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Think water, think WISA!

Water& Sanitation

The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete resource and wastewater management


Durban Water Recycling plant PANEL DISCUSSION SA s water losses


10 years

MPHO RAMPHAO An award-winning young engineer

Dhesigen Naidoo talks about his new appointment as chieff executive officer of the Water Research Commission November / December 2011 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R30.00 • Vol 6 No. 6.



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CONTENTS Volume 6. No.6 Think water, think WISA!

Water& Sanitation

The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete resource and wastewater management


Durban Water Recycling plant PANEL DISCUSSION SA s water losses


10 years

MPHO RAMPHAO An award-winning young engineer


Dhesigen Naidoo talks about his new appointment as chieff executive officer of the Water Research Commission November / December 2011 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R30.00 • Vol 6 No. 6.



ABOVE Tecroveer’s recent acquisition of Becon Watertech

TECHNOLOGY The balancing act of water World’s first commercial wave power plant inauguration Environmentally friendly wastewater filter press Northern Ireland Water LIMS investment Laboratory focus Pushing storage needs to the limit Prefab concrete system tanks Reservoirs for agricultural water storage

8 Mpho Ramphao was recently recognised as the Young Engineer of the Year at the prestigious CESA Aon Awards 2011

Editor’s letter


COVER STORY Celebrating a decade of achievement


WISA President’s comment Mpho Ramphao: young engineer profile

7 8

PROFILE Clean water for future generations


PUBLIC SECTOR Groundwater management framework for municipalities


PROJECT South Africa’s award-winning seawater desalination plant


AFRICA Gaborone sewerage upgrades


PANEL DISCUSSION SA’s water losses


50 51 52 55 58 63 64 65

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT State of the rivers AQUALIBRIUM, the SAICE-TCTA Schools Water Competition 2011


EVENTS Excellence in service delivery


Talbot Laboratories have recently undergone a me-ticulous audit process by The Coca-Cola Company

REGULARS News – International News – Africa Level of dams Subscriptions NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11


58 11 14 71 75 1


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Consolidated Water Conditioning S.A. (Pty) Ltd Reg No: 80/04979/07 Head OfďŹ ce | 8 Lane Road, Knights Ext 3, Germiston | P.O. Box 445, Germiston, 1400 Tel: +27 11 828-0103/6 | Fax: +27 11 828-9699 | E-mail: | Durban Branch | Tel: (031) 564-0507 | Fax: (031) 564-0507 Cell: (083) 290-3141 | E-mail:

Represented in all South African Provinces and SADC Countries.

Editor’s Keyplan letter

Publisher Elizabeth Shorten Editor Debbie Besseling Creative executive head Frédérick Danton Senior designer Hayley Moore Mendelow Chief sub-editor Cindy Maulgue Sub-editor Danielle Hugo Contributors Dr Kornelius Riemann Marketing Martin Hiller Production manager Antois-Leigh Visagie Production assistant Jacqueline Modise Subscription sales Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham Administration Tonya Hebenton Printers United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales Avé Delport Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6224 • Cell: +27 (0)83 302 1342 Fax: 086 502 1216 E-mail:


Debating issues



MEDIA Physical address: No 4, 5 th Avenue Rivonia 2056 Postal address: PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117, South Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail:

ISSN: 1990 - 8857 Annual subscription: R270 (SA rate) Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. All articles in Water&Sanitation Africa are copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publishers. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Water Institute of Southern Africa or the publishers. WISA CONTACTS: HEAD OFFICE Tel: +27 (0)11 805 3537 Fax: +27 (0)11 315 1258 Physical address: 1st Floor, Building 5, Constantia Park, 546 16th Road, Randjiespark Ext 7, Midrand BRANCHES Eastern Cape Chairman: Anderson Mancotywa Tel: +27 (0)41 506 2172 Secretary/treasurer: Owen Wentzel Tel: +27 (0)41 363 1984

o end the year off with a splash, Water&Sanitation Africa has introduced a new section in the magazine in the form of a panel discussion. Industry experts participate in a debate and answer set questions pertaining to a topical issue. The section is limited to between five and eight participants. In this issue we debate the challenges faced relating to the country s water losses and the interventions that are needed to turn the situation around.In his State of the Nation Address in 2010, president Zuma said, "We will be putting in place measures to reduce our water loss by half by 2014". Our first panel discussion includes six participants, who are each recognised as leaders in their particular field of expertise: • Dr Ronnie Mckenzie, managing director: WRP • Mark Shepherd, director: JOAT Consulting • Kobus Prinsloo, director: SSIS • Basil Bold, managing director: Sensus South Africa • Hennie Roets, business development director: RARE • Keith Bailey, general manager: Sales & Marketing, Elster Kent Metering. Yes, there are certainly some strong points of view with regard to the questions put forward to our panel. This gives participants the opportunity to provide insight into the particular topic and, without reservation, express their strong opinions as well as provide possible solutions for the challenges. The water sector n o ti a it has some cer ter& San frica certainly

Free State Chairman: Gerda Venter Tel: +27 (0)51 405 9201 Secretary/treasurer: Riana Wessels Tel: +27 (0)56 515 0375 KwaZulu-Natal Chairman: Gordon Borain Tel: +27 (0)33 846 1826 Secretary/treasurer: Stephanie Walsh Tel: +27 (0)31 302 4077

Debbie Besseling, editor

serious topics to debate. So watch this space in our upcoming issues for leading viewpoints from professionals and experts in our industry. As I write this letter, we are finishing off the year with client year-end functions and the final industry conferences of the year will be taking place late in October, those being IMESA and the Water Investment World Africa. Ave Delport and I, together the Water&Sanitation Africa team, would like to take this opportunity to thank our readers and advertisers for their support during 2011. We wish you all the best over the December holidays and hope you have a well-deserved, restful break with your family and friends.

! Africa think WISA Institute of Southern Think water, e of the Water magazin The official

Western Cape Chairman: John Clayton Tel: +27 (0)21 531 6411 Secretary/treasurer: Farouk Robertson Tel: +27 (0)21 400 4574 WISA mission statement

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1990-8857 2011 • ISSN December

6 No. 6. R30.00 • Vol • Cover price




In each issue, Water & Sanitation Africa offers companies the o opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, p product or service on the front cover of the magazine. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story on pages 4 and 5 and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings contact Avé Delport on +27 (0)83 302 1342 or e-mail



Cover story


Celebrating a decade of achievement The Durban Water Recycling (DWR) plant, commissioned in 2001, has recently celebrated its 10th successful year of operation. Debbie Besseling attended the anniversary celebration. he DWR plant is a wastewater treatment project in Durban that was designed, supplied and commissioned by leading wastewater expert Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies (VWS). The DWR plant treats primary sewage and re-purifies the reclaimed water at 47.5 Mℓ/day to a near potable standard to guarantee an economic and high-quality water supply to the Mondi Paper mill and Sapref Oil Refinery. Located in the south of Durban, on the grounds of the eThekwini Water Services (EWS) sewage water treatment works (SWTW), the 47.5 Mℓ/day capacity plant is not only environmentally friendly, but brings significant advantages to all its stakeholders. The potable water that industrial consumers previously drew from the municipal system is now redistributed to previously disadvantaged peri-urban communities, without the need to invest in major bulk water supply and treatment infrastructure. The pollution load on the marine environment as a result of recycling water that was previously discharged into the sea is also reduced significantly.



The plant employs state-of-the-art water treatment processes and technologies, as described below.

Preliminary and primary treatment The preliminary and primary wastewater treatment process comprises screening, degritting and primary settling. These operations are performed by EWS. The effluent from the primary settling tank is fed to the activated sludge plant operated by VWS. This stream is termed the feed water and it must comply with 32 contractually specified parameters.

Lamella settlers separate clarified water from flocculated solids in the VWS patented Multiflo with a flow velocity of up to 20 m/ hr at the Durban Water Recycling plant.

Activated sludge The activated sludge process is of conventional design and serves to remove 95% of the incoming COD and 98% of the incoming ammonia loads. Typically, activated sludge plant effluent COD and ammonia concentrations are 15 mg/ℓ and 0.2 mg/ℓ respectively. The process is operated in the nitrogen removal mode, with typical effluent nitrate and nitrite concentrations of 5 mg/ℓ and 0.02 mg/ℓ respectively. Lamella settling The first step in the tertiary treatment process is lamella settling. The technology used is the VWS patented Multiflo process. Metal salt is dosed to the lamella settler feed water, ostensibly to remove phosphate, and polymer is added to enhance the flocculation process. After floc growth stabilisation the flocculated water is fed to the lamella settling tanks, where rapid settling of the flocculated material is achieved. The lamella plates are inclined at 60 degrees and assist the settlement process. The upflow velocity through the settlers is 20 m/hr. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) dosing PAC is dosed to the water leaving the lamella settlers and is employed for the removal of iron. The final reclaimed water specification for iron is 0.04 mg/ℓ, some five times lower than the standard for class l potable water (SABS 241:1999). Dual media filtration The dual media filtration step is the last suspended solids barrier in the process. These rapid gravity filters have a bed depth of 3 m, the top metre of the media being anthracite and the rest silica sand. Filtration velocities of 4 m/hr are achieved and the current filter cycle time is 36 hours. Iron precipitate is removed in the dual media filter.



Cover story Ozonation The ozonation step is used to break down the remaining non-biodegradable organic compounds, including colour-causing compounds. The ozone contacting time is 15 minutes. Two Trailigaz ozone generators, with a maximum combined output of 12 kg/hr, are employed. Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption The GAC process is currently employed as a polishing step and for the removal of ozone-degraded organics. The bed depth is 3 m and the contacting time is 10 minutes. The current cycle time is 48 hours. The carbon used is Pico Bio and a bed life of eight to 10 years has been experienced. Chlorination To ensure no biological regrowth in the reticulation system or within Mondi and Sapref s processes, free chlorine residual of 0.8 mg/ℓ is maintained at the point of reclaimed water use. Reticulation Chlorinated reclaimed water is pumped to the 21 Mℓ high-level storage tank before distribution to Mondi and Sapref. The reticulation pipework length is approximately 2 km. A facility to augment the reclaimed water supply through the addition of potable water is available. The purpose of this facility is twofold: • It ensures the continuity of supply if the water demand by Mondi and Sapref exceeds the wastewater volume available for treatment. • It can be used for blending purposes, should the quality of the reclaimed water be deficient in any parameter as a result of feed water non-compliance or inadequate treatment. According to Arnaud Gisclon, managing director: DWR and deputy managing director: VWS South Africa, The production of potable-quality recycled water from domestic and industrial wastewater to a guaranteed standard continuously and reliably is a showcase for advanced water process technology and process engineering.

An aerial view of the flagship Durban Water Recycling (DWR) plant which treats domestic and industrial sewage and wastewater to near potable standard for use in industrial processes by high volume customers, such as Mondi Paper and SAPREF

exceptional results. It harnesses the energies of the partners and highlights the potential role that the private sector can play in water management, treatment and distribution. Zetachem s involvement in the highly successful DWR project goes back to the feasibility stage, when Zetachem was selected by VWS to assist with the preliminary study of the wastewater quality from the Durban Southern About Veolia Water Basin. According to Trevor Johnston, Solutions & Technologies divisional managing director: Zetachem, Veolia Water Solutions & From this initial relationship, Zetachem Technologies, a subsidiary of became a partner in the ground-breaking Veolia Water, is a leading design water-saving project and the formation of and build company and a specialDWR. Zetachem products were introduced ised provider of technological solutions in water treatment. on start-up and continue to this day. With over 9 658 employees in 57 Major benefits of this wastewater treatcountries, Veolia Water Solutions ment project include a reduction in the & Technologies recorded revoverall industrial consumption of potable enue of €2.15 billion in 2010. water and the equivalent decrease in the For more information on this and amount of treated sewage being released other Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa projects, into the environment, says Johnston. please visit

STAKEHOLDERS OF THE PPP The various stakeholders of this public-private partnership (PPP) include municipal utilities EWS and Umgeni Water, VWS, the Marubeni Corporation, Khulani Holdings and Zetachem ‒ part of the Omnia Group. Gisclon says, As a water-stressed country, we need initiatives that can assist in preserving our natural water resources. This PPP project is a prime example of how innovative approaches to water resource and environmental management, wastewater treatment technology and institutional arrangements can yield

Key figures who attended the 10 year Anniversary celebration [FROM LEFT]: Mandla Gama (Guma Group), Rob Dyer (eThekwini Water & Sanitation), Gunter Renken (Managing Director of VWS South Africa), Arnaud Gisclon (Director at Durban Water Recycling), Councillor Logie Naidoo, Sagren Govender (General Manager at VWS South Africa’s KwaZulu Natal office), and John Harrison (eThekwini Water & Sanitation).

In each issue, Water&Sanitation Africa offers advertisers the opportunity to promote their company s products and services to an appropriate audience by booking the prime position of the front cover, which includes a two-page feature article. The magazine offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Please call Avé Delport on +27 (0)11 467 6224/ +27 (0)83 302 1342 to secure your booking.





Positive attitude goes a long way he 3rd Municipal Water Quality Conference has come and gone, leaving us with some challenges. The presentations and discussions during the sessions in Cape Town left us very energised and determined to improve our performance levels. Today it is sad that our sector had to experience the recent industrial action by municipal workers. I am sure you will agree with me when I say that it was not a favorable environment for essential services employees, especially our members and non-members who are so passionate about our sector. Our members, who are defined as essential services employees, could not operate efficiently due to threats of intimidation, violence and, in some cases, water and wastewater systems had to be left unattended. This placed a high risk of failure on our equipment, which is worth millions of rands. We unfortunately cannot operate in a vacuum; we have to perform within the political environment of our country. Our government has committed itself to improving water and sanitation service delivery to its people and this has to be realised through the efforts of various stakeholders, such as those of our sector, electricity and energy, public health, etc. How do you improve service delivery under these volatile conditions? Do we as leaders or managers really value the


Our government has committed itself to improving water and sanitation service delivery to its people importance and quality of the service we offer to our people? Do we really apply our minds in terms of the implications of our decisions? How do these decisions impact on the lives of poor communities? These are the type of questions that come to one s mind during periods of industrial action, but one always stays positive that, at some point, leaders or managers will recognise this situation and take the necessary action.

I cannot help thinking of poorer communities, who suffer most due to lack of service delivery during industrial action. Non-collection of refuse and the nonclearance of sewer blockages that result in wastewater spillages create a health hazard to these communities. The provision of sub-quality water, which does not meet the SANS 241 standard, is posing a further health risk to these consumers. The comments and questions mentioned above are not meant to suggest that workers do not have legitimate grievances. I believe that, with good leadership from employers and labour unions, a balance could be struck without exposing consumers/customers to health risks. I commend WISA members and nonmembers who stayed positive during this period and ensured that the risk of system failures was minimised. This was due to your pride in our water industry and a wish to ensure that it remains a sector of winners. I call on all of us to remain positive that the work environment will eventually change for the better. We must also all continue to work together to improve service delivery for our people. Anderson Mluleki Mancotywa WISA President

WISA PATRON MEMBERS • ABS Wastewater Technology


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• ITT Water & Wastewater South • Rand Water

• Department of Water Affairs • Development Bank of Southern Africa


Metropolitan Municipality

Consulting Engineers

Environmental Consultants • TCTA • Tecroveer

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Mpho Ramphao

Young engineer profile Mpho Ramphao was recently recognised as the Young Engineer of the Year at the prestigious CESA Aon Awards 2011. Water&Sanitation Africa took the opportunity to speak to this outstanding young engineer, who has certainly made a name for himself in the water sector. amphao is a professional engineer employed by Aurecon, who works in the water and wastewater field, with a special focus on the optimisation of wastewater treatment facilities. In collaboration with internationally acclaimed researchers, he has authored and co-authored seven technical papers and has presented a number of papers at conferences. He has also recently presented a paper at a conference in Australia, which serves to uphold South Africa s reputation for excellence in wastewater treatment technology. Ramphao is Aurecon s most experienced BioWin modeller and was recently responsible for setting up models and modelling the processes for four wastewater treatment plants operated by Yorkshire Water.


WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT LESSON YOU LEARNT EARLY IN YOUR CAREER? Although my career is still young, there are a few important things I have learnt so far: a) Be authentic, do what you love and always put people first. b) Spend more time listening. Despite all your knowledge and experience, it is best to understand the perspective of the person or people you are interacting with before assuming you have the correct answer or solution. c) Humility is the most underrated quality ‒ it takes a lot for someone to be humble enough to admit that they don't know everything and ask questions of people who do. d) Do what is right, not what is popular.

WHAT HAS BEEN YOUR MOST CHALLENGING PROJECT AND WHY? I m currently responsible for the design and implementation of a major membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment


plant in South Africa, which is currently under construction at Malmesbury in the Western Cape. The project has a value of approximately R120 million. My responsibilities during the planning and design phases were to perform professional engineering services for preliminary design, detailed design, treatment works permit applications, tender documents and tender reporting for the upgrading of the Malmesbury WWTW. The design involved process modelling to decide on the appropriate biological wastewater treatment technology, hydraulics, civil design (geotechnical, structural, roads, etc.) and electrical and mechanical design. I am also responsible for liaising with the parties involved in the project (including the membrane equipment suppliers who are in Europe ‒ we have monthly telephonic meetings to track progress) in order to ensure that everyone understand the requirements of the project, e.g. ensuring that mechanical and electrical requirements are accounted for in the design of the civil and mechanical layout drawings.

WHAT, IN YOUR OPINION, IS ESSENTIAL TO INNOVATIVE THINKING? AND WHY? The best way to answer this is by looking at the following traits, which I once came across while in my second year of civil engineering studies. I make the effort of following them on a daily basis: • Curiosity: This is the first step towards discovery. • Imagination: Before you


can develop a new idea, you must first be able to conceive it; to envision the very possibility that it could exist. Innovation is fuelled by leaps of the imagination, making novel connections between seemingly disparate ideas, concepts or objects. • Intuition: Making decisions based on facts and figures is fine in many instances. But true innovation is more often born from that internal knowing ‒ the guiding force, sixth sense or gut feeling to follow one s instincts, no matter how unconventional or illogical the direction. • Inventiveness: The ability to change the status quo requires an inquisitive passion for tinkering . True innovators possess the desire to arrange and rearrange ideas or things in new and different combinations. • Flexibility: The capacity to suspend judgment and embrace two (or more) seemingly contradictory or unrelated

WISA viewpoints at the same time helps to create a dynamic tension that ultimately stimulates creative resolutions (solutions). â&#x20AC;˘ Persistence: All the creative talent in the world is of no value if you give up before the work is done. Persistence, which is the passion, willpower and enthusiasm to overcome setbacks and discouragement, allows innovative thinkers to keep trying new possibilities until success is achieved. Of course, there is no secret recipe for innovation. It requires an ongoing commitment on the part of the individual to relentlessly pursue new, better ways of doing things and never accept anything less than the best possible outcome.

