area of operation.

C

STRATEGIC INTENT (CORE STRATEGY) Our strategic intent is to establish a basic foundation, progress to focused improvement and expansion to sustainable growth in the delivery of our mandate.

TURNAROUND STRATEGY ‒ NEW DAWN FOR MAGALIES WATER Magalies Water has certain positive fundamentals, which together ensure that there is opportunity for a sustainable and positive future for the organisation. We supply an essential, life-giving product to established customers; we have the raw water sources and the processing infrastructure to achieve sustainability. What is currently lacking for success is the consistent combination of delivery effectiveness and business efficiency that results in satisfied stakeholders, customers, shareholders, staff, suppliers and the environment.

VALUES Mboniseni Dlamini, Chief Executive Magalies Water

primarily to Water Service Authorities and other consumers in our service area. We also expect and are confident that our undertaking will restore financial stability for the organisation. This process commenced in December 2010 as communicated by the CEO during his site visits in 2010.

APPROACH (HOW) PROBLEM STATEMENT The business performance of Magalies Water has been on a decline over the past years. This situation certainly threatened the sustainability of Magalies Water and its ability to deliver on its mandate. In addressing this situation, Magalies Water embarked on a Turnaround Strategy. The strategy focused on reviewing operating efficiencies and the effective revision and enhancement of business processes, in order to ensure assure sustainability of the entity. A Magalies Water Turnaround Strategy has been driven by the CEO with the Board exercising an oversight role on the process. Magalies Water is confident that this undertaking will restore the basics of the business and improve our performance. The expected outcome of the turnaround strategy is a sustainable Magalies Water that continues to deliver on its mandate of supplying water services and related water services

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A participative approach through the Turnaround Strategy Focus Group (TSFG) is being undertaken in this process. The TSFG comprises representatives from each division within Magalies Water. The TSFG participate by making inputs at each step of the turnaround process and by establishing a two-way communication cycle, i.e. communicating inputs from constituencies to turnaround management, and communicating developments in the turnaround process to constituencies. The TSFG will provide relevant information to the office of the CEO for regular monthly communication to staff.

VISION To be the leading provider of quality water services in South Africa.

MISSION The Magalies Water Board provides water services to Water services authorities, water

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

The culture of Magalies Water is guided by its values, which are used as anchor-points to establish the manner in which the entity approaches its activities and relates to its Stakeholders.

MAGALIES WATER VALUE STATEMENTS: Integrity: We do what we say we re going to do ‒ ALWAYS! Service Quality: We endeavour to meet customer requirements in all that we do. Competence: We deliver services with a high level of professionalism. Eco-efficiency: Our practices reflect our care for the natural environment. Good Corporate Citizenship: We strive for development of a sustainable economy and the well-being of communities.

CONTACT DETAILS Idah Dikeledi Corporate marketing and communications manager Tel: +27 (0)14 597 4636 Fax: 086 501 9371 E-mail: idahd@magalieswater.co.za Magalies Water 38 Heystek Street, Rustenburg 0300 Private Bag X82327, Rustenburg 0300


Project

Installation of 120 mm Ø pipe to Thoura Reservoir

log-stopper on the upstream side of the intake structure and the pumps are fitted with fine screens to protect them.

AI-MANARA WATER TREATMENT WORKS (200Mℓ/D) South African consulting engineering firms have not often had the opportunity to undertake a water treatment project of this magnitude. The engineers at BKS tackled the design of this huge water treatment works with

to be placed above ground to obtain the required hydraulic head for gravity flow. This required certain structures to be constructed at significant height. In contrast to this, the pump stations and storage reservoirs were founded underground and required deep excavations. Because of the large variability of the suspended solids load, one of the main challenges of the project was selecting a treatment train that could consistently remove the suspended solids under all conditions. The raw water of the Nile was characterised for different raw water quality ranges, which allowed for the selection of the optimum process flow diagramme. To fill in certain gaps in the available water quality data, laboratory settling testwork and analyses were done, which took the selected processes into account. Material mass balances were developed for each raw water quality range and were linked with the corresponding duration on an annual basis. The team was thus able to model the expected performance of the watertreatment works, including the changes in sludge production on an annual cycle and an estimation of consumables and relevant storage requirements, which, in turn, enabled an accurate calculation

South African consulting engineering firms have not often had the opportunity to undertake a water treatment project of this magnitude professionalism, enthusiasm and strict attention to detail, quality and budgetary compliance. The layout of the water treatment plant was selected based on hydraulicfactors (available head across the 5.5 ha site), topographical aspects, space requirements and logical sequence. The small site size required the team to design a plant that was compact, with various unit processes being meticulously placed for efficiency and optimisation of space requirements. The water treatment plant site was almost flat, which required the structures

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

of the expected running cost for different alternatives. The design team made allowances for losses of up to 20% (40 Mℓ/d) during the high turbidity periods, with the ability to bypass certain unit processes when they are not required, which ensures that the water treatment process operates at optimum levels and costs throughout the year. Owing to the difference in water quality in the Blue Nile and White Nile, the chemical dosing system was optimised to treat the changes in water quality. Upfront laboratory testing to determine the settling characteristics using various coagulants was required to achieve optimum chemical dosing in terms of the type and quantity of chemical. This allowed for the development of a detailed financial model, which was one of the key cost elements of the BOT tariff determination. The main unit processes of the treatment train are as follows: • Two pre-sedimentation hopper bottom grit channels (35 m long x 3 m wide), a side-wall depth (SWD) of 3.5 m, and 6 hoppers (each with a depth of 3.2 m). • Six pre-sedimentation hopper bottom settlers with lamella packs (each 40 m long and 10 m wide, with a SWD of 5 m and 16 hoppers witha depth of 3.2 m each). This is a pre-clarification process unit to reduce the high silt load during the three-month flood period. • Eight upflow sludge blanket flat bottomed clarifiers (each 37.5 m long and 10 m wide with a SWD of 4.6m and 12 PVC sludge cones). • Fourteen double bed rapid gravity filters (each 16 m long and 3 x 2 m wide, with an area of 96 m²; backwashing is done using simultaneous air water scour). • A 12 Mℓ chlorine contact tank and storage reservoir. • Sludge handling facilities, including backwash recovery pump sump, transfer pump sumps, thickener and drying beds. • Chemical and chlorine dosing facilities. To assist with construction in terms of costs and programme, the level of sophistication was appropriate to a conventional type treatment works. The main complexity was derived from the compact site used for the water treatment works. This required structures to be closely interlinked and the stores and chemical

41


Project dosing building to be placed on top of the chlorine contact tank.

PUMP STATION AND PIPELINES BKS undertook the design of the raw water pipeline from the river intake works to the new WTW, the highlift pump station, bulk distribution pipelines and booster pump station, which comprised: • The 1 400 mm diameter ductile iron raw water pipeline between the river intake and WTW included a bridgecrossing above the Nile (160 m), including mechanical pipework on the intake structure. • High-lift pump station with two different pump sets capable of pumping to three different areas (Thoura Reservoir, AI Gamayir Reservoir and AI Manara North distribution). • Thoura/AI Gamayir pump set, comprising five pumps (four duty and one standby), capable of pumping 200 Mℓ/d to a height of 60 m. The pumps have a combined operating capacity of 1.6 MW.

42

• Four surge tanks adjacent to the highlift pump station,each with a volume of 30 m³. • A combined 1 200 mm diameter ductile iron pipeline from the highlift pump station to Thoura/AI Gamayir Reservoirs, which splits into two pipelines about 1 km from the pump station. • The AI Manara North pump set, which consists of three pumps (two duty and one standby), capable of pumping 10 Mℓ/d to a height of 60m. The pumps have a combinedoperating capacity of 150kW. • Thoura booster pump station, with three pump sets, which distributed water to three separate areas. The pump station has a total of 11 pumps, which are capable of pumping 200 Mℓ/d.

INNOVATION IN THE LOCAL CONTEXT: SUDAN The treatment works, pump stations, intake works and pipelines were all designed in accordance with international SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

industry best practice, which is significantly more stringent than the best practice standards in Sudan. Khartoum had, until this project's completion, been supplied with water via five treatment plants that extract water from the Nile. These existing plants use old technology (one was constructed in 1932) and are not capable of satisfying current demand. The AI Manara Water Treatment Plant is now the largest water treatment works in Sudan. This project enabled the project team to improve technology in Sudan by introducing modern electric pumps, data loggers, GIS systems and high-tech equipment that will facilitate proper management of the facilities and improve operational efficiency and reduce operating and production costs. The project's success can be ascribed to the commitment shown by associated companies and individuals to overcome any and all logistical challenges on the project and to ensure its success and sustainability.


Technical paper

TECHNOLOGY

Membrane bioreactor plants put to the test Comparison between a conventional municipal plant and an MBR plant (with and without MPE). by Thomas Wozniak, Nalco Company

astewater treatment using submerged membranes has become an industry standard treatment technology over the last 15 years. Initially, membrane bioreactor (MBR) plants were often built in regions with the highest effluent quality requirements, or in areas of water scarcity. MBR systems have increasingly gained acceptance as one of the best waste treatment technologies available. Globally, MBR technology is the fastest growing wastewater treatment technology available, with an annual growth rate (depending upon the country) of between 10 and 20%. The main justification behind the decision to build an MBR plant could include: • the development of water reuse opportunities • the use of good quality MBR effluent as pre-treatment for further steps such as RO • 100% efficiency in solid/liquid separation • high-quality effluent with minimised environmental impact • low physical footprint (<40% of a conventional activated sludge plant ‒ CAS) • ability to directly reuse plant effluent for irrigation, cleaning, industrial process water supply, cooling tower makeup, and many others • ease of future plant expansion due to modularity. Treated municipal wastewater is often discharged into sensitive rivers or lakes, and this requires municipalities to meet very stringent treatment standards. All impurities have to be removed in order to protect the surface water environment. In tourist areas MBR plants are used to ensure a water quality acceptable for discharge into waters where people swim. To date, about 60% of all MBR plants have been built in industrial applications, but in most cases these plants are discharging their treated effluent into

W

the sewers of the local municipality for further treatment. Industrial customers usually invest in an MBR plant due to financial or legal reasons. Figure 1 shows the growth in the market for MBR technology during the past 20 years. More than 5 000 MBR plants are now in operation around the world. Much work has already been carried out regarding research and optimisation to reduce the CAPEX and OPEX of this technology, to

make it more competitive and available for use in other applications. However, more than 80% of global research activities on MBR operation are focused upon the reduction of problems caused by fouling. Many different actions have been taken to reduce and optimise equipment and operational costs. A major focus has been the reduction of membrane costs. Besides the higher overall equipment costs, membrane costs have been the

FIGURE 1 MBR market size

FIGURE 2 Change in total cost of MBR equipment and operations 1992 to 2005, Source:1

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

43


Technical paper

FIGURE 3 MBR equipment costs – CAPEX

main cost driver in terms of OPEX (e.g. short life span versus high replacement costs). During the last 20 years, the costs for installed membranes have been greatly optimised, starting at an historical high of > $400/m² down to the current<$80/m², depending upon the kind of system. Figure 2 shows the decreasing trend in the cost of MBR plants since 1992. The major reductions are clearly shown for membrane replacement costs and for the amortisation of capital. During the past 10 years there has been little further innovation to deliver major reduction or optimisation of these costs. It has therefore become necessary to search for new opportunities to reduce the CAPEX and OPEX of an MBR plant, without reducing quality and compromising safe and reliable operation. In figure 3 the different cost elements for an MBR plant are shown. It is clear from the data presented in figure 2 and figure 3 that the costs regarding equipment acquisition (amortisation and investment) are major cost drivers. Compared to conventional activated sludge plants (CAS), the period of amortisation is shorter because a bigger part of the investment cost is related to mechanical equipment, membranes and electrical engineering instead of civil engineering.

The target to improve the competiT tiveness of an MBR system involves tiv optimising all aspects of the system, op where possible. To explain the steps w Nalco has taken to address these isN sues, it is necessary to go into some su detail. Over six years ago, Nalco d started to identify opportunities and st innovation which would optimise inn the performance of an MBR system and significantly reduce CAPEX and OPEX expenditure. In this paper, the strategy used to identify areas for improvement, and the technology which was developed and applied as a consequence, are described and illustrated by means of a calculation model. The calculation and comparisons are presented using the example of municipal wastewater. Industrial cases are not generally comparable, and often unique, therefore it was felt more informative to use municipal wastewater conditions for this particular example. This comparison is done as a theoretical calculation using design conditions and operation experiences of erected plants. The calculation is based on tendered projects.

The target to improve the competitiveness of an MBR system involves optimising all aspects of the system

INTRODUCTION TO MBR TECHNOLOGY

Major cost drivers for MBR equipment are the equipment itself and the cost of the membrane. These components are usually sized according to specific hydraulic conditions: • membranes • permeate pumps • pipework • cross-flow blowers • drainage equipment • control equipment. The size of the tanks, fine bubble aeration, pre-treatment, chemical treatment, biological parameters, recycling pumps and other compoFact box: nents are mainly designed acThe main drivers for industrial companies to invest cording to the incoming load in MBR technology are: on the system and the quality • The need to meet discharge limits according to of effluent required. local legislation • Avoidance of penalties from discharging polluted This brief summary shows wastewater that three major factors are • Limited availability of fresh water resources responsible for the design, size • Independence from public water supplies and overall cost of a wastewa• Financial reasons ter treatment plant: the physi• No, or little, available space for plant construction • Need to upgrade an existing plant by retrofitting cal and chemical loading of newer technology the incoming wastewater, the

44

standard to which the wastewater must be treated in order to meet environmental standards and the hydraulic conditions of the total system. Note that the types of biological treatment required for different kinds of wastewater are quite similar, and the impact of further optimisation does not have a significant effect on the cost of operation as a result. MBR plants have the advantage of a Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration three to four times higher than the more traditional CAS plants and can therefore produce the same or better results with a much smaller equipment footprint. The main focus for innovation and optimisation has been on the hydrau-

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

lic characteristics of the total system. Improvement of hydraulic characteristics can offer major cost reductions in the total cost of MBR systems when compared to CAS systems. Industrial companies very often recognise a greater financial benefit when deciding to use MBR technology. In general, the load can be higher, and the amount of water to be treated lower, when compared to municipal treatment plants. However, in industrial cases the objectives of any treatment programme are somewhat broader. These can include a target to achieve high system availability, superior effluent quality to facilitate water reuse, flexibility and a smaller equipment footprint. Such treatment strategies are designed to ensure stable performance with less upsets, and operational characteristics, which can meet treatment standards under the range of conditions expected. The amount of membrane surface required is calculated based on the volume and flow of water, which must be treated. If the membranes become fouled, no water can be treated, so innovation has focused upon the avoidance or mitigation of fouling.

