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Promoting professional excellence in the water sector

Water& Sanitation The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete water resource and wastewater management


John Holmes CEO, NuWater

INDUSTRY INSIGHT Distributed water infrastructure innovation

PROVINCIAL FOCUS KZN: A race against time

DAMS & RESERVOIRS Hydroelectric ingenuity

WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT Fissure wastewater beneficiation




Africa’s sustainability champion

“By focusing on maintaining excellent relationships with the developers and suppliers of a range of equipment, we are well placed to offer the client a process train that best meets their needs.” Wayne Taljaard

WEC Projects’ new MD


May/June 2016 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R50.00 • Vol. 11 No. 3

Call Centre 0860 101 060 www.randwater.co.za

About Rand Water SINCE 1903, RAND WATER has been playing an integrated role in the development and growth of Gauteng, its cities and its surrounding regions, providing water to people and industries. All the while, the infrastructure has been growing steadily, spreading the veins of life, the pipes containing water, interwoven underground throughout the province and surrounding regions. Today, Rand Water owns more than 3000 kilometres of pipeline. Water is the lifeblood that sustains economic growth and enhance human development, from the cradle to the grave, Rand Water runs through your being. The water flowing through the veins of Rand Water’s infrastructure ensures that the heart of our economy through mines and industry continues to beat steadily. As Gauteng is the economic powerhouse of South Africa and hence of the continent, a steady heartbeat in this region helps ensure the economic health of our country and our continent. Rand Water is proud of its rich history. Proud of the fact that the water it supplies is rated among the best quality potable water in the world. Rand Water is proud that it continues to grow to meet and anticipate the needs of an economy that has not stopped expanding for the past hundred years and more. Profound political, economic and social changes have taken place in South Africa since Rand Water was established 113 years ago and but Rand Water’s core business remains the same and that is to deliver high quality of affordable bulk potable water around the clock. Rand Water is the only utility in the world that pumps large amounts of water over a long distance +- 70 kilometres, over an elevation of 400 metres.


Product Quality RAND WATER CONTINUES to monitor its water quality standards to ensure that alignment to that of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the South African National Standards (SANS). In this light, in the year under review, the organisation was consistent in maintaining delivery to customers on the SANS 0241 specification. Water quality compliance to SANS 0241 drinking water quality specification for the period ending June 2015 was 99.81% in respect of class I, while 99.99% compliance was achieved against class II. With Rand Water’s stricter production standard applied on the purification works to ensure product quality throughout the supply system, we achieved 99.80%, for the same reporting period. Rand Water formed a monthly Potable Water Quality Working Committee meeting. This meeting is used as a platform to continually monitor and address any irregularities that may surface with regard to water quality standards.



Raw Water Water is abstracted from the Vaal Dam to be purified at the Zuikerbosch and Vereeninging Purification Stations


Addition and rapid mixing of chemicals referred to as coagulants to form settleable flocs. Conventional treatment employs activated silica and hydrated lime.


This diagram presents a schematic flow of Rand Water’s preferred treatment regime of the process from abstraction to the end consumer.

Primary Disinfection

Slow mixing of the water to assist the suspended particles to grow, forming heavier visible particles called floc.

3 4


Stabilisation Water flows into the carbonation bays where it is stabilised by bubbling carbon dioxide gas to reduce the pH of the water.


Flocs settle by reducing the velocity and the turbulence in specially designed tanks, also engineered to reduce sludge. Once received at the booster

Secondary Disinfection

pumping stations, chlorine and ammonia are added to form monochloramine, which protects the water against Water is then pumped from bacterial growth. the primary disinfection plants, the Zuikerbosch and Vereeniging plants, and elevated by approximately 200m to the four booster pumping stations. Addition of sodium

Main Pumping



Tertiary Disinfection

The water leaving the primary purification works hypochlorite at the tertiary is disinfected with chlorine plants to prevent bacterial to kill any remaining regrowth in the distribution micro-organisms, system and to maintain bacteria and good water quality. Water passes through Water is pumped through viruses. Aft er secondary the filter houses where the a pipeline network to disinfection, water is remaining suspended matter reservoirs for storage and pumped several kilometers is removed by straining the final distribution to the tertiary pumping water through rapid to customers. station for further gravity sand terti ary isinfecti on filter beds. and pumping.




Booster Pumping





Strategy RAND WATER DEVELOPED a new strategy in 2009. It is an ambitious strategy that seeks to increase the contribution of the organisation to the economy of South Africa. However, as with any strategy, it evolves to take into consideration key developments in the country and globally. The Rand Water that has since been moulded by this strategy has changed significantly. On the positive side, these developments remain within the ambit of the overall paradigm of increasing the footprint of the organisation. On the other hand, there are important trajectories that affect the path of the Rand Water strategy. As with any innovation in the strategy language, trajectories are part of a single paradigm. After years of strategic planning the water sector is entering a new phase. Rand Water intends to be part of these changes. The National Development Plan (NDP) is recognised as the guiding light for the South African economy and the water sector specifically. The new National Water Resource Strategy is in its year of inception. Some of the important steps of the Institutional Reform and Realignment (IRR) process commenced in this financial year, with the disestablishment of at least two water boards. The important trajectory that Rand Water faces is the increase in the area of operations. This has been interpreted by the Department for Water and Sanitation (DWS) into the first of three phases. Rand Water’s area of operations now includes: Gauteng Limpopo (Greater Groblersdal and Great Mable Hall

North West (Rustenburg and Madibeng areas) Mpumalanga Northern Free State (Boundary of the Upper Vaal Water Management Area) – Maluti-a-Phofung, Dihlabeng, Nketoana, etc The face of Rand Water is changing with the addition of between 4 – 7 million new customers. In total, Rand Water will be servicing between 16 – 19 million people. Economically, this translates to between 41% - 51% of GDP. The vision of Rand Water is to be a provider of sustainable, universally competitive water and sanitation solutions for Africa. The mission of Rand Water is to consistently meet the expectations of our customers, partners and the government by strengthening our capacity to: Attract, develop and retain leading edge skills in water services Sustain a robust financial performance Develop and sustain globally competitive capabilities in core areas Enter into and sustain productive partnerships; and Develop, test and deploy cost-effective technologies In order to attain its strategic intent, Rand Water has set the following strategic objectives, which will focus and direct the business activities of the organisation over the planning period. Achieve Operational Integrity and Use Best Fit Technology Achieve a High Performance Culture Positively Engage Stakeholder Base Achieve Growth Maintain Financial Health & Sustainability