IN YOUR OPINION, WHAT IS CRUCIAL TO SUCCESSFUL PROJECT DELIVERY? Project governance inďŹ&#x201A;uences project delivery in terms of cost, speed of completion, quality and its ďŹ nancial viability as it is critical in providing a clear organisational structure, eďŹ&#x20AC;ective decisionmaking structures and control processes. The success of the project is attributed to

About Mpho Ramphao â&#x20AC;˘ Born: In a rural village called Mamaila (about 60 km from Tzaneen, and about 80 km from Polokwane in Limpopo province). â&#x20AC;˘ Qualifications: BSc Civil Engineering, 2003, University of Cape Town (awarded with honours, a distinction only achieved by about 10% of civil engineering graduates). â&#x20AC;˘ Obtained an MSc Engineering in 2004, specialising in water and wastewater treatment. â&#x20AC;˘ Registered as a professional engineer with the Engineering Council of South Africa in 2008. â&#x20AC;˘ Passionate about: My family, my local church, my community and education. â&#x20AC;˘ Enjoys: Jazz and classic music made in the mid-70s to early 80s. an appropriate governance structure, enabling the necessary reviews and adjustments to be made to render the project ďŹ nancially viable and aďŹ&#x20AC;ordable. I believe that projects fail because of inadequate governance structures, which create conďŹ&#x201A;icting priorities between stakeholders and complex decision-making processes with negative impacts on project deliverables such as cost and time.

WHERE DO YOU SEE YOURSELF OVER THE NEXT FIVE YEARS? I intend to continue to contribute positively to Aurecon. I am interested in a creative and challenging work environment that will best utilise my team building and problem-solving skills. As I grow in my incoming and subsequent roles, I hope to bring others up the ladder/contribute to the personal and professional growth of the junior team members, pretty much like what the senior guys are doing for me. I want to be the employee that is remembered for the problems that became solutions and the unattainable that became a reality. Maybe I will be somewhere in between, but I will be positioned as a long-term and valued employee. That's where I want to be.

ONE OF THE GREAT CHALLENGES FACING THE WATER INDUSTRY IS... The ever-changing water quality and discharge standards. How will water utilities meet these increasingly stringent standards? Certainly new treatment, analytical and water delivery technologies are in development. But more importantly, who



Liveable cities, resilient communities

Aurecon provides engineering, management and specialist technical services for government and private sector clients globally. The group has been involved in projects that span multiple markets DFURVV$IULFD$VLD3DFLoFDQGWKH0LGGOH(DVW7KHJURXS VEURDGEDVHGUHVRXUFHSRROHQDEOHVLW to provide core engineering services as well as infrastructure asset management, organisational development and programme and project management. Aurecon offers a comprehensive range of services in both water and sanitation. This includes surface and groundwater management, infrastructure provision and water and sewage utility services. We have actively addressed the needs of communities and cities, and developed skills that cover the technical, social and institutional aspects of providing water and sanitation services. :HDSSUHFLDWHWKHQHHGIRUWKHSURYLVLRQRILQWHJUDWHGPXOWLGLVFLSOLQDU\VROXWLRQVWKDW encompass the full range of issues that impact on business operations. Our expert team strives WRFRPELQHLQQRYDWLYHWKLQNLQJZLWKFRQVWUXFWLYHSURMHFWGHOLYHU\PRGHOVWRGHOLYHUFRVWHIIHFWLYH solutions to clients. Aurecon also fosters job creation by focusing on core infrastructure development such as water, roads, electricity, sanitation and housing, which are aimed at revitalising and sustaining cities and towns. 0DNH$XUHFRQ\RXUSDUWQHULQPHHWLQJWRGD\ VPRVWFULWLFDOVHUYLFHGHOLYHU\FKDOOHQJHV For more information contact us at tel: +27 12 427 2000 or email:

Services: Integrated planning 0XQLFLSDOLQIUDVWUXFWXUH development Roads and transport Solid waste Water and electricity (QYLURQPHQWDOVWXGLHV Asset management Disaster management Advisory and management

WISA will participate in the many challenges that lie ahead in the water industry? Who will contribute to this massive public health effort that will affect their communities, friends, and families? Staffing issues are of paramount importance to every industry. Whether it's manufacturing, health care, technology or a service industry, recruiting and retaining qualified staff is at the top of everyone's to-do list. The water industry is no exception. In the years to come, increasing numbers of qualified staff will be necessary in the areas of operations, maintenance, water supply, engineering, information technology, customer service, finance and management. But the water industry is more than just another sector of the economy. You're part of an industry that's responsible for the very stuff of life ‒ water.

WHAT INSPIRES YOU TO KEEP ON GIVING BACK TO COMMUNITIES? I have discovered my greatest strengths in serving others. I truly believe in investing myself in the community that I come from or live in through community service. God


teaches us that to whom much is given, much is required , and as engineers, we have already been given a lot ‒ and it is our responsibility to give back to the community, especially to those who have not been given the same opportunities we have. I am where I am today because others sacrificed their time for me and I find it fitting to do as they did.

WHAT ROLE DOES ENGINEERING PLAY IN EFFECTING POSITIVE CHANGE IN COMMUNITIES? Creating a sustainable world that provides a safe, secure, healthy, productive and sustainable life for all people should be a priority for the engineering profession. Engineers have an obligation to meet the basic needs of all humans for water, sanitation, food, health and energy, as well as to protect cultural and natural diversity. Improving the lives of the five billion people, whose main concern is staying alive each day, is no longer an option; it is an obligation. Educating engineers to become facilitators of sustainable development, appropriate technology and social and economic NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11

change represents one of the greatest challenges faced by the engineering profession today.

ONE OF LIFE S GOALS When I retire from normal engineering work, I d like to build a school. This school will invite teachers to contribute their expertise voluntarily because they see teaching as their calling; their vocation. A school where students are encouraged to use technology for learning in class (I learnt matric mathematics and physical science through videos at home!), where critiquing the teacher is accepted and where critiquing students is also accepted. Where the focus is on equality of opportunity rather than outcome; where diversity is celebrated. Where learning takes place, which means mistakes get made, and where making mistakes is encouraged. As part of the CESA Aon 2011 Young Engineer of the Year award, Ramphao had the opportunity to attend the FIDIC Convention in Davos, Switzerland, from 2 to 5 October 2011 and will serve on CESA s Young Professionals Forum (YPF) for the coming year.



building its part of the eastern route since 2002, completing investments of 12.5 billion yuan as of late September. Source: xinhuanet


(Xinhua) Shandong Province plans to invest 20.6 billion yuan (US$ 3.2 billion) in the construction of the eastern route of the South-North Water Diversion (SNWD) Project over the next two years, local authorities said. The investments will fund the construction of 11 water projects along or near the BeijingHangzhou Grand Canal that passes the province, according to the Shandong Administration for the SNWD project. The projects, expected to be completed in 2013, will bring water to drought-prone Shandong and Tianjin, a northern municipality, ensuring local demands for drinking, industrial and agricultural water are met. The SNWD Project that China has been working on consists of three routes ‒ eastern, middle and western. The eastern channel will use the Grand Canal, the world s longest artificial waterway, initially built 2 500 years ago. Shandong has been

Filling up: at the height of the crisis 40 000 homes were off supply

Northern Ireland (NI) Water has made a profit of £80 million in a year that saw the worst crisis in the company s history. The profit is up from £57 million in 2010 and comes despite a winter of severe discontent. At the height of the Christmas freeze, a million people phoned the NI Water helpline because of burst pipes and water problems. Thousands of people were left without water ‒ some for more than a week. The board s chief executive Laurence MacKenzie resigned over his handling of the emergency. The utility regulator found that the company was not prepared to deal with the magnitude of the crisis.

As a result of recent profits, NI Water s finance director Ronan Larkin said improvements could be made. We are able to continue to deal with investment programmes in our water mains as well as our customer systems, seeking to make sure that we can deal with customer telephone calls in a better way than we had been able to deal with them back in December 2010. As part of its operating structure, NI Water must pay a chunk of any profit back to the Department for Regional Development. This year s dividend to the tax payer is £36 million, which is £1million more than last year. It is understood that most of the remaining profit will be reinvested back into the business. Source: BBC News

United Kingdom

The Science Museum, London recently conveyed a survey that revealed shocking results: Internet connection is more important to people than NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11

clean drinking water. From the 50 things ranked in the survey, Facebook takes fifth place. A total of 300 adults took part in the survey and answered the question of what the things they cannot live without are. The poll was conducted as part of Water Wars: Fight the Food Crisis ‒ the new exhibition placed in the museum. The exhibition was aimed at showing how important water is and that many people lack fresh water and cannot grow crops for this reason. This was outlined by technologies invented to work out the water deficit. Surprisingly or not, the poll certainly showed how people take a lot of things for granted: and revealed how people are not only surrounded by, but obsessed with, material things they could easily live without, and do not dot realise which the really valuable things are ‒such as water or having a shower, for example. It is true that Facebook is the largest social network, with more than 750 million active users, but it is indeed crazy (as the exhibition manager phrased it) to rank Internet connection, Facebook and e-mail among the top 10 things most important for a person to live. It seems having fresh drinking water is something that many


News of us take for granted, although it is becoming scarcer in many parts of the world. If you see how little water others have available to drink or grow food, you soon realise that it is fast becoming a luxury for millions. Exhibition manager of the museum, Sarah Richardson, said the following about the survey results: In Britain we are obsessed by the weather, so it s not surprising that sunshine was rated as the top thing we couldn t live without. The following figures show where water and sanitation ranked in the survey: 3rd: Clean drinking water; 9th: Flushing toilet; 13th: Shower; 34th: Bottled water. Source: PC1 News


Fenosa in 1999. Five years later it was taken over by a Chinese company, CKI, and then in August this year, the HSBC bank took control of it on a custodian basis. Now, HSBC has hammered out a deal with the Staffordshire organisation, which as well as supplying water to parts of the West Midlands also owns a number of other companies supplying services to the utilities sector. The acquisition is subject to an automatic referral to the Competition Commission. This is owing to South Staffordshire s ownership of another water supplier, South Staffs Water, which began trading in the same year as Cambridge Water, 1853. In a statement, Cambridge Water said no staff changes are planned as a result of this change in ownership . Customers charges are also fixed for a five-year period by Ofwat, the water services regulation authority, and the current price structure for Cambridge Water customers runs until the end of March 2015. Source: Cambridge News

Cambridge Water has changed ownership again. The 150-year-old firm has been sold to South Staffordshire plc, a company that runs another water supplier in Walsall. Cambridge Water was bought by Spanish energy giant Union


The people of the UAE have emerged as the world s largest


water consumers, with the average per capita consumption standing at 364 ℓ/day, nearly 82% above the global average individual demand, a UAE official has said. Demand for water in the UAE totalled around 4.5 billion cubic metres (bcm) in 2010 and is projected to almost double to 9 bcm in 2030 because of high consumption and population growth, said Mariam Hassan Al-Shanasi, undersecretary of the ministry of environment and water. In statements published in the semi-official daily Alittihad, she estimated per capita water demand in the country at 364 ℓ/ day, compared with a global average of nearly 200ℓ/day. The UAE average is higher than the average demand in advanced countries with a similar climate and is far above the global average, she said. Shanasi gave no reason for the high demand in the UAE but experts attribute it to the hot weather, rapid population growth, a steady expansion in most non-oil sectors and a lack of public awareness about water conservation. More than 70% of the UAE s drinking water needs comes from costly seawater desalination plants. There is an urgent need to

stop the drainage of underground water resources, protect the country s water and environment systems and rationalise water consumption. We also need to curb the excessive use of water as this is adversely affecting our environment, Shanasi said. Her figures showed the farming sector consumer of water in the UAE sapping nearly 34% of the total demand. The housing and industrial sector accounts for about 32% and forestry for nearly 15%. Shanasi said groundwater resources provide nearly 51% of the UAE s total water demand, while 37% comes from desalination and 12% from water treatment facilities. She said the UAE has around 70 water desalination plants, accounting for 14 %of the world s total production of desalinated water. Costs of water production in the UAE stood at nearly Dh11.8 billion in 2010, an average Dh7.16 per cubic metre, she said. Source: Emirates 24/7


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Graeme Kilfoil, who has been involved with wastewater treatment in sub-Saharan Africa for the past 20 years, has been appointed by Thuthuka Group Limited to manage its Water Treatment & Reclamation Division. In his previous positions, Kilfoil has led teams involved in the groundbreaking Sasol Landlord Project, which took cooling system blow-down water that was previously discarded to the river and treated it for industrial reuse. He was also involved in the recently signed Eskom Kusile water treatment project, in which ultra-pure water is produced for boiler

feed and potentially hazardous flue gas desulphuriser brine is taken to a dry salt for landfill disposal. This will be a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant. According to Kilfoil, It is generally acknowledged that South Africa, and indeed the whole area of sub-Saharan Africa, is deemed to be seriously waterstressed. Increasingly, there is a lot more emphasis being placed on recycling municipal as well as industrial wastewater. Hopefully, the future is that both industrial and municipal water will be recycled onsite and municipal water recycled to achieve potable water status. Other countries at the forefront of desalination water treatment with successfully operational plants are Namibia and Singapore. Australia, with most of its population based on the coast and a fairly barren interior, has similar water issues to South Africa. It has completed many major successful seawater desalination projects. In South Africa, where both the east and west coasts are water-stressed, the only viable solution would be seawater desalination. By far the hottest water and wastewater treatment topic currently, in South Africa and indeed globally, would

be acid mine water drainage. Optimally, we as a country need to access it and treat it by one or a combination of processes such as chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis reversal, evaporation/crystallisation and ion exchange. The aim is to achieve potable water as well as converting the salts into saleable products such as gypsum or ingredients for fertilisers and explosives, concludes Kilfoil. Source: Thuthuka Group Limited


Justice Malala (guest speaker – political analyst) and Leon Furstenburg from Knight Piesold

This year, Knight Piésold Consulting is celebrating a milestone achievement ‒ its 90th anniversary. Founded in Johannesburg, South Africa, in April 1921, the company may be the oldest consulting engineering company in Southern





Africa, but is leading the way in a changing the business environment. To celebrate, the company hosted a special event for clientele, which was held early in September. With political analyst Justice Malala as guest speaker, the event was aimed at showcasing Knight Piésold s contribution to the consulting engineering industry over the past 90 years and commemorating the valuable role its clients have played in the company s success. With a newly received Level 2 BBBEE status and involvement in multimillion rand projects such as the Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme, Neckartal Dam Project and De Hoop Dam construction supervision, Knight Piésold Consulting continues with a bright and promising future. Knight Piésold is a consulting engineering company offering specialist engineering, environmental and project management services to the mining, water, power and transportation sectors, complemented by extensive structural, hydrogeological, geotechnical and GIS expertise. Source: Knight Piesold Consulting


It is estimated that the lack of safe drinking water and sanitation costs the subregion around 5% of its gross domestic product (GDP) each year, and without strong and targeted action from governments, donors and stakeholders, this inequality of access and the resulting poverty will continue to increase. Currently, only 31% of people in Africa have adequate access to good sanitation, despite sanitation and water being a recognised human right. This situation has a devastating

effect on health, education and the economic and social standing of the poorest people. Diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera and dysentery are usually linked to inadequate sanitation and are now recognised as the major killers of children in Africa. It is for this reason that Zambia Telecommunications (Zamtel) has launched a nationwide community water facility programme called Water for Life, which involves the sinking and repairing of boreholes in all of the country s nine provinces to supplement the government s efforts. Zamtel officially started this programme recently by sinking the first borehole in Mumbwa at BulunguBasic School, which had no water for many years and where pupils were forced to carry drinking water in containers from their homes. The communication company is working in conjunction

with a leading telecommunications company, Huawei, which has made a contribution of US$10 000 (about R71 350) to Zamtel to assist with its countrywide water programmes. At the recent official launch, Zamtel managing director Hans Paulsen said the Water for Life programme was aimed at giving disadvantaged communities access to clean drinking water, with Bulungu Basic School being the first to benefit. He said the first phase would cost the company K2 billion (approximately R2.9 million), which would also be accompanied by vigorous sensitisation campaigns and the distribution of containers in some areas to allow for easy carriage of the commodity. Paulsen said the idea to start the programme was arrived at after wide consultations as to which could be the best programme for the firm to embark

on as a way of ploughing back into the community and showing its appreciation for the use of its services. His company came up with many ideas but settled for the water project that would cushion government efforts in ensuring that everyone has access to clean water. "This investment is about doing something more than that which directly benefits the business. It is about changing lives for the better. We will also be giving out branded water carriers to residents; like here in Mumbwa we have given out 100 branded water carriers to the locals,'' he said. Paulsen said it was Zamtel's wish to make a real difference in the Zambian communities by providing access to clean water through the sinking of boreholes throughout the country. Source: Times of Zambia



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Clean water for future generations A leading South African company that specialises in the design and construction of sewage treatment plants has recently acquired Becon Watertech. Debbie Besseling chats to the MDs of both companies. WHAT IS THE BACKGROUND TO TECROVEER S ACQUISITION OF BECON WATERTECH? Gary Brown, managing director of Becon Watertech: Tecroveer has been in business for over 30 years, predominantly in a specific range of wastewater treatment technology and solution supply. With the success and growth experienced by Tecroveer, the momentum was created to expand on the range of solutions that we offer. Becon Watertech, as an established business with similar services offered to the market, provided complete compatibility with the established Tecroveer business, from which to expand the company s presence in the market and to help fulfil the Tecroveer philosophy of providing clean water for future generations to a larger proportion of Africa s population with a wider range of solutions.

WHEN DID THE ACQUISITION TAKE PLACE? The official acquisition was 1 March 2011.


Pictures by Debbie Besseling

Gary Brown: Becon Watertech is wholly owned by Tecroveer, with no name change planned. We would like to retain the well-established Becon Watertech brand; after all, we developed the Becon Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) configuration from a grassroots level over 30 years ago and believe we have gone a long way towards establishing it as a reliable and proven technology within its market.


LEFT Izak Cronje, director of Tecroveer and Becon Watertech and Gary Brown, managing director of Becon Watertech



providing a supporting role from the Tecroveer Group.

Zack van den Berg, managing director of Tecroveer: The company is not new: the core manufacturing personnel, material and quality of the manufacturing, as well as the design philosophy of the company, remain the same as held by Chris Bauman, the former owner. In this way we are hoping to have as little disruption as possible to the service provision in the transition of the busi-


Becon Watertech is wholly owned by Tecroveer, with no name change planned ness under the ownership of Tecroveer. Some very important additions to the previous Becon structure are made as part of the Tecroveer Group, including additional services provided to clients, such as operation and maintenance of plants, as well as refurbishment of Becon and similar plants. In terms of leadership, Gary Brown, who has been directly involved in the wastewater treatment sector for over 20 years in terms of design, troubleshooting, operation, maintenance and management of systems, has been appointed as MD for Becon Watertech. Izak Cronje, a fellow director of Tecroveer, has also been appointed as director of Becon Watertech,

Gary Brown: Becon Watertech is offering a very similar service in the marketplace to that of Tecroveer, in that the planning, design, fabrication, assembly, installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance and management of the product are available to clients. The difference is just in the size of treatment capacity that is offered. The Becon Watertech sewage systems are very cost-effective in the flow range from 30m3/day up to about 300m3/ day, while the Tecroveer design gains entry into the market at around 300m3/ day, all the way up to 10Mâ&#x201E;&#x201C;/day. So the focus for Becon Watertech is within that range of treatment capacity and is pretty much the same as before.