COMPARISON In the following comparison, three different plants are presented. The first example uses a traditional CAS plant treating


Technical paper Table 1 – Baseline data for plant operation: Characterisation of municipal wastewater Amount of water (minimum flow)

1500 m³/d

0.528 mgd

Average daily flow

3000 m³/d

0.925 mgd

Daily peak flow (rain water etc.)

4000 m³/d

1.057 mgd

Peak flow per hour (18h/peak)

220 m³/h

0.058 mgh

Water amount per year

1050000 m³/a

3330215 mga

BOD

60 g/ p.e. x d

1200 kg/d

600 mg/l

COD

120 g/ p.e. x d

2400 kg/d

1200 mg/l

TKN

11 g/ p.e. x d

220 kg/d

110 mg/l

P tot

2 g/ p.e. x d

40 kg/d

20 mg/l

sludge age ~ 9 days, 12°C, MLSS = 3400 mg/l + Fe ~ 400 mg/ l = 3800 mg/l effluent quality: COD < 60mg/l, BOD < 10 mg/l, NH4-N< 1mg/l, Ntot <15mg/l, Ptot<0.3 mg/l

PICTURE 1 Layout of a typical CAS plant (as used in this paper) SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

municipal wastewater, the second uses an MBR plant treating similar wastewater, and the third is based upon a situation where Nalco technology was approached to improve the performance of the MBR plant. (Note that an exchange rate of €1= $1.40 had been used for purposes of these calculations). Summary of systems used in this comparison: 1. Conventional activated sludge plant (CAS), including sand filtration + UV. 2. MBR plant designed and operated in the conventional way. 3. MBR plant using Nalco s Membrane Performance Enhancement (MPE) technology. For the calculations and design, the same baseline figures (20 000 population equivalent p.e.) have been used in order to permit like-for-like comparisons with the results obtained. A typical municipal wastewater model was used (as shown in table 1). In all cases the plant design and operation is described in terms of high-level calculations. However, behind each value more detailed calculations, including pipe dimensions, measurements,

45


Technical paper control systems, biological treatment performance, blower performance and pumps and mixers, have been included. Prices and costs typical of a wide range of tendered projects were used. The calculation of the tank size for each example is varied according to the local situation so it is felt that the comparison is realistic and based upon situations which are typical in the field.

PLANT EXAMPLE NO.3: MUNICIPAL MBR PLANT + MPE TECHNOLOGY MBR plants are particularly affected by fouling and upset during cold temperatures, and during shock events, which results in lower flux rates and requires more membranes. Often system availability is decreased. Under such conditions it is essential to optimise operating conditions, reduce fouling, and continuously enhance the performance of the membrane systems. In identifying successful solutions to these challenges, there are several main benefits to be realised: • reduction of energy demand and costs • reduction of down time • enhanced asset life time • fewer operational problems • improved oxygen transfer efficiency ( 15%) • foam reduction. In this example, the calculation was done based upon Nalco s experience with operational CAS plants and conventional MBR plants. Depending on the kind of membrane used, results can vary, however this had no discernable impact on the results of the comparisons made. At the end of this paper an evaluation of costs and their variation is presented for information. For some MBR plants, their lifetime is lower than eight years because of the necessary high cleaning frequency and mechanical stress, for example high TMP. A major target was to reduce chemical cleaning frequency and to reduce the TMP (trans-membrane pressure) during plant operation. In picture 3, flux data are shown for 20 municipal MBR plants using MPE technology. Based on these experiences, the peak and average flow can be fixed and used for the design of a new MBR plant. Compared to the design flux rates of conventional MBR plants, the peak and average flux rates when using the Nalco MPE technology were 30 to 100% higher. The experiences using MPE technology led to reduced chemical

PICTURE 2 Layout of a typical MBR plant (without Nalco MPE)

PICTURE 3 Layout of the MBR plant + Nalco MPE

cleaning frequency, less equipment and maintenance costs, lower membrane replacement costs, less upsets, and a stable reliable operation. Reliability is very often a major reason to spend additional money on more membranes and more control and measurement equipment. The drawbacks are usually higher costs and reduced competitiveness. Traditional chemicals for sludge dewatering or chemicals for pre-treatment in normal use can have a negative impact

on membrane performance. In the MBR technology, it was necessary only to use chemicals and biomass, which are adapted for an MBR plant for pre-treatment, biological compartment, membrane performance and sludge dewatering.

COMPARISON SUMMARY This comparison shows the costs of a plant able to treat a maximum of 4 000 m³/day of municipal wastewater. This is a specific wastewater production

Table 2 – Design without MPE case would require 7 340 m² membrane Period

Peak Inflow [m³/h]

Temperature (min) [°C]

Flux [ L/(m²xh]]

A Membrane [m²]

Hour

220 m³/h

10

28

7 860

Day

167 m³/h (4 000 m³/d)

10

28

6 000

Week

146 m³/h (3 500 m³/d)

10

24

6 100

Month

125 m³/h (3 000 m³/d)

12

21

5 950

Average

120 m³/h (1050000 m³/a)

14

17

7 060

Table 3 – Design + MPE case would require 5 460 m² Period

Peak Inflow [m³/h]

Temperature (min) [°C]

Flux [ L/(m²xh]] A Membrane [m²]

Hour

220 m³/h

10

48

4 600

Day

167 m³/h (4 000m³/d)

10

38

4 400

Week

146 m³/h (3 500 m³/d)

10

34

4 300

Month

125 m³/h (3 000m³/d)

12

26

4 800

Average

120 m³/h (1050000 m³/a) 14

22

5 460

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

47


Technical paper Table 4 – Summary of CAPEX and OPEX for all three options CAPEX

%

OPEX

%

Conventional activated sludge plant - without sludge treatment

€8250 000 ($11550000) €6260000 ($ 8764000)

100% 100%

€253200/a* $350280

100%

MBR plant without MPE - without sludge treatment

€6800000 ($9520000) €4910000 ($6874000)

82% 78%

€297200/a* $430080

117%

MBR plant + MPE - without sludge treatment

€6160000 ($8622000) €4270000 ($5990000)

75% 68%

€238600/a* $348040

94%

* OPEX are calculated including sludge treatment

PICTURE 3 Design flux graph for municipal MBR plants using MPE technology

48

of 200 l/p.e. x d including leakage water and a certain amount of rain water. These design figures will vary by country due to the local situation and requirements. The data in this paper give an indication of the relative price levels, all things being equal. The comparisons clearly illustrate the financial advantages of a newly-erected MBR plant over a traditional CAS plant. In a situation where land prices are relatively high, the costs for a CAS plant will inevitably increase due to the relatively large equipment footprint. It also shows that there is a clear advantage for MBR technology to be used with Nalco s MPE technology. In case of a CAS + SF+UV, it must be taken into account that the bacteria and viruses are destroyed but not removed. An MBR plant is a 100% barrier for all micro pollutants and separating bacteria and >99.9% of viruses. This example has shown that, based upon experiences with actual systems, using MPE technology makes MBR systems more competitive and cheaper compared to CAS systems. Using MPE

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Technical paper technology in this specific case gave a benefit of about €110000/a. This saves about 0.10€/m³ ($0.14/m³) costs at >1000000m³/a compared to a CAS plant. Author: Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Wozniak, industrial development manager, Nalco CoE: TWozniak@nalco.com, Mobile: +49 151 126 38044/Fax: +49 7121/696 0906.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1. Effects of flux enhancing polymer on the characteristics of sludge in membrane bioreactor process, Yoon et al., 2005 published in Water Science & Technology. Vol 51, no 6-7 pp 151-157 2. Reduction of capital and operating costs of membrane bioreactor using modified polymers, Collins et al.,10/2007, IDA world congress at Maspalomas, Gran canaria , Spain 3. Effect of membrane fouling reducer on cake structure and membrane permeability in membrane bioreactor, Byung-Kook Hwang, Woo-Nyoung Lee, Pyung-Kyupark, Chung-Hak lee,

In-Soung Chang et. al., 2007, available online under www.sciencedirect.com 4. Influence of Polymer Addition on Flux and Biological Performance of a Municiple Membrane Bioreactor, C Thiemig (Institute of Environmental Engineering ISA, RWTH Aachen University), T. Murakami and H. Itokawa (R&TD department Japan Sewage Works Agency) 5. Chang, I.-S., Lee C.-H. and Ahn, K.-H. 1999, Membrane Filtration Characteristics in Membrane-coupled Activated Sludge System- The effect of Floc Structure on Membrane Fouling , Separation Science and Technology, 34:1743-1758. 6. Yoon, S., Collins, J., Musale, D., Sundararajan, S., Tsai, S., Hallsby, A., Kong, J., Koppes, J., and Cachia, P. 2004, Effects of flux enhancing polymer on the characteristics of sludge in membrane bioreactor process , IWA s Water Environment and Membrane Technology Conference, Seoul, Korea. 7. Yoon, S., Collins, J., Musale, D., Sundararajan, S., Tsai, S., Hallsby,

A., Kong, J., Koppes, J., Cachia, P., Chung, D., and Kronoveter, K. 2004, Application of membrane performance enhancer (MPE) for full scale membrane bioreactors , IWA s Water Environment and Membrane Technology Conference, Seoul, Korea. 8. Cornel, P., Wagner, M. and Krause, S. 2002, Investigation of oxygen transfer rates in full scale membrane bioreactors, IWA annual conference, Melbourne, Australia, e21291a. 9. N. Cicek, W. Yang, University of Manitoba, Canada, Trends in worldwide membrane bioreactor research, presented at the Final MBR workshop, Berlin, Germany 03/2009 10. Thomas Wozniak. Nalco company MBR design and operation using MPE technology presented at the IDA world congress, Dubai, UAE 11/2009 11. F. Varidakis. Kubota membrane Europe ltd. Kubota MBR technology Overview and applications in Greece presented at the MBR congress at Thessalonica/Greece 03/2009.

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SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

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Advertorial

TDB & C AGENCY

Sustainable sanitation solutions Municipalities with limited water resources were forced to find water-efficient technologies that could enable them to meet the December 2007 target date for the eradication of all buckets. rovinces such as the Free State were faced with a huge bucket sanitation backlog, coupled with the community rejection of dry sanitation technology options such as VIP toilets. Tokologo Municipality, when faced with this challenge, took a decision to pilot the closed-circuit wastewater treatment and recycling sanitation system as a means of providing households with recycled water to flush their toilets because the community of Seretse Township rejected VIP toilets as a replacement for buckets.

P

Owing to the community rejection of the VIP toilets as a replacement for the bucket system, the Tokologo Local Municipality (LM) introduced the closed-circuit grey water system as an alternative source of water for flushing the toilets. The advantage of the system was that it did not require the development of new water sources, which would have been very costly and therefore unaffordable for the municipality. The WWTW was completed in early 2010 and has been in operation for more than a year in Seretse Township in Boshof.

Tokologo Municipality Plant: 'Your Number One Sanitation Solution'

Currently 500 households are connected to the system. It was implemented as a pilot project supported through a partnership between the Department of Water Affairs, the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs and Tokologo LM. TDB & C Agency was appointed to implement the closed-circuit wastewater treatment and recycling plant. The plant has a design capacity for 3 000 households, but the current project aims to connect 1 000 households and the spare capacity will be used to connect future housing development in this township. The Tokologo pilot project provided the opportunity to document the experience of implementing a new sanitation technology that could benefit other municipalities that are under political pressure to provide communities with waterborne sanitation systems under the difficult conditions of water scarcity. It also shows that it is possible to implement innovative technology that provides a higher level of service, without an increase in water demand. The closed-circuit wastewater treatment system is designed to maximise the reuse of treated wastewater indefinitely, without the need to use potable water to flush toilets.

THE CLOSED-CIRCUIT SANITATION SYSTEM The closed-circuit wastewater treatment system is an extended aeration variation of the activated sludge technology.

REACTOR This system operates by collecting wastewater from the households that are connected to the closed-circuit wastewater treatment through two manholes into the waste tank. A sieve between the tank and the manholes allows only water to enter the tank, while the solid waste remains behind. This sieve does not allow all the wastewater to pass through into the tank and this is done so that the solid waste that is caught up in the sieve can be washed off and drained back into the two manholes.

Nketoana Local Municipality Water Recycling Plant

50

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11


Advertorial OTHER SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS

Mantsopa Local Municipality Water Recycling Plant

The wastewater receiving tank is rectangular in shape, with approximate dimensions of 7 m wide and 2.5 m deep, and it has a total volume of 500 m3. It is fitted with five blower aeration systems producing 645 kg/d (27 kg/h) of oxygen with a capacity of 18 kW, i.e. 5 x 4 kW. The aerobic reactor consists of 12 three-metre air units with sludge return accomplished by 12 upflow draft tubes. Six draft tubes (18 m) return the mixed liquor from the second aeration compartment back to the first reactor.

reactors, over an 18 m weir. The mixed liquor is returned from the clarifier to the second reactor by means of 18 m-length upflow draft tubes.

PROCESS

SETTLING TANK

Raw water is taken from the main inlet works at the existing treatment plant via a 160 mm PVC pipe at the existing splitter box. The volume extracted is 500 m3/d over a 24-hour period. A vertical bar screen removes the approximate amount of 15 ℓ for screening per day and is equipped with a removal unit. A computerised mechanical system adds chemicals into the tank from the adjacent chemical storeroom. After screening, a triple venture unit divides the inflow into three equal volume parts, to feed the aerobic reactor at three different positions for better flow distribution. The screen and venture system is constructed of 5 mm uPVC and is embedded into 75 mm concrete while 110 mm uPVC pipes transport the flow to the different compartments of the reactor. Air is introduced into the reactor with a 20-hour retention time by means of six air blowers, which are equipped with timers so that the creation of anoxic conditions in the reactor can be obtained. The mixed liquor in the reactor flows to the clarifier, which is adjacent to the

The settling tank is designed with an 11 hour retention time and a patented rapid reactor activated sludge system. The clarifier is square with a cone-shaped base for returning settled sludge at a rate of 3 x ADWF without any recycling pumps.

TDB & C Agency has successfully implemented similar projects for the Nketoana Municipality in the Free State for 3 500 households, with the Tweespruit and Hobhouse towns currently under construction. Similar projects have been completed at 39 schools and three clinics in the Free State, a police station in Limpopo, with an additional two currently in the planning phase, as well as another 16 schools in the Northern Cape. Established in 2008, TDB & C Agency prides itself on various virtues: • a holistic approach to problem solving • qualified personnel • a black economic initiative with 100% equity by previously disadvantaged individuals • quality and client satisfaction • diversity of association • training of individuals from previously disadvantaged backgrounds.