Call Centre 0860 101 060 www.randwater.co.za

CONTENTS Promoting professional excellence in the water sector

Water& Sanitation The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete water resource and wastewater management

Vol. 11 No. 3




John Holmes CEO, NuWater

INDUSTRY INSIGHT Distributed water infrastructure innovation

PROVINCIAL FOCUS KZN: A race against time

DAMS & RESERVOIRS Hydroelectric ingenuity

WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT Fissure wastewater beneficiation




Africa’s sustainability champion


Editor’s Letter


“By focusing on maintaining excellent relationships with the developers and suppliers of a range of equipment, we are well placed to offer the client a process train that best meets their needs.” Wayne Taljaard

WEC Projects’ new MD


May/June 2016 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R50.00 • Vol. 11 No. 3


South Africa-based Protea Chemicals, one of Africa’s largest chemical companies, discusses its role in enabling businesses, manufacturing entities and municipalities throughout the African continent to effectively treat and reuse water. P6


Protea Chemicals: Africa’s sustainability champion 6


CEO’s Comment President’s Comment YWP-ZA: The rewards of volunteerism and networking

8 9 11 6


WEC Projects: Expanding capacity


WEC Projects Expanding capacity



Racing against time in KZN


NuWater: Distributed water infrastructure innovation


NuWater Distributed water infrastructure innovation 20

Creative ingenuity in hydroelectric power Africa Round-up Water, sanitation and hygiene across the continent




About Buckman Nature of business Specialty chemical manufacturing Products Specialty chemicals for the pulp and paper, water treatment, leather and per formance chemical industries Date established 1971 Customer base Includes Mondi, Sappi, Sasol, Arcelor Mittal, RCL Foods, Illovo, Tongaat Hullets, Richards Bay Minerals, Hulamin, ASSMang, Dulux, Sibanye Gold No. of employees 170 BBBEE status Level 4 Company mission We, the associates of Buckman, will excel in providing measurable, costeffective improvements in output and quality for our customers by delivering customer-specific ser vices and products, and the creative application of knowledge.


Industry & Mining

22 IDEXX Laboratories


Veolia Water South Africa



Vovani Water Products



MAY/JUN 2016






WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT Fissure water beneficiation Niche expertise Welcome to the membrane revolution


30 35

Inspired by Afrika Who’s testing your water?

43 44



Idexx Laboratories SEW-Eurodrive Veolia Water Technologies South Africa Vovani Water Products


A case for automation When the lights go out


S.A.M.E. WATER is highly specialised in full turnkey projects including: tender preparation; projects ; layout design; installation; commissioning and successful hand

S.A.M.E. MANUFACTURING fabricates world class quality products and provides excellent service and expertise, all backed by innovative design and cutting-edge technology for the water and waste water industry.

S.A.M.E. DREDGING has specialised solutions for the dredging industry. We offer a dredging service with a rent-to-buy option, rental only or purchase of a dredging system with training.

44 WATER QUALIT w w wY. s a m e . c o . z a

FEATURE FOCUS • Intelligent, connected laboratory, “back office” services

• At the waterfront

• Water quality monitoring

• Technology, and its application in water-quality assurance

• SA general standards

• In the lab, and “front office”

• Robust, reliable solutions

• Exception reports and Smart communication MAY/JUN 2016


PIPES, PUMPS & VALVES Slurry pipelines as a transport system Abalone, pumps and nanotechnology

Down by the

WATER over, for the water and waste water treatment industry in Southern Africa. Full after sale se services provided.


South Africa’s water supply status World-class water services Protecting, conserving and managing water Quality supplier stands up

The WISA 2016 Organising Committee will take place at the Durban ICC from 15-19 May 2016


Improving water efficiency in fruit processing


PRODUCT NEWS Faster, safer copper pipe installations


Long-lasting, maintenance-free irrigation


68 74

77 82

EVENTS Africa Utility Week & Clean Power Africa


WISA Conference & Exhibition 2016: Water – the Ultimate Constraint





Consistent quality requires consistent excellence ...


... in every area of wastewater management. Serving both the public and private sectors, ERWAT promotes a healthy environment by providing cost-effective wastewater treatment solutions through innovative technologies. It specialises in sustainable, quality wastewater services, backed by focused technical, maintenance and engineering services. An ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratory renders a wide variety of specialised analyses, while industrial wastewater quality management assessments and advice are also offered.

East Rand Water

Reg. No. 1992/005753/08 (Association incorporated in terms of section 21)

GPS Co-ordinates: S 26° 01’ 25.8” and E 28° 17’ 10.0” Address: Hartebeestfontein Office Park, R25, Bapsfontein/Bronkhorstspruit, Kempton Park. Tel: +27 11 929 7000 E-mail: mail@erwat.co.za

uppe marketing A13900


Publisher Elizabeth Shorten Editor Frances Ringwood Head of design Beren Bauermeister Design consultant Frédérick Danton Chief sub-editor Tristan Snijders Sub-editor Morgan Carter Contributors Jo Burgess, Lester Goldman, Shanna Nienaber, Ashton Maherry, Nora Hanke, Tony Stone, Candice Landie Digital & marketing manager Philip Rosenberg Client services & production manager Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator Jacqueline Modise Distribution manager Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham Financial manager Andrew Lobban Administration Tonya Hebenton Printers United Litho Johannesburg t +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales Avé Delport / Jenny Miller t +27 (0)11 467 6223 avedel@lantic.net / jennymiller@lantic.net

Publisher MEDIA Physical address: No 9, 3rd Avenue, Rivonia, 2191 Postal address: PO Box 92026, Norwood, 2117, South Africa t +27 (0)11 233 2600 • f +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 frances@3smedia.co.za

ISSN: 1990 - 8857 Annual subscription: R300 (SA rate) subs@3smedia.co.za Copyright 2016. All rights reserved. All articles in Water&Sanitation Africa are copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publishers. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Water Institute of Southern Africa or the publishers.