WHAT ADDITIONAL OPPORTUNITIES DOES THE ACQUISITION CREATE FOR THE COMPANY? Gary Brown: Research and development has been committed to at Tecroveer as a key function in terms of developing and improving on the range of technologies available, so we will definitely be NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11

doing something similar with the Becon Watertech system â&#x20AC;&#x2019; it is expected by Tecroveer. We see this as providing massive inputs into establishing total solutions to the smaller communities and applications. In a way it also underscores Tecroveer s commitment to providing clean water for future generations and reinforces the need for successful companies to remain progressive. We foresee the introduction of some new clients and the expansion of services to our existing clients. Becon Watertech has also provided many systems in Africa, either as our conventional configuration, in containers or skid mounted. We believe this will provide an opportunity to introduce the Tecroveer range into Africa as well.

TECROVEER WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1976. TELL US ABOUT SOME OF THE COMPANY S MILESTONES DURING THIS TIME Zack van den Berg: There have been many, going all the way back to the early days when my father Michael van den Berg started the company with Cliff Ramsdon in 1976, to today where Tecroveer has a proud 7CIDB M&E and CE grading and a healthy and enthusiastic 80-odd employees. Tecroveer is a technology company focused on providing a sustainable solution to nature and clients through continual research and development. In terms of technology advances, we are the sole


Profile In the newly-constructed Becon Watertech factory. From left: Clive Schaper, supervisor, Fanuel Magangana, mixer and Gary Brown, managing director

distributor across sub-Saharan Africa for the Volute Dehydrator, a fantastic piece of sludge dewatering and thickening technology that has been developed by AMCON in Japan. We are also the holders of the amazing PETRO process patent that improves the final effluent quality from oxidation pond systems dramatically, while also offering a very cost-competitive option in terms of the upgrade of pond systems. As mentioned previously, through our R&D we have also developed designs and methodologies associated with our civil structures and mechanical equipment that make the Tecroveer designs competitive. To name a few of our patents: the patented Transfer Mixer, which is a major highlight as it presents cost savings on electricity consumption as well as on infrastructure by acting as a transfer mechanism and mixes the liquid at the same time, and our patented pumping horizontal aerator. Our recent successful award and implementation of a total solution for the Lonmin Mining Company' is undoubtedly a highlight, as it has been one of our first successes in applying water reuse and water conservation/demand principles on a fairly significant scale. We have recently also engaged in and are experiencing growth in the areas of potable water treatment, mine and industrial water treatment and the management of sludge and biomass, while technical management, including operations and maintenance, appears to be an important support service. Another exciting achievement was the accreditation of West Bio laboratory, another partnership that complements the Tecroveer business and provides a wide variety of water and wastewater testing, mainly for our operation and maintenance division, and which has also assisted some of our clients with their preparation and response to the Blue and Green Drop Certification initiative.

PLEASE PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF THE BUSINESS OF TECROVEER Zack van den Berg: The main focus of Tecroveer has always been to provide a turnkey solution to the client, resulting in sustainability as well as a cost-effective solution, made in Africa for African conditions.

Some of the products in the range are horizontal and vertical aeration and diffused air. The manufacturing side of the business also expanded into the design and fabrication of various mechanical screens and degritting equipment, aerators for aeration basins and mechanical components for clarifiers. With the ongoing drive from our R&D programme we have realised the need for ourselves, our clients and for that matter all of us to start responding to the tell-tale signs of water scarcity. The Tecroveer family have all committed to ensuring that we make a difference, whether it is at the workplace or at home. We are now in a position to offer technologies and solutions to a wide range of domestic wastewater applications in terms of effluent and sludge, potable water purification and industrial and mine water treatment. So the business has definitely transformed and we believe has risen to the challenge of providing sustainable, total solutions in ensuring that our future generations have clean water to help them live their dreams while reducing the impact these activities have on our natural water supplies.

WHAT CHALLENGES DOES THE WATER INDUSTRY FACE AND HOW CAN TECROVEER/ BECON WATERTECH ASSIST IN OVERCOMING THESE CHALLENGES? Gary Brown: I think all of us who are involved in the water sector have seen the many challenges that we face on a


day-to-day basis. These include applying incomplete or inappropriate solutions to our challenges, shortcomings in the all-important financial provision and management side, perhaps a little ignorance at times and an inability to ensure that systems that are installed receive adequate or correct technical support from

We are the sole distributor across subSaharan Africa for the Volute Dehydrator, a fantastic piece of sludge dewatering and thickening technology a management perspective. The country is facing challenges in implementing our world-class set of regulations that took an enormous effort to compile while responding to the spiralling need for improved applications in the management of water and wastewater infrastructure. I am excited to see the positive responses and improvements that can be seen arising from the Blue and Green Drop certification processes. I believe, though, that one of our biggest challenges, and this is across our water sector, is how best to broadcast this to the entire nation. Becon Watertech, together with the larger Tecroveer group, will continue to develop, provide and apply services and technologies in the water sector and across the broad range of public, private, mining, industrial and agriculture water users to support sector lead initiatives in achieving their goals.


Public sector


Groundwater management framework for municipalities This technical paper was presented at the recent International Groundwater Conference. By Dr K Riemann

roundwater has not been perceived as an important water resource and has therefore been given limited attention in South Africa. This is reflected in general statistics, which show that only 13% of the nation s total water supply originates from groundwater. A growing number of municipalities utilise groundwater on a regular basis and provide examples of successful management of this resource.


CONTEXT OF THE GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK The Groundwater Management Framework (GMF) is the result of a Water Research Commission-funded project on groundwater management functions (WRC Report 1917/1/10). The GMF forms part of the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) framework and must be seen in the context of other relevant guidelines and activities, e.g.: • catchment management • water conservation and demand management (WC/WDM) • waste management • wastewater management • water resource management • water resource planning • water service delivery.

indivisible national resource for which national government is the custodian. It further outlines the principles of using and managing this resource. With the promulgation of the NWA in 1998, groundwater lost its previous private water status and became public water. This has had enormous implications for all users and important benefits

Only 13% of the nation’s total water supply originates from groundwater for municipalities as public users. It is now possible for municipalities to exploit groundwater resources, even where these can only, or best, be accessed on private land. The NWA provides for the establishment of catchment management agencies (CMAs) to manage and regulate all water resources in water management

areas (WMAs), as set out in the National Water Resource Strategy. Municipalities also have responsibilities that have an impact on water resource management (WRM), as shown in figure 1. The Water Services Act (No. 108 of 1997) deals mainly with water services, or potable (drinkable) water, and sanitation services supplied by municipalities to households and other municipal water users. It contains rules about how

LEGAL FRAMEWORK The National Water Act (NWA) (No. 36 of 1998) provides the legal framework for water resource management. It prescribes the use of the IWRM approach to ensure that all aspects of water resource management are considered. The NWA deals with the water resource; that is, rivers, streams, dams and groundwater. It contains rules about the way the water resource (surface and groundwater) is protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled in an integrated manner. The act states that water is an

FIGURE 1 Water resource management functions between CMA and municipality (WIN-SA, 2009)



Public sector municipalities should provide water supply and sanitation services. The act defines the municipal functions of ensuring water services provision and sets out guidelines for water services authorities (WSAs), as well as water services providers (WSPs). Paragraph 4 of the Water Services Act sets out the conditions under which a WSP can operate, while paragraph 11 describes the duties of the WSA. The roles and responsibilities of the WSA and WSP in terms of water resource management are not explicitly stated but can be inferred from their different roles in the provision of water services.

DWA GUIDELINES ‒ INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT A number of guidelines for groundwater management have been developed internationally and for the South African context. The most relevant for the purpose of this study are the NORAD toolkit (DWAF, 2004), the WRC Guidelines for the monitoring and management of

• CMAs ‒ responsible for water resource management within their water management area. • Water user associations (WUAs) ‒ responsible for function at a local level, representing individual water users and providing vehicles for public participation. The Guideline for the Assessment, Planning and Management of Groundwater Resources in South Africa (DWAF, 2008) intends to assist in the sustainable development, protection and management of groundwater resources and in achieving the overall goal of IWRM within the department. Management of ground water resources relates to the sustainable use and development of these resources. The guideline describes the management principles at national, CMA and site-specific level. Management of water resources is facilitated through water allocation and water use authorisation. Management at site-specific level entails, among others, maintenance and control,

The National Water Act (NWA) (No. 36 of 1998) provides the legal framework for water resource management groundwater resources in rural water supply schemes (Meyer, 2002) and the DWA Guideline for the Assessment, Planning and Management of Groundwater Resources in South Africa (DWAF, 2008). Other documents include water quality management protocols, minimum standards, the Framework for a National Groundwater Strategy (DWAF, 2007), the National Water Resources Strategy (DWAF, 2004), the Guidelines for Catchment Management Strategies towards Equity, Sustainability and Efficiency (DWAF, 2007) and regional groundwater plans, as well as selected national and international articles and publications on groundwater management aspects. The DANIDA guideline (DWAF, 2004) outlines the principles of groundwater management in the context of IWRM. The main authorities involved in groundwater management include: • Department of Water Affairs (DWA) ‒ responsible for national legislation and planning, the development of a national groundwater resource policy, regulation and monitoring and provision of support to other water resource institutions.


monitoring and measurement, data management and reporting and auditing and management of impacts. Review of compliance with water use authorisation conditions is undertaken at the catchment level, as well as managing the cumulative impact of water user groups on the system. The auditing of compliance with strategic goals and reviews is undertaken at national level. These IWRM and groundwater-specific strategies, guidelines and frameworks fit into the overarching proposed GMF, describing specific aspects of the groundwater management. The following guidelines are considered most relevant and become an integral part of the GMF: • NORAD Toolkit (DWAF, 2004) • Guideline on Assessment, Planning and Management (DWAF, 2008) • WIN-SA Guidelines • DANIDA IWRM Framework • South African Water Quality Guidelines • Minimum Requirements for Waste Sites • IWRM Plan Guideline. The current definitions of WRM, and more specifically groundwater management, vary significantly and are not consistent throughout the legal framework and guidelines.


For the development of the GMF, a comprehensive definition of groundwater management has been applied. This definition includes all of the following aspects: • aquifer protection • groundwater quality management • groundwater remediation • groundwater assessment • groundwater monitoring • wellfield planning and design • wellfield operation and maintenance. These different aspects of groundwater management relate to two main categories: • aquifer protection • aquifer utilisation.

MANAGEMENT Management is the process of leading and directing all or part of an organisation through the deployment and application of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible)'. (Wikipedia). Hence, management in all business and human organisation activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Management comprises planning, organising, staffing, leading or directing and controlling an organisation or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. The principles of management have been expanded and applied to other forms of organisations, specific areas within a business (e.g. human resource management, risk management, operations management), personal behaviour (e.g. self management, time management), natural resources (e.g. land management, water resource management), etc.

MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Management operates through various functions. The business management schools normally distinguish between four and seven basic management functions, of which the four most important are planning, organising, leading/motivating and controlling: • Planning: deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating action plans. • Organising (implementation): making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans.

Public sector â&#x20AC;˘ StaďŹ&#x192;ng (part of organising): job analysis, recruitment and hiring people for appropriate jobs. â&#x20AC;˘ Leading/directing: determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. â&#x20AC;˘ Motivating (part of leading): the process of stimulating an individual to take action that will accomplish a desired goal. â&#x20AC;˘ Controlling/monitoring: checking progress against plans, which may need modiďŹ cation based on feedback. Planning is the ongoing process of developing the business s mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. This management function comprises the overarching strategic planning for the organisation and includes: â&#x20AC;˘ deďŹ ning a mission statement â&#x20AC;˘ deďŹ ning business objectives â&#x20AC;˘ setting goals â&#x20AC;˘ developing a plan of action. Organising is the management function that usually follows planning and involves the allocation of tasks, the grouping of tasks into departments and the assignment of authority and allocation of resources across the organisation. In order to reach the objectives outlined in the planning process, structuring the work of the organisation is a vital concern. Part of the organising function is staďŹ&#x20AC;ing, which involves hiring staďŹ&#x20AC; with the required skills and qualiďŹ cations, setting

up training for the employees, where required, acquiring technical resources and organising the work group into a productive team. Directing is inďŹ&#x201A;uencing people s behaviour through motivation, communication, group dynamics, leadership and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behaviour of all personnel to accomplish the organisation s mission and objectives, while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives. Those in leadership roles must be able to inďŹ&#x201A;uence/motivate workers to understand and achieve the overarching goal and follow the duties or responsibilities assigned during the planning process. These four management functions are the building blocks for all types of management. They form an ongoing cycle of management, as the results of controlling may require changes to objectives (planning), changes in organisational structure (organising), changes in personnel (staďŹ&#x192;ng) or changes in interpersonal relationships (directing), as indicated in ďŹ gure 2.

STRUCTURE OF THE FRAMEWORK The GMF provides a guideline for optimal incorporation and integration of the management functions into the municipal structure. The framework is designed to be applicable at local level responsibility, i.e. WSA, WSP and WUA. The diďŹ&#x20AC;erent aspects of groundwater management, as deďŹ ned above, relate to two main categories: â&#x20AC;˘ aquifer protection â&#x20AC;˘ aquifer utilisation. In addition, there are two overarching and supporting categories that

are relevant to successful groundwater management: â&#x20AC;˘ monitoring, data management and evaluation â&#x20AC;˘ valuation of groundwater source. The overall structure of the GMF is shown in ďŹ gure 3. The framework describes each category separately and in accordance with the diďŹ&#x20AC;erent aspects, associated tasks and assigned responsibilities of the relevant institutions. The Aquifer Protection category includes all activities required to protect the aquifer from deterioration in water quality and reduction in aquifer recharge, as well as to rehabilitate an aquifer with respect to its water quality, irrespective of whether the aquifer is utilised or not. Therefore, the relevant sub-categories are: â&#x20AC;˘ land use planning â&#x20AC;˘ remediation. The Aquifer Utilisation category includes all activities required to ensure that groundwater use is sustainable and that groundwater use impacts are avoided or mitigated. The activities are: â&#x20AC;˘ groundwater assessment â&#x20AC;˘ wellďŹ eld operation and maintenance. All categories and sub-categories require data collection and ongoing monitoring. These activities must be structured and co-ordinated in such a way that monitoring data can be utilised for its intended purposes. The monitoring-related activities are described under the following sub-categories: â&#x20AC;˘ monitoring requirements â&#x20AC;˘ data collection â&#x20AC;˘ data analysis â&#x20AC;˘ data management. The economic aspect of sustainable groundwater management is of importance to the local authority. A framework for the valuation of the groundwater resource is provided, which feeds into both categories and their sub-categories.

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Public sector TABLE 1

Water institutions responsible for aspects of groundwater management DWA/ DEA






Water user/polluter

Aquifer protection Land use planning


Waste management


Effluent quality management


Groundwater remediation





Groundwater monitoring





Aquifer utilisation Groundwater assessment Licensing



Wellfield planning and design


(X) X





Wellfield operation and maintenance Groundwater monitoring Reg = Regulator

X = Main responsibility

(X) = Input, partial responsibility

CONCLUSIONS The GMF, proposed in this document, is an overarching guideline that brings the different components of groundwater management together and fills the gaps in these guidelines. The case studies emphasise the main factors of success: • appropriate technology for groundwater monitoring and management • scientific support from external consultants (on request) • efficient management structure • committed staff • adequate funding mechanism. The main elements of the framework are: • Definition and grouping of all aspects of groundwater management,

including aquifer protection, wellfield development and O&M and monitoring. Linking the aspects of groundwater management to the legal framework of the National Water Act and the Water Services Act. Definition of management functions with respect to groundwater management. Roles and responsibilities of local government officials for the different aspects of groundwater management. Detailing of the complete monitoring and feedback cycle for sustainable groundwater management. Development of a framework and

methodology to establish the value of the groundwater resource. • Outline and example of a groundwater management plan. The trial implementation of the framework in the Overstrand Municipality in terms of the Hermanus and Stanford case studies showed that the split between the WSA and WSP function within the municipality supports the groundwater management responsibilities, especially if both functions are involved in the wellfield planning.

RECOMMENDATIONS The framework has proven to be of great significance for local government in terms

FIGURE 3 GMF with categories, sub-categories and main tools



Public sector of understanding their responsibilities and required actions in groundwater management. Hence, it is of utmost importance to introduce municipalities to this framework and train the relevant officials in using the guidelines to achieve sustainable groundwater management. Furthermore, it is strongly suggested that the DWA adopt this framework as an overarching guideline and incorporates the suite of existing guidelines into the framework. The following future work is recommended to support the above suggestions and achieve successful implementation of the framework: • Implement framework in local government. • Train municipal officials in elements of the framework and guidelines. • Update DWA Guideline for Assessment and Management to incorporate details of the levels of assessment and planning. • Develop a guideline for monitoring data handling, including processing, quality control, storage and sharing of data. • Develop a guideline for adaptive


management (monitor ‒ model ‒ manage). • Refine valuation methodology to include ecosystems and aquifer characteristics.

K RIEMANN Umvoto Africa, PO Box 61, Muizenberg, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa Email:

REFERENCES • Government of South Africa, 1998. South African National Water Act (No. 36 of 1998). Government Gazette Volume 398. • Government of South Africa, 1997. South African Water Services Act (No. 108 of 1997). Government Gazette Volume 390. • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2004. Guidelines for Groundwater Resources Management in Water Management Areas, South Africa: Integrated Water Resource Management Strategies, Guidelines and Pilot Implementation in Three Water Management Areas, South


Africa ‒ Produced under: The DANIDA Assisted Programme. • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2004. A Framework for Groundwater Management of Community Water Supply. Produced under: The NORADAssisted Programme for the Sustainable Development of Groundwater Sources under the Community Water and Sanitation Programnme in South Africa. Pretoria. • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2008. A Guideline for the Assessment, Planning and Management of Groundwater Resources in South Africa, Edition 1. Pretoria. • Riemann, K, D. Louw, N. Chimboza & M. Fubesi (2011). Groundwater Management Framework. WRC Report No. 1917/1/11. Water Research Commission South Africa, Pretoria.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The financial support of the Water Research Commission of South Africa and the contribution of the Project Reference Group throughout the study are much appreciated.



Pictures courtesy of SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants

South Africa s award-winning seawater desalination plant

The 15 Mℓ Mossel Bay Seawater Desalination Project, the largest in South Africa, was a winning project at the CESA Aon Awards 2011, in the category ‘Projects with a value between R50 and R250 million’. wing to the worst drought in 150 years, dams serving the Mossel Bay municipal area reached critically low levels, and by the latter part of 2009 the region was declared a disaster area. The municipality was compelled to turn to innovative water sources to augment the rapidly diminishing existing ones. The municipality embarked on an emergency desalination project that would provide 15 Mℓ/d of treated seawater ‒ 10 Mℓ/d to the municipal domestic supply and 5 Mℓ/d to PetroSA. This was to relieve the stress on the raw water supply from the Wolwedans Dam. The plant was commissioned in May 2010, with a target completion date of November 2010. The very condensed timeline necessitated the execution of the design, tender and construction stages largely in parallel to ensure the


ABOVE This aerial shot shows the extent of the desalination plant and its proximity to the PetroSA storage facilities

earliest possible completion, in order to avert an impending catastrophe.