ANOXIC ZONE A zone is established where aerated mixed liquid comes into contact with raw inflow and allows a retention time of 6.5 hours. This zone allows for the utilisation of nitrate as a source of oxygen for biological processes.

SLUDGE RECYCLING

KL Mofokeng, General Manager

This is accomplished without mechanical assistance using an upflow draft tube system (patented recycling method).

CONTACT DETAILS:

WASTE SLUDGE A waste sludge pump is situated adjacent to the clarifier with a storage capacity of 25 m.

Cell: +27 (0)79 991 3057 Tel: +27 (0)78 550 4842 Fax: 086 527 2639 E-mail: mofokengkl@vodamail.co.za 48 Glen Road, Hilton, Bloemfontein 9301 PO Box 22353, Exton Avenue, 9313

SLUDGE HANDLING The waste sludge is deposited and treated in an oxidation pond with a minimum depth of 2.0 m to ensure that anaerobic conditions are achieved.

CHLORINATION A chlorination basin is also provided adjacent to the clarifier and it allows for a retention time of at least 30 minutes.

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

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Africa

SERVICE DELIVERY

Innovative water partnership in Africa launched The new ‘Safe Water for Africa’ programme is set to expand the sustainable community model for clean water provision. Water&Sanitation Africa looks at the strategic partnership that was recently announced. t the World Economic Forum on Africa (WEF Africa), held in Cape Town, the CocaCola Africa Foundation (TCCAF), Diageo plc, WaterHealth International (WHI) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, announced a strategic partnership to provide sustainable access to safe drinking water in Africa. The Safe Water for Africa (SWA) partnership will work with communities to drive the expansion of WHI s innovative water service delivery model across the continent. TCCAF, Diageo and WHI have committed over US$6 million in seed funding to deliver sustainable safe water access for communities across Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia in 2011, with new country programmes expected in 2012 and beyond. Building on this core investment, SWA plans to raise a total of over US$20 million to fulfill its ambition of providing safe water to at least 2 million Africans by 2012. The partnership will initially focus on West Africa, in support of a region with tremendous promise, yet one that continues to face significant water challenges. Despite repeated efforts by governments and other organisations to ease the water issues in the region, fewer West Africans today have access to water than 20 years ago. The SWA partnership is a private sector-led initiative based on the use of an innovative, but most importantly, self-sustaining model of water provision. WHI already installs, operates and maintains decentralised water treatment facilities ‒ Water Health Centres ‒ throughout the developing world. Water Health Centres are small modular structures that house water purification equipment to treat locally available water through a combination of sedimentation, pre-filtration and ultraviolet technology. Each centre produces World Health Organization (WHO) quality water that is available, for a nominal usage fee, on site or pumped to additional distribution points, depending on the size and density of the community. WHI has a sustainable business model under which it constructs a Water Health Centre and provides long-term (10 year +) operations, maintenance and quality services to vulnerable communities for a low-cost, one-time investment. The programme has won the backing of the World

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From left to right: Sanjay Bhatnagar, CEO, Water Health International; Anne McCormick, director of Corporate Relations, Diageo Africa and William Asiko, president, CocaCola Foundation

At the SWA launch event at WEF in Africa (left to right): Jacqueline Novogratz, CEO, Acumen Fund; Thierry Tanoh, VP Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Caribbean and Western Europe, International Finance Corporation (IFC); Anne McCormick, director of Corporate Relations, Diageo Africa; Sanjay Bhatnagar, CEO, Water Health International and William Asiko, president, CocaCola Foundation

Ba Bank, International Financial Corporation and other respected organisations. re The company works in partnership with communiT ties to determine the appropriate, affordable usage tie fees for the water purifi cation service, allowing comfe munity members to access safe water directly from m the facility at a minimal cost. Over time, the increased th adoption of the service is able to cover the cost of the ad operation and maintenance of the facility, allowing it op to become sustainable. By providing ongoing operations, maintenance support and regular water qualtio ity monitoring for a period of at least 10 years, these Water Health Centres will become the reliable source W of WHO quality water for these communities. SWA s partners will work together on an ongoS ing in basis to provide financing and coordinated

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www.aveng.co.za


Africa in-country support to expand WHI s innovative service delivery throughout Africa. According to Nick Blazquez, president, Diageo Africa, Easy access to safe drinking water is critical for the economic

we understand the promise of Africa s people and seek out opportunities to promote their economic opportunities, says William Asiko, president of TCCAF. Through partnerships like SWA, which unlock the power of entrepreneurs, we can more effectively support communities in need of safe water access targeted by our Replenish Africa Initiative (RAIN). Sanjay Bhatnagar, chief executive officer of WHI, says, Sustainability and quality are the basis of the Water Health model. By working with governments, communities and civil society, we can provide those without access to safe water, our customers, with a lasting and affordable supply of safe water. We look forward to collaborating with SWA s donors and other water sector participants to address Africa s water crisis and we hope that the WHI model will provide a template for a scalable, sustainable solution for safe water in Africa .

The ‘Safe Water for Africa’ (SWA) partnership will work with communities to drive the expansion of WHI’s innovative water service delivery model across the continent development of Africa. The Diageo Water of Life programme aims to bring water to 1 million additional people in vulnerable communities across Africa every year and this innovative SWA partnership complements our existing Water of Life initiatives. SWA brings together leaders in the private sector who share a common commitment in making a meaningful contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Africa s resilience draws strength from the continent s entrepreneurs. As one of the largest employers in Africa,

The SWA partnership is working with leading water sector donors and one of WHI s key shareholders and lenders, the International Finance Corporation, to raise additional funding to provide African communities with safe drinking water. IFC is actively supporting the expansion of the WHI model, which will leverage global and regional investment to help alleviate water challenges in Africa, says Thierry Tanoh, IFC vice president, SubSaharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Western Europe. Our collaboration with WHI in India demonstrates that this model can serve thousands of consumers with quality, affordable water. The Coca-Cola Africa Foundation and Diageo plc join SWA through their significant, long-term commitments to assist African communities with meeting the UN Millennium Development Goal (MDG) on water and sanitation. Both TCCAF s RAIN and Diageo s Water of Life programme partner with communities throughout Africa to provide sustainable drinking water, sanitation and hygiene solutions.

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Constructing a safe and reliable water system to both urban and rural areas Water Utilities West Africa conference and exhibition, will provide some insight into effectively handling the sustainable service delivery of clean water distribution as well as give in-depth knowledge into managing and protecting water resources. This conference is the place where all the major stakeholders in the water and sanitation industry network and do business. These are decision makers from utilities, government departments, financial institutions, project developers and vendors. For more information contact: Lindiwe Nkosi, lindiwe.nkosi@spintelligent.com, Phone: +27 21 700 3512

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Industry

MINE WATER

Optimum Water Reclamation Project Optimum Colliery, with Golder Associates, has harnessed acid mine drainage in a sustainable manner at the Optimum Water Reclamation Plant. The project has earned itself a commendation at the CESA Aon 2011 Engineering Excellence Awards. he project is based on the fact that although acid mine drainage (AMD) poses a significant threat to the environment, it also constitutes a valuable resource for the production of high-quality drinking water through the process of desalination. Black-owned and JSE-listed mining and exploration company Optimum Coal Holdings Limited s Optimum Colliery in Mpumalanga is a multiproduct mine with a contract to supply Eskom s Hendrina Power Station with coal. Optimum Colliery is located in Pullens Hope, Mpumalanga, and lies in the upper reaches of the Middelburg Dam catchment area. The respective opencast and underground mining activities at Optimum Colliery have a significant impact on surface and groundwater resources, in that the different coal mining techniques used

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Pictures courtesy Golder Associates

O Optimum aerial during construciton co

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re result in the ingress of natural surface and groundwater into the mine workings, thereby creating w mine-aff ected water that cannot simply be released m back into the environment. A review of the overall b mine water balance suggested that measures were m required in addition to possible water treatment to re address the mine s surplus water problems. ad In 2008, Optimum Colliery contracted Golder as the th lead engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM) service provider for the ti Optimum Water Reclamation Project. O An initial review of Optimum Colliery s overall mine water balance prior to the initiation of the project sugw gested that urgent measures were required to address g the mine s excess water intake (estimated at 26 Mℓ/d) th from underground and opencast mine workings. fr The Optimum Water Reclamation Project proposed the construction of a mine water treatment p


Industry plant and associated infrastructure that would treat up to 15 Mℓ/d of this excess mine water to potable standards. In addition to addressing Optimum Colliery s excess mine water problem, the Optimum Water Reclamation Project would also address the dire shortage of potable water in the Steve Tshwete Local Municipality (STLM). Both the Middelburg/ Mhlazi and Hendrina/KwaZamakuhle areas within the STLM have been facing curtailed water availability for some time. Under the Optimum Water Reclamation Project, up to 30% of the potable water coming from the treatment plant would be bound for the Hendrina/KwaZamakuhle areas, with the rest a possibility for the Middelburg/Mhlazi area in future. As lead EPCM contractor, Golder was responsible for the overall engineering, procurement and construction management of the following key infrastructure components: mine water collection, mine water treatment, reclaimed water storage and distribution, sludge and brine disposal and bulk electrical power supply.

UNIQUE PROJECT FEATURES The Optimum Water Reclamation Project boasts a number of unique features, the most noteworthy of which include the following:

UNEXPECTED GROUND CONDITIONS One of the greatest challenges that Golder faced on the project was that of adverse ground conditions. Early geotechnical investigations on the ground conditions at the Optimum build site initially didn t raise excess groundwater as a cause for concern. However, an above-average rainfall, over two seasons prior to construction commencement, resulted in surplus subsurface water and complex ground conditions. The unforeseeable wet construction site resulted in delays and disruption to the construction activities, which the team members took in their stride by designing, engineering and constructing additional sub-soil drains, which dried the construction area out and transferred the excess groundwater back into the site s storm water system. In addition, the entire mine water reclamation plant had to be built on top of a terrace. Despite the setback, Golder managed to stay on track in terms of both timing and costs.

Te Team in pump station at launch la

coal washing facility is diverted to the evaporation dam, from which mine water is fed by gravity flow to the mine water reclamation plant. An inlet structure in the evaporation dam, as well as 2.8 km of pipeline between the dam and the evaporation dam to the mine water reclamation plant, enables the transfer of the mine-affected water. In order for Golder to construct the inlet structure, which had to be located on the inside of the operational evaporation dam and below the actual water table, the team had to deploy innovative engineering methods to get the job done. As the evaporation dam was already in use and at capacity, with no possibility of draining the mineaffected water, the Golder team had to construct a terrace wall inside the actual evaporation dam, essentially creating a buffer zone between the dam s mine-affected water and the team s inlet tower construction site. Once the terrace was in place, construction of the inlet tower went ahead without any problems. The

The project proposed the construction of a mine water treatment plant and associated infrastructure that would treat up to 15 Mℓ/d of this excess mine water to potable standards

Brine and sludge ponds B

EVAPORATION POND AND INLET STRUCTURE Prior to the commencement of the Optimum Water Reclamation Project, Optimum Colliery s evaporation dam served as a central depository for the storage and evaporation of the mine s excess impacted mine water. Under the Optimum Water Reclamation Project, Golder repurposed the evaporation dam to serve as a mine water storage facility. All excess impacted water not utilised by the mining operations and

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Industry terrace material was removed from the evaporation dam once the inlet tower was in working order. In addition to the inlet tower, Golder also managed the design, engineering and construction of the 2.8 km pipeline, through which the mineaffected water is drained under gravity from the inlet tower to the mine water reclamation plant.

MINE WATER TREATMENT AND WATER QUALITY The mine water reclamation plant is central to the overall Optimum Water Reclamation Project. The plant s technology and infrastructure had to be designed and built to manage volumes in excess of 15 million litres per day ‒ the equivalent of six Olympic-sized swimming pools.

co components into the water. In order to protect the piping and storage reservoirs, Golder determined p that th the water needs to be stabilised using limestone and disinfected using chlorine. st Golder developed the process at Optimum with water quality standards at top of mind. As a result, w the quality of water at the treatment plant and at th the storage reservoirs is heavily controlled. The chlorinated and disinfected water is placed in two separate 5.5 Mℓ storage reservoirs for testing purposes. If the first reservoir meets the required water standards, it is then decanted and distributed, while the other reservoir is ca filled. If the water does not meet the strict set water standard requirements, it is then discharged back st into the mine s dirty water system. in

One of the greatest challenges that Golder faced on the project was that of adverse ground conditions

THE TECHNOLOGY Golder chose Aveng Group subsidiary Keyplan as the technology provider of choice, owing to its world-first High Recovery Precipitation Reverse Osmosis (HiPRO) process. The HiPRO process, which significantly outperforms any comparable technology for the treatment of AMD, is a world first with a more than 97% recovery rate that produces high-quality potable water from mine water that has high acidity and sulphate levels. This is in contrast to most membrane plants, which are designed for a recovery of between 70 and 85%.

THE BRINE AND SLUDGE PONDS T

CLEAN WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS, POLISHING AND QUALITY CONTROL Golder was responsible for the design and construction of two 5.5 Mℓ clean water storage reservoirs. Once the mine water has been fed through the HiPRO process, the desalinated water is then stored in the clean water storage reservoirs. After the reverse osmosis process, the clean water end product is so pure that if left untreated it would lead to accelerated degradation of the piping and storage facility, resulting in the release of unwanted

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Brine pond earthworks

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

T The HiPRO water treatment process at the mine water treatment plant generates two major waste w streams, namely sludge and brine. These hazardous st sludge and brine streams are what remain from the sl HiPRO water treatment process. The hazardousH rated streams need to be dealt with according to ra the Department of Water Affairs (DWA s) minimum th requirements for the disposal of waste. re Golder managed the disposal by designing and constructing brine and sludge disposal ponds. co The design and engineering behind each pond T required detailed planning and in-depth design, re taking into account the following: natural evaporata tion rate, surface area of the facility, depth of the ti facility, orientation of the facility in relation to wind fa direction and speed of wind and rainfall in the area. d There are no specific guidelines that stipulate the design of brine and sludge disposal ponds in South d Africa, so Golder researched and determined the A following criteria for each pond: fo - The depth of the pond was designed and built to accommodate the 1 in 100 year flood (24-hour rainfall event) on top of the facility s maximum water level. - The pond was designed to have a minimum freeboard of 1 m above the water level, allowing for the prevention of overtopping of the pond embankment as a result of wave run-up during high winds. - The ponds are lined and serviced by a leakage collection and removal system, which enables the avoidance of any leakage and/or spillage of sludge or brine into the environment. - Golder made a 20% allowance for the production of sludge and brine to cater for the potential future deterioration in the quality of the mine water in assessing the life of the sludge and brine ponds. The brine and sludge streams are stored in their respective ponds until the co-disposal with mining


Industry wastes can be authorised and by-products recovery can commence.