WISA CONTACTS: HEAD OFFICE Tel: 086 111 9472(WISA) Fax: +27 (0)11 315 1258 Physical address: 1st Floor, Building 5, Constantia Park, 546 16th Road, Randjiespark Ext 7, Midrand BRANCHES www.ewisa.co.za Eastern Cape Chairperson: Selby Thabethe Tel: +27 (0)41 506 2862 | Email: ssthabethe@vodamail.co.za Secretary: Christopher Maduma Tel: +27 (0)41 506 7527 | Email: cmaduma@mandelametro.gov.za Free State Chairperson: Sabelo Mkhize Tel: +27 (0)53 830 6681 | Email: smkhize@solplaatje.org.za Secretary: Noeline Basson Cell: +27 (0)71 362 3622 | Email: ndb@malachi3.co.za KwaZulu-Natal Chairperson: Vishnu Mabeer Tel: +27 (0)31 311 8684 | Email: vishnu.mabeer@durban.gov.za Treasurer: Renelle Pillay Email: PillayR@dws.gov.za Limpopo Chairperson: Paradise Shilowa Cell: +27 (0)79 905 9013 | Email: paradises@polokwane.gov.za Secretary: Salome Sathege Tel: +27 (0)15 290 2535 | Email: salomes@polokwane.gov.za Mpumalanga Chairperson: Susan van Heerden Cell: +27 (0)82 800 3137 | Email: susanvanhd@gmail.com Secretary: Theo Dormehl Cell: +27 (0)83 294 0745 | Email: dormehl@soft.co.za Namibia Chairperson: Dr Vaino Shivute Secretary: Kristina Afomso Tel: +264 61 712080 | Email: afomsok@namwater.com.na Western Cape Chairperson: Natasia van Binsbergen Tel: +27 (0)21 448 6340 | Email: natasia@alabbott.co.za Secretary: Wilma Grebe Tel: +27 (0)21 887 7161 | Email: wgrebe@wamsys.co.za WISA’s Vision The promotion of professional excellence in the water sector, through building expertise, sharing knowledge and improving quality of life.

Endorsed by


Confronting scarcity


ow fitting it is that this edition of Water&Sanitation Africa has picked up on themes mirrored by the WISA 2016 Conference’s theme: ‘Water – the Ultimate Constraint’. A global problem, which is becoming more and more pressing, is the lack of resources, driving all sectors to push harder for ground-breaking solutions to the problems posed by lack of time, money, electricity and – of course – water. The truth is that organisations that cannot adapt to the new climate of constraint will fail. This is one of the biggest factors that emerging companies, SMEs and SMMEs will need to consider in the coming years if they are to enter the market successfully. New companies need to employ smart solutions like process control and automation from the word go. Future-proofing Automation is a topic we have often dealt with in the past, but it takes on a special focus in this edition. Programmable logic controllers, variable-speed drives and remote monitoring systems linked to operators’ smart devices used to be cutting edge. However, the latest technological innovations have pushed further still. Read more about this trend on pages 79 to 83. The cost-benefits of such technology are unquestionable. Nevertheless, it is the task of those who operate water and wastewater systems to be able to draw up their own cost-recovery plans to purchase often expensive capital equipment. Enhanced capabilities may drive up costs in the short term but good manufacturers ought to be able to produce figures backing up their claims for long-term cost saving through resource efficiency. That, then, becomes the acid test for a good supplier going into a long-term partnership: do they have the hard evidence to back their claims?

Thinking forward Even though future-proofing through innovation is essential for maintaining modern water and wastewater treatment and distribution systems, it remains a fact that the human mind is the most exceptional instrument when it comes to taking the necessary steps to conserve water. Looking at this edition’s Water Quality feature, it’s clear that the implementation of cutting-edge laboratories is becoming a way for utilities to investigate how to improve their knowledge of their water reserves and, thus, be able to monitor and manage them more effectively. See pages 48 to 51 for more on this. Human hand Lastly, nothing beats individual action. I recently heard a story about a factory owner who decided to stay at home near the plant where he worked instead of going away for his annual leave. Each day, he ensured that his lights were off, his taps were closed and that his factory-floor equipment was running optimally. After a month, that factory managed to save more than R1 million compared to the previous month. This is a quite an achievement and it was reached when just one man changed his outlook towards resource saving so that it became a priority rather than just another check box to tick off. I believe this paradigm shift is essential for those in the water industry; saving water ultimately translates to saving lives – and given the current drought conditions, entering into a mental resource-saving mode is simply our only option.

COVER OPPORTUNITY In each issue, Water&Sanitation Africa offers companies the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the magazine. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings, contact Avé Delport or Jenny Miller on +27 (0)11 467 6223, or email avedel@lantic.net / jennymiller@lantic.net. MAY/JUN 2016




Africa’s sustainability champion


rotea Chemicals manufactures and supplies worldclass chemical formulations and packs chlorine gas for the purification and disinfection of water and wastewater in both the public and industrial water segments. The distribution network effectively reaches into East and West Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern and South Africa. Protea Chemicals also exports to Europe, the Middle East, the Indian Ocean islands and Asia. Integrating Zetachem The 2008 acquisition of Zetachem, and its custom-designed plants in Durban and Cape Town, added the in-house chemical manufacturing of coagulants and flocculants to Protea Chemicals’ water capacity, complementing its already well-established product distribution network. Zetachem has been a South African tour de force in the local water industry for the last 20 years and has brought a wealth of water treatment expertise and manufacturing capability to the Protea Chemicals business over the past eight years. The high-tech Durban plant produces a wide range of coagulants and flocculants, including the pioneering NSF-certified Zetafloc range, while the Cape Town plant manufactures ferric sulfate. The existing Protea Chemicals Sasolburg plant hosts a substantial


MAR/APR 2016

South Africa-based Protea Chemicals, one of Africa’s largest chemical companies, plays a pivotal role in enabling businesses, manufacturing entities and municipalities throughout the African continent to effectively treat and reuse water.

chlorine packing facility and is also NSF certified. These three units form the hub of the company’s water and wastewater purification operations and are certified to international standards for product quality, operational safety, health and hygiene. Areas of application include drinking water, sewage and sanitation, effluent treatment and downstream recycling. The integration of Zetachem into the Protea Chemicals business structure has allowed all the production and distribution units to interface on a wider scale and to take full advantage of supply chain synergies, while still utilising its customer-focused technical and application strengths. Committed to sustainability Kuvern Naidoo, business lead: Water Care, Protea Chemicals, indicates a