THE DESALINATION PLANT AND ASSOCIATED INFRASTRUCTURE The Mossel Bay desalination plant has been designed to produce 15 Mℓ/d (625 m3/h average) of permeate over a 24-hour cycle (operating approximately 20 hours in every 24-hour cycle),

The municipality embarked on an emergency desalination project that would provide 15 Mℓ/d of treated seawater – 10 Mℓ/d to the municipal domestic supply and 5 Mℓ/d to PetroSA which will be pumped to the two users. In order to achieve this production volume, approximately 37.5 Mℓ/d of seawater will be abstracted from




the ocean, of which 22.5 Mℓ/d will be returned as brine. The seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant comprises all the structures and infrastructure located within the main site and includes the various SWRO plant components.

ABOVE The Mossel Bay SWRO plant, seen here during construction, employs six 104.2 m3/d reverse osmosis (RO) units or trains

SWRO TRAINS The Mossel Bay SWRO plant employs six 104.2m3/d reverse osmosis (RO) units or trains.

BUFFER TANKS The plant makes use of a number of buffer tanks, which are used to provide approximately 20 minutes of buffer capacity on all water feeds. This buffering capacity is a safety mechanism and provides protection from unforeseen events, such as, inter alia, power outages or accidental chemical overdosing, ensuring that the operators have time to respond to a situation before harm comes to the environment, the equipment or the quality of potable water sent out. The following

buffer tanks have therefore been established: • a 600 m3 concrete seawater intake buffer tank • a 600 m3 concrete permeate buffer tank • a 600 m3 concrete brine buffer tank.

The Mossel Bay SWRO plant employs six 104.2 m3/d reverse osmosis (RO) units or trains

BELOW Foundations underway for the intake pump station

The trains are manufactured at an offsite factory and are ready to operate on arrival on site, only requiring tie-in with the various pipework and electrical systems.

CLEAR-WATER PUMP STATIONS Three clear-water pump stations are positioned side by side and located to the north-west of the buffer tanks and comprise a brick and mortar structure with a corrugated iron roof. The pump stations will house the six pumps that will pump clear water from the plant into the municipal and PetroSA clear-water pipelines, as well as back to the plant for domestic and plant maintenance purposes.

INTAKE PUMP STATION The intake pump station is a steel-reinforced cement structure (footprint of 17 m by 10 m) located on Dias Beach1, and has been recessed approximately 10 m into the side of the primary dune. The foundation level of the pump station is approximately 1 m above mean sea level (MSL).



Project The intake pump station is placed in this position to ensure that seawater can be efficiently abstracted and pumped up to the desalination plant, increasing the overall electrical efficiency of the plant and reducing operational costs.

SEAWATER INTAKE SYSTEM The large volume of water required for the Mossel Bay desalination plant necessitates a direct abstraction approach, as opposed to the beach well abstraction methodology employed for the smaller SWRO plants established in nearby municipalities. To achieve a 15 Mℓ/d production capacity, approximately 35 Mℓ/d of seawater will be abstracted from the ocean. The seawater intake pipeline comprises an 880 m long x 900 mm O/D HDPE pipeline that runs from the intake pump station offshore, along the seabed and to the south of Seal Island. The pipeline is weighted to the ocean floor by means of 2.7 t concrete weight collars, positioned at 4 m intervals along the length of the pipeline. The abstraction point has been

located 725 m offshore, just south of Seal Island, where it enjoys a less turbulent ocean, which serves to reduce the volume of suspended solids that could potentially be imported into the plant. The intake structure is made up of three vertical intake towers, abstracting water between 2.0 m and 3.0 m above the seabed.

BRINE DISCHARGE SYSTEM The Mossel Bay desalination plant requires an offshore direct discharge approach because the volume of brine is too excessive to be effectively dissipated through the beach sand. Of the approximately 35 Mℓ/d of seawater that will be abstracted from the ocean, about 18 Mℓ/d will be returned to the sea as concentrated seawater or brine. The brine (which is approximately 1.85 times the saline concentration of seawater) will be mixed with the DM filter backwash before being returned to the ocean, resulting in a final estimated brine concentration of about 1.69 times that of ambient salinity. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11

CLEAR-WATER DELIVERY SYSTEM Two clear-water pipelines depart from the SWRO plant, one destined for PetroSA and one for the Mossel Bay water supply reservoirs. The PetroSA clear-water pipeline is a 150 m long x 500 mm OD HDPE pipe that departs from the PetroSA clearwater pump station, crosses the depot road and enters the existing PetroSA tank farm site. From there, the pipeline connects with an existing water supply pipeline connecting the tank farm with the PetroSA GTL refinery. This pipeline will deliver 5 Mℓ/d at an average flow rate of 69.4 ℓ/s. The municipal rising clear-water pipeline is a 2.250 m long x 500 mm diameter class 16 HDPE pipeline, which will deliver 10 Mℓ/d of clean water at an average flow rate of 138.8 ℓ/s to the existing Langeberg municipal reservoirs.

RO DESALINATION PLANT The desalination plant for Mossel Bay is a single pass RO system consisting of six 2.5 Mℓ/d RO modules. The feed


Serving our living environment


water abstraction and the disposal of concentrate (brine) will be achieved by direct abstraction from the sea intake structure, a pipeline that will be pumped by a seawater abstraction pump station and the final disposal of brine from a pipeline into a diffuser structure in the sea. The production of 15 Mℓ/d of potable water from the plant requires the supply of more than twice that amount of raw seawater, with approximately 40% being harvested as product and 60% being returned to the sea as concentrate (brine).

INTAKE SYSTEM The quantity of water required is based on the 15 Mℓ/d of freshwater derived from 40% of the intake flow. The intake volume in cubic metres per day is therefore: 15 000 m3/40% = 37.5M ℓ/d.


ABOVE The seawater intake pipeline comprises an 880 m long x 900 mm O/D HDPE pipeline that runs from the intake pump station on shore, along the seabed and to the south of Seal Island, seen here in the distance BELOW The seawater intake pipeline is weighted to the ocean floor by means of 2.7 t concrete weight collars, positioned at 4 m intervals along the length of the pipeline. A cofferdam was fabricated to allow installation of the pipeline through the surf zone


Operating with three intake pumps to allow for modularisation of the plant requires a minimum delivery of 595 m3/h per pump.

PRE-TREATMENT The objective of pre-treatment is to prevent membrane fouling. An accumulation of foreign substances on the surface of a membrane will result in a loss of flux (the rate of flow through the membrane material). Higher operating pressures will then be required to maintain water production and quality, resulting in higher energy consumption.

The professional team • Mossel Bay Municipality: Client and co-funder • PetroSA: Client and co-funder • SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants: Desalination plant and overall project managers • MVD Consulting Engineers (Southern Cape): Mossel Bay Municipality pump main and pump station • RLH Consulting Engineers: Marine works • CVW Electrical Engineers: Bulk electrical supply consulting engineers • Aurecon Group: Environmental consultants • House of Safety Consultants: H&S consultants • VWS Envig: Seawater desalination RO plant design build and operate contractor • M&R Marine: Marine works (intake pipeline with structures and brine discharge pipeline with structures) • Urwhebo-E-Transand: Civil sub-contractor for plant and marine works • Henra: Civil contractor for municipal pump main and pump station • VE Reticulation: Bulk electrical supply contractor

Project The pre-treatment in the plant consists of chemical dosing (if and when required), sand filtration and microfiltration or ultrafiltration.

RO DESALINATION SYSTEM Normal seawater temperatures on the southern coast vary between 16 and 21°C, and the total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater is typically in the order of 35.000 mg/ℓ. The pH of seawater is slightly alkaline, between 7.5 and 8.5. The Mossel Bay RO plant is designed to recover approximately 40% of the incoming water as product water. The plant operates at pressures between 63 and 65 bar and has an allowance for increasing the pressures as the membranes get older. The membrane replacement interval is approximately five to seven years.

POST-TREATMENT The objective of post-treatment is to ensure that the product water is safe to drink and non-corrosive. The product water from the plant will have a TDS generally less than 300 mg/ℓ and a pH of

approximately 6, and will require limited post-treatment to correct the pH. In the plant, disinfection will be achieved by the addition of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and the correct pH maintained by the controlled dosing of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). These are normal water treatment processes and will

sandy bottom with little marine growth. The brine is to be discharged with a vertical velocity of 9 m/s or more through 19 diffuser ports installed onto a pressurised 630 mm HDPE pipeline to ensure rapid mixing of the brine plume and to ensure that no stratification occurs with the higher density brine. All infrastructure is

The Mossel Bay RO plant is designed to recover approximately 40% of the incoming water as product water provide water that is suitable for immediate consumption.

installed underground with no aesthetic impact and will be corrosion resistant with long life expectancy.

BRINE DISPOSAL In this plant, the brine (60% of the feed water) would have a salinity of ±60 000 ppm (seawater is 36 000 ppm) and a density of 1 044 kg/m3(seawater density is 1 025 kg/m3). Approximately 22.5 Mℓ/d of brine will be generated at full capacity. This is to be dispersed at a location approximately 500 m inshore of the intake at a depth of -7 CD in an area with a

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE The plant is a high-tech installation that requires correct operation and maintenance (O&M). Initially the O&M of the plant is to be carried out by the design build and operate contractor for a three-year fixed-term period that can be extended to 20 years, while training and capacity building of municipal staff is also a long-term objective.



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Leading research and innovation in the water sector At a cabinet meeting held on 10 August, it was announced that Dhesigen Naidoo has been appointed chief executive officer of the Water Research Commission. Debbie Besseling speaks to Naidoo about his new role. YOU HAVE JOINED THE WATER RESEARCH COMMISSION (WRC) AT AN EXCITING TIME AS THE ORGANISATION HAS JUST CELEBRATED 40 YEARS OF EXCELLENCE. WHAT ARE YOUR COMMENTS ON THIS PRESTIGIOUS OCCASION? It is always an exciting time - I subscribe to the view that there aren t people in history that have lived in uninteresting times. But, on the back of an organisation that has been publically acknowledged for what it does, it makes it an even better time. I find it a privilege to be at the helm of an organisation that is well regarded in the sector and in the national system of innovation.

the National Research and Technology Foresight project (NRTF), which I hold very dear. The NRTF project, in many ways, can claim to be the fundamental planning platform of the entire science system in this new South Africa. It was run between 1996 and 1998, and its recommendations gave rise

I’ve had the privilege of having a career where I have been able to engage and interact with extraordinary people to a range of institutional and policy developments in our system. I went from there into a practitioner s space inside the Department of Water Affairs. It was there that I took the research planning knowledge that I had acquired and combined it with the knowledge of actually developing a system. I then moved into the broader environmental arena and then back into the field of science and technology and most recently held the position of director of research at the University of Pretoria. So, in many ways, this thread has run continuously through my career, which has allowed me to benefit from a mix of experiences and exposures and develop a management toolbox that I hope to be able to use in the WRC.

BRIEFLY TELL US ABOUT YOUR CAREER HISTORY AND EXPERIENCE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, AS WELL AS THE WATER SECTOR SPECIFICALLY. After studying, I went to work as a practitioner in an academic institution - the University of Cape Town. I subsequently worked as a medical scientist at the Red Cross Children s hospital, which I found incredibly rewarding. From there, I was involved in

Mission The WRC is a dynamic hub for water-centred knowledge, innovation and intellectual capital. We provide leadership for research and development through the support of knowledge creation, transfer and application. We engage stakeholders and partners in solving waterrelated problems which are critical to South Africa’s sustainable development and economic growth, and are committed to promoting a better quality of life for all.

WHAT HAVE BEEN SOME OF THE HIGHLIGHTS OF YOUR CAREER? A highlight for me in the water sector was developing the Water Conservation and Demand Strategy for what was then Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), and subsequently developing the DWAF unit that drove that strategy. And it was an important time; the time following the passing of the National Water Act and the developing of the first version of the Water Resources Strategy. And a time when there was a vibrant debate

Vision To be a globally recognised leader in providing innovative solutions for sustainable water management to meet the changing needs of society and of the environment.

Values • Service orientation • Care for people, society and the environment • Fairness to all • Dedication to quality • Integrity and ethical behaviour • Respect for human and individual rights • Innovation and learning.



Profile around whether or not water conservation and demand management could be a meaningful intervention around the organising of greater water availability because there was a large body of planning folk who thought that infrastructure development was the only way. We now have a much more integrated outlook. We depend on new infrastructure and development, on new dams and new inter-basin transfer schemes, etc. But, equally we organise ourselves around a lot of effort in the areas of water conservation as well as demand management. Another highlight for me through my career has been in the international arena, in particular being part of the team that put together South Africa s successful hosting of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002. And at the time I had the privilege of being the national policy coordinator for South Africa for the summit. I think we ought to be really proud of our accomplishments as South Africans around that event. But, even more so, was the very difficult international political environment where there was huge pressure around minimising what could happen in the summit in terms of discussing sustainable development issues, in the space of just one year after 11 September 2001, we still managed to organise an ambitious agenda around sustainable development. And the declaration is now used as a reference point in the current climate change negotiations about the right pathway to sustainable development. And I think that was an incredible achievement. The third achievement that I would consider as one of my career highlights has a completely different dimension and is about organising for South Africa to be a preferred destination for science and technology in the world. And South Africa was back then, and still is now, a new entrant into this field. Back in the 1990 s South Africa was seen as being very isolated in the international scientific world. And what we managed to do in 2006, through some very clever strategy and lots and lots of international wheeling and dealing , was to get an incredible international organisation called the International Center for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (ICGEB) to have its third international laboratory in South Africa. This has undoubtedly raised the profile of science in South Africa and Africa. Secondly, what it has achieved is to internationalise the scientific agenda in that domain for South African science. The

third thing is that it has achieved is to elevate a number of scientists from the South African national system of innovation to international status at a fairly rapid pace. This is a terrific example of something that has been catalytic around developing a system. So I would count those three items as some of the highlights of my career, but to me the biggest highlight throughout my career to-date has been simply meeting incredible people, people who at the top echelons of the science system have made themselves available to develop things at the most basic level. So I ve had the privilege of having a career where I have been able to engage and interact with extraordinary people and my plan is to continue to do just that for the benefit of the system for as long as I m able to.

well as disseminated. And these are separate sciences in their own right.


The WRC is already well-regarded by South Africa s water institutions and is acclaimed by some as the sector leader in research. This is a very useful platform on which to begin. We need to ensure that this valuable national asset is maintained so that our ability to continue to serve in this role is maintained. The new areas are guided by the strong need to accelerate the development trajectory of the country. To do this, the WRC plans to facilitate a much broader dialogue on what the Water Sector Research and Development agenda should be. This is a dialogue that will involve the knowledge producers, knowledge users and decision makers. The second area of work is to make water knowledge much more accessible to users. We want to do this in two ways. We will engage in a much more targeted strategy to re-formulate and re-package new scientific knowledge in a manner that allows them to become important components of practitioner toolkits. The second mechanism is to develop and implement a robust technology transfer strategy so that our growth path is enhanced by higher levels of water knowledge in practice. I look forward to the robust interactions that we plan to have with water sector participants in this regard.

The structure of the WRC is focused around five key strategic areas, being: • Water-centred knowledge • Water resource management • Water-linked ecosystems • Water use and waste management • Water utilisation in agriculture. This is a structure that works very well for the system. To have in-house expertise in guided portfolios really helps to move along the water research agenda of the country. To have these headed up by some very talented individuals is a fantastic benefit.

HOW EXACTLY IS THE RESEARCH THAT IS UNDERTAKEN BY THE WRC IDENTIFIED AND FUNDED? The process that is currently used is a sound process. The WRC takes its signal from various quarters, being the ministry and the Department of Water Affairs (DWA), in terms of what the knowledge needs are at a particular time and as expressed by the research sector. It takes a view on what capacity exists in the research sector to undertake the types of research that has been identified. Based on those parameters, it goes through a strategic process on a year-by-year basis, as well as a multi-year basis. Through the board of the WRC a submission is made to the minister. The minister then approves the strategic plan for a certain period of time. For the first time this year there will be a five year planning cycle. Long-term planning is critical, because of the manner in which the knowledge needs to be generated as


HOW DOES THE WRC PROMOTE THEIR SERVICE OFFERINGS, I.E. RESEARCH REPORTS AND OTHER INFORMATION TO ENSURE THAT IT REACHES THE RIGHT PEOPLE IN THE WATER SECTOR? This is a continuous process. One of the criticisms is that the WRC can do more to make its knowledge available. Whilst the WRC has some very sophisticated mechanisms to disseminate its knowledge, we will need to review what we are doing in this domain. And having observed what the WRC is doing from the outside, my opinion is that we are doing well, but if we can do it better then we must.


For further information on the WRC, contact: Tel: +27 (0)12 330 0340 Website:




Gaborone sewerage upgrades Halfway through ACE GIBBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s massive project to upgrade Gaboroneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sewerage, an update from the front line is that the project is geared for success. he refurbishments to the systems are set to make a meaningful difference in the lives of ordinary, hard-working citizens of Botswana. Gaborone s sewerage systems have been strained for some time. As can be expected, human activity, industrial waste, agricultural run-off, municipal dumping and oil spills all have a negative effect on water supplies. Owing to rapid growth in the capital, the capacity of its existing bulk sewerage infrastructure will soon be exceeded. According to project manager Vernon Joubert, The project involves the decommissioning of certain pump stations, refurbishment and construction of other pump stations and construction of trunk and main sewers in Gaborone to provide capacity up to the planning horizon of 2030. Furthermore, we are tasked with the sewering of some 6 000 remaining self-help housing area (SHHA) plots, which currently run on septic tanks. Recently, African Consulting Engineers, known as ACE, was rebranded as ACE GIBB to become part of the GIBB portfolio. In a 2008 joint venture with Pula


Consultants, it was appointed by the Department of Waste Management and Pollution Control as consulting engineer to plan, design and supervise construction of the Upgrading of Gaborone Sewerage Reticulation Project. The three-year project is contracted to China Jiangsu International Botswana. Shalini Dube, GIBB project cocoordinator, handles the day-to-day project management. Our relationship with Pula Consultants is an especially welcome development. When government initiated the project, it was important that it drove Botswana s citizen empowerment goals. The project is so much more than simply laying down sewering: it s about transforming communities, providing opportunities and addressing the needs of the future. We re proud to be working with Pula as a local empowerment partner. Pula Consultants, formed in 1998, is a leading and expanding consulting engineering company dealing mainly in structural design and construction supervision. It is 100% citizen owned. Referring to the pollution that has also become a problem in the SHHA communities in Broadhurst, Dube says: There is

Trench shoring to prevent collapse



a need to reduce groundwater pollution from septic tank effluent in order to make safer and healthier community living. Overall improvement of water quality will also, more importantly, establish Gaborone as a more viable investment destination. It will be cleaner, safer and self-sustainable. ACE GIBB is proud of its strategic involvement in bringing about these changes to the water systems in Botswana s largest city. With the backing of GIBB, it is able to tackle any engineering challenge, Dube maintains, and is looking towards expanding its construction expertise and consulting capabilities into Africa. This project, with a value of approximately R1 billion, is a strong example of the company s approach to solving Africa s infrastructural challenges in innovative ways. In this case, it s about creating water that works for the city and its people. Initially, the completed project was to be handed over to the Gaborone City Council; however, the responsibility for sewerage systems has recently been overtaken by the parastatal Water Utilities Corporation, in line with recommendations from the National Water Master Plan Review. During the construction stages of the project, locals will also benefit from employment opportunities in different areas of operation. Joubert concurs with Dube that the success of the project so far can be attributed to ACE GIBB enjoying synergistic relationships with the contractors and the communities involved. As Africa rebounds from the recent global recession and its economic potential is unlocked, it will increasingly look to new construction opportunities and upgrading solutions to meet the demands of the future. Working with local empowerment partners, we are well placed to bring to bear our many years in helping governments and businesses grow. We re able to provide consulting and project management, as well as planning, design and construction, concludes Joubert.