DISTRIBUTION As part of the Optimum Water Reclamation Project, 95% of the potable water will be distributed to Hendrina/KwaZamakuhle and Middelburg/Mhluzi. Currently, only Hendrina/KwaZamakuhle is receiving water from the Optimum Water Reclamation Project, with infrastructure being put in place for the future supply of water to the Middelburg/Mhluzi areas. Golder designed and engineered the following infrastructure and control systems for the supply of water to the Hendrina/ KwaZamakuhle areas: - drinking water storage reservoirs to the plant site - drinking water pump station - drinking water delivery pipeline to a connection point at the existing Hendrina water supply pipelines - retrofit of the existing Hendrina water treatment plant to allow delivery of the drinking water directly to the Hendrina municipal reservoirs.

Under a peak flow via the upgraded Hendrina supply pipeline, the Optimum Water Reclamation Project can meet the demands of the Hendrina/ KwaZamakuhle communities until 2030. 

LONG-TERM SUSTAINABILITY The Optimum Water Reclamation Plant will assist Optimum Colliery with the sustainable management of its surplus affected water needs for the next 22 years and after mine closure. The capital required to construct the facility was generated by Optimum Coal Holdings, while the operating costs of the facility, during the life of the mine, will be funded as part of the mine s operational costs. Revenues generated by the selling of the water to the STLM will offset some of these operating costs. After closure, the operational costs will be funded from the Optimum Colliery s Environmental Trust provisions and revenue generated from the selling of the potable water. During the course of this project and beyond, the STLM did not have to, and

does not have to in the future, allocate its scarce capital resources to bulk water supply infrastructure. In addition, the municipality did not have to mobilise additional operations and maintenance resources for bulk water treatment and distribution. Instead, the municipality used what budget it did have available for other pressing social needs, while measures were being put in place by Optimum and Golder for their long-term additional water supply.

CONCLUSION The Optimum Water Reclamation Project has set a benchmark for mine water management and water reclamation in South Africa. In addition to the self-sustaining project being economically viable, it is also of benefit to the greater community as a whole. The Optimum Water Reclamation Project is only the second plant of its kind in South Africa and is leading the way internationally with respect to mine water treatment.

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

NEED INNOVATIVE ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS? JUST ASK GOLDER. Golder Associates’ design, project and construction management solutions add measurable value through innovation. Excellence in execution and understanding our clients’ business objectives ensure timely and cost-effective delivery. Engineering Earth’s Development, Preserving Earth’s Integrity. Offices throughout South Africa and in Botswana, Ghana, Mozambique Johannesburg: +27 11 254 4800 | Botswana +267 753 427 43 Ghana: +23 21 779 124 | Mozambique: +258 21 487 172/3 mail@golder.co.za | www.golder.com

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Industry

ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS

Unlocking the potential of anaerobic digestion It is widely accepted that, while anaerobic digestion is a proven, effective and highly efficient treatment system, upsets in performance remain common. By Claire Lipsett* correctly run digester will efficiently convert up to 95% of organic material into a low-odour stabilised slurry and produce a renewable resource in the form of biogas that can be flared or utilised on site. This eliminates the need for additional solid handling and large-scale pond systems and limits reliance on non-renewable fuels. However, digester disturbances continue to represent a significant risk, limiting the widespread adoption of this technology.

A

Anaerobic digester operated by Talbot & Talbot

Under the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) water use licence conditions, the discharge of w untreated effluent into water bodies following u reactor failure can attract non-compliance penalre ties of millions of rands and, under special limit ti conditions, force full production shutdown of co operations for lengthy reseed periods of the dio gester. Consequently, new applications are often g over-engineered, under-loaded and relatively o expensive. Despite decades of research into ex anaerobic digestion technology, a fundamental an

Pictures courtesy of Talbot & Talbot SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

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Scientifically engineered environmental solutions

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Industry understanding of upstream effluent management, system sensitivity and basic process control continues to be highlighted as an ongoing concern, severely limiting the reputation and diversification of this technology. Talbot & Talbot, a solutions-based wastewater engineering company with more than 20 years of effluent treatment expertise, builds and operates upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digester treatment systems throughout South Africa and Africa, across a wide range of industrial sectors. Digesters vary in capacity from 1 to 5Mâ&#x201E;&#x201C;/d, treating between 1 and 25 t of COD/d, under general limit and special limit licence conditions. The company believes that a high performance anaerobic digester (AD) treatment system is attributed to a fully integrated approach, which begins with a systematic site water management plan and process optimisation within the client s core business. Upstream focus is essential in preventing discrepancies in effluent data, which result in incorrectly designed, overloaded and poorly performing digesters, to segregate and correctly dispose of solid waste streams and to ensure potentially harmful contaminants are identified and isolated from the effluent system. Plant design and construction is offered on a full turnkey basis, in addition to a full aftercare service through Talbot Operations, a business division of Talbot & Talbot. This includes operator training, performance review and compliance monitoring on a support basis and a dedicated team of competent operations and maintenance personnel on a fully outsourced basis. In addition, effluent sampling schedules are implemented via Talbot Laboratories to identify changes in effluent quality rapidly and monitor final discharge compliance. This guarantees the long-term treatment potential of UASB technology and a full commitment to the industry, which cannot be achieved on a build only basis. A well-managed, high-performance AD system provides clients with the opportunity to recover water and energy resources from their effluent. Secondary treatment systems in the form of activated sludge (AS), sequential batch reactor (SBR) and biofilter technology provide exceptional effluent treatment options, while water reclamation can be incorporated via ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis technology. More recently, Talbot & Talbot has successfully designed and commissioned biogas recovery systems that capture the by-product of digestion, methane, as a renewable, CO2-neutral energy source. A 25 t digester with a biogas production of 6 500 NmÂł/d can typically produce 52 t/d of steam, which

Anaerobic digester: Feed pipes and effluent recycle

A fundamental understanding of upstream effluent management, system sensitivity and basic process control continues to be an ongoing concern Top view of anaerobic digester showing gas domes and lamella plates

ssu upplements non-renewable energy usage by up to 15%. The realised value of a biogas recovery project (BRP) can be directly comparable to the p cost of the fuel it replaces, the logistical cost of co supplying fuel to remote locations and the availsu ability of electricity throughout Africa. This sysab tem, coupled to an existing AD, typically offers a te buy-back period of less than two years and forms b a reliable, constant energy source to the industry that th directly offsets the cost of effluent treatment. Despite these benefits, Talbot & Talbot m states that the real value of BRPs is the renewed st interest in AD technology, a deeper understandin ing of good effluent handling practices and an in ongoing commitment to ensuring anaerobic o digesters reach their full treatment potential. d *C *Claire Lipsett Pr.Sci.Nat. is a process specialist at Talbot & Talbot

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Technology

LABORATORIES

Integrated informatics solutions in the water quality sector Changing business requirements are driving some of the latest developments in informatics solutions in the water quality sector. This article takes a look at improving regulatory compliance management to support laboratory and business processes. By Colin Thurston* ompanies working within the environmental and water and wastewater sectors face a number of significant challenges with regard to delivering accurate, consistent and traceable results. Since ensuring public safety and delivering quality water are the chief goals of any water company, samples must be tested regularly and quality monitored between the water source and the final destination ‒ the consumer s tap. Effective monitoring of this process requires water companies to implement more consistent sampling, testing and reporting processes that can help them to deliver a safe product reliably while continuing to meet increasing regulatory requirements. Water companies today, whether they are large state or municipal organisations, privately run or small rural providers, are all facing the same pressures: maintaining the quality of supply while implementing the most sustainable and efficient processes, reducing labour-intensive procedures and waste and increasing automation. The bottom line is that water companies must ensure that the business makes the best use of all of its resources. Meeting stringent requirements for water and environmental samples has often resulted in labour-intensive procedures to ensure compliance, such as paper record keeping, demonstration of capability (DOC), document control, reagent and standard traceability, proof of training and reporting. Water and environmental laboratories need solutions that automate and significantly reduce those manual activities and consequently increase data quality and traceability, while also meeting compliance requirements for ISO 17025 and any local, state or regional standards requirements. ISO 17025 requirements are related to the competence of testing and

C

FIGURE 1 Pricing, quoting and invoicing can be managed from within the Sample Manager LIMS, reducing the need for other software applications within your business solution. This also reduces implementation and integration costs

calibration laboratories to carry out tests and/or calibrations, including the sampling process. These regulations cover testing and calibrations performed using standard methods, non-standard methods and laboratory-developed methods. The standards are applicable to all ISO 17025-certified organisations performing tests and/or calibrations. This includes first-, second- and third-party laboratories, as well as laboratories where testing and/or calibration form part of the inspection and quality process. Advanced informatics solutions, such as purpose-built laboratory information management systems (LIMSs), which are designed for the workflow of water and environmental labs, can address many of the industry s fundamental issues. An informatics solution designed to manage traceability and promote efficiency can also be instrumental in facilitating the exchange of information by connecting the laboratory with the rest of the organisation and in this

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

way helping management at all levels of the organisation to make faster and more informed decisions.

THE BENEFITS OF INTEGRATED INFORMATICS SOLUTIONS FOR WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS Laboratory managers need to optimise the utilisation of their staff and equipment to improve efficiency and productivity. Minimising time-consuming and potentially error-prone manual processes is a key weapon in the lab manager s armoury. LIMSs allow for considerable reductions in administrative overheads in the lab. Lab operating costs are especially diminished by applications featuring built-in functionality specific to water and environmental laboratory workflows. Predefined test methods, batch sequences, measurement traceability and regulatory reports allow the lab to process data faster than ever, while

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Technology

FIGURE 2 Sub-sampling allows users easily to manage sample allocation to various containers on receipt by the laboratory, ensuring traceability of the sample from arrival to disposal

delivering consistently accurate analytical data. By automating time-consuming activities, water and environmental labs realise improved efficiency and significant productivity gains while ensuring traceability and maintaining records for compliance reporting.

PRECONFIGURED SOLUTIONS FOR ENABLING COMPLIANCE WITH WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS State-of-the-art LIMSs for water and environmental labs have been developed in conjunction with environmental experts for ISO 17025 and any other local, state or regional standards requirements, ensuring that the solution has the specific functionality to support the workflows found in water and environmental labs. These new solutions are built with comprehensive dashboard functionality that can help address the regulatory

and operational needs of three distinct and interrelated parts of the laboratory s business ‒ personnel, quality assurance and the customer.

KEY FEATURES OF A PURPOSE-BUILT WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL LIMS SOLUTION • Statement of work (SOW) and project management capabilities to ensure proper documentation of customer interactions and contract review. • Customised pricing, quoting and invoicing management, which will reduce the need for external software applications and associated costs. (Figure 1) • Extensive sample and sub-sampling scheduling functionality, including the use of handhelds/PDAs, ensuring proper traceability and management of field sampling information. (Figure 2) • Built-in predefined test methods and calculations for higher quality results

FIGURE 4 Dashboards provide graphical representations of information to allow laboratory management and analysts to visualise critical information in various forms

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FIGURE 3 Predefined report templates allow customers to generate regulatory required reports automatically in a fraction of the time usually required

and more efficient operations, while also eliminating the need for external spreadsheets and manual calculations. • Preparation and analytical batches and their associated methods and matrices, linked to ensure traceability throughout the sample testing process. • Project, job and sample templates that can capture customer and sample information, guaranteeing chain of custody. • The ability to add document attachments to samples or projects and generate reports specific to the water industry, facilitating compliance with local, state or regional regulatory requirements. (Figure 3) • Automatic scheduling and maintaining DOC, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) studies, which eliminate the need for manual data gathering and report generation. • Data visualisation tools and an intuitive user interface, which can allow users to

FIGURE 5 Data visualisation allows users outside the laboratory to monitor field collection sites quickly and easily within the LIMS

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11


Technology manage and track sample information easily. (Figures 4 and 5)

FOR PERSONNEL AND MANAGEMENT: OPTIMISED LAB OPERATIONS Today s water and environmental LIMS solutions provide comprehensive sample handling, financial control from pricing to invoicing, project and customer management, instrument integration and automated reporting capabilities, giving managers tighter control and saving time. Dashboards display sample and project metrics and labour costs and monitor hold times so users can view the health of their lab and make more rapid decisions about their operations. Furthermore, by automating and centralising how samples are monitored and tracked, throughput, quality and lab productivity are also improved, allowing lab managers and analysts to focus on value-added activities.

FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE: MEETING ISO 17025 REQUIREMENTS Testing for water and environmental samples encompasses a stringent set of requirements

that has also introduced new labourintensive procedures in the lab to ensure compliance: record keeping, DOC, document control, reagent and standard traceability, proof of training and reporting. Using an informatics solution specific to the workflow found in water and environmental labs, quality assurance can rely on fully integrated work processes that ensure compliance with applicable regulations. With such a system, records are maintained electronically in a validated and secure environment and can therefore be easily retrieved during audits.

MEETING THE NEEDS OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES The latest preconfigured LIMS solutions have been specifically designed to help environmental and water and wastewater laboratories improve efficiency, maintain records and traceability and meet compliance requirements for ISO 17025. Best practices and key learnings in the field of laboratory informatics demonstrate that a built-for-purpose informatics solution can help water and environmental companies to redefine their laboratory processes for SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

About Thermo Fisher Scientific Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (NYSE: TMO) is a world leader in serving science, with a mission to enable its customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. With revenues of nearly $11 billion, they have approximately 37 000 employees and serve customers within pharmaceutical and biotech companies, hospitals and clinical diagnostic labs, universities, research institutions and government agencies, as well as in environmental and process control industries. improved efficiencies, cost savings and regulatory compliance.