Kuvern Naidoo, business lead: Water Care, Protea Chemicals

commitment to sustainable water usage and preservation of resources in driving the overall well-being of South Africa and Africa. While access to clean water is still a major factor in many areas in Africa, the appropriate use and responsible discharge thereof are also critical. Naidoo comments, “Water usage is linked in a fundamental manner to social well-being, and economic growth and sustainability. The current drought presents significant social and economic risks to all South Africans. It touches us all in a very personal way when our taps run dry, and this is not an issue that allows us to




• uncompromised product quality and supply chains to address the continent's water needs • cost-effective supply and innovation • industry partnering to promote water practices that show meaningful sustainability and produce bottom-line benefits.

remain unaffected. While we, as a society, grapple with the immediate and medium-term effects of the current freshwater shortages, we must also be very responsible with the quality of the water we discharge. This discharge ultimately feeds our water bodies and environment, and returns to us for use.” He continues, “Good water management underpins sustainable growth environments, and enables us to pass on to our children a heritage of which we can be proud. Sometimes, we believe that cleaning the water we have used is a governmental responsibility only. Industrially and domestically, we have a significant role to play in this. “Protea Chemicals’ vision is to work alongside businesses and manufacturing plants and start the water preservation process much earlier and more effectively, so that the water leaving a factory, manufacturing operation or school is already fully or partially clean. This saves money and improves sustainability, reducing the burden on local municipalities and water boards – which increases the overall availability of clean water,” explains Naidoo. Throughout Africa, across industries Protea Chemicals’ water experts and skilled technical teams work throughout Africa promoting effective water usage and re-usage in the

public and industrial water segments. This is facilitated through the appropriate assessment of clients’ current and future positions, the development of sustainable and sometimes unique solutions, advanced manufacturing processes, cost-effective chemistry and the ensuring of slick supply chains through central distribution hubs and efficient logistics. These supply networks of resellers and partners provide opportunities for local enterprise and small and micro businesses. Water use and water preservation, according to Protea Chemicals, need to function at all economic levels. Protea Chemicals is not only active in the public water and wastewater purification industry. Its expertise and capacity extends throughout Africa into coatings, adhesives and solvents; polymers and elastomers; consumer and personal care; oil and gas; animal feed and agriculture; food ingredients; manufacturing and heavy industry; and mining. Each of its industry sectors can contribute significantly to responsible water usage in their particular economic space. Whether we like it or not, the driest period in recorded history has forced us as South Africans and Africans, to think long and hard about how we use this precious resource. South Africa is a water-scarce country with highly variable rainfall and water run-off. Business isn’t the only

answer to dealing with the drought. A disaster such as this needs coordinated leadership and risk management for all sectors of society, where companies such as Protea Chemicals play a pivotal role in ensuring that the necessary advice, chemicals and systems for water use and preservation are readily available across the continent.

"more than just a chemical supplier" www.omnia.co.za

In each issue, Water&Sanitation Africa offers advertisers the opportunity to promote their company’s products and services to an appropriate audience by booking the prime position of the front cover, which includes a feature article. The magazine offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Please call Avé Delport on +27 (0)11 467 6224/ +27 (0)83 302 1342 to secure your booking.

MAY/JUN 2016



Continuous professional development Dr Lester Goldman CEO, WISA


ISA is currently preparing to roll out Continuous Professional Development (CPD) among its professional members. The benefits of CPD to members aren’t felt only when going for promotion or development. Many employers now value ‘learning agility’ as a core competency. Benefits to members include: • building your confidence and credibility; you can see your progression by tracking your learning • earning more by showcasing your achievements – a handy tool for appraisals • achieving your career goals by focussing on your training and development • coping positively with change by constantly updating your skill set • being more productive and efficient by reflecting on your learning and highlighting gaps in your knowledge and experience. Some organisations shift the responsibility for personal development back to the individual, so the ability and insight to manage your own professional growth is seen as a key strength. Benefits of CPD to employers include:


MAY/JUN 2016

WISA is undertaking a new drive to develop and add further value to its members.

• helps in maximising staff potential by linking learning to actions and theory to practice • helps HR professionals to set SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound) objectives, for training activity to be more closely linked to business needs • promotes staff development. This leads to better staff morale, a motivated workforce and helps give a positive image/brand to organisations • adds value; reflecting it will help staff to consciously apply learning to their role and the organisation’s development • links to appraisals. This is a good tool to help employees focus their achievements throughout the year. We envisage rolling out CPD, and other focused learning, through regional seminars and also online seminars. Before this happens, we want to be assured of the quality of learning, and we are currently accrediting training service providers, and individual courses, to ensure that only the best quality of training is provided by WISA-accredited training providers. This is an exciting time for us at WISA in becoming involved in training within the sector, however, we do

If you are reading this after our WISA 2016 Biennial Conference, held in Durban over 15-19 May, I hope that it was an inspiring conference for those who could attend. I hope that it was an inspiring conference for those who attended.Kindly send any feedback to us at events@wisa.org.za. We look for ward to using this feedback to improve all our WISA events. Thank you to all the delegates, sponsors and exhibitors; we hope to see you all again soon, at other WISA events. not want to compromise on quality and relevance; in this regard, we look forward to your comments. Kindly forward anything you may have to training@wisa.org.za, so that we can incorporate any valuable suggestions. I look forward to meeting you at some more of the events we have planned for the rest of 2016. Watch this space for further details. Take care, and blessings always.