Panel discussion

SA s water losses "We will be putting in place measures to reduce our water loss by half by 2014," said President Zuma in his State of the Nation Address in 2010. In the first of our panel discussions, the country’s water industry experts participate in a debate on the challenges surrounding South Africa’s water losses and what interventions are needed to turn the situation around.

Dr Ronnie McKenzie, managing director: WRP 1. WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE WATER LOSSES IN SOUTH AFRICA, FROM BOTH A TECHNICAL AND A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE? The factors differ according to the payment levels. In areas of high payment levels, the main water losses are through physical leakage before the customer meter, while in areas of low payment, the biggest losses tend to be through leakage and general wastage after the customer meter. General physical leakage can also be a problem in areas of low payment levels, but these are often overshadowed by the losses/ wastage after the customer meter.

compared to many other countries and is well above the average of developing countries. South Africa operates at relatively high water pressures and in most cases aims at providing a 24-hour pressurised supply. Most developing countries struggle to offer 24-hour pressurised supplies and few offer high pressures.


Identifying and evaluating the assets can often help create low skills employment, which is needed throughout the country. Simply identifying all valves, meters and pipelines, etc., as well as cleaning and securing all valve chambers, is relatively simple to accomplish and is a great start to any asset management plan.

South African water services infrastructure is deteriorating, but still offers a reasonably high level of service

Many of the smaller municipalities in particular lack the skills or motivation to assess their assets and do not have a realistic estimate of the value of their water-related assets. By operating in the absence of a realistic asset value, they do not allocate sufficient budget annually to the maintenance of their assets, which therefore deteriorate.

Sebokeng, the award-winning PPP project built in 2006

The Khayelitsha project is the first large-scale advanced pressure management project in the world





Panel discussion inspection to identify and repair the visible leaks before spending money on finding hidden leaks. In most parts of South Africa the pipes are not buried too deep, with the result that the leaks tend to come to the surface and can therefore be identified visually.

5. PLEASE PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF A PROJECT THAT YOUR COMPANY HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN, OR A SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGY THAT SHOWS EFFECTIVE RESULTS FOR REDUCING WATER LOSSES. Three of the largest pressure management projects in the world have been developed and operated in South Africa since 2000 and are responsible for combined water savings of almost 25 million cubic metres annually. These projects demonstrate the potential of pressure management in areas of exceptionally high leakage and the sustainability of this. It is important to audit the water savings carefully to avoid creating false perceptions, as there are many claims of huge savings that cannot be identified in the water purchase figures.

the value of water and be encouraged to conserve and use water efficiently as well as report leaks and the theft of water.

7. MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY IS ONE OF THE FASTEST GROWING SECTORS, BUT HAVE WE PROGRESSED IN MANAGING THE COUNTRY S WATER LOSSES OVER THE PAST DECADE? In the past 10 years, significant progress has been made in many parts of South Africa regarding the identification and quantification of water losses, as well as the introduction of water demand management (WDM) practices. The Department of Water Affairs no longer simply approves new augmentation schemes unless they are linked to WDM measures by the users. While the water losses in South Africa remain quite high, they are in line with average water losses worldwide. There is, however, scope for significant improvements, which creates opportunity for water suppliers to reduce their water losses and create employment.



The whole concept of free basic water should be scrapped as it creates the perception that water has no value. The current situation, where water is very cheap relative to electricity, for example, should be addressed through proper education and awareness campaigns. The public should be aware of

The key issue is to change consumers attitudes to water and to encourage them to stop wasting water and eliminate leakage. By simply reducing the wastage and internal household leakage in many areas, the demand for water will be significantly reduced.


9. LOOKING AHEAD, WHAT CHALLENGES DO WE FACE IN TERMS OF WATER LOSS MANAGEMENT AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO TURN THE SITUATION AROUND? Politicians must encourage and if necessary enforce payment for water services at some point. Until payment for water has been achieved, the only alternative is to try and reduce blatant wastage and encourage consumers to stick to a reasonable monthly consumption. Small properties using 100 to 300 m3 per month is a common occurrence in many areas and such water use is not sustainable. These users must be identified and assisted if necessary to reduce their consumption to between 10 and 15 m3 per month, which is a normal and acceptable level of water use. It is interesting to note that in areas where there is little or no payment for water services, the average monthly demand tends to be between 30 and 60 m3 assuming that there are no supply constraints. As soon as full payment for services is implemented, the demand drops back to the normal levels of between 10 and 15 m3 per month. The quality of life in both cases remains the same as the additional water consumption is in most cases pure wastage. Certain technical interventions, such as pressure management, leak location, etc., should also be implemented where appropriate on a case-by-case basis. Metering of all water users should also be enforced and a policy to ensure meter accuracy at all levels of metering should be implemented.


Down to the Last Drop South Africa’s Leading Water Loss ReducƟon Company Tel: +27 (0)31 700 1177

Panel discussion Mark Shepherd, director: JOAT Consulting 1. WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE WATER LOSSES IN SOUTH AFRICA, FROM BOTH A TECHNICAL AND A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE? From a technical perspective, there are a number of factors that have contributed towards the current trend of increasing water losses. These are: • Lack of maintenance of water infrastructure, combined with an insufficient opex budget. The focus in recent years has been on clearing service delivery backlog and not necessarily on improving the efficiency of service delivery in older areas. • Poor record keeping, combined with loss of skills. In order to manage any distribution system efficiently, an operator must know what he or she is dealing with, and must record all system changes that take place, either planned or ad hoc. This becomes critical when trying to eke out changes that are necessary either to reduce water losses or to increase the service life of any water asset. Apparent good engineering decisions are often undone to the detriment of the system because of details not being recorded anywhere. • Lack of understanding of the importance of minimising water losses. This starts in the design phase of any project ‒ new projects need to be designed with the underlying acknowledgement of the need to make new

Labour-intensive pipe replacement in Mandini, iLembe District Municipality

water supply schemes as efficient as possible, and continues through to the construction phase, when quality of materials and installation must be given priority. From a financial perspective, the main driver for water losses is unavoidably the availability of budget.

2. IN TERMS OF RESPONSIBILITY AND TAKING OWNERSHIP, TO WHAT DO YOU ATTRIBUTE THE CURRENT STATE OF OUR WATER SERVICES INFRASTRUCTURE? The state of the country's water infrastructure has undoubtedly deteriorated within the last decade. There are a number of factors contributing towards this from an ownership of responsibility perspective. At a high level, it is probably the way in which most governments operate ‒ i.e. not as a business.


the life of an asset should be prioritised. For example, reducing the operating pressure of a reticulation network has the proven effect of reducing cyclical fatigue on pipes and joints as well as reducing pipe burst frequency (recent studies have proven that a reduction in maximum pressure of 10% can have a reduction of up to 40% in pipe burst frequency).


All water infrastructure has a design life and a useful remaining life and will at some point in time have to be replaced. The cost of replacement can be exorbitant and often beyond the financial means of the majority of municipalities, so any means to extend

There have been numerous improvements in pressure control over the last two decades, but the standard pressure-reducing valve will still achieve the desired impact of controlling water loses. Having said that, the new generation valve controllers are incredibly powerful. Systems like the i2O PRV controller use GSM networks and artificial intelligence to self-learn water distribution networks and take

Pipe replacement in Pietermaritzburg CBD, Msunduzi Municipality

Durban CBD pressure management station, eThekwini Municipality



Panel discussion into consideration daily, weekly and monthly changes to drive excess pressures down without compromising on any level of service. Software is currently being developed to predict the reduction in both main pipelines and service connections from reduced operating pressures and can also predict the extension of the usable life of pipelines, as well as savings from deferred capital costs.

5. PLEASE PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF A PROJECT THAT YOUR COMPANY HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN, OR A SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGY THAT SHOWS EFFECTIVE RESULTS FOR REDUCING WATER LOSSES. JOAT has been involved in a number of large-scale water loss reduction projects across the country. The eThekwini Municipality has had an aggressive nonrevenue water reduction programme underway for the past three financial years and has managed to reduce the volume of water bought from its bulk


water supplier by 51 Mâ&#x201E;&#x201C;/day in the last 12 months. This was achieved through the installation of 230 new PRVs (part of the overall strategy to reduce average operating pressure to 42 m), completing leak detection surveys on over 4 000 km of reticulation and repairing almost 30 000 leaks. A total of seven i2O intelligent pressure control systems were also installed, accounting for a reduction in water losses of almost 7 Mâ&#x201E;&#x201C;/day. Furthermore, just over 4 000 consumer meters were replaced as part of the municipality's meter management policies.

6. IN ADDITION TO ACTUAL TECHNOLOGY, WHAT OTHER INTERVENTIONS ARE REQUIRED TO PROTECT OUR WATER STOCKS? Apart from actual technology, monitoring and evaluation plays an important role in protecting water stocks. Relevant and appropriate indicators that provide a number of key health statistics need to be reported on, assessed and


interpreted as part of making informed management decisions. But probably the most important intervention is to receive political support expressed through the drafting and enforcement of policies, by-laws and other legislation that reinforces the will and need for more efficient management of our scarce water stocks. This needs to filter down from national to local government, increasing in levels of practicality when it comes to being implemented by government officials.

7. MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY IS ONE OF THE FASTEST GROWING SECTORS, BUT HAVE WE PROGRESSED IN MANAGING THE COUNTRY S WATER LOSSES OVER THE PAST DECADE? I think that the water-stressed areas in South Africa have had no option but to become as efficient as possible and, barring the large capital investment required to undertake large-scale pipe replacement projects, have mostly managed to keep their heads above water.

Panel discussion The strategy and direction has been clearly set at a national level by both the President's Office and the Department of Water Affairs, and there has been an increasing focus and interest promoted by the national and regional Department of Water Affairs offices to local municipalities.


the choice of application of this technology must be carefully assessed and considered as part of a sustainable long-term solution. Application is often constraint driven: the constraints of the consumer (affordability, constitutional rights and education) as well as the constraints of the municipality (budget, human resources and political will) need to be assessed before implementing large-scale roll-out of this technology. In order for any technology to work, education and involvement of the end user is of paramount importance ‒ failure to make the end user part of the solution will inevitably result in failure.

9. LOOKING AHEAD, WHAT CHALLENGES DO WE FACE IN TERMS OF WATER LOSS MANAGEMENT AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO TURN THE SITUATION AROUND? Challenges facing water loss management are still huge, but not insurmountable. In my opinion the challenges are: insufficient budget, lack of understanding of practical water loss management, perceived unimportance of water loss management, educating consumers to accept different levels of service and getting operational personnel to run more efficient water distribution systems.

Kobus Prinsloo, director: SSIS 1.WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE WATER LOSSES IN SOUTH AFRICA, FROM BOTH A TECHNICAL AND A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE? High water losses can often be attributed to poor infrastructure maintenance and management. The lack of proactive infrastructure management is widely regarded as one of the main contributing factors leading to increased water loss in South Africa.

2. IN TERMS OF RESPONSIBILITY AND TAKING OWNERSHIP, TO WHAT DO YOU ATTRIBUTE THE CURRENT STATE OF OUR WATER SERVICES INFRASTRUCTURE? Lack of awareness and complacency regarding the availability of water and the need for proactive maintenance are key challenges faced by the water industry in South Africa. This is supported by the findings of the recent non-revenue water assessment, which reported that very few municipalities could provide comprehensive water conservation and demand management strategies with associated targets, intervention programmes and budget allocations. It is very difficult to address a problem if you cannot accurately quantify its extent and acknowledge that it exists in the first place.

3. WHAT ARE YOUR COMMENTS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTING IN ASSET MANAGEMENT IN ORDER TO SAFEGUARD THE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE ASSETS THAT WE HAVE? It is crucial. Faced with limited budgets, increasing demand and growing non-revenue water levels, water utilities must spend their funds wisely on effectively assessing and maintaining their water infrastructure. Knowing the condition of existing pipeline assets forms the basis of a sound risk and asset management strategy. To manage buried infrastructure effectively, appropriate and accurate techniques and technologies must be applied to assess the condition of the assets and gather information on a regular or repeated basis to make the best engineering decisions possible.

4. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE LATEST TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODS IN THE MARKET THAT ASSIST IN THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF WATER LOSSES? SSIS is proud to represent Pure Technologies Ltd, a Canadian-based technology company with a worldwide footprint that is at the forefront of bulk pipeline leak detection, condition assessment and asset management in Southern Africa. A host of advanced inspection


technologies are being developed and existing systems are continuously being improved. Most of these technologies can assess pipelines under live operating conditions, in this way avoiding the cost and risk associated with expensive service interruptions or excavating pipelines for inspection. Selecting the most appropriate technology is determined by the level of accuracy and pipeline coverage required. This in turn is guided by the risk profile of the asset and the risk tolerance of the water authority, as well as the availability of funding. A toolbox of advanced inspection technologies is available to assess pipeline infrastructure accurately. Pipelines previously considered as candidates for replacement owing to age and


Panel discussion

FIGURE 1 Typical Sahara® inspection site arrangement

FIGURE 2 A view of the dry surface conditions at the location of a large leak (left) and confirmation of the leak after excavation (right)

other risk factors can now be inspected with confidence. Assessment and repair initiatives can typically be performed at a fraction of the cost of a replacement programme.

live leak detection and CCTV inspections of bulk water pipelines using the Sahara® inspection platform (figure 1) . One such project was performed for Bloem Water. A pre-stressed concrete pipeline (PCP) forms the main supply vessel of potable water to Bloemfontein and the surrounding towns. Because of the strategic importance of the pipeline, Bloem Water required that the pipeline be accurately inspected under operating conditions without shutting it down. In addition, the exact location of each leak and the approximate leak size were

5. PLEASE PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF A PROJECT THAT YOUR COMPANY HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN, OR A SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGY THAT SHOWS EFFECTIVE RESULTS FOR REDUCING WATER LOSSES. SSIS has been active in the large diameter pipeline assessment field for the past six years, mostly in performing in-service,



required in order to prioritise repairs. The 110 km-long pipeline was inspected over a three-year period. In total, 24 leaks were detected on the pipeline. Of interest was that only a few of the leaks showed up on the ground surface as standing water. Normal aboveground inspections and frequent walking of the pipeline route would therefore have been unsuccessful and futile. In addition to the leaks detected, various pipeline bends and numerous air pockets (entrapped air in the pipeline) were detected and recorded.

Panel discussion Apart from reducing water losses, the inspections therefore also led to a better understanding of the condition of the pipeline and the presence of other factors that could lead to long-term operational problems and reduce reliability.

6. IN ADDITION TO ACTUAL TECHNOLOGY, WHAT OTHER INTERVENTIONS ARE REQUIRED TO PROTECT OUR WATER STOCKS? Improved awareness of the severity of the problem, as well as an understanding and acceptance of the available technologies and best practice that can be implemented to reduce water losses and improve infrastructure management.

7. MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY IS ONE OF THE FASTEST GROWING SECTORS, BUT HAVE WE PROGRESSED IN MANAGING THE COUNTRY S WATER LOSSES OVER THE PAST DECADE? According to the latest non-revenue water assessment it unfortunately appears that non-revenue water levels have increased over the past five years. Limited skills, lack of awareness and poor

management practices are mostly to blame. Furthermore, there has been a focus on implementing new infrastructure to keep up with the growing demand at the expense of maintaining existing systems. Although some water utilities and municipalities have been employing leak detection surveys for several years now, many have stopped or scaled down owing to the general difficulty of accurately locating leaks and the perceived inaccuracy of the available methods. As a result, the common approach has been to repair a leak only when it becomes visible on the ground. This approach is totally inadequate.

8. MANAGING WATER DEMAND BETTER IS KEY TO CONTROLLING WATER CONSUMPTION. WHAT ARE YOUR COMMENTS ON HOW TECHNOLOGY CAN BE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE? SSIS focuses on the effective assessment and management of bulk water infrastructure. Water demand management is a related but separate field that must form part of an overall holistic approach to reduce unaccounted-for water.

9. LOOKING AHEAD, WHAT CHALLENGES DO WE FACE IN TERMS OF WATER LOSS MANAGEMENT AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO TURN THE SITUATION AROUND? The first step in effectively solving the problem is to accept that it exists and that it will require dedicated and continued intervention. I believe the biggest challenge facing the water sector in South Africa is creating increased awareness of the challenges, but also the solutions available to reduce water loss effectively and implement proactive asset management. Having said this, there are some water authorities in South Africa that are addressing the problem head-on in a proactive manner. Pipeline owners and operators are realising the importance of establishing the condition of the existing infrastructure and of regular inspections, maintenance and rehabilitation. This is positive progress and I hope that this approach will spread to all municipalities and water service providers in South Africa.

Basil Bold, managing director: Sensus South Africa 1. WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE WATER LOSSES IN SOUTH AFRICA, FROM BOTH A TECHNICAL AND A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE? Water losses can be classified as real losses or apparent losses.

Real losses: Water lost from reticulation systems owing to leakage, burst pipes or losses in the purification process. While major real losses (burst pipes, reservoir overflows, etc.) can be very high, they are generally of short duration because they are immediately visible, while leakage generally accounts for a greater proportion of water lost primarily because these losses can be numerous and can be prevalent over extended periods. Main factors: Ageing reticulation networks, lack of maintenance, poor pressure management and lack of effective zone and district metering in order to identify/ isolate problem areas.

Apparent losses: Water losses owing to inaccurate metering or lack of metering and inaccurate recording of measured data. Basically, apparent losses are not apparent ! Main factors: Incorrect meter selection and sizing, out-dated meters, or meters with limited measuring ranges. Both real and apparent losses have a major negative impact on a water supply authority s ability to: • effectively manage the system • generate a sufficient return on investment to sustain the system.

2. IN TERMS OF RESPONSIBILITY AND TAKING OWNERSHIP, TO WHAT DO YOU ATTRIBUTE THE CURRENT STATE OF OUR WATER SERVICES INFRASTRUCTURE? There is a crisis in terms of the effective management of reticulation systems, a chronic shortage of qualified engineers and technicians and a lack of long-term


maintenance and renewal planning. Critical investment decisions are being made by politicians instead of qualified engineering and planning staff.



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Panel discussion through lack of ongoing maintenance and investment, the system collapses completely. A good indicator is when pipes begin to run dry. Recovering from this situation requires a massive investment in infrastructure and expertise (as is being experienced in some towns in the north of South Africa).

4. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE LATEST TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODS IN THE MARKET THAT ASSIST IN THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF WATER LOSSES? First and foremost, it is necessary to gather reliable data on the water flows within a system (however dysfunctional the system may be). This can only be achieved by installing an effective network of meters. The latest technologies, namely automated meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and so-called smart grids can be employed to increase the efficiency of management of a system significantly. Nevertheless, there is a tendency to adopt these systems before attending to the basics, i.e. ensuring that the primary measuring devices (the meters) are in place and are reading accurately. A smart grid is useless if the data input is lacking or inaccurate.