REFERENCES International Organization for Standardization ISO/IEC 17025/2005 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=39883ed Kingdom619423000. * Colin Thurston is the director: Product Strategy, Process Industries, Thermo Fisher Scientific

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Technology

MINE WATER

Accurate technology for AMD treatment The current acid mine drainage crisis contributes to the fact that clean natural resources in SA are becoming scarcer and legislation is forcing industry to take a closer look at the environmental impact of its processes. ccording to Daan Louw, Verder Pumps South Africa consultant, mines are forced to look at ways to optimise their process and recycle and treat water before reintroducing it to the environment. Although the government has known about the problem since the early 1970s, not much has been done about it and we have now reached the stage where damage is prevalent and a management programme is needed to attempt to maintain water levels at least below the relevant Environmental Critical Levels (ECLs). Rand Uranium started working on this when acid mine drainage (AMD) first became a problem at the mine s operation in Randfontein after the Western Basin flooded and started decanting onto the surface in September 2002, says Dr Basie van der Walt, who heads up the Rand Uranium Water Treatment Plant in Randfontein. We are currently treating 12 Mℓ of acid water per day, says Van der Walt. The water is pumped from 65 m below the surface at #8 Shaft. The problem is that with the recent rains the water level has risen to 41 m below surface and is now also overflowing at 17 and 18 Winze. The water flows into the Black Reef Incline Decant Dam, where it is pre-treated with limestone to protect the pumps and pipes right the way through the process, Van der Walt explains. The water is then pumped 4.2 km to the plant, where the

PERISTALTIC PUMPS FOR DOSING LIME According to Louw, mining is a tough, uncompromising process and the mining industry is equally demanding, being driven by the goals of mine profitability, plant efficiency, cost minimisation and yield maximisation. And now we have to add environmental and legal dimensions. Mining companies have to achieve their operational goals while fixing the problem and ensuring that future impact on the environment is kept to a minimum. In the case of Rand Uranium, Verder identified that two VF65s and one VF40 would be sufficient to deal with the duties the pumps are expected to perform. We also identified that training on the pumps would be necessary, which was made available to Rand Uranium staff at our premises in North Riding, says Louw. The nature of the medium being pumped is an important factor when considering pump selection for a specific

Pictures courtesy of Verder Pumps South Africa

A

rest of the treatment occurs. At the set-off point of the process, the pH level of the water is approximately 3, and after treating the water by dosing limestone and lime, pH levels are at approximately 8. The water is also put through an aeration (oxidation) process to ensure that it complies with DWA specifications before it is pumped into the Crocodile River.

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application. When pumping lime, the high viscosity of the medium often causes pumps to clog up, resulting in a maintenance nightmare. When it comes to the treatment of AMD and the fact that we are working to catch up on the problem as well as trying to minimise current and potential negative impact on the environment, a process problem that will cause the plant to stop working is not an option, adds Louw. The Verderflex range of peristaltic pumps uses the process of peristalsis to pump products through a hose, in the same way blood, food and oxygen is pumped around the body, says Louw. The pulsation effect means that solids are kept in suspension and no build-up can take place. Build-up in the hoses is eliminated by using rubber Verderflex hoses that are designed to maximise life expectancy and performance. Verderflex hose pumps are designed to handle these tough operating conditions, ensuring optimal process flow. You only need two Allen keys to dismantle the pump on site, notes Louw. Correcting the pH is a very specific process and the pump used for dosing must be very accurate. Peristaltic pumps have a linear flow-speed characteristic and excellent repeatability, making it the most accurate solution available, Van der Walt concludes. BELOW Verderflex peristaltic pumps used for lime dosing LEFT Settling dams


Technology

REHABILITATION

Revitalisation of Xiba River In 1995, 185 million cubic metres of liquid waste was dumped into the Dianchi Lake in China’s Yunnan province. Water&Sanitation Africa highlights the biological rehabilitation methods used and the results of this significant project. f the 185 million cubic metres of waste, approximately 50 million cubic metres was industrial wastewater and 135 million cubic metres was domestic sewage. According to a report by the US Embassy in Beijing, more than US$2 billion was spent in the period 1993 to 2000 to clean up the Dianchi Lake. But the investments have produced little if any payoff because they have not addressed the root sources of pollution, such as agricultural runoff. The central and provincial governments are now looking for innovative ways to address the problem. According to reports at that time, 80% of domestic sewage entering the 16 rivers that flow into the Dianchi Lake remains untreated. Meanwhile, the heavy use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides on farm fields lying east of the lake leads to extremely high runoff of nitrates and phosphates. According to the 1998 SEPA report, 1021 t of phosphorous and 8981 t of nitrogen entered the lake in 1995. The Dianchi Lake Management Committee is fully aware that the main cause of water pollution is water flowing into Dianchi from its 16 tributaries. BluePlanet LLC of the United States presented a programme for the biological remediation of Dianchi Lake using BluePlanet s unique bacteriological-based product, AquaClean ACF-32. Kunming University of Science and Technology was engaged as an independent research party to conduct the trial and work as the local administrator of the project.

of 30 selected microorganisms with a specification of 387/450 million microorganisms per millilitre. The product, through bioaugmentation, accelerates the biological oxidation to degrade organic matter, utilising a broad spectrum of aerobic, anaerobic, facultative, chemosynthetic and photosynthetic bacteria. It increases overall microbial oxidation rates, significantly increasing organic degradation performance. This unique microbial consortium provides reductions in final effluent BOD, COD, TSS and turbidity and improves effluent discharge into the rivers, lakes or sea, while reducing waste sludge volume that has been built up in the river bed over time.

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OBJECTIVE OF THE XIBA RIVER TRIAL AquaClean was proposed as a bioremediation product for the Dianchi Lake rehabilitation. The Dianchi Management Committee offered Xiba River to Oakwell Engineering Limited to conduct a trial, testing the effectiveness of AquaClean in treating polluted water in Dianchi Lake. The river is a small, slow-flowing tributary with extremely polluted water, emanating a bad odour. The trial project was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the product in odour elimination, water quality improvement and river rehabilitation able to reinstate higher forms of living organisms in the river.

ABOUT XIBA RIVER The Xiba River is 4 km long, with a width range from 4 to 9 m and a depth ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 m. The average flow rate is 0.3 m3/s (26 000 m3/d). The pollutants are mostly from the illegal dumping of direct domestic sewer discharge, agriculture and animal farm wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater and small industrial waste, including waste from cement plants. River flow can be extremely high during illegal discharge, occasionally completely upsetting trial results.

PROCEDURE OF THE XIBA RIVER TRIAL

Condition of the Xiba River before the trial treatment on 21 November 2004

The trial was conducted on the last 1.5 km before the river mouth at Dianchi Lake, on a stretch ranging from 1 460 m to 300 m from Dianchi Lake. The segment from 750 m to 1 260m was installed with the uniquely designed biomedia to increase the bacteria resident count. Figure 1 shows the dosing and water sampling locations. AquaClean dosing was applied daily, based on water flow volume at approximately 1 ppm/d. The product was poured directly into the

WHAT IS AQUACLEAN ACF-32? AquaClean ACF-32 is a highly active liquid bacteriological consortium designed specifically for use in polluted lagoons, lakes, rivers and industrial and municipal wastewater systems. It contains a blend

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523 Church Street, Provisus Building, Arcadia, Pretoria, 0083, South Africa Tel: +27 12 440 9885 | Fax: +27 12 440 9751 Naphtali Motaung | +27 72 736 2995


Technology

FIGURE 1 Dosing and water sampling location of the river trial

designated dosing location. Water samples were taken from the river with a plastic cup with an extended arm, scooping water from the river centre at the sampling point. The water parameters that were monitored were BOD5, CODcr, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, turbidity, TSS and pH, all on a weekly basis.

AQUACLEAN DOSING COMPUTATION The trial zone was designated from the 300 m from the mouth of the Dianchi Lake, upstream 1 460 m, for a total treatment zone of 1 160 m in length. The average width and depth at this section of the river is 6.0 m and 0.9 m respectively. This gives a total volume of 7 884 m3. The normal flow rate without major dumping and rain is 0.3 m3/s, giving an average retention time of 7.3 hours. This means the water takes approximately 7.3 hours from the beginning of the test zone at D1 to the end of test zone at T4. Since the retention time is less than 24 hours in the test zone, dosing is computed based on the daily flow rate, as per the manufacturer s recommendation. Based on a 0.3 m3/s flow rate, the daily volume of water flow is 26 000 m3 (6.8 million gallons). At 10 ppm inoculation, 68 gallons will be needed. At the time of the project evaluation, the estimated flow was based on 3.2 million gallons per day, as detected earlier. The inoculation was therefore carried out with 32 gallons. The flow rate was subsequently detected at 6.8 million gallons per day and it was then recommended to maintain 4.7 ppm of daily flow rate per week for the next four weeks. Regular large volumes of untreated wastewater were found to have been dumped into the river, upsetting the water volume computation and trial progress. It was decided that the dosing be converted to 6 gallons (0.88 ppm/d based on daily flow volume), dosed on a daily basis thereafter.

In general, the daily dosing was divided into four portions, with 65% dosing at dosing point C just before the start of biomedia. Very low dosage was applied at dosing points A and B because the river at this section is very narrow and has a low water volume. Fifteen percent of the estimated dosing was applied at dosing point D at the middle of the biomedia section to ensure that there was sufficient bacteria to flow to the last section of the trial.

WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND RESULT EVALUATION Water samples from four locations as indicated in figure 1, namely T1, T2, T3 and T4, were taken on a weekly basis for water parameter monitoring. T1 is located 90 m before the first dosing point upstream. The water parameter at T1 represents the pre-treatment water sample. T2 is located at the middle of the biomedia zone. The water here is subject to two to three hours of treatment as it flows from D1 to T2. T3 is located further downstream, 650 m from Dianchi Lake. The water at T3 has gone through approximately five hours of treatment under normal flow. T4 is the last water sample point, at 300 m before Dianchi Lake. The water at T4 has been treated for approximately seven hours under normal flow rate.

water parameter reduction, a period that was in line with the manufacturer s expectations of 90 to 120 days. This was achieved even with the unexpected low temperatures in November and December 2004 and interruption of the project by the repeated huge dumping of wastewater into the river. Despite the numerous unexpected problems encountered, the experiment arrived at the conclusion that it is possible for AquaClean to reinstate ecological balance in a highly polluted flowing river, bringing higher forms of living organisms back to life. The product is very effective in odour reduction and is non-pathogenic and not harmful to fishes, as claimed by the manufacturer. The positive results achieved led to the conclusion that AquaClean is effective in bringing down BOD, COD, TSS, turbidity, total nitrogen and total phosphorous by half from T1 to T4, which represents only an average of seven hours retention time. The report was jointly prepared by Prof. Hu Kailin of Kunming University of Science and Technology and Mr Goh Kwang Beng of BluePlanet Asia, in collaboration with BluePlanet and Ecological Laboratories.

CONCLUSION The trial project concluded positively that AquaClean is effective in rehabilitating a flowing river. It took three months from inoculation to achieve significant Comparison of water samples from T1 to T4 on 25 February 2005

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Purify&Disinfect NOKAK - PACKAGE SEWAGE TREATMENT NO CHEMICALS

ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE

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)LOOGDPVZKHUHZLOGOLIHFRPHWRGULQN VXFKDVEHORZDJDPHORGJHYLHZLQJ SODWIRUP

,UULJDWHODZQVVSRUWVÀHOGVJROIcourses or agricultural plots with nutrient rich water

OZONE SERVICES INDUSTRIES (PTY) LTD 7HO  )D[  6KDUH&DOOZZZR]RQL]HFR]DRI¿FH#R]RQL]HFR]D


Technology

OZONE

Sewage in, water out Ozone Services Industries (OSI), a South African water, air and sewage treatment specialist, has launched its Biozone Nokak Sewage Treatment Plant. Debbie Besseling attended the recent launch at the Sterkfontein Caves. of the system is usable water. This means that the system has no unpleasant smells and does not attract flies or other insects normally associated with sewage treatment, explains Wright. While septic tanks do offer an alternative to traditional sewage systems, they still require a significant amount of maintenance, which is both unpleasant and costly. The system is ideally suited to rural use, mines, agricultural land, game lodges, golf estates and housing developments where traditional sewage collection and treatment is either non-existent or expensive to install. In addition, these sites are heavy water users and can utilise millions of litres of municipal drinking water on what are considered business-critical applications, such as keeping lawns and crops irrigated or cleaning equipment. A single plant can treat up to 300 cubic metres of sewage daily and can comfortably handle a medium-sized hotel, a cluster of small houses or a large game farm. The beauty of the system is that, with no toxic by-products, water can be recycled to acceptable standards, cutting costs and reducing the overall demand on South Africa s already-stressed water utilities, concludes Wright.

he technology named Biozone Nokak Sewage Treatment Plant uses a series of tanks, combined with oxygen, naturallyoccurring bacteria and an ozone generator, to recycle sewage effluent into water that can be reused in toilet flushing systems, irrigation systems and drinking water for livestock.The plant is a compact and affordable alternative to septic tanks and French drain sewers used to eliminate effluent from sewer water and purify the water to within government standards. OSI says that it is targeting the estimated R1.26 billion South African water treatment and wastewater treatment market (2008), which, according to business research and consulting firm Frost and Sullivan, is forecast to grow by 69% to R2.13 billion by 2014. This growth comes as a result of increased legislative and environmental pressures, a historical lack of investment in water treatment and the fact that demand for clean water is outstretching its supply in South Africa.

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THE TECHNOLOGY According to Ian Wright, managing director of OSI, the Biozone Nokak Sewage Treatment Plant is a 100% South African designed and developed product, utilising a completely natural process that requires no chemicals or regular emptying to treat sewage. Sewage makes its way into a collection tank, where non-biodegradable solids are separated from the rest of the effluent. Then, through a series of subsequent tanks, bacteria and other microorganisms ‒ which occur naturally in the effluent ‒ are fed oxygen to promote their growth and multiplication and feed off biodegradable solid waste in the water. The process is accelerated in the final stages of treatment as the bacteria are then starved of oxygen and sent into a feeding frenzy to eliminate the final solid waste in the water. Any residual solids are then collected and sent back to the first collection tank to start the process again, along with any new effluent that is collected, while the recycled water is sterilised with ozone and then pumped back into the water system for reuse. The recycled water meets strict industry and government standards for reuse, and an additional optional purification plant can ensure that the water is of a drinking standard. The system itself has very little effect on the environment because the entire process is contained within the recycling tanks and the only by-product

RIGHT: Ian Wright, managing director of OSI, shows the Biozone Nokak Sewage Treatment Plant in operation BELOW: Site of the recently launched plant at the Sterkfontein Caves

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Advertorial

DESERT

Nothing conserves water like the desert WATER EFFICIENT SYSTEM Without question, fresh water is our most precious resource, and as the population increases, so too will the cost of water. The Desert Cube™ Water Efficient Urinal System is a simple and effective way to help solve this economic and environmental challenge. Using natural microbial technology to control odours and the build-up of uric scale, the Desert Cube system is rapidly transforming washrooms across the world. The benefits are not only in the massive water savings, but also in odour elimination, chemical-free maintenance and improved hygiene. Approved by many relevant government bodies, the Desert Cube system is good for your business, your customers and the environment. With one small change, you can make a big difference.