PRESIDENT ’S COMMENT Jo Burgess, WISA president

Global talent crisis,

local pressures WISA president JO BURGESS delves into reasons behind the global talent crisis and discusses how the local water sector can promote resilience, especially in the context of globalisation.


he not-so-recent debate over the deployment of Cuban engineers in the water sector threw into rather sharp relief the range of prevailing opinions regarding professional migrants in South Africa, and in the water industry. Needless to say, we are not alone – neither in the water community nor in this country. Globally, we are entering an era of unparalleled talent scarcity, which, if left unaddressed, will put a brake on economic growth around the world, and will fundamentally change the way we approach workforce challenges. No country or organisation can remain competitive unless talent – the engine force of economies – is there to ensure success in turbulent times, handle the political, social agenda and boost research and innovations. Twenty years from now, the world will need millions of new business professionals, engineers, doctors, IT specialists, scientific researchers, technicians, teachers, plumbers and nurses. Twenty years from now, we may not have them. Creating professionals Just as the problem is multifaceted, so is the solution. While today’s rhetoric focuses on telling businesses to “create new jobs”, the creation of new jobs is inextricably tied to providing the right skills for those jobs through education, training and retraining. We must invest in the future by taking on the long-term task of training new talent and retraining

existing talent. At the same time, we must compete with other countries and industries to attract the best and brightest from around the world and, critically, to retain the talent within our borders. In South Africa, we have focused our efforts on developing local talent and, more importantly, sometimes excluding foreign nationals from entering our labour market by precluding them from studying or working here by withholding residence permits to work or study. Although the upskilling of citizens must be a priority for us, we must also realise that sharing best practices with the rest of the world will help support a globally talented workforce for the future, which is also in the best interests of our state.

Europe will need more than 45 million. In Germany, according to a recent assessment, 70% of employers are hard-pressed to find the right people. In developed countries, ageing and the retirement of baby boomers will have significant implications for how to manage workforce quantity, quality and costs. Many countries in the Southern Hemisphere report workforce surpluses due to high economic growth and stable birth rates. However, there are questions about the employability of these workers – whether they have the necessary skills to get jobs and work effectively. The uneven quality of educational systems is one reason why workers are not receiving the training they need to thrive in an increasingly global economy. As one example, only 25% of Indian professionals are considered employable by multinationals.

We must compete with other countries and industries to attract the best and the brightest from around the world and, critically, to retain the talent within our borders

Scarcity background The roots of the looming talent scarcity are no mystery. The Northern Hemisphere faces talent shortages in a wide range of occupational clusters, largely because populations are ageing rapidly and educational standards are insufficient. The USA, for example, will need to add more than 25 million workers to its talent base by 2030 to sustain economic growth, while Western

Rapid response The talent crisis demands bold responses. Skills for high-demand jobs in 2020 must be developed now. Demand will be highest for well-educated scientists, engineers, technicians and managers. All over the globe – in developed, newly industrialised, BRIC and developing MAY/JUN 2016


PRESIDENT ’S COMMENT To be employable in 2020, graduates must be technologically literate and acquire transferable, cross-cultural learning skills

countries – demand is soaring for these professions. Professionals will be in particularly high demand by companies in trade, transport and communication in developing nations. Healthcare R&D will generate enormous demand for skilled labour worldwide, mining companies will need project planners and web designers will be in demand throughout many industries. Demand for other jobs will taper off as technologies render them obsolete. Filling higher-demand positions will require improved and more extensive vocational training, starting today. To be employable in 2020, graduates must be technologically literate and acquire transferable, cross-cultural learning skills. Any nation or company that continues to rely on conventional learning and routine, siloed work without fostering a culture of continuous learning will face an ever-deepening talent gap. Conclusion Talent mobility is inevitable. Despite protectionist attitudes that have intensified during the economic downturn, labour migration will rise over the long term. Globalisation is fuelling mobility, as more companies expand abroad and people consider foreign postings as a natural part of professional development. Beyond the positive effects that talent circulation brings to both developed and developing countries, the larger point is that mobility will persist in inclusive societies, enabling equal opportunities.


MAY/JUN 2016

It is one thing to imagine a better world. It’s another to deliver it.

The result of a strong partnership, Spring Grove Dam supplies fresh water to millions of people.


AECOM: Excellence in Engineering. aecom.com



n March 2016, the Global Water Partnership held a conference in Granada, Nicaragua, themed “Youth for Water: working towards a common agenda�. The conference resulted in the launch of the newest youth network in the global water sector: Youth for Water – Central America. Given YWP-ZA's (South African Young Water Professionals) extensive experience in convening youth networks and events, we were invited to present a plenary address and facilitate various conversations at the conference. YWP is a division of WISA and an initiative of the IWA. Ashton Maherry, chairman: Western Cape, represented YWP-ZA at this event and presented the plenary address to over 80 young water professionals. A moment for introspection Participation in this event presented YWP-ZA with a moment for introspection about what we have learned about volunteerism, networking and convening a youth network. Volunteering and networking are important for the water sector because they retain people in the sector by making them part of a community of passionate individuals. For many young professionals, it is

The closing session where the youth from Central America passionately discuss the objectives of the youth network


A YWP perspective:

The rewards of volunteerism and networking Doing good feels good, and helping developing communities access water is one of the most rewarding paths a water professional can follow

easy to feel isolated in the water sector and overwhelmed by the water challenges we face, resulting in a move to a different sector that is perhaps less challenging or offers higher salaries. Volunteerism and networking mobilises the water community and increases interdisciplinary and inter-institutional collaboration, which is needed to address the challenges in the water sector.

Networking also aids in knowledge transfer from experienced and knowledgeable professionals to a younger, enthusiastic generation. And, very importantly, youth networking platforms give a voice to the youth and create spaces to set our own agenda, as future leaders in the water sector. Active volunteers also become more capacitated themselves, which serves the sector overall. Closely linked to the sector advantages are, of course, your personal growth. Networking and volunteerism also facilitate face-to-face networking and enable you to meet people and to communicate with water sector role players. You learn how to keep a network alive and utilise it in projects, research, and deepening your understanding of the sector players. It also opens up career and skills development opportunities that are not taught at university and, yet, are very important to excelling in the workplace. Networking exposes you to other job opportunities that you might not be aware of, especially new and dynamic jobs. It also enables mentorship opportunities. Networking connects you to potential employers who will remember you and your volunteer work, which will make you stand out from the crowd. It also helps you understand and know what is currently going on in the water sector and keeps you up to date with the big topics and challenges facing the MAY/JUN 2016


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Water management for sustainable business

Seeing new and exotic places, like Nicaragua – home to this cute Holwer Monkey – is just one of the many benefits of volunteerism

sector. This can assist you in concentrating on niche challenges and writing that cutting-edge proposal. Lessons learned Given the benefits of volunteer networks, it's clearly important to establish effective platforms and networks for the youth in the water sector. Over the years, YWP-ZA has learned some lessons about running a youth programme. These are some of the key lessons we've learned: • Find enthusiastic and committed people, who are willing to work long hours. • Have robust partnerships that unlock opportunities, help to profile your network and unlock funding for projects. • Make sure you have a rigorous and inclusive governance structure in place. • Set realistic and achievable goals you know you can deliver on. • Be flexible and collaborate or partner wherever possible with organisations and individuals that link to the mandate of your network. • Continuously recruit new people to keep the network alive. • Obtain support from your employer to engage with the network in order to make engagement as easy as possible. • Focus on having the right idea for a project or event that adds strategic value to your members and the sector. From there, funding partnerships usually follow. • Take ownership of your programme of projects and set an agenda that makes sense for the skills you have on your committee.