IN, OR A SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGY THAT SHOWS EFFECTIVE RESULTS FOR REDUCING WATER LOSSES. Sensus has been the primary supplier of bulk and domestic meters on the Dar es Salaam water supply rehabilitation project ‒ having supplied some 250 000 domestic meters and large numbers of bulk meters ranging from 50 to 1 200 mm in diameter. Two lessons learnt are as follows: • Correct installation is as important as correct meter selection. • There is no cut-off on a project of this nature. It requires continual re-evaluation and reinvestment.

6. IN ADDITION TO ACTUAL TECHNOLOGY, WHAT OTHER INTERVENTIONS ARE REQUIRED TO PROTECT OUR WATER STOCKS? The price of water should be raised and consumers should be educated and informed on responsible and efficient water usage.

7. MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY IS ONE OF THE FASTEST GROWING SECTORS, BUT HAVE WE PROGRESSED IN MANAGING THE COUNTRY S WATER LOSSES OVER THE PAST DECADE? No! In fact, the exact opposite is the case. Aside from the devastating effects of acid mine drainage in Gauteng, a prolonged drought in the country

Sensus 220C-2 meter

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8. MANAGING WATER DEMAND BETTER IS KEY TO CONTROLLING WATER CONSUMPTION. WHAT ARE YOUR COMMENTS ON HOW TECHNOLOGY CAN BE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE? Smart metering will allow consumers to monitor their daily/hourly consumption, detect leaks and be made conscious of water-efficient appliances and fittings.

9. LOOKING AHEAD, WHAT CHALLENGES DO WE FACE IN TERMS OF WATER LOSS MANAGEMENT AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO TURN THE SITUATION AROUND? The major challenge is education, education, education, and the political will to commit adequate resources to this end.

Hennie Roets, business development director: RARE 1. WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE WATER LOSSES IN SOUTH AFRICA, FROM BOTH A TECHNICAL AND A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE? Three main factors contribute to water losses in South Africa, namely: ageing pipe systems, no preventative maintenance and illegal connections.


fact that most responsible people do not understand that preventative maintenance is more effective than leak repairs.

3. WHAT ARE YOUR COMMENTS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTING IN ASSET MANAGEMENT IN ORDER TO SAFEGUARD THE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE ASSETS THAT WE HAVE? Investment in asset management is critical. People can do without most services, but not without water.


EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF WATER LOSSES? Sophisticated condition monitoring systems and comprehensive preventative maintenance programmes, and then advanced repair and rehabilitation technologies for existing underground water reticulation systems.


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Kwazakhele project

5. PLEASE PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF A PROJECT THAT YOUR COMPANY HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN,OR A SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGY THAT SHOWS EFFECTIVE RESULTS FOR REDUCING WATER LOSSES. There have been many swagelining and cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) projects all over Africa, but a notable one most recently was a badly corroded 900 mm diameter collector sewer that was successfully relined in Deal Party, Port Elizabeth, using CIPP technology over a total length of just more than 400 m. The Kwazakhele Main Sewer, crossing through Port Elizabeth s Deal Party industrial area, en route to the Fish Water Flats Wastewater Treatment Works, has been under severe stress for a number of years and pipe collapses have occurred. A problem faced by the consultants was the question of how to rehabilitate a sewer that constantly carries a large quantity of raw sewage through an access route within a productive factory site that cannot be closed for any length of time. The inevitable conclusion was that a permanent diversion sewer around an automotive site had to be constructed in order to relieve the existing sewer through the factory site, following which the existing sewer could be rehabilitated utilising trenchless technologies that would avoid open excavation. Phase 2 of the project therefore consisted of the trenchless rehabilitation of the badly corroded 900 mm-diameter concrete sewer pipe across Old Grahamstown Road, along Murdoch Street and through the automotive site, making up a total distance of 424 m. A no-dig solution was therefore considered desirable. Tenders were advertised and the lining operation and all associated

Panel discussion technical functions were performed by The Rare Group as specialist subcontractor, in turn utilising Peter Wood of Xylopipe as expert technical adviser. The Rare Group, on behalf of the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality, ventured onto new ground with this project in terms of pipe diameter that was relined, the use of state-of-the-art boiler and impregnation equipment imported from Germany and the use of locally produced resin. Although the technology may be used to reline pipes varying in diameter from 150 mm to 1 280 mm according to available guidelines, CIPP technology has rarely, if ever, been applied to reline a pipe as large as 900 mm in diameter in South Africa. Costs are most often a limiting factor with regard to relining large diameter pipelines with CIPP technology, but in this instance it has been proven that this technology may successfully be applied to provide long-lasting and durable linings to badly deteriorated large diameter sewers. CIPP technology was developed in Britain around 40 years ago and more

than 30 000 km of pipeline has been relined since. It is historically the most widely used sewer renovation system and has been used in sewer networks in over 40 countries. Sample cut off pieces from the ends of the installed liner revealed a strong, stiff and durable lining. While the design called for a design life of 50 years, the installed liner is expected still to be functional 100 years from now.

6. IN ADDITION TO ACTUAL TECHNOLOGY, WHAT OTHER INTERVENTIONS ARE REQUIRED TO PROTECT OUR WATER STOCKS? • Awareness programmes for the wasting of water. • Incentives for water savings and recycling. • Intensive policing to eliminate illegal use and pollution.


COUNTRY S WATER LOSSES OVER THE PAST DECADE? Yes, we have progressed, but at far too slow a pace!

8. MANAGING WATER DEMAND BETTER IS KEY TO CONTROLLING WATER CONSUMPTION. WHAT ARE YOUR COMMENTS ON HOW TECHNOLOGY CAN BE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE? Technologies and know-how are available but local government is not capable of applying them. It is critical that central government steps in. Privatisation or public/private partnerships must be considered.

9. LOOKING AHEAD, WHAT CHALLENGES DO WE FACE IN TERMS OF WATER LOSS MANAGEMENT AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO TURN THE SITUATION AROUND? • Maintenance programmes. • Central government to provide leadership and funding.

Keith Bailey, general manager: Sales & Marketing, Elster Kent Metering 1. WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE WATER LOSSES IN SOUTH AFRICA, FROM BOTH A TECHNICAL AND A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE? The main contributors in terms of nonrevenue water are: a) Old reticulation, leading to: 1. increasing leak rates 2. old water meters with increasing volume of water escaping measurement. b) Lack of consumer education, leading to: 1. leaks in domestic plumbing not being repaired 2. non-payment for water 3. illegal connections (bypasses) c) Billing systems that are insufficient, often incorrect and sometimes chaotic. d) Lack of maintenance of reticulation systems.



WHAT DO YOU ATTRIBUTE THE CURRENT STATE OF OUR WATER SERVICES INFRASTRUCTURE? a) Political/financial decisions or interference in decisions rather than engineering decisions. b) Fragmented initiatives rather than a strategic plan. c) Lack of political will as a result of not being able to see the bigger picture.



THAT ASSIST IN THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF WATER LOSSES? The latest technologies to assist in reducing non-revenue water are as follows: a) Intelligent pressure reduction, which can result in an immediate and costeffective reduction in leakage rates, e.g. as in Khayelitsha/Emfuleni. b) Water balancing software. c) New methods of leak detection. d) Volume controllers and prepaid water meters, which reduce the volume of water lost owing to leaking toilet systems that can contribute to average consumer

Panel discussion consumptions of 60 m3/month, e.g. Soweto, Motherwell. e) Siphon-type cisterns with external overflows can have a dramatic effect in reducing consumer consumptions (leaks). f ) The replacement of water meters older than 10 years has shown excellent cost benefit results, e.g. a billing increase of 40% in Nelspruit. It is important to note that the old domestic water meters are located in areas where the payment levels are high.

5. PLEASE PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF A PROJECT THAT YOUR COMPANY HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN, OR A SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGY THAT SHOWS EFFECTIVE RESULTS FOR REDUCING WATER LOSSES. We have a well-documented case study of the Nelspruit meter replacement, where the costs of the meter replacement (material and labour) were recovered in 2.81 months from the additional income generated. We have reports from local authorities with prepaid water meters regarding reduction in demand (consumption), e.g. Beaufort West: 54% savings; Murraysburg (Karoo District Municipality): 20 to 30% savings; Hessequa (4 towns): 43% savings; Musina: 34% savings; WASA (Lesotho): 41% savings.

6. IN ADDITION TO ACTUAL TECHNOLOGY, WHAT OTHER INTERVENTIONS ARE REQUIRED TO PROTECT OUR WATER STOCKS? Approximately 30% of domestic consumption is used for flushing. In a water-short country it is crazy to flush this amount of drinking-quality water down the toilet. Neil McLeod has spoken to international founders about developing a waterless toilet for Africa.


Water meter replacement

WATER CONSUMPTION. WHAT ARE YOUR COMMENTS ON HOW TECHNOLOGY CAN BE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE? Prepaid water meters and volume controllers have already shown good results in this regard. Consumer education is needed regarding low-flow shower heads, siphon cisterns, flow control, etc., as these can all play a part. a) Ensure all consumers are metered and billed. b) Water meters must be of good quality and the highest accuracy to ensure measurement of low flow rates. c) Reduce illegal connections and other forms of water theft.

Only in isolated cases have we progressed in managing South Africa s water losses.



A committed strategic approach is needed by central and local government to make a difference.


Prepaid water meters in Dewetsdorp

Centralised control, such as a national water services regulator, is required. This body needs to set achievable targets, with time frames for water boards and local authorities for the reduction of unaccounted-for water. This body must also have legislative powers to introduce penalties if targets are not met. Specific funding, not part of the water services provider s normal operational budget, must be made available for water demand management/reduction of unaccounted-for water. Requests for tariff increases should be submitted to and controlled by the national water services regulator and not approved if water demand management/reduction in unaccounted-for water targets have not been achieved. To illuminate political interference, the people responsible for the water demand management working in the water boards and local authorities could have a direct reporting line to the national water services regulator.




The balancing act of water Globally, water has become a strategic resource. Water&Sanitation Africa speaks to Schneider Electric South Africa about the challenges of meeting the local demands for water while maintaining optimum efficiency, reliability, availability and safety. he specific challenges surrounding water stewardship and management, such as access to clean drinking water, water pollution and treatment, and regulatory, environmental and cost issues, vary from one country to another. According to Schneider Electric South Africa, global specialist in energy efficiency, this tricky environment is further compounded by increasing pressure to reduce operating expenses, curb energy consumption, provide a reliable drinking water supply, bolster equipment safety, align processes with shifting regulations and ensure long-term effectiveness over the lifetime of equipment. Ravi Saman, water and wastewater manager at Schneider Electric South Africa, says that today s water market is characterised by increasing pressure on costs from both consumers and local governments. Responding to these demands while maintaining optimal productivity is a real challenge. Nevertheless, it is one that can be met by fine-tuning capacity. But first, water managers need to know exactly how their equipment is operating by reviewing the strategic components of their processes, he says. Aeration, he explains, is the most energy-intensive component of the wastewater treatment process. And yet, traditional supervision systems are not sufficient to achieve real savings. An advanced process control (APC) system can help change this by combining process constraints and complex interactions between the different variables and actuators, predicting the impact of disruptions on operation, coordinating the movements of multiple actuators and taking advantage of all opportunities to reach the equipment s full potential in terms of quality and efficiency, he says. Core APC features are designed to reduce process variability substantially, to optimise the working range and to ensure



There is increasing pressure to reduce operating expenses and curb energy consumption, in order to provide a reliable drinking water supply

To manage a water distribution network effectively, real-time information and remote management capabilities are absolute necessities compliance with regulatory and environmental requirements. More efficient operation also means significantly lower electrical consumption, which has a direct impact on operating costs. Up to 35% energy savings can be achieved when you combine an audit with an APC system, Saman explains. He adds that producing quality water and running equipment 24 hours a day are energy-intensive activities and the hurdle to overcome is guaranteeing quality service while minimising operating expenses and reducing carbon footprint. The goal is to optimise operation of your motors and pumps by fine-tuning


start-up and working ranges. Not only do these improvements lengthen the lifetime of your equipment; they also ensure more energy-efficient operation. You need realtime information on the status of your network so that you can correctly identify potential risks and take the necessary action. Remote management and smart data analysis can help you head off problems. To manage a water distribution network effectively, real-time information and remote management capabilities are absolute necessities, Saman advises. Remote management is the most effective way to improve performance while reducing operating expenses. Also, supervise your distribution network to identify incidents and leaks. Leaks and burst pipes are regular occurrences in any water distribution network. Not only are these incidents costly, but they can also result in (sometimes serious) injuries or damage to property. The best way to deal with them is to prevent them from happening in the first place. Plant safety is something you can t afford to leave up to chance. Therefore, make supervision a key part of the process. Video surveillance and presence detectors are nothing new in the water industry. Both techniques are frequently used for water treatment and production plants, as well as on water distribution and collection networks. However, surveillance does have its limitations. Traditional surveillance systems cannot respond to break-ins, vandalism, or other malicious acts. Video provides information that supervision systems cannot. By combining video surveillance with a supervision system you can optimise process management by rapidly confirming any decisions to be made and facilitating maintenance. Saman explains that this can help to lower operating expenses greatly by improving human resources management and capital expenditures through replacing several control systems with a single system.



World s first commercial wave power plant inaugurated he Basque seaport of Mutriku, located between Bilbao and San Sebastian in Spain, has recently witnessed an historic day in energy generation. The Mutriku wave power plant, officially inaugurated by Utility Ente Vasco de la Energía (EVE), is the first one worldwide to be in commercial operation. The equipment for the Mutriku plant was supplied by Voith Hydro and comprises 16 power units that will provide an output of 300 kW in total. According to Dr Roland Muench, chief executive officer of Voith Hydro Holding, The rising global demand for green energy proves to be a strong catalyst for the implementations of innovative forms of renewable energy. The Mutriku project shows that our wave power technology is commercially viable and ready for wide deployment in the global markets. To further this development, adequate feed-in tariffs for wave


power, as they already exist for a number Limpet for over a decade on a commercial of renewables, can now set the right scale, producing more than 65 000 gridlegal framework. connected hours. Voith Hydro s wave power technolMutriku: World's first commercial wave ogy can be deployed in new and existing power plant breakwaters and in purpose-built structures. Building on its long-term proven reliability, continual design improvements have allowed for developing the technology to its leading-edge performance. The worldwide potential of ocean energy is at an estimated 1.8 terawatts and still remains largely untapped. Voith Hydro s oscillating water Interesting facts column (OWC) technology is • Basque country’s utility EVE pioneers the only one that is proven commercial utilisation: 300 kW of power output, with regard to commercial utielectricity sufficient for around 250 homes lisation, combining availability • Voith Hydro’s reliability proven technology: over and efficiency on their highest 10 years of grid-connected operation levels. On the Scottish island of • Minimal ecological impact and strong economic synergies: 16 wells' turbines integrated into new Islay, the organisation has been Mutriku breakwater structure operating the wave power plant NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11




Environmentally friendly wastewater ďŹ lter press An environmentally friendly filter press believed to be a world first has been developed by a South African company. Water&Sanitation Africa finds out more about the new technology. he filter press was developed in response to the increasingly critical need to recycle wastewater from mining operations in South Africa, specifically acid mine drainage (AMD). Traditionally, hydraulically operated filter presses are used in metallurgical processes and water reclamation plants, but these conventional products are associated with a high risk of contamination from oil and other lubricants during operation. It has become essential to overcome this challenge to protect the environment and assist mining companies to comply with the ever-tightening environmental legislation confronting the industry.


RIGHT The Seprotech Rapid Filter Press plate pack is clamped in position using a water pressure system

BELOW The cloth wash system on the Seprotech Rapid Filter Press features spray bars permanently installed at the top of every plate

This exciting new product has been developed using patented technology, with components sourced internationally to ensure long life and spares availability

PATENTED TECHNOLOGY Multotec s state-of-the-art, fully automatic filter press, based on the successful Seprotech Rapid Filter (SRF) Press, eliminates the risk of any contamination in this application. This exciting new product has been developed using patented technology, with components sourced internationally to ensure long life and spares availability. The new filter press has been 100% locally manufactured at the company s ISO 9001-accredited facility. The hydraulic power pack has been replaced with a water pressure system which, while achieving the same clamping force, ensures optimum sealing of the plate pack and dramatically reduces noise pollution. The filter cloths have been further developed for longer life, in turn achieving lower consumable consumption. Components have been designed to ensure safe operation, while finite element analysis has been applied to substantiate the integrity of the machine. The filter press is characterised by its energy-efficient electric motors.

ACID MINE DRAINAGE The technology is ideal for use in a water reclamation plant, where lime is used to neutralise AMD and the resulting gypsum slurry needs to be filtered out. The clean filtrate water is fed back into the plant for further processing and




RIGHT Diagram depicting how the Seprotech Rapid Filter Press plate pack opens in a concertinatype movement

the filter cake produced can also be sent for processing to enable it ultimately to be recycled as a valuable product. The new filter press can also be used in other liquid/solid separation applications, including copper concentrate, platinum concentrate and coal fines. Capacity is dependent on the application requirements.

SOLID/LIQUID SEPARATION SOLUTIONS Multotec provides a variety of other solid and liquid separation solutions from its Seprotech division. The company imports and manufactures Siebtechnik centrifuges and Ishigaki polishing filters under licence. Seprotech also imports the fully automatic Ishigaki filter presses. The South African-developed and manufactured SRF Press is a valuable addition to the division s range of equipment. Multotec manufactures filtration solutions specifically for coal and water treatment plants.

BELOW The Seprotech Rapid Filter Press is the only filter press that has a plate tilt function in the cake discharge system

processing. The company has test facilities available for the testing of centrifuges in fine and coarse coal. Its solid and liquid separation products are international market leaders and

The filter press was developed in response to the increasingly critical need to recycle wastewater from mining operations in South Africa The filters are fully automated, requiring less operator intervention, which results in shorter cycle times, higher safety and less human error. In addition, the company provides centrifuge solutions for chemical, mining and minerals NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11

THE ULTIMATE SAND FILTER Autonomous, No control system, Economical, No wearing parts, Low maintenance!

This autonomous valveless gravity sand filter can be installed and forgotten. AGF has proved to be a huge success in mining, industry and water treatment were it is important to have water free of fine solids. If you want a hassle free system, contact: Valve & Allied CC Tel 011 - 789 4110, Fax 011 - 886 4398 email:



ABOVE Once the press is opened, an air-operated actuator tilts the plates of the entire plate pack simultaneously to discharge the cakes

are backed by experienced and competent personnel with extensive process knowledge.

Multotec manufactures filtration solutions specifically for coal and water treatment plants Additionally, clients are offered comprehensive after-sales field service and maintenance


ABOVE The Seprotech Rapid Filter Press fills like any normal filter press with top corner feed

contracts, which include servicing and repair work that is completed quickly and efficiently on the centrifuges and filter presses, with minimum downtime.


Utility Systems offer the following suite of products: Water Management Device (WMD) – a versatile, multifunctional, remote payment enabled, electronic meter reading and control device with Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) capabilities.