Q. When is the urinal cleaned? A. The urinal is cleaned daily with Desert Washroom Cleaner, which contains proteins to activate the Desert Cube microbes and surfactants and mild detergents for cleaning. Q. Is this system safe for septic tanks? A. Yes. The Desert Cube system is ideal for septic systems because it adds beneficial microbes. Desert Cubes allow septic tank users to reduce water consumption significantly and reduce wastewater by the same amount, resulting in fewer blockages and reduced pumping ‒ a saving all round.

CUTS WATER USE BY UP TO 98% The average urinal wastes up to 151 000 ℓ of water per year. A small blue cube could reduce this by 98%. When you multiply the saving per urinal by the number of urinal bays in your premises, the savings are staggering. A small hotel could save 98 800 ℓ a year. A school with 500 male studentscould save 2.85 million litres a year. And a large shopping centre could save a massive 13 million litres of precious fresh water a year.

Q. Does the urinal flush and when? A. The urinal is connected to the Desert Smart Flush Timer. The timer contains a small sensor that can detect movement. On days when the sensor is activated, it will deliver pre-programmed flushes that will ensure the performance of the system. On days when the sensor is not activated, it will not waste water through unnecessary flushing. Where no flush timer is installed, pour 4 ℓ of water into the urinal once a day.

YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED:

Q. How does the Desert Cube Water Efficient Urinal System improve hygiene in washrooms? A. Water-efficient urinals are designed to dry out between uses, unlike the surfaces of wet urinals, which are constantly damp. Bacteria and viruses thrive in moisture but simply perish when dried. When you convert to the Desert Cube Water Efficient Urinal System, your urinal becomes touch-free, reducing the transfer of pathogens to hands. The conventional flushing mechanisms in wet urinals are a dangerous point of cross-contamination because they require direct hand contact from each user.

VISIT THE BATHROOMS DURING THE AFRIWATER CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION WHERE DESERT WILL BE IN USE Desert Washroom Cleaner Long-lasting, all-purpose effective cleaner, with the added benefit of scale inhibitor and naturally occurring microbial strains to reduce washroom odours. Dilute 1:30 with water. Desert Microbial Urinal Cubes Our eco-pack of 50 cubes is delivered in an easy-torecycle cardboard box.

CONTACT DETAILS:

Q. What is the shelf life of the cubes? A. Cubes last for two years when the storage container is sealed and stored between uses in a cool, dry area, away from direct light. Q. The cubes sit in the bottom of the urinal, so what keeps the face/wall of the urinal clean? A. The face of the urinal does not normally cause any problems. Bacteria find it difficult to exist on the urinal face because it s exposed to direct light and normally dries soon after use.

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Lincoln Phakisi or Sandile Ngozwana Call: 0861 TITIMA (0861 848462) E-mail: desert@titimagroup.com Website: www.titimagroup.com www.desert.com.au 

Visit our stand B29 at Afriwater 2011 13-15 September


Sanitation

AN AFRICAN FIRST

Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre The Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre that has been established by the CSIR is a first of its kind in Africa. Water&Sanitation Africa takes a look at the offerings of the unique centre. he centre, which was oďŹ&#x192;cially launched in May, is located at the Council for ScientiďŹ c and Industrial Research (CSIR) Built Environment Innovation Site in Pretoria and was jointly funded by the Water Research Commission (WRC) and the CSIR Built Environment. The aim of the centre is to provide practical and visual information on various sanitation technologies that support sustainable human settlements. It is a one-stop site for full-scale examples of some sanitation technologies.

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RESPONDING TO REAL SANITATION CHALLENGES The sanitation centre responds to the real challenges faced by different municipalities in South Africa. Jay Bhagwan, director: Water Use and Waste Management at WRC, says: Municipal officials and communities, when faced with technology choices, do not have the full range of physical models on display, and decisions are made

ABOVE RIGHT A ZerH20 waterless toilet BELOW A lightweight concrete toilet

on pictures and diagrams. When delivery takes place there is a level of dissatisfaction about the technology and this leads to poor use and management of the systems, leading to operational and sustainability problems. The centre was established after the WRC published a study entitled Basic Sanitation Services

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Sanitation

in South Africa: Learning from the Past, Planning for the Future , which mentioned various case studies of households experiencing problems regarding the failing construction of their toilets in various provinces. Pit emptying is not an exception to the current challenges faced by South Africa and other African countries.

ABOVE LEFT Eldocrete Dignity Loo ABOVE RIGHT Dr Rivka Kfir, CEO: WRC BELOW VIP toilet

Louiza Duncker, principal researcher at the CSIR Built Environment unit and the project leader for the Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre, says: People visiting the centre will get first-hand information on existing and some new sanitation technologies. This will create a better understanding and appreciation of different and alternative technologies. The targeted audience for the centre includes the general public, learners, communities, government officials, municipal councillors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), technical professionals and the private sector.

ACTUAL EXAMPLES OF PRODUCTS With this sanitation centre in place, visitors will have the opportunity to view full-scale examples of sanitation products and technologies and acquaint themselves with various sanitation systems available in South Africa. Besides the displayed technologies, information sheets and supporting documentation have also been provided, making the centre information rich. During the process of collection and removal of human excreta, sanitation-related diseases can easily spread. The key objectives of the centre include the promotion of healthy living conditions through the use of safe and decent sanitation systems. Various categories of technologies are displayed according to the way they function. For instance, some technologies do not require water, some divert urine away from faeces, others are concealed underground and there are those that are known for using water. Among the displayed options within the centre are examples of onsite dry sanitation, urine diversion and/or separation and waterborne systems, which have been grouped accordingly. Commercially produced technologies also form part of the displayed items. The centre will assist a variety of stakeholders, including government officials, politicians at the local provincial and national levels, schools, universities, engineering consultants, developers, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations and members of the public. Any stakeholders wishing to learn more about sanitation technology options can visit the centre.

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Sanitation

FIGURE 1 Site layout of the Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre

Schedule of exhibits Exhibit area A 1. Lined pit 2. Unlined pit 3. Slabs for VIP toilet 4. Fossa Alterna toilet Exhibit area B 5. Ballam-Waterslot VIP toilet 6. Blair toilet 7. VIP toilet 8. DignityLoo 9. Cobroloo 10. Lightweight concrete toilet Exhibit area C 11. Ecosan toilet 12. Double vaults for UD toilet 13. EldoUDLoo tank 14. Enviro Loo Technology 15. Xer H2O Waterless toilet Exhibit area D 16. UD toilet 17. EldoUDLoo 18. Enviro Loo Toilet

Visitors at the Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre

DISPLAY AREAS The products and technologies exhibited at the centre are indicated in figure 1. The exhibits are grouped into five display areas, as follows:

Exhibit area A This area deals with sanitation technologies that dispose of human waste without the use of water as a carrier. The purpose of the exhibits in this area is to display some of the technology components that would normally be concealed/underground.

Exhibit area B Included in this area are examples of various top structures ( huts ) available for the technologies demonstrated in exhibit area A. Exhibit area C In this area the focus is on sanitation technologies that dispose of human waste by diverting urine away from faeces and reusing the nutrients in the excreta as fertiliser. The purpose of the exhibits in this area is to display some of the technology components that would normally be concealed/underground.

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

Exhibit area E 19. NWS bacterial toilet 20. Various septic tanks 21. Various components for waterborne sanitation Handwashing facilities Exhibit area D This area contains examples of various top structures ( huts ) available for the technologies demonstrated in exhibit area C. Exhibit area E In this area, technologies that dispose of human waste by using water as a carrier are on display.

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Answers for industry.


Trends & products

TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE

A solution for tough wastewater and sludge handling applications EFFECTIVE SOLIDS conditioning is critical to achieving efficient and reliable throughput in your wastewater and sludge handling systems. The Grundfos SEWER CHEWER® grinder is a key part of these systems, helping them to operate more efficiently with consistent and reliable solids size reduction. The technology utilises a proven counterrotating dual shaft design with patented hardened cutters. This design provides an effective and reliable solution to the reduction of solids commonly found in today s wastewater flows. The SEWER CHEWER is a product of our extensive solids reduction and hydraulic experience. You now have a choice inwastewater grinders. The standard ASTM Class 30 Cast Iron provides a rigid and long-lasting superstructure. These grinders are available for channel and wet-well mounting(CHANNEL CHEWERTM), as well as for in-line pipe mounting (SEWER CHEWER). Channel units are mounted using stainless steel or galvanised frame brackets. Inline SEWER CHEWERS utilise ANSI Class 125 lb. flange mounted hoppers. Both the units are designed for simple retrofitting of other common sewage grinders.

The product features a simple and straightforward approach to bearing protection and seal design. The ball bearings are double-sealed Conrad type with permanent grease lubrication. The mechanical seals feature tungsten carbide construction for optimum performance on high grit applications. This unitised bearing/ seal arrangement provides an effective, yet economical, solution to the common failures found in many other sewage grinders. The unique patented cutter features five shear ovals on both sides of the cutter face. This additional cutting area adds a shearing cut not present in smooth surfaced cutters. The cutter s grinding,crushing, tearing and shearing actions combine to produce a finer, more consistent grind. Our cutters are also designed with an impeller-like profile to enhance the grabbing power of the cutters to draw in larger solids. Standard cutters are manufactured of AISI 4140 alloy steel. precision ground and hardened to 43-48 Rockwell C for strength and reliability. The spacers are of matching material and are hardened and precision ground to maintain a tight tolerance in the cutting stack. The standard drive system utilises an integrated 2.2 kW (4 kW on larger units) TEFC

motor and cycloidal speed reducer which eliminates secondary coupling pieces and minimises power losses to the driven shafts. The drive arrangement on the standard unit features a single coupling, direct connected motor. However, a wide variety of optional drive arrangements are available, including extended flexible drive shafting for remote motor location, hydraulic power packs, and our own submersible drive package that allows for the ultimate flood-proof operation. Our exclusive submersible drive package utilises our own Continuous In-Air rated motor mated to a sealed cycloidal speed reducer. This TENV (IP68) motor also utilises our true non-wicking cable entry system to provide the ultimate protection against moisture leakage from damage to the power cable. Source: Grundfos

Water meter tackles sand problem SENSUS SOUTH AFRICA S 220C domestic water meter now has the added bonus of maximum resistance to damage or stoppage caused by entrained solids such as sand entering pipelines.The up-rated meter combines advanced remote reading capability with special adaptations for difficult environmental conditions. Key to the 220C s success since municipalities started installing it about two years ago has been its extremely stable and high accuracy performance over an extended range. According to Basil Bold, managing director of Sensus SA, The upgraded version takes that advance a stage further. It incorporates all of the original meter s technological and environmental features, but with the introduction of a grooved piston designed to provide better resistance against stoppage due to entrained sand in the water. Bold says research has shown that one of the major drawbacks of conventional

piston meters is their susceptibility to stoppage due to sand. The new 220C meter minimises this possibility and is ideally suited to an operating environment such as South Africa s, where a common problem is sand invading ageing pipe networks. Besides consistent accuracy resulting in improved billing revenue, the savings in meter maintenance and replacement costs are a major benefit. Explaining the technology behind the new meter, Bold says the grooved piston complements two other features: unlike other volumetric meters the upstream filter faces downwards, which allows entrained solids to fall away from the screen when flow stops. This provides a much longer service life before screen blockage begins to restrict the flow through the meter. Similarly, with the piston normally located on a vertical instead of horizontal axis, the debris falls out of the measuring chamber.

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In conventional meter design the dirt settles in the measuring chamSensus 220C domestic ber, causing an water meter obstruction to the piston movement. The meter can also be integrated seamlessly into existing automated meter reading (AMR) networks. Its communications technology incorporates a standard reed switch in addition to a preferred inductive pulse output which allows the meter to be used in more advanced remote meterreading networks, ensuring 100% data integrity , Bold says. The meter s integrity has been underwritten by extensive testing by the SABS and approval by the National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications (NRCS) to the more stringent Class C accuracy standard. Source: Sensus South Africa

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Pumps

Valves

Systems

THERE IS MORE TO WASTE WATER THAN WATER KSB’S IMPELLER FAMILY The impeller – the heart of all waste water pumps. Its design and geometry as well as free passage determine the efficiency of a pump. KSB offers a complete family of impellers matched to all waste water requirements. KSB – we know what it takes to make your world flow round. For more information on this and other products, visit our web on www.ksbpumps.co.za

KSB Pumps and Valves (Pty) Ltd Tel: +27-11-876-5600 marketing@ksbpumps.co.za


Trends & products Dedicated pump controllers THROUGH THE RECENT acquisition of Velo Control, BMG Drives has extended its product portfolio to include Danfoss electronic variable speed drive systems. According to Dave Dyce, electronics technical manager, Bearing Man Group (BMG), The Danfoss range, which encompasses dedicated pump controllers known for advanced technology and reliable operation, are used to provide efficient pump performance in applications where a certain pressure or level needs to be maintained over a wide dynamic range. Danfoss pump Cascade controllers, with features and functions that eliminate the need for PLCs and other external controllers, increase the efficiency of multiple pump or blower systems. These dedicated controllers ensure accurate flow, pressure and level control, which results in lower energy consumption than valve throttling or the conventional across-the-line on/off cycling of pumps and blowers. Other important features include minimal wear on driven equipment, enhanced

energy savings and optimum productivity in diverse sectors. These Cascade controllers also operate pumps of unequal size - often in water/wastewater applications - and are available with master/slave Cascade control. The master drive controls the speed and staging on or off of the additional adjustable speed slave drives. Running a large pump at variable speed over a wide dynamic range is not an ideal solution because of low pump efficiency and because there is a practical limit of approximately 25% rated full load speed for running a pump. Various Cascade control options are available in the Danfoss VLT® HVAC drive system ‒ a basic pump Cascade controller and embedded in drive software (standard, using two control board relays). In the basic Cascade control, the drive controls a variable speed motor as the lead motor and can stage up to two additional constant speed motors on and off. By varying the speed of the initial motor, variable speed control of the entire system is provided. This maintains constant

The Danfoss Cascade controller is a field or factory mounted option board that allows the control of up to five pumps or fan motors in a Cascade or Master/Follower system

pressure while eliminating pressure surges, resulting in reduced system stress and quieter operation in pumping systems. The basic Cascade controller can control up to three equal-sized pumps, with lead pump alternation to equalise pump run time and wear. The extended pump Cascade controller is available with three additional relays and the advanced controller has the option of eight additional relays. Source: BMG ‒ Bearing Man Group

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Total Integration for Efficiency and Regulatory Compliance

Field Sensing and Actuation ‘Install and forget’ digital field instruments deliver stable and accurate process measurement with low installed cost and near zero maintenance.