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REFLECTIONS FROM ASHTON MAHERRY: The value of volunteering for me Volunteering with YWP-ZA has allowed me to travel to Nicaragua, share my experiences and watch the creation of a new youth programme! Although I am established and well known within my company, through the YWPZA, I have been able to increase my profile both nationally and internationally. After helping to run the 2015 YWP-ZA Conference, with over 440 attendees, I am now par t of the organising committees for two fur ther conferences based on the skills I learnt. I have also formed life-long personal friendships with current and alumni YWP colleagues. Volunteering has also given me the opportunity to give back to the water sector, which has been responsible for providing me with a professional home, employment, and multiple oppor tunities to learn and grow. Being involved in YWP-ZA also enables me to capacitate and strengthen youth programmes to ensure that the water sector pipeline is filled with passionate and competent individuals that can solve the future water challenges. “I am, because you are.” The spirit of ubuntu is essential to fixing South Africa. In my opinion, we don’t need future leaders, or emerging leaders, but we need a water sector in which ever yone is capacitated and passionate in tackling the challenges of the future. Volunteering also allows me to give back to the environment and resources that I use and depend on for my own sur vival, by helping others to become more skilled water sector ambassadors and leaders. Finally, it allows me to give back to the community through outreach programmes by teaching school kids the impor tance of saving water. Although, as YWP-ZA, we are encouraging youth to enter the water sector, I have been able to pair this with my personal passion – which is to inform people about the impor tance of saving and using less water, and letting people know that they can make a difference. Being present at the launch of the Central American youth network was a ver y inspiring and humbling experience. I look for ward to helping them grow and become a voice of the water youth in Central America. I hope that our lessons learned will inspire and assist other youth networks, especially in Africa, to find the confidence and enthusiasm to star t their own water youth networks. YWP-ZA is always willing to assist other countries and youth forums to establish their networks. The more youth voices we have in the water sector, the more solutions we will be able to create and the more decision-makers will have to listen.

MAY/JUN 2016


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Expanding capacity WEC Projects has grown steadily over the past few years, quietly gaining market share and influence by producing brilliant and original project-based solutions in South Africa. New managing director WAYNE TALJAARD explains what’s next for WEC.

How have your past experiences in the water and wastewater industries shaped your management philosophies as you take over the helm at WEC? WT My earliest professional experience was in water treatment for the steel industry, where I was working at the treatment coalface as it were. Thereafter, I was an account manager for a water firm in the United Kingdom. I then furthered my studies and returned to South Africa where I worked for a major multinational water and wastewater treatment company. A key learning curve


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for me was witnessing the pros and cons of working at a large, highly formal, systemsdriven company. WEC has traditionally been a smaller, more intimate entity, but we’re now poised for considerable growth and I want to bring in the best parts of large-company structure without losing the ability to really get to know and serve our clients well, particularly in the areas of design, human resources, construction and client service. I think that WEC has made its mark on the local water sector because our team approaches problems creatively and often

comes up with solutions better equipped to meet the needs posed by local conditions than our competitors.

WEC Projects has made a name for itself tackling interesting, unusual and technically challenging projects. What are some of the company’s more recent achievements in these areas? We recently commissioned a biogas-to-energy facility at an abattoir on the East Rand. This is an achievement because it showcases the development of our new capabilities. WEC originally made a name for

Wayne Taljaard, MD, WEC

Advanced knowledge of emerging technologies has set WEC on a course to grow and expand into industrial markets, taking on projects outside Southern Africa

itself in the mining, and then municipal spaces. Now, we’ve officially moved into the industrial effluent treatment space after successfully designing and constructing the only functional biogas-to-energy plants in both sectors in South Africa. Also, WEC is currently constructing the first Gautengbased Nereda® water treatment facility. It entails the addition of the new system to existing

HOT SEAT infrastructure. The success of this project opens up a range of opportunities across the region, which include retrofitting existing redundant wastewater treatment works (WWTW), among others Nereda® enables existing and greenfield works to expand affordably. We also recently installed a packaged biological trickle filter plant at a private school. The challenge of the project is that the school’s sewage system is subject to variable waste loads throughout the academic year due to holidays and sports days. The robust nature of the system as well as its simplicity make it an optimum solution for this type of problem. That is essentially what WEC is all about: finding the best solution to meet clients’ needs.

One of the new technological solutions offered by WEC is the Nereda® system, a Royal HaskoningDHV technology. Why did WEC invest in this and what rewards have you experienced so far? This solution holds incredible potential. It offers a number of key benefits, including reducing plants’ energy requirements – something very important in South Africa. With inconsistent and limited electrical supply being a concern, it’s important that all sectors contribute towards lowering demand on the national grid. Nereda® achieves this while also lowering life-cycle costs. Lower electricity consumption also saves money. Moreover, Nereda® plants boast a considerably smaller footprint than other technologies. In a vast country like ours, it seems counterintuitive that space would need to be saved, but WWTWs are built in spaces directly surrounded by the community. Here, a greenfield or retrofitted Nereda® solution offers a neat, space-saving solution. As part of WEC’s commitment to becoming a leading

implementing agent for the technology, we recently sent a team of engineers to attend overseas training on the technology, which focused on application, design, engineering and implementation. From the training, it became clear that the South African market hasn’t yet fully realised Nereda®'s potential in the industrial sector or bulk sewage treatment. The technology continues to show fantastic results on projects involving biological treatment of industrial wastewaters overseas.

struvite deposition within plant piping and equipment – the true cost of which is not often fully appreciated. Struvite also has the potential to be sold into the market as a valuable fertiliser additive, as seen abroad. WEC has started to engage with interested

After stunning growth in just a few short years, what’s next for WEC?

parties locally to strengthen our sludge value model.