The USC WMD is the only meter of its kind with SABS approval. Aquadata –Automated Meter Reader (AMR) a low-cost, intelligent device that enables utilities to remotely read and monitor the metered consumption of water. Bulk WMD – Bulk AMR is available in large bore diameters ie 25, 40 and 50mm diameters. USC – Suppliers of domestic water management devices to affluent and indigent areas.

encouraging responsible water usage




Northern Ireland Water LIMS investment Pictures courtesy of Thermo Fischer Scientific

Water&Sanitation Africa discusses how Northern Ireland Water's investment in a Laboratory Information Management System has significantly improved operational efficiency. orthern Ireland (NI) Water is a government-owned company set up as the sole provider of water and sewerage services in Northern Ireland. It supplies 625 million litres of clean water every day for almost 1.7 million people and treats 134 million cubic metres of wastewater each year. NI Water outlined a requirement to invest in a new Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). The company s main laboratory facilities used an in-house customised LIMS. This system reached a regulatory critical mass and a new, more robust and efficient solution was therefore needed. Regulatory requirements were a key driving factor. Being a government agency added increased pressure to invest in a system with a high level of professional sophistication and reputation. NI Water specified that, in order to have credibility, it required system-wide integration capabilities and robust processes. Thermo Scientific SampleManager LIMS was selected for its ease of use and because it could be easily configured and managed according to specific workflow requirements. A critical factor was the system's ability to scale up when needed. Thermo Scientific SampleManager LIMS can be implemented in one or multiple instances and is scalable for a large user base. The system can be easily integrated with other applications and instruments in and out of the lab, providing one standard user interface and helping NI Water to introduce process standardisation across its multiple labs more easily.


ADDITIONAL NI WATER AND INDUSTRY REQUIREMENTS For many years, utilities involved in water and wastewater sampling have identified the need for a solution to automate current manual/paper processes in the field and integrate these with LIMS. Sampling plans are held in LIMS and are used to generate a collection run for each sampler, indicating where samples must be taken from, which sample bottles must be collected and which onsite tests have to be performed. Details of activities carried out in the field then have to be entered into the LIMS manually. Discussions revealed that ruggedised personal digital assistants (PDAs) could be an ideal solution as

they are typically small, easy to use and have a number of useful technologies built in, such as GPS, GPRS, barcode readers, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. The Remote Sampler solution allows data to be transferred directly between a typographic information system and the SampleManager LIMS database, providing an enhanced audit trail. CSols, a partner of Thermo Fisher Scientific, developed the Remote Sampler solution for water and other industries where inthe-field sampling is the norm. This integrated approach saves time and reduces transcription errors,



Technology as well as providing a secure record of sample locations. All field testing and water quality sampling is now done using the CSols Remote Sampler PDAs, which include barcode scanners to scan container labels as samples are collected, providing additional proof of location. The remote samplers deliver their sample information to SampleManager through a direct USB connection, continuously feeding data from field collections. The LIMS in turn feeds collection and workflow data to the remote samplers so that field personnel are continuously updated on priorities, sample collection locations and required tests.

BENEFITS Gareth Maxwell, LIMS and Compliance Reporting manager at NI Water, confirms: We have introduced Remote Sampler in the field for all our water quality samplers. The use of Remote Sampler allows us to ensure that all samples taken in the field are accurately recorded, taken from where they are claimed to be taken from and inputted into the LIMS at source. This saves time and facilitates data management. Once the

system is rolled out to trade, waste and ad hoc sampling, NI Water estimates that it will save in excess of three hours per day, translating into significant cost savings.

FUTURE Going forward, the NI Water contracted samplers will be able to report on acceptability of sampling points and the safety of sampling sites. This information can then be added to the management report for remedial action, should any be necessary. The use of GPS on the PDAs will in the future facilitate automatic route planning to maximise the efficiency of the sample run. If a sampler cannot access a particular address, they move on to another, take a sample and scan it at the customer tap. The time and date, GPS location and change of address is recorded and the sampler is able to confirm, in the field, that the new address is still within the correct water quality zone. In the future, NI Water is hoping to integrate mobile broadband within the PDAs via a data SIM card built into the device, instead of docking the device in the laboratory. This will enable the samplers to

A CSols Remote Sampler PDA

send data to SampleManager LIMS from the field.

CONCLUSION The major benefit realised is improved operational efficiency, providing NI Water with a full sample management and reporting system, while automating workflow and integrating with other laboratory systems and instrumentation. The integrated LIMS and Remote Sampler solution has provided NI Water with a means to retrieve and report data in a way that would never have been possible previously, and serves as a template for other water agencies and public service companies around the world.



HEAD OFFICE Tel: (011) 615-6076 Fax: (011) 615-8582 • DURBAN Tel: (031) 701-2711 Fax: (031) 701-2706 CAPE TOWN Tel: (021) 946-1722 Fax: (021) 946-1723 • PORT ELIZABETH Tel: (041) 360 6957 Fax: 086 603 3357 Website:




Talbot Laboratories supports Coca-Cola environmental projects n an initiative to comply with environmental legislation, The Coca-Cola Company has set stringent effluent discharge limits for its bottling plants throughout the world. In order to become approved by Coca-Cola to undertake the necessary analyses required by the company s bottling partners to be compliant, Talbot Laboratories underwent a meticulous audit process by The CocaCola Company. The audit was successful and Talbot Laboratories has been awarded the project to carry out sampling and effluent compliance testing at each of the bottling plants throughout Africa. Talbot Laboratories is an environmental testing laboratory and is SANAS accredited. The company offers a wide spectrum of analytical services for water, wastewater and waste. Talbot Laboratories is part of Talbot & Talbot, which focuses on industrial wastewater management solutions. Liane Henman, laboratory


sales manager, says, We are proud to be associated with Coca-Cola on this key project and look forward to partnering with Coca-Cola s bottling partners in responsibly

Talbot Laboratories underwent a meticulous audit process by The Coca-Cola Company

monitoring effluent discharge back into the environment. Source: Talbot & Talbot

Labotec awarded Kimble Chase agency abotec has been awarded the exclusive agency in Southern Africa for Kimble Chase, the world s largest laboratory glassware manufacturer. According to Stefan Harth, managing director at Labotec, This move is in line with our roots, where Labotec started with glass supply in the 60s. Our clients have requested glass from us many times, and we would like to listen to their needs and supply what they are looking for. We have the necessary network, skills, delivery and storage facilities needed for this venture and are well poised to expand the glass range in Southern Africa. If a product is mixed, created, processed, stored or examined the world over, then it has more than likely come into contact with glassware manufactured by Kimble Chase. Its brand names, namely: Kimble, KIMAX, Kontes, BOMEX, PfeiďŹ&#x20AC;er, Scherf, Chase ScientiďŹ c and others, are




Technology manufactured across multiple sites in three continents. The process begins with raw sand to formulate finished products, a start-to-finish process unique to Kimble Chase in compliance with ISO standards, which enables it to achieve lower producer costs. Kimble Chase Life Sciences and Research Products is the result of a joint venture in July 2007 with Gerresheimer Glass and Thermo Fisher Scientific, but Kimble originated a century ago with homeopathic droppers, vials and volumetric ware. The company distributes a full range of reusable, disposable and specialty laboratory glassware for the pharmaceutical, chromatography, environmental, petrochemical, government, life science and education markets. • Full range of disposable glassware: vials, bottles, pipettes, columns, centrifuge tubes, culture tubes. • Full range of reusable products: beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, Petri dishes, flasks and cylinders. • Clinical laboratory products including culture tubes, vials, Pasteur pipettes,sedrate tubes.

New range of laboratory products new range of laboratory products is now available in South Africa from MCI. The MRC range of products has found thousands of applications in laboratories throughout the world. This range of products consists of waterbaths, hotplates, magnetic stirrers, heating mantles, thermal cyclers, dry bath incubators, heating tapes, platform shakers, incubators, ovens, furnaces, dry cabinets, overhead stirrers and propellers, homogenisers, ball mills, grinders, vortex mixers, suspension mixers, orbital shakers, roller mixers, centrifuges, autoclaves, ultrasonic baths, colour comparison cabinets, balances and spectrophotometers. MRC prides itself in supplying quality products at affordable prices and a variety of products to cater for customers needs. Through continued research and development, MRC continues to expand its range of laboratory products and regularly releases new products, including the new patent-pending egg brooders.


Source: Measuring and Control Instruments

• Type I and III storage containers. • Full range of closures, septa,and liners. • Specialty glass apparatus referenced in ASTM, USP and AOAC and APHA procedures. • Laboratory apparatus for sample preparation and analysis. • Chromatography columns and accessories for HPLC, TLC and other chromatography NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11

products including mobile phase handling systems. • Analytical instrumentation replacement and accessory parts. • Microfiltration apparatus and assemblies. • Molecular biology sample preparation products and accessories. Source: Labotec


Bringing water to Africa and now to the rest of the world

Elavated Tanks: ABECO offers a full design manufacture and installation service for support towers steelwork. Basic towers consisting of the support steelwork with a caged access ladder to the roof of the tank will be offered in the absence of further specification. Purchases should request walkways around the baseof the tank or rest platforms on access ladders if required. Access: Access is required all around pressed steel tanks to tighten bolts. The recommended minimum space around the four sides and above the roof is 600mm and 450mm beneath the tank

Ground Level Tanks

Elevated Tanks

Circular SecƟonal Steel Tanks Circular Sectional Steel Tanks: In delveloping sectional steel tanks ABECO recognised a need for tansk that have the following features: ¾ Low cost hygenic water storage ¾ Rugged and easily tranportable ¾ Require minimal site preparation and foundations ¾ Quick and easy to install ¾ Can be installed using basci equipment ¾ Durable and long asting ¾ Can be dimanteled and re-erected at new sites. Ground Level Tanks: Ground level tanks are commonly supported on reinforced concrete dwarf walls fitted with steel capping strips. The purpose of the capping strip is to spread the load over the full load of the support wall and to provide a levelplatform on which to erect the tank. For practical reasons concrete cannot be castwith sufficient accuracy of level. The capping strips should be poistioned in place before the instllation of the tank starts. Reccomended tolerance is ±2mm. care should be taken to ensure that foundation walls are parrallel and square to each other. Foundation walls must protrude beyoundthe edge of the tank by a recommended distance of 150mm. the tepered top section of the wall assists in providing access for the tools to fasten .



Pushing storage needs to the limit A company that was established with the aim of satisfying the ever-increasing need for the hygienic storage of life’s essential element, water, continues to show that technological boundaries in terms of storage can be pushed to the limit. Debbie Besseling chats to Duane Ramos, sales and marketing manager of Abeco Tanks, about some of the company’s challenging projects. rom the outset, Abeco realised that the greatest need for sanitary water supply lay with communities that have limited resources. In Karino, located in Mpumalanga, Abeco Tanks recently supplied and installed a circular storage tank to supply water to a lifestyle estate which includes residential and commercial developments. According to Ramos, This particular project is an example of our innovation and on-going product development capabilities. It is one of the largest capacity circular tanks that we have built to-date, measuring 17.57 m in diameter and 7.17 m in height. With a storage capacity of 1 700 m³, water from the local municipal supply is used to fill the tank, with a draw-off to the village. Another project undertaken late in 2010 for a petrol refinery in Isando involved the installation of a water tank for fire-fighting purposes. This is a circular water storage tank with a capacity of 1 420 m³. Ramos explains, The height of our panels is normally restricted to 7.175 m. However, for this project, a height of 11.9 m was achieved. This required a slight change to our design whereby additional strengthening and supports were added to the structure. In terms of size, we supplied three storage tanks for the Eskom Kusile Power Station. The largest capacity tank was 2 590 m³, measuring 24.4 m in length, 21.96 m in width and 4.88 m in height. We have supplied several thousand tanks throughout Southern Africa. We have undertaken a number of significant projects across the borders of South Africa into Africa, as well as Mauritius and Central America. Our pressed steel tanks are used for various types of storage, including potable water, raw water, water for fire sprinklers and fire hydrants, as well as effluent and chemicals. Uses for our storage tanks, furthermore, span industries such as rural communities, agriculture and farming, mining, industry, commerce, government, local authorities and utilities. The company s manufacturing facility is based in Selby, Johannesburg. The tanks are provided in kit form and assembled on site. Tanks are custom made to suit certain conditions, such as space restrictions and


obstacles. In terms of design, the water pressure applied to the tank determines the stress that the tank needs to withstand. The design panel thickness is

Tanks are custom made to suit certain conditions, such as space restrictions and obstacles therefore dependent on the depth of the tank. All our tanks are hot-dip galvanised, with no moveable parts. The life span extends to 30 years and beyond and the company provides a standard one-year guarantee from the time of commissioning on materials and workmanship. The tanks are 100% South African as all parts used in the manufacturing process are South African, adds Ramos.

BELOW Duane Ramos, sales and marketing manager, and Manie Ramos, chief executive officer: Abeco Tanks




Prefab concrete system tanks The Muleby Tank System (MST IA), available from Aquadam, can hold volumes from 250 to 6 000 m3, with a height ranging from 3 to 7 m. These tanks are built with pre-stressed elements with a standard width of 1.51 m and a thickness of 140 to 160 mm. he elements are connected internally by means of horizontal prestressing (Dywidag system) and an ingenious waterproof, articulated system. The vertical joints are ďŹ nished with a contraction-resistant synthetic grout and a polyurethane bond. Greased corrosionresistant steel cables are passed horizontally through the elements inside a 2 mm thick PE sheath and tightened to >135 kN with precision tools. A waterproof solution for the wall/ ďŹ&#x201A;oor construction is obtained by means of spramex concrete on both sides of



the wall. According to Anton Liebenberg, product manager of Aquadam, The MST IA tanks have various areas of application, including water puriďŹ cation plants, industrial water, potable water buďŹ&#x20AC;er tanks, sludge storage, biodigesters and buďŹ&#x20AC;er tanks. This particular system has numerous features, including: safe in-wall horizontal pre-stressing, durable because of high and consistent concrete quality, rapid production in factories with modern equipment, short erection time owing to the modular system, long lifespan

Technical fact box MST IA: â&#x20AC;˘ Working width: Approximately 1.51 â&#x20AC;˘ Wall element thickness: 130 to 160mm â&#x20AC;˘ Tension element thickness: 130 to 264mm â&#x20AC;˘ Heights: 3 to 7 m â&#x20AC;˘ Element weight: 525kg/m â&#x20AC;˘ Tank diameters: â&#x2030;Ľ 8.64 m â&#x2030;¤ 33m â&#x20AC;˘ Concrete quality: > C35/45 and virtually maintenance-free upkeep. Liebenberg adds, The systems are ďŹ&#x201A;exible, making it possible to construct Muleby tanks with volumes ranging from 174 m3 to 32 471 m3 in various conďŹ gurations from 8.6 mø x 3 m high to 71.89 mø x 8 m high. Every system is designed and manufactured according to speciďŹ c requirements. Our focus is to use standard panels with technical solutions for the speciďŹ c system. Manholes, pipes, plates, anchorages, etc. can be cast into the panels at the production site.


Your water storage problems. Solved. P Uniquely engineered construction methods P Commercial and Industrial applications P Applicable to a wide range of industries P Effective and economically efficient P Rapid factory production P Extended life expectancy, minimal maintenance P Durability and value for money

1SFTUSFTTFE1BOFM3FTFSWPJST .VMFCZ4ZTUFN5BOLT .45 meets the highest classification of water tightness. Ideal solution for biogas storage.


Our network of Distributors extends throughout South Africa and beyond its borders.


;JOD"MVNJOJVN$PBUFE5BOLT 'VUVSF5BOLT are highly versatile and can be used to store anything from potable liquid to municipal sludge. Pretoria Tel: 012 - 810 0940t$BQF5PXO5FM021 - 905 7943



Reservoirs for agricultural water storage A new range of reservoirs is set to fulfil the market need for low-volume agricultural water storage and it combines low cost with the durability of steel. The new product, branded Die Watergat, is being imported by a Polokwane-based company. ainbow Reservoirs is to complement its well-known line of larger tanks for general industry, construction and large-scale agriculture. Die Watergat is a low-profile steel panel reservoir with a trussed roof and is offered with optional fittings and attachments for various applications. Besides a storage capacity tailored for smaller agricultural requirements, the most noteworthy feature of the new product is its packaging. The reservoirs come disassembled in pallet-sized packs that fit easily onto a bakkie, allowing them to be bought as pick-up-and-go products directly from Rainbow offices and agents countrywide. According to Rainbow Reservoirs managing director, Wayne Thompson,


Assembly is quick and simple, requiring no particular skills. No foundation is necessary, other than a firm and level circular pad of clean pit sand, 1 m wider than the diameter of the reservoir.

the do-it-yourself preference often expressed by farmers. It is of a size and capacity which lends itself to a wide range of agricultural applications. Thompson says that the new reservoirs

This is a diďŹ&#x20AC;erent product from our traditional reservoir, with its own distinctive panel profile tailored for the do-ityourself preference often expressed by farmers Comprehensive instructions for the assembly of the zincalume panels and roof are supplied with each bundle. Die Watergat will meet agriculture s quickfix requirements for smaller-volume, easy-to-assemble panel reservoirs, Thompson claims. This is a different product from our traditional reservoir, with its own distinctive panel profile tailored for

are popular among farmers in Australia, where they are made. Although the Australian market comprises mainly livestock farmers, I see a potential local application in aquaculture because of the tank s low wall height, which makes it suitable for visual inspection of the tank contents, he says. The ďŹ rst shipment of the new reservoirs has already arrived in the country.

Die Watergat being assembled on a South African farm


65 65

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Research & development


State of the rivers eThekwini Municipality has undertaken the largest aquatic bio-monitoring study of all the rivers within its area of jurisdiction. Water&Sanitation Africa provides an overview of this study. he main aim of the study, entitled eThekwini Aquatic Bio-monitoring Report 2010, was to determine the state of the health and integrity of rivers within the eThekwini Municipality area and provide a management implementation plan for an aquatic bio-monitoring programme. Approximately 200 sampling sites were sampled during the wet season and 200 samples in the dry season. In the operational context, the term bio-monitoring is used to refer to the gathering of biological data in both the laboratory and the field for the purpose of making some sort of assessment or in determining whether regulatory standards and criteria are being met in aquatic ecosystems. The water quality-based approach to pollution assessment requires different types of data. Bio-monitoring techniques such as rapid bio-assessment protocols (e.g. SASS) are best used for detecting aquatic impairments and assessing their relative severity. Once impairment has been detected, appropriate remedial action must be implemented to mitigate the impact. Following mitigation or management actions, biomonitoring is important to evaluate the effectiveness of such control measures. Biomonitoring may be used within a planning and management framework to prioritise water quality problems for more stringent assessments and to record and document environmental recovery following management action and rehabilitation activities.


biological nature of the water resource, waste or wastewater discharge . Municipal agencies have a social responsibility to ensure that resources are preserved and used efficiently to ensure sustainability. The public is no longer ignorant of environmental issues and information sharing concerning problem areas allows for the sharing of responsibility and buy-in from the public. The cost-effective collection of important environmental information, which is easily understood by the layman, can best be done through a scientifically designed, long-term bio-monitoring programme. The purpose of the National Water Act is to ensure that national water resources are protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled. The act provides for the protection of aquatic and associated ecosystems and their biological diversity, and the reduction and prevention of pollution and degradation of water resources. Furthermore, the National Environmental Management Act (No. 107 of 1998) requires that the environmental principles as set out in Section 2 of the Act be applied in

decision-making. These principles include, for example, the actions required to achieve sustainable development (socially, environmentally and economically) and guide stakeholders in the integrated management of the environment. According to Selva Mudaly, project executive, The plan now is to continue this programme by addressing the more critical rivers first before moving onto the others. This will involve doing 50 sampling points in the dry season and 50 sampling points in the wet season. In addition, we have now trained our own staff to undertake this exercise and they have been accredited by the Department of Water Affairs to carry this out.