Network based Control STARDOM offers a new paradigm in remote control with TCP/IP and fieldbus connectivity, for autonomy combined with remote visibility and reconfigurability.

Safety Management High availability of ProSafe-RS Safety Management Systems and its family offer truly integrated control system solutions with SIL1-4 certification.

Recording and Analysis Recorders and Portable Power meters are just some of the tools providing greater insight.

Find out more about Yokogawa and its process automation solutions at:

www.yokogawa.com/vigilantplant info@za.yokogawa.com Tel: 011 831-6300

Yokogawa South Africa www.yokogawa.com/za


Africa’s leader in natural resource and development solutions

New Bellmer product BATEMAN ENGINEERED Technologies (BET) has been awarded distribution rights in South Africa for the products of Bellmer Kufferath Machinery (BKM), a member of the Bellmer group since 2008. Bellmer Kufferath designs and produces plants and systems for dewatering, thickening and sorting and its expertise cuts cross a wide range of applications including: thickening and dewatering of sludges and fibres, treatment and dewatering of rejects, waste dewatering, dewatering in plastic recycling systems, dewatering of explosive and/or corrosive media and more. According to BET Water and Effluent manager, Marius Botha, We have had many years of success with Bellmer Winklepress belt presses in Southern Africa in municipal wastewater treatment plants and in the paper and fruit juice industries. We also recently successfully launched a Bellmer Winklepress Mobile Dewatering Plant for sewage and effluent sludge. All this encouraged Bellmer to ask us to distribute its BKM products in this region. The priority among the BKM product range are screw presses for the dewatering of fibres, sludges and rejects. With several lines of AKUPRESS® screw presses and a wide range of sizes from 200 up to 1 400 mm, BKM is one of the world s leading suppliers of screw presses. Botha says that the scope of industries in which these products and services can be used is extremely wide and includes: pulp and paper, food and food recycling,

Shipment of a sludge press with a screw diameter of 1 400 mm to the UK

digestion technology, waste processing, plastics recycling, leather and the chemical industries. This company plans carefully, taking the customer s requirements into account to the finest detail. When a machine leaves its factory one can rest assured that it s in perfect condition, ensuring the minimum downtime and maximum productivity for the user, says Botha. In 2009 BKM delivered to GRD Minproc in Australia six AKUPRESS®AS 625 screw presses, which will work in the UR-3R Process® (Urban Resource-Reduction, Recovery, Recycling) process. This combines several technologies for mechanical-biological recovery of mixed urban waste. A repeat order for a similar project in the UK was placed last year. All over the world the BKM products are achieving excellent results and we re looking forward to similar results in Southern Africa , concluded Botha. Source: Bateman Engineered Technologies

Tel: +27(0) 11 441 1111 www.srk.co.za Bellmer Kufferath Machinery’s biggest Screw Press with a screw diameter of 1400 mm.


Kobold turbine wheel flow meter WITHIN COMTEST GROUP company Instrotech s well-known Kobold range of flow meters is the DRB turbine wheel model which is used for measuring and monitoring liquids. Applications include cooling water, general mechanical engineering and wastewater treatment in the chemical industry. For measuring ranges of 5 to 30 to 50 to 750 ℓ/min, the DRB flow meter operates using the blade wheel principle. The four-vane blade wheel is retained radially in a high-quality sapphire bearing. The sensor is supplied ready to install with pipe fittings or with weld-on sleeves. The blade wheel is set in motion by the flowing medium. Magnets are embedded hermetically in the ends of the blade wheels and the magnets generate electrical pulses in a Hall-effect sensor mounted outside the flow. Maximum pressure is 16 bar and maximum temperature is at 80ºC. The DRB complies with the IP65 protection standard and two material options of aluminium bronze or stainless steel are available. Connection is via G½ to G3 female thread or ½ NPT to 3 NPT female thread. Outputs are pulses, 4 to 20 mA, LED display and contacts. Source: Instrotech

INCREASE YOUR RELIABILITY – REDUCE COSTS

A Kobold DRB flow meter

Electronic motor protection and control relays NEWELEC S KA, KB and KC series of electronic motor protection and control relays are housed in a small footprint, DIN rail mount. Fixed thermal curves (Class 15 cold; Class 5 hot), with thermal pre-loading, match the hot and cold stall times of the motor during operation. The KA relay is mains powered, auto-selecting 400 V or 525 V supply, while the KB and KC relays require either 110 V or 220 V AC auxiliary supply. The KA, KB and KC relays provide a single unit solution in pumping applications that traditionally would have used a combination of thermal overload, undercurrent and restart timers. The units provide overload, underload, single phasing, unbalanced current, overvoltage and phase rotation protection. Available in the range from 0.5 A to 50 A directly through the current transformer module block, the relays are also offered in the range up to 200 A using external current transformers in a xxx:5 ratio. Source: NewElec

Designed and Engineered for Water, Sewage and Waste Water Treatment All water and waste treatment works must meet increasingly stringent levels of discharge consent, while reducing operating costs. Critical processes such as primary sludge transfer and digester feed must be carried out reliably. Watson-Marlow Bredel pumps meet these demanding performance levels. • Lime, Ferric and Polyelectrolyte dosing • Auto desludging of primary tanks • Digester, centrifuge, filter press and belt press feed • Imported sludge transfer • Humus tank desludging • Raw sewerage transfer • Sampling duties • Five-year warranty on Watson-Marlow 520/620/720 case drives JOHANNESBURG: Tel: +27 11 796-2960 RUSTENBURG: Tel: +27 14 596-6695 DURBAN: Tel: + 27 31 700-2250 E-mail: info@wmbpumps.co.za Website: www.watson-marlow.com

Watson-Marlow \ Bredel \ Alitea \ Flexicon \ MasoSine group2media


CWC CONSOLIDATED WATER CONDITIONING WE TREAT WATER SERIOUSLY &RQVROLGDWHG:DWHU&RQGLWLRQLQJ6$ 3W\ /WGIRXQGHGLQ FRPSDQLHVLQ SXULILFDWLRQ ZDWHUFRQGLWLRQLQJIRULQGXVWULDODQGGRPHVWLFDSSOLFDWLRQVDQGFDQ KDQGOHHYHU\WKLQJIURPWKHVXSSO\RIHTXLSPHQWWRWKHLQVWDOODWLRQ Q VXSHUYLVLRQDQGFRPPLVVLRQLQJRIIXOOWXUQNH\SURMHFWV

IŠNMEDI@ | +27(0)846977914

352'8&75$1*( Ä&#x2020;:$7(562)7(1(56 Ä&#x2020;08/7,0(',$6$1'$1'$&7,9$7('&$5%21),/75$7,21 Ä&#x2020;675$,1(56%$*),/7(56$1'&$575,'*(),/7(56 Ä&#x2020;,521 0$1*$1(6(5(029$/),/7(56 Ä&#x2020;'(,21,6(56'(0,13/$176 Ä&#x2020;0(0%5$1(6<67(06 8)0)1)52$1''(6$/,1$7,21

Ä&#x2020;&+(0,&$/'26,1*6<67(06 Ä&#x2020;&+/25,1$7,212=21$7,2189/,48,'32:'(5&5<67$/ ',6,1)(&7,216<67(06 Ä&#x2020;'20(67,&:$7(5),/7(56$1'81'(56,1.52Âś6 Ä&#x2020;/$0(//$3/$7(6(3$5$7256$1'&/$5,),(56 Ä&#x2020;*5,76(3$5$7256&/$66,),(5663,5$/&219(<256$1' 6&5(:6(3$5$7256 Ä&#x2020;352-(&7(1*,1((5,1* /,0(&2$&7,9$7('6,/,&$HWF

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Consolidated Water Conditioning S.A. (Pty) Ltd Reg No: 80/04979/07 Head OfďŹ ce | 8 Lane Road, Knights Ext 3, Germiston | P.O. Box 445, Germiston, 1400 Tel: +27 11 828-0103/6 | Fax: +27 11 828-9699 | E-mail: info@cwc.co.za | www.cwc.co.za Durban Branch | Tel: (031) 564-0507 | Fax: (031) 564-0507 Cell: (083) 290-3141 | E-mail: conwater@icon.co.za

Represented in all South African Provinces and SADC Countries.


Trends & products Energy-efficient systems A WELL-KNOWN resort in KwaZulu-Natal has invested in energy-efficient electrical and plumbing fittings, which are significantly reducing the resort s electrical consumption. Magnet, a specialist in the design and installation of the latest energy efficiency systems, has recently installed heat pumps and low-flow shower heads in the hotel block and timeshare chalets at the Champagne Sports Resort as part of the resort s energy-saving programme. According to Brian Howarth, Magnet s managing director, This project involved the retrofitting of a 20 kW heat pump to the existing tank in the main hotel block, which previously was serviced by one 48 kW heat pump and a 3 200 ℓ electrical element boiler. Peak power consumption after the upgrade shows a demand saving of 81% and an average saving of 60%. The installation also included 2.8 kW heat pumps to the existing geyser in each timeshare unit at the resort and the fitting of low-flow, energy-efficient shower heads. Peak demand savings are at 70% and average savings are 91%. Magnet specialises in the supply, implementation and support of electrical equipment and industrial instrumentation throughout Southern Africa to ensure optimum energy efficiency in diverse industries. Source: Magnet Group

Magnet heat pumps, which have been installed at Champagne Sports Resort, play an important part in the resort’s energy-saving programme

85

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

Visit us at AfriWater 2011 on stand C29 hall 9

Excellence in Water Treatment For more than 65 years sera products have represented the highest measure of quality, safety and reliability in the treatment of drinking water, process water and wastewater. „ Dosing and feeding pumps „ Dosing systems and disinfection systems „ Process measuring and control technology „ Fittings and accessories „ Extensive pre- and after-sales service sera DoseTech SA [Pty] Ltd. Unit 3 Airborne Park Cnr of Empire & Taljaard Str Bartletts, Boksburg, PO Box 15474 South Africa Tel: +27 11 397 5120 Fax: +27 11 397 5502 sales2@sera-web.co.za www.sera-web.co.za


Awards

BLUE & GREEN DROP

Blue and Green Drop awards The very successful 3rd Municipal Water Quality Conference was held in Cape Town from 27 June to 1 July 2011, attended by more than 800 delegates. A gala dinner was held, where the prestigious Blue and Green Drop awards were presented. Here are some snapshots of the evening.

86

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11


Awards BLUE DROP AWARDS 2011 The following municipalities are congratulated for their excellence achievement in terms of their compliance status, standards and good management practice in drinking water quality management and service delivery to their communities.

Municipality/Umgeni Water 2 Blue Drops: iLembe Local Municipality/ Umgeni Water and Siza Water 1 Blue Drop: Msunduzi Local Municipality 4 Blue Drops: Ugu District Municipality/ Umgeni Water

66 BLUE DROP CERTIFICATES WERE AWARDED IN 2011:

Limpopo: 1 Blue Drop: Modimolle Local Municipality/Magalies Water 2 Blue Drops: Mopani District Municipality/Lepelle Water and Greater Tzaneen Local Municipality 2 Blue Drops: Polokwane District Municipality/Lepelle Water

Eastern Cape: 2 Blue Drops: Buffalo City Local Municipality 2 Blue Drops: Joe Gqabi District Municipality Free State: 2 Blue Drops: Maluti-a-Phofung Local Municipality 1 Blue Drop: Setsoto Local Municipality Gauteng: 1 Blue Drop: City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality/Johannesburg Water and Rand Water 2 Blue Drops: City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality/Rand Water and Magalies Water 1 Blue Drop: Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality/Rand Water 1 Blue Drop: Emfuleni Local Municipality/ Rand Water 1 Blue Drop: Mogale City Local Municipality/Rand Water 1 Blue Drop: Randfontein Local Municipality/Rand Water KwaZulu-Natal: 1 Blue Drop: eThekwini Metropolitan

Mpumalanga: 2 Blue Drops: Mbombela Local Municipality/Silulumanzi 6 Blue Drops: Steve Tswete Local Municipality/ESKOM

3 Blue Drops: Bitou Local Municipality 1 Blue Drop: City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality 3 Blue Drops: Drakenstein Local Municipality/City of Cape Town and West Coast District Municipality 2 Blue Drops: George Local Municipality 2 Blue Drops: Mossel Bay Local Municipality 3 Blue Drops: Overstrand Local Municipality 3 Blue Drops: Stellenbosch Local Municipality/City of Cape Town 3 Blue Drops: West Coast District Municipality 5 Blue Drops: Witzenberg Local Municipality

North West: 1 Blue Drop: Matlosana Local Municipality/Midvaal Water Company 1 Blue Drop: Rustenburg Local Municipality/Rand Water 1 Blue Drop: Tlokwe Local Municipality Northern Cape: 1 Blue Drop: Frances Baard District Municipality/Sedibeng Water 1 Blue Drop: Kgatelopele Local Municipality Western Cape: 1 Blue Drop: Beaufort West Local Municipality

SE E PTEMBER/OCTOBER 11 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER

87


The earlier you book the more you SAVE! Hear from 25 – 28 October 2011 Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa

Honourable Maria Mutagamba Minister Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda

Shayo Holloway Managing Director Lagos State Water Corporation, Nigeria

Kenneth Chense Commercial Director Nkana Water and Sewerage Company, Zambia

Prof. Hamanth Kasan General Manager: Scientific Service Rand Water, South Africa

New oil

Investment and development for operators, developers, financiers, government and investors Discover key sustainability strategies Implementing water service plans that achieve long term results

Simphiwe Kondlo Deputy Chairman Trans-Caledon Tunnel Authority, South Africa

Manuel Mutale Managing Director Mulonga Water and Sewerage Company, Zambia

Learn vital information from a global water outlook Water from an international perspective

Africa’s key water players made available Get access to the shakers and decision makers of the African water landscape www.terrapinn.com/2011/waterza

Dr. William Muhairwe Managing Director National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Uganda

Christopher Azuba Assistant Commissioner Department of Water and Environment, Uganda

Media Partners:

Produced by: TM

Reply form Yes! I am interested in Water Investment World Africa 2011 FMy company would like to sponsor / exhibit – please contact me FI would like to attend the conference – please contact me

Fax: +27 (0)11 707 9960 Voucher Code: A1 601281

Name ............................................................................................................................................................................. George Ndongwe Managing Director Lusaka Water and Sewerage Corporation, Zambia

Job title .............................................................................. Organisation....................................................................... Address ......................................................................................................................................................................... Post code........................................................................... Country .............................................................................. Tel ...................................................................................... Fax ..................................................................................... Email ..............................................................................................................................................................................