WEC has made a name for itself in the municipal and mining water treatment spaces


WEC started out as a company selling package solutions for drinking and wastewater, in the mining and municipal sectors. Our successes in that space allowed us to become

WEC Projects also boasts a number of unique sludge beneficiation solutions. What is the motivation for municipalities wanting to add value to and reduce their sludge by applying these methods? To overcome sludge-related challenges, WEC is developing a process model capable of offsetting the costs of maintenance, energy and sludge disposal – making it is possible to implement these integrated solutions with attractive investment returns. Our ultimate goal is to get the sludge to pay for itself or even put money back into municipal coffers.

Another impressive technology offered by WEC is AirPrex®. What does this technology achieve and how does it improve wastewater treatment and environmental performance? In the pursuit of our sludge beneficiation objectives, we have gained the rights to supply German water technology specialist CNP’s AirPrex® technology in Southern Africa. AirPrex® is capable of extracting phosphorus in the form of struvite from sludge generated in biological nutrient removal plants. The benefits are improved dewatering, reduced polymer consumption and the elimination of

What is WEC’s main value proposition to clients? It’s finding the right technological fit to best solve clients’ unique challenges. By not being focused on supplying specific proprietary technologies or equipment, and by maintaining excellent relationships with the developers and suppliers of a range of equipment, we are well placed to offer clients a process train that best meets their needs. Even though we have secured some key world-leading technologies, the objective has always been to first find the right solution. This sometimes doesn’t even involve the supply of equipment but rather support and guidance in optimising something already in place. We have also come to understand that economic contingencies are permanently in flux, so developing solutions in which value is readily measurable is how we continue to grow by differentiation.

a key player in the supply of water and wastewater solutions in the local municipal sector. This reputation now forms the springboard for our next growth phase, which will focus on: • securing more key differentiating technologies • reconceptualising existing solutions for new applications • extending our offerings beyond Africa • becoming a recognisable brand in the industrial sectors • becoming the water treatment sector employer of choice • maintaining world-class standards • developing exceptional regional representation.

www.wecprojects.co.za MAY/JUN 2016



Racing For years, KwaZulu–Natal (KZN) engineers have warned that water shortages were imminent due to old infrastructure and unstable rainfall patterns. Ongoing projects have been bolstering the system but will it be enough to meet the population’s needs before serious problems arise? BY FRANCES

against time RINGWOOD


ZN has been one of the worst-hit provinces when it comes to recent low rainfall and water shortages. The main municipality in the area, eThekwini Water and Sanitation, has responded with a number of emergency measures, including publishing a water-saving schedule and displaying water-saving tips prominently on its website. Meanwhile, some of the biggest projects that have been ongoing in the area for many years have been reaching significant milestones. The Mooi-Mgeni Transfer Scheme Phase II, Western and Northern aqueducts and other connected projects are progressing. Much is happening in the province; but will it be enough to avoid major supply shortfalls? Historical precedents


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For years, KwaZuluNatal engineers have warned of imminent water shortages due to old infrastructure and unstable rainfall patterns. Ongoing projects have been bolstering the system, but will these be enough to meet the population’s needs before serious problems arise? BY FRANCES RINGWOOD

sense of security regarding the water supply situation.” Also at that time, government was pushing hard for greater adoption of water recycling, demand management and water conservation strategies, knowing that the situation was urgent with regard to having the right infrastructure in place before the area’s rainfall luck ran out. Projects under way to mitigate the effects of an eventual possible drought included Spring Grove and Hazelmere dams, the Lower Thukela bulk water supply scheme and the Northern and Western aqueduct schemes.

A new 1 600 mm nominal diameter welded steel raw water rising main extends 6.5 km from Spring Grove Dam to the Gowrie break pressure tank

Back in 2011, Neil Macleod was heading up EWS. Macleod was direct about the fact that the municipality needed more funding for valuable drought mitigation projects, saying, “The only reason we haven’t found ourselves experiencing severe water shortages yet has been the unseasonably high rainfall for the last couple of years.” The then department of Water and Environmental Affairs (now Water and Sanitation – DWS) concurred, having released a statement saying, “Aboveaverage rainfall has kept the major dams in the area full. This has led to a false

Tough times In spite of facing funding challenges, difficulties with persuading local communities to adopt water-saving and recycling technologies and project setbacks, EWS has been rallying under pressure, quietly finishing and progressing with one project after another. Here are some of the larger projects that have been completed or progressed significantly in the last two years. Mooi-Mgeni Transfer Scheme The Mooi-Mgeni Transfer Scheme Phase I (MMTS-1) was completed in 2003 and comprised the construction of Mearns Weir on the Mooi River and the raising of Midmar Dam by 3.5 m. Phase II (MMTS-2) is an interbasin transfer between the Mooi and Mgeni rivers and comprises the Spring Grove Dam on


We select technologies based on efficiency, durability, reliability and form factor to complement our modular and mobile model the Mooi River, about 2 km south-west of Rosetta Village and 8 km upstream of the Mearns Weir. Water from the dam will be transferred by pipeline to the Mpofana River, a tributary of the Umgeni River, augmenting the current system by 60 million cubic metres to supply water to about six million downstream users in the Durban and Pietermaritzburg areas. The Spring Grove Dam’s impoundment was within the project delivery schedule and the now multi-award-winning project was inaugurated on 19 November in 2013. The latest chapter in the MMTS-2 story has been the completion of a Water Transfer System (WTS) Project,

commissioned on 19 February 2016. The system is currently in the trial phase. “The timely completion of the project has allowed the DWS more flexibility in managing its resources and supplying much needed water into the Umgeni River system in order to alleviate the water caused by the current drought,” comments James Nyakale, project manager at the implementing agent, the Trans Caledon Tunnel Authority. Hazelmere Dam In 2011, Ingerop South Africa was appointed by the then Department of Water Affairs to raise the wall of the Hazelmere Dam in order to increase its yield. The original design for the project made use of radial crest gates to raise the full level of the dam by 7 m in order to meet the increasing water demands of certain northern Durban areas. However, the hydrological characteristic of the catchment area for the dam is restricted because the time of concentration for flooding is only six hours. These flash floods pose a problem when it comes to operating

staff opening the flood gates in time. This risk led to the designers’ revised decision to use of an uncontrolled piano key weir spillway to accommodate flood waters efficiently. This project consists of the design and construction of the spillway as well as the associated stability improvement infrastructure required by the raising of the dam. In total, this project is valued at over R400 million, and the impounding of the additional water storage started in September last year. Western Aqueduct As at the end of 2015, over half of the second phase of the Western Aqueduct bulk water pipeline project was complete. This is Durban’s biggest pipeline project of its kind. Ednick Msweli, head, EWS, has confirmed that this project is on track for completion by mid-2017. The first phase of the Western Aqueduct, measuring 20 km, stretches from the Umlaas Road Reservoir to MAY/JUN 2016