Study results The results of the study, using the five-class classification system described in the report, are as follows: • 6 sites were classified as in Near Natural condition • 5 sites were Near Natural – Good • 44 sites were classified as in Good condition • 12 sites were Good – Fair • 23 sites were classified as in Fair condition • 14 sites were Fair – Poor • 42 sites were classified as in Poor condition • 13 sites were Poor – Very Poor • 16 sites were classified as in Very Poor condition

NATIONAL WATER ACT (NO. 36 OF 1998) In terms of the National Water Act (No. 36 of 1998), all water users are required to register their water use and apply for a water use licence. One of the requirements of any water use licence, whether it is for water storage, water abstraction, water discharge, etc., is that the water user must implement a monitoring programme, which is defined as: a programme for taking regular measurements of the quantity and or quality of a resource, waste or wastewater discharge, at specific intervals and at specific locations to determine the chemical physical and



Education & training


AQUALIBRIUM, the SAICE-TCTA Schools Water Competition 2011 The finals of AQUALIBRIUM, the exciting SAICE-TCTA Schools Water Competition 2011, were held at the Sci-Bono Discovery Centre in Newtown, Johannesburg, in July 2011. Debbie Besseling was an adjudicator at the event, which showcases the potential of some of our young South Africans to become civil engineers. inners of the regional competitions came to Johannesburg from as far as Cape Town, Buffalo City (East London), Pietermaritzburg, Richards Bay and Nelson Mandela Bay (Port Elizabeth) and Middelburg in Mpumulanga to do battle with the local winners for top honours. Learners were flown to Johannesburg and accommodated in a nice hotel - an experience which these young people and some of their educators will never forget! For most, this was a first experience of the big city . Without the generous sponsorship of TCTA, a new word for water, this event would not have been possible. The 2011 champions, with 148 penalty points conceded, were from the Stirling High School in East London and this was the second year running that the winners hailed from that region. The team members were Danielle Botha, Richard Goosen and Michael Harvey. In second place was the Domino Servite Secondary School from Pietermaritzburg, with 180 penalty points. The team members were


Professor Kobus van Zyl demonstrates how the water distribution network works

Jonas Graf, Jan Joosten and Stephan Stegen. In the third spot was Tembisa West Secondary School from Midrand, with 190 penalty points achieved by Nimrod Dlamini, Nyilko Nxumalo and Nompilo Dywili. They shared the prize-money, totalling R17 100-00, as follows: Winners: R2 000-00 for each team member, second prize: R1 500-00 per team member and third prize: R1 200-00 per team member. Each educator from the winning schools received R1 000-00. As a direct result of this competition, there are presently four students studying civil engineering. These young people from disadvantaged backgrounds are determined to go MAD, i.e. Make A Difference in their communities. It is essential that projects of this kind be staged in order to address the skills shortage and difficult lives being led by many of our people!

BACKGROUND Both the South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE) and Rand Water celebrated a hundred years of existence in 2003 and, as part of their centenary celebrations, launched this joint competition for high school learners devised by Professor Kobus van Zyl and students from the University of Johannesburg. Since then, the competition has been streamlined and has gained momentum in application, including events such as team building and demonstrations on technovation days.

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS Water distribution systems are important in terms of supplying safe and clean drinking water for people. The teams are tasked to design a model water distribution network to distribute three litres of water equally between three points on the grid, using two different diameter pipes and connection pieces. They are then judged on how well they execute the task ‒ working on a penalty points system. They have a period of about an hour in which to LEFT Students putting together a trial run of their water distribution network



Education & training news that water should be used wisely, that infrastructure should be maintained and that new infrastructure should be

learners to take mathematics and science at school and to follow a career as a science or civil engineering professional.

This competition strengthens government’s initiatives aimed at encouraging learners to take mathematics and science at school and to follow a career as a science or civil engineering professional design, build and operate their network. This competition exposes learners to the practical application of processes that influence their daily lives ‒ essentially how water gets to their homes. They are made aware of the intricacies involved in the design of water distribution networks and water delivery mechanisms. As part of the competition, the water cycle is explained to the learners. Issues such as why we have to pay for water, explanation on the building of dams, distribution of water through water boards to municipalities and then to users, as well as the conservation of our water resources, are discussed. The grid used for the water distribution network is on a background that depicts the entire water cycle. It intrigues learners, as well as educators, who find it a very helpful educational tool. The competition creates awareness of the issues surrounding water in South Africa. It spreads the message that water is a precious commodity, the use of which should be reduced, recycled, re-used, respected and conserved. Through this competition, SAICE and TCTA, the current major sponsors, took responsibility for spreading the

created to provide potable water to those without access to this essential resource. This competition strengthens government s initiatives aimed at encouraging

This is the only way in which we can ensure that quality of life for all South Africans will improve in the years to come!

Winners: From left to right: Manglin Pillay, CEO of SAICE, Danielle Botha from Stirling High School in East London, Mbangiseni Nepfumbada, acting deputy director general of the Department of Water Affairs, Ilse Kemp from Stirling High School and Khudu Mbeba, senior manager: Transformation and Sustainability at TCTA In front: Richard Goosen and Michael Harvey from Stirling High School in East London NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 11


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Level of dams The full supply capacity (106 m3) and level of some of South Africa’s dams as at 29 August 2011. Limpopo Hartbeespoort (NW) Olifantsnek (NW) Buffelspoort (NW) Bospoort (NW) Lindleyspoort (NW) Roodeplaat (NW) Koster (NW) Klipvoor (NW) Vaalkop (NW) Roodekopjes (NW) Marico-Bosveld (NW) Klein Maricopoort (NW) Albasini (LP) Vondo (LP) Olifants Witbank (M) Middelburg (M) Bronkhorstspruit (M) Rustde Winter (M) Loskop (M) Buffelskloof (M) Ohrigstad (LP) Blyderivierpoort (LP) Klaserie (LP) Ebenezer (LP) Magoebaskloof (LP) Tzaneen (LP) Middle Letaba (LP) Vaal Vaal (G) Grootdraai (M) Boskop (NW) Klipdrift (NW) Erfenis (FS) Kalkfontein (FS) Rustfontein (FS) Krugersdrift (FS) Groothoek (FS) Sterkfontein (FS) Saulspoort (FS) Vaalharts Storage Weir (NC) Bloemhof (FS) Douglas Storage Weir (NC)

(186.44) (13.67) (10.25) (15.79) (14.34) (41.16) (12.80) (42.08) (56.01) (102.33) (26.96) (7.07) (28.20) (30.45)

98.1% 99.4% 100.5% 98.8% 100.0% 99.0% 100.0% 100.2% 93.8% 101.1% 100.0% 84.2% 48.4% 94.3%

(104.02) (48.06) (56.99) (28.19) (361.51) (5.24) (13.45) (54.37) (5.60) (69.14) (4.84) (156.53) (171.93)

94.7% 95.9% 100.6% 100.2% 100.1% 100.2% 84.9% 100.1% 100.3% 100.0% 100.6% 100.2% 11.5%

(2603.45) (349.53) (21.03) (13.30) (206.06) (325.13) (71.21) (71.48) (11.91) (2616.90) (15.68) (48.66) (1240.24) (16.25)

95.0% 85.5% 102.5% 104.0% 99.4% 101.6% 97.4% 100.0% 95.7% 99.0% 101.0% 83.9% 102.2% 109.3%

Orange Katse (L) Egmont (FS) Gariep (FS) Vanderkloof (FS) Boegoeberg (NC) Olifants/Doorn Clanwilliam (WC) Berg Voëlvlei (WC) Wemmershoek (WC) Berg River (WC) Steenbrasdam (WC) Eikenhof (WC) Breede Brandvlei (WC) Roode Elsberg (WC) Pietersfontein (WC) Kwaggaskloof (WC) Theewaterskloof (WC) Duiwenhoks (WC) Coastal river Hartebeestkuil (WC) Wolwedans (WC) Kromrivier (EC) Gamtoos Kouga (EC) Loerie (EC) Sondags Nqweba (Van Ryneveld Pass) (EC) Darlington (EC) Fish Grassridge (EC) Kommandodrift (EC) De Mistkraal (EC) Katrivier (EC)

(1519.10) (9.25) (5196.04) (3171.30) (19.82)

86.1% 97.1% 97.9% 99.9% 112.5%



(158.58) (58.71) (127.05) (33.88) (28.86)

85.1% 76.3% 89.1% 80.9% 102.2%

(284.29) (7.73) (1.98) (173.86) (480.19) (6.18)

68.3% 92.1% 100.3% 65.3% 82.0% 100.9%

(7.13) (25.10) (35.24)

104.1% 100.3% 100.8%

(125.91) (3.03)

100.9% 100.3%





(46.19) (58.11) (2.46) (24.68)

21.1% 99.9% 67.5% 100.3%

Great-Kei Xonxa (EC) Lubisi (EC) Doornrivier (EC) Waterdown (EC) Mvoti/Mgeni/Mkomazi Midmar (KZN) Nagle (KZN) Albert-Falls (KZN) Inanda (KZN) Hazelmere (KZN) Tugela Spioenkop (KZN) Driel Barrage (KZN) Woodstock (KZN) Usutu/Phongolo/Mfolozi Goedertrouw (KZN) Klipfontein (KZN) Hluhluwe (KZN) Pongolapoort (KZN) Jericho (M) Westoe (M) Morgenstond (M) Heyshope (M) Sabie/Krokodil/Komati Nooitgedacht (M) Driekoppies (M) Witklip (M) Da Gama (M) Inyaka (M)

(115.86) (158.00) (17.93) (37.44)

100.2% 100.0% 98.3% 100.6%

(235.42) (23.24) (288.14) (237.40) (17.86)

100.2% 85.0% 77.8% 100.6% 100.5%

(270.64) (8.69) (373.25)

100.2% 100.7% 97.2%

(301.26) (18.09) (25.89) (2267.07) (59.27) (59.52) (100.16) (444.94)

74.7% 86.7% 70.9% 75.2% 85.7% 71.7% 87.8% 98.4%

(78.41) (250.92) (12.52) (13.53) (123.66)

85.1% 99.1% 99.7% 94.4% 100.2%

Info supplied by DWA Total full supply capacity of dams (106 m3) Last year 31 571.10

2011/08/29 31 553.70


EC Eastern Cape FS Free State G Gauteng KZN KwaZulu-Natal L Lesotho LP Limpopo province M Mpumalanga NC Northern Cape NW North West WC Western Cape





Highlights of the African Water Leakage Summit 2011 This year’s African Water Leakage Summit highlighted the growing importance of water loss control in the African environment. Debbie Besseling attended the Johannesburg event. he two events, each held over two days in both Johannesburg and Cape Town, attracted more than 200 delegates in total, from nine countries. This is the first African regional water losses summit to be officially sanctioned by the International Water Association. This year s event was a joint effort involving the private and public sectors, with WRP as the main organiser and supported by many organisations, including the South African Department of Water Affairs, the South African Water Research Commission, the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA), The City of Tshwane, Sasol, the German Government (GiZ), British Government (DFID) and the Australian Government (AusAid).


DETAILS OF PROCEEDINGS TIM WALDRON The events were opened by Tim Waldron, who is well known as one of the top water demand management (WDM) specialists in the world and


Delegates at the African Water Leakage Summit 2011 held in Johannesburg. This is the first African regional water losses summit to be officially sanctioned by the International Water Association


chairman of the IWA Water Losses Specialist Group. In his opening address, Waldron emphasised the importance of reducing water losses from potable water supply systems worldwide and the key role that is being played by the IWA in its efforts to drive down wastage. He presented an overview discussion on the latest developments around the world with regard to the reduction of water losses in urban areas. Waldron highlighted that the matter of water losses is now considered by the IWA to be one of the most important issues facing the world today. He indicated that, from his own assessment in South Africa, he believes that pressure management is one of the most important water loss interventions that should be considered as part of any water loss strategy, owing to the relatively high pressures that exist throughout the country. He commenced his second presentation by congratulating the South African Water Research Commission for being one of the first organisations in the world to formally take up and support the IWA Water Balance from a national perspective.

Advertorial He applauded the Water Research Commission s approach of developing a full range of BABE software for free distribution throughout the country in order to encourage water loss reduction in all municipalities. He continued to stress the importance of moving away from percentage losses by using a series of examples from around the world where percentage losses are extremely misleading.

PROF MIKE MULLER Professor Mike Muller is the commissioner to the National Planning Commission, which advises the South African government on all water-related matters. He is also the specialist infrastructure advisor to the DBSA, in addition to being a visiting professor at Wits University. Prof Muller s presentation primarily related to why a pragmatic approach to water loss reduction is one of the most critical issues facing South Africa. He touched on the importance of educating everyone working in all aspects of water services, from managers to labourers, since they must understand and appreciate how they fit into the bigger picture of reducing water losses. He then presented examples highlighting the water resource situation in various large municipalities, where the need for both WDM and new water resource developments is already evident. He concluded his presentation by stating that There will be a water crisis in South Africa in the next decade unless we pay more attention to the way in which we manage our water ‒ leak control and demand management will be vital .

ALLESTAIR WENSLEY, PAUL HERBST, NIEL VAN WYK AND SIMON SCRUTON Following Prof Muller s opening address, there were three related discussions from the three key directorates within the Department of Water Affairs, all of which dealt with different aspects of water loss control from the government s perspective. Firstly, Allestair Wensley, who is responsible for Local Government Planning and Information, provideda strategic interpretation of all water services information on which major government decisions and policies are based. Wensley set the scene for the summit by repeating the recent statement by the president, in which he indicated that South African municipalities must aim to reduce water losses by half by the year 2014. Paul Herbst from the Directorate of Water Use Efficiency explained the actions being

taken by his directorate to assist water suppliers in reducing their non-revenue water. Niel van Wyk from the Directorate of Project Planning highlighted the fact that many parts of South Africa are already experiencing water shortages and that the government is planning for new resource developments to try and keep pace with the ever-growing demands. Simon Scruton from Ethekwini Metro (Greater Durban area) provided an overview of the massive scale of WDM interventions being undertaken in Ethekwini.

WILLIAM MORAKA William Moraka, who is the director of water services at SALGA, provided the local government s perspective on water services and began his presentation by outlining the various initiatives that local and national government has embarked on to mitigate the water scarcity facing South Africa, including huge investments in transfer schemes to augment the country s water resources.

IAN BANDA Ian Banda, MD of the Kafubu Water & Sewerage Company in Zambia, provided insight into the water supply situation in Zambia.

JAY BHAGWAN Jay Bhagwan, director of water use and wastewater management at the South African Water Research Commission, presented an overview of WDM and also details of the various models available from the Water Research Commission to assist municipalities in addressing water losses.

THEMBI MKIZE, ANDRIES MEYER, BOB KLEYNJAN & MOSES MABOYA Thembi Mkize, who has an honours degree in Water Utilisation, from Emfuleni Local Municipality and Andries Meyer, a water utilisation specialist from Sasol New Energy, provided a completely novel approach to the problem of funding. They were supported in Cape Town by Bob Kleynjan and Moses Maboya, from Sasol and Emfuleni Municipality respectively. The project presented is a unique offering in which the public sector and private sector co-operate to save water in the municipality.

GODFREY MWIINGA AND LOUIS STRYDOM Godfrey Mwiinga and Louis Strydom, both from the DBSA, presented details


of how the DBSA can assist with the funding of WDM interventions in the municipal environment.

ZAMA SIQALABA Zama Siqalaba from WRP presented an overview of the community awareness and schools education programmes that she has organised in connection with various WDM initiatives.

ETIENNE HUGO Etienne Hugo heads up the Non-Revenue Water Reduction Programme for the largest demand centre in South Africa, the City of Johannesburg, with an annual demand of approximately 500 million cubic metres per annum. He explained the various interventions being implemented throughout Johannesburg, which include large-scale pressure management, as well as one of the largest pre-paid metering initiatives in the world.

DR ALEXANDER SINSKE Dr Sinske provided an overview of the methodology being employed by the City of Tshwane (the capital of South Africa) to identify pipes in need of replacement.

LOUW SMIT Louw Smit from Beaufort West presented a very interesting case study on the recent water crisis that gripped the small town of Beaufort West, which is located in the dry Karoo area of South Africa.

STUART HAMILTON Hamilton, a leak detection specialist from the UK, provided an overview of the various techniques and equipment that can be used to identify and locate leaks from municipal water supply systems.

KEITH BAILEY, PROF VAN ZYL AND DANIE VAN EEDEN Bailey from Elster Kent provided details on domestic metering and suggested that municipalities should replace the domestic meters at regular intervals and he provided an interesting case study where meter replacement provided a three-month payback. Van Eeden from Sensus concentrated on the importance of bulk meters and again highlighted examples where small errors on bulk meters can be translated into very substantial losses of water sales by a bulk water provider. Prof Van Zyl presented details of his new book, which is now available through the South African Water Research Commission.


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Enroll in Energy University™ TODAY! Classes are FREE, for a limited time only! Visit and enter the key code 96683t Call +27-11-254-6400 ©2011 Schneider Electric. All Rights Reserved. Schneider Electric, EcoStruxure, Energy University, and Make the most of your energy are trademarks owned by Schneider Electric Industries SAS or its affiliated companies. Schneider Electric South Africa - 1 River View Office Park, Janadel Avenue, Halfway Gardens, Midrand, South Africa. • 998-2577_ZA

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Excellence in service delivery Elster Kent Metering held its annual symposium at the Johannesburg Country Club on 18 August 2011. The theme of this year’s event was 'Initiatives for excellence in service delivery and cost recovery.' leaks; Use of prepaid water meters to reduce water 'lost by leaks' and to improve income generation; Keeping technical decisions with the engineers; Meter approvals and testing in the future; Large surface meter box options; 'Plug and play' battery-powered magnetic flow water meters. The well-attended event highlighted some of the latest technologies in the market and provided an insight into the future of water metering.

range of topics was presented by key speakers throughout the one-day event. Some of these included: Improving meter reading and billing accuracy by employing automatic reading infrastructure; Reducing water escaping measurement by using the special features of water meters; Improving income generation by replacing old water meters; Using volume controllers to reduce water lost to


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AQUA DIRT TRAP/STRAINER Patent No. RSA 95/9706 Unit 2, Zone 5, Murrayfield, 4 Prospecton Road, 4115 . P.O. Box 357, Umbogintwini, 4120 Tel: +27 (0)31-902 6550 Fax: +27 (0)31-902 1349 Email:

Web Address: MAKE THE INTELLIGENT CHOICE Install before every water meter and pressure relief valve (PRV)





The Aqua Strainer is used and stocked at several Municipalities and water authorities. x The water departments have specified the Aqua Strainer for all its projects and installations. x The Strainer/Dirt Trap is an essential protection for all water meters in order for it to operate efficiently. x

The Aqua Dirt Trap/Strainer was designed for the protection of turbine-type flow meters and pressure relief valves. In order to eliminate the issue of damage and blockages, the Aqua Strainer was developed using mild steel pipes and flanges. The main feature of this strainer is the sight glass, situated on the top flange. The sight glass enables one to see directly into the pipeline. Blockages can be identified by merely looking into the sight glass. Consequently, the water flow can be observed and monitored. Blockages can be observed and removed by simply unbolting the top flange and cleaning the stainless steel grid, thereby reducing the downtime and make troubleshooting and fault finding, easier.


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