BOOK NOW! online www.terrapinn.com/2011/waterza | email jade.field@terrapinn.co.za | phone +27 (0)11 516 4024 | fax +27 (0)11 463 6903

3072

Bastien Simeon Global Head of Water KPMG Corporate Finance, France


Awards GREEN DROP AWARDS 2010/2011 The following municipalities are congratulated for their excellence achievement in terms of their compliance status, standards and good management practice in wastewater service delivery to their communities.

40 GREEN DROP CERTIFICATES WERE AWARDED IN 2010/11: Eastern Cape: 2 Green Drops: Buffalo City Local Municipality 1 Green Drop: Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality

Gauteng: 4 Green Drops: City of Johannesburg/ Johannesburg Water 1 Green Drop: Ekurhuleni/ERWAT KwaZulu-Natal: 9 Green Drops: eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality 2 Green Drops: iLembe District Municipality. Mpumalanga: 1 Green Drop: Mbombela Local Municipality

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

North West: 1 Green Drop: Tlokwe Local Municipality Western Cape: 11 Green Drops: City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality 2 Green Drops: Bitou Local Municipality 2 Green Drops: Mossel Bay Local Municipality 1 Green Drop: Overstrand Local Municipality 1 Green Drop: Witzenberg Local Municipality 1 Green Drop: Beaufort West Local Municipality 1 Green Drop: George Local Municipality

89


40 years of better solutions

Kaytech has provided revolutionary improvements in geosynthetic solutions in South Africa for 40 years. With continuous technological innovation and a specialist support team of 20 professionals, you can rely on Kaytech for the complete solution. Ongoing technological innovation includes: t professional support and consultation t job creation through local manufacture t 100% recycled bidim geotextile t environmentally protective construction and waste management solutions

For more information, call us on Johannesburg 011 922 3300 East London 043 727 1057 Cape Town 021 531 8110 Durban 031 717 2300 Or contact us on-line at www.kaytech.co.za

octarine 3382/A

People Planet Progress


Education & training

SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

Empowering emerging engineering contractors A specialist in precast concrete infrastructural products and solutions in Southern Africa has made an important contribution by imparting knowledge and skills development and training to aspiring members of the Soweto SMME Contractors Forum. he Rocla Academy recently held two training programmes at the Roodepoort plant, where 60 contractors were given the opportunity to gain insight into the installation and laying of storm water pipes and culverts. In addition to a factory visit, useful information was shared regarding best practice and correct installation techniques on all Rocla precast concrete products. A discussion was held after the training session to allow members to gain a deeper understanding. Craig Waterson, marketing director at Rocla, says, Since the establishment of the Rocla Academy in the 1980s, we have continuously approached beneficiaries who can benefit from our expert panel s knowledge transfer. The Soweto SMME Contractors Forum (SCCF) is an ideal recipient as their forum members comprise companies that are in building and civil construction. Another reason is SSCF s focus on development and empowerment is in line with Rocla s values. The information presented at the Rocla Academy has been developed in conjunction with the Concrete Product Manufacturers Association and has been recognised as a certified training institution by the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). Desire Mncedisi Myezo, co-ordinator at SSCF, comments, When Rocla introduced the training programme to us, we took advantage of the opportunity as members are given the opportunity to benefit from the much-needed skills and knowledge that normally come with an associated cost. The programme boosted members' confidence levels and they received certificates that are accredited by the Construction Education and Training Authority (CETA). By having our members attend training like that offered at the Rocla Academy, we ensure that the SMME sectors, as the grassroots economic role players, are better prepared for the future and mainstream economy. Rocla runs 15 training sessions per year, which are organised to meet customer needs and run

at Rocla's manufacturing sites across South Africa, as well as in areas such as East London and Lesotho where Rocla has no factory.

T

ABOUT ROCLA Rocla, part of the Murray & Roberts group, is a leading manufacturer of precast concrete products for infrastructure, including pipes, culverts, manholes, poles and other related and customised products.

RIGHT Rocla representative training a contractor at the Rocla Academy

Pictures courtesy of Rocla

BELOW Rocla factory visit at the Rocla Academy

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

91


nine leading brands - one exceptional company

Did you know less than 1% of the world’s fresh water is readily accessible for direct human use? Of all water on earth, 97.5% is salt water and of the remaining 2.5% fresh water some 70% is frozen in the polar icecaps. The other 30% is mostly present as soil moisture or lies in underground aquifers. In the end, less than 1% of the world’s fresh water (or about 0.007% of all water on earth) is readily accessible for direct human use.

As the world’s leader in transport and treatment of water and wastewater, ITT Water & Wastewater offers a wide range of mechanical and pumping solutions for wastewater treatment plants, dewatering applications, sewage systems, reverse osmosis, aqua-agriculture and the process industry, among others.

Designed by Atomic Design. Produced by Coralynne & Associates Tel: (011) 422


2-1949

Level of dams The full supply capacity (106 m3) and level of some of South Africa’s dams, as at 27 June 2011. Limpopo Hartbeespoort (NW) Olifantsnek (NW) Buffelspoort (NW) Bospoort (NW) Lindleyspoort (NW) Roodeplaat (NW) Koster (NW) Klipvoor (NW) Vaalkop (NW) Roodekopjes (NW) Marico-Bosveld (NW) Klein Maricopoort (NW) Albasini (LP) Vondo (LP) Olifants Witbank (M) Middelburg (M) Bronkhorstspruit (M) Rust de Winter (M) Loskop (M) Buffelskloof (M) Ohrigstad (LP) Blyderivierpoort (LP) Klaserie (LP) Ebenezer (LP) Magoebaskloof (LP) Tzaneen (LP) Middle Letaba (LP) Vaal Vaal (G) Grootdraai (M) Boskop (NW) Klipdrift (NW) Erfenis (FS) Kalkfontein (FS) Rustfontein (FS) Krugersdrift (FS) Groothoek (FS) Sterkfontein (FS) Saulspoort (FS) Vaalharts Storage Weir (NC) Bloemhof (FS) Douglas Storage Weir (NC)

(186.44) (13.67) (10.25) (15.79) (14.34) (41.16) (12.80) (42.08) (56.01) (102.33) (26.96) (7.07) (28.20) (30.45)

99.2% 99.4% 100.8% 101.9% 100.3% 100.2% 100.2% 100.9% 100.8% 100.6% 100.8% 72.1% 49.1% 97.0%

(104.02) (48.06) (56.99) (28.19) (361.51) (5.24) (13.45) (54.37) (5.60) (69.14) (4.84) (156.53) (171.93)

98.6% 97.2% 100.6% 100.2 % 100.5% 100.2 % 95.1% 100.4% 100.6% 100.3% 100.6% 100.6% 13.6%

(2 603.45) (349.53) (21.03) (13.30) (207.49) (325.13) (71.21) (71.48) (11.91) (2 616.90) (15.68) (48.66) (1 240.24) (16.25)

96.1% 92.7% 102.5% 104.7% 100.3% 102.8% 100.7% 101.8% 98.3% 99.5% 108.6% 90.9% 97.7% 120.9%

Orange Katse (L) Egmont (FS) Gariep (FS) Vanderkloof (FS) Boegoeberg (NC) Olifants/Doorn Clanwilliam (WC) Berg Voëlvlei (WC) Wemmershoek (WC) Berg River (WC) Steenbrasdam (WC) Eikenhof (WC) Breede Brandvlei (WC) Roode Elsberg (WC) Pietersfontein (WC) Kwaggaskloof (WC) Theewaterskloof (WC) Duiwenhoks (WC) Coastal river Hartebeestkuil (WC) Wolwedans (WC) Kromrivier (EC) Gamtoos Kouga (EC) Loerie (EC) Sondags Nqweba (Van Ryneveld Pass) (EC) Darlington (EC) Fish Grassridge (EC) Kommandodrift (EC) De Mistkraal (EC) Katrivier (EC)

(1 519.10) (9.25) (5 196.04) (3 171.30) (19.82)

98.0% 100.8% 100.9% 101.3% 143.5%

(121.76)

97.8%

(158.58) (58.71) (127.05) (33.88) (28.86)

66.5% 73.7% 80.9% 58.4% 79.7%

(284.29) (7.73) (1.98) (173.86) (480.19) (6.18)

50.1% 54.3% 99.5% 47.4% 73.1% 100.8%

(7.13) (25.30) (35.24)

99.7% 100.2% 79.0%

(125.91) (3.03)

100.7% 101.6%

(46.37)

101.6%

(180.83)

46.7%

(46.19) (58.11) (2.46) (24.68)

69.6% 100.4% 68.8% 100.3%

Great-Kei Xonxa (EC) Lubisi (EC) Doornrivier (EC) Waterdown (EC) Mvoti/Mgeni/Mkomazi Midmar (KZN) Nagle (KZN) Albert-Falls (KZN) Inanda (KZN) Hazelmere (KZN) Tugela Spioenkop (KZN) Driel Barrage (KZN) Woodstock (KZN) Usutu/Phongolo/Mfolozi Goedertrouw (KZN) Klipfontein (KZN) Hluhluwe (KZN) Pongolapoort (KZN) Jericho (M) Westoe (M) Morgenstond (M) Heyshope (M) Sabie/Krokodil/Komati Nooitgedacht (M) Driekoppies (M) Witklip (M) Da Gama (M) Inyaka (M)

(115.86) (158.00) (17.93) (37.44)

100.2% 99.5% 99.2% 101.3%

(235.42) (23.24) (288.14) (237.40) (17.86)

100.1% 81.9% 78.7% 100.4% 95.0%

(270.64) (8.69) (373.25)

100.1% 100.3% 101.3%

(301.26) (18.09) (25.89) (2 267.07) (59.27) (59.52) (100.16) (451.33)

75.0% 92.9% 74.5% 76.8% 80.5% 79.4% 96.7% 98.9%

(78.41) (250.92) (12.52) (13.53) (123.66)

91.3% 99.5% 100.2% 100.0% 100.2%

Info supplied by DWA Total full supply capacity of dams (106 m3) Last year 31 720.70

2011/06/27 31 560.20

Acronyms

EC Eastern Cape FS Free State G Gauteng KZN KwaZulu-Natal L Lesotho LP Limpopo province M Mpumalanga NC Northern Cape NW North West WC Western Cape


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Events

Diary of events International conference on groundwater: Our source of security in an uncertain future BIENNIAL CONFERENCE OF THE GROUND WATER DIVISION: 2011 DATES: 19 TO 21 SEPTEMBER VENUE: CSIR INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA This international conference is organised by the Ground Water Division (GWD) of the Geological Society of South Africa (GSSA), in association with the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), and will accommodate the Biennial Conference of the South African Ground Water Division and the IAH AGM, council and various commission meetings. The conference and the meetings will be an excellent opportunity for the international scientific community and scientists and water managers of Southern Africa to meet and discuss the future of groundwater in a quickly changing world. The conference is aimed at groundwater scientists, managers and planners, hydrologists and geotechnical engineers, but will also appeal to water professionals, environmental scientists, journalists, economists, public-sector

officials and others working at the front line of service delivery, natural resource management and governance. All members of the GWD in South Africa and members of the IAH worldwide are urged to attend. This joint international conference presents a tremendous opportunity for trans-boundary dialogue and collaboration. Speakers will include international and local experts in hydrogeology. Contact: Cilla Taylor Conferences Tel: +27 (0)12 667 3681 Fax: +27 (0)12 667 3680 E-mail: confplan@iafrica.com

Sustainable Water 2030: A mining industry perspective MINE WATER DIVISION SYMPOSIUM DATES: 3 TO 4 OCTOBER VENUE: CSIR INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE, PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA South Africa faces a probable water shortage of 17% between current supply and demand by the year 2030. The repercussions for productivity, sustainability and meeting responsibilities in safety, health and environmental protection are far reaching.

However, opportunities exist for us to decrease the amount of water required during mining, to revise cleaner production and life cycle analysis approaches and to minimise the solid and liquid wastes produced, as well as to ameliorate the impacts of the legacy of past activities. This symposium will bring together leading scientists from very different research fields, including water scientists, material scientists and engineers, to discuss and put forward the threats and opportunities with respect to water in the mining industry. The symposium will focus on the latest and most innovative achievements and perspectives, moving from a national overview to zoom in at a local scale and considering such aspects as: • countrywide demand and supply of water • water conservation and demand management • the practicalities and economics of treating mining-impacted water • regional mine closure and managing clusters of activity • the UN CEO Water Mandate and COP17 and what they mean to you • the Inter-Ministerial Committee on AMD. Website: www.wisa.org.za

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Aveng Water ABB Amatola Water

Golder Associates Africa

59

Rainbow Reservoirs

20

Talbot & Talbot

2

Hansen Transmission

39

Robor

94

TDB&C

32

Hydrodifusion Fittings

37

Rockwell Automation

26

ITT Water & Wastewater

92

Sedibeng Water

30

Terrapinn ( Water Investment World Africa)

88

54

Bateman Engineered

50-51

Technologies

38

Jeffares & Green

29

Sensus

42

Thermofisher Scientific

64

BKS

36

Kaytech

90

Sera DoseTech

85

Thuthuka Project Managers

21

Krohne South Africa

14

Sew Eurodrive

60

Titima Group

74

Trenchless Technology

IFC

VWS Envig

52

Consolidated Water Conditioning

84

Krohne South Africa

23

Siemens Limited

78

Department of Water Affairs

24

KSB Pumps

80

Spintelligent (Hydropower)

49

Lesira Teq

70

Magalies Water

40

Spintelligent (Water Utilities West Africa) 55

Water & Sanitation Services

SRK Consulting Engineers

82

South Africa

SSI

19

Watson Marlow

83 81 48

Durban Instrument Specialists

28

Elster Kent

6

Endress & Hauser

96

62

12

Netzsch Ozone Services

ERWAT

46

Prentec

Famsystems

18

Quality Laboratories

IBC 72 45

Stellenbosch University

17

Yokogawa SA

OFC, 4-5, 67

Swans Water Treatment

16

Zest

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 11

OBC


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