Inchanga, and was commissioned at the end of 2012. Completion of the Western Aqueduct, which will bring water into Durban from the Spring Grove and Midmar dams, should significantly reduce the risk of water shortages and drought, to the extent that emergency measures, of the kind implemented over the last two years, will eliminated for at least the next 30 years. Martin Bright, project manager, has confirmed that more than 26 km of the total 40 km of pipeline has been laid. The remainder of this contract is expected to be completed in mid-2017. Monitoring of construction of the Western Aqueduct is being conducted by a joint venture between Knight Piesold, Naidu Consulting and Royal Haskoning DHV. Northern Aqueduct Currently existing bulk water infrastructure to the north of Durban – known as the Northern Aqueduct – is also in the process of being refurbished


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and augmented. It is the city’s plan to eventually link this pipeline to the Western Aqueduct’s second phase to accommodate the needs of the rapidly developing northern areas of the city. However, the Northern Aqueduct has reached capacity on various sections of the trunk mains as a result of growth in demand. Therefore, EWS needs to put the necessary infrastructure or network capacity in place to deliver available water to where it is most needed. This project is a priority because, if it doesn’t progress rapidly, development at both the Dube Tradeport and Cornubia will be slowed. EWS is, therefore, upgrading crucial sections of the pipeline. This is referred to as the Northern Aqueduct Augmentation (NAA), which began in 2014, with at least two contracts already having been completed.

Trencless technologies were essential to the projects’ successful completion

According to EWS civil engineer Simon Scruton, “The NAA will cost R1 billion. It consists of eight contracts – two will be complete by year end; one new one is starting construction now, and another will be entering the tender phase shortly. The NAA is tabled for completion in 2020.” The NAA was designed by the Knight Piésold-Naidu Consulting Joint Venture. The JV is also responsible for the contract administration and construction monitoring. Lower Thukela Bulk Water Supply Scheme About 70 km down the South Coast, the Lower Thukela Bulk Water Supply Scheme is under way. It was officially launched on 22 March this year. The scheme’s construction is necessary to meet the supply demands precipitated by growth within the iLembe District Municipality – identified in the DWS’s Water and Sanitation Master Plan. The purpose of the project is to supply an additional 55 Mℓ/d of treated

HIDROSTAL SA (PTY) LTD Tel: (011) 704-5333 Fax: (011) 704-5666 Email: sales@hidrostal.co.za The Lower Thukela Bulk Water Supply Scheme will augment supply to reach an additional 350 000 people

Tel: (031) 914-1007 Fax: (031) 914-1012 Email saleskzn@hidrostal.co.za

water to the coastal and inland areas of the KwaDukuza and Mandeni local municipalities. The area’s population projection for 2035 is 19 149 people and about 3 193 dwellings. Government projects that water supply to local industries will create jobs as well as uplift the local community. Backlog eradication as well as job creation throughout the duration of the project are other identifiable benefits. The project is funded by the DWS through the Regional Bulk Infrastructure Grant and Umgeni Water. The project will abstract and treat water from the Tugela River to supply secondary bulk and reticulation networks within iLembe. Phase I of the project is about 95% complete. The estimated total cost of the project is estimated at R1.32 billion and the last part of Phase I will be completed in September this year. The proposed scheme comprises an abstraction works from a river, a low-lift pump station, a desilting works and a water treatment works (WTW), as well as a high-lift pump station at the WTW linked to a 30 km bulk supply pipeline and 30 Mℓ reservoir. Other areas that will gain from the scheme are the towns of Bulwer, San SoucI, St Christopher, Darnall, Zinkwazi and Blythedale. The Lower Thukela Bulk Water Supply Scheme will serve 350 000 people. Conclusion While there is no shortage of activity in KZN on the megaprojects front, and while many of these projects are ambitious and even award-winning, the province has simply fallen foul of extremely unfortunate weather. The rest of the country (and indeed the region) is in the same boat. Taking the long view, South Africa has survived many droughts in the past and will continue to do so. What is reassuring is that government continues to plan for drought and mitigate its effects even as the population continues to grow and the demands of industry and agriculture increase in parallel. However, infrastructure alone will not be enough to prevent major shortages, now or in the future. The citizenry also needs education about demand-side management and water conservation if there is to be enough water to go around. Government, the private sector and communities will need to continue working together to ensure this message is adequately conveyed so that all water users are equipped to play their part. MAY/JUN 2016


HIDROSTAL Flexible Coupled Bearing Frame is a close coupled rotating assembly fitted with our standard HIDROSTAL screw centrifugal hydraulic suitable engineered to accommodate a standard flange mount electric motor. The flexible coupled bearing frame pump is commonly installed in dry areas, e.g., together with other process machinery, dry-well sewage stations……………………... The construction of the flexible coupled bearing frame pump mounted on a fabricated baseplate makes it ideal for rapid dismantling and enables simple removal and installation during maintenance or shutdown periods. The flange mount construction on the drive-end of the pump, allows the electric motor to be mounted direct and in-line with the pump shaft. The two shaft ends are then coupled via a flexible flanged shaft coupling eliminating alignment checks. No more alignment problems. No more pre-mature bearing failures due to misalignment. No more wasting valuable time.



Distributed water

infrastructure innovation Flexibility and water infrastructure are not normally associated with one another. But, just as power generation has evolved over the past two decades, the water and wastewater sectors are starting to adjust to the challenges of higher demand, lower government investment and increasing pollution.


he power sector has had a significant head start over the water sector when it comes to innovation and delivering sustainable, distributed generation capacity to complement, or in some cases, replace the national grid and its large, centralised coal-fired power stations. The power sector has enjoyed incentives for investment in sustainable generation technologies such as solar and wind, as well as regulatory changes that encourage new participants in the sector. While there are the standard arguments for why the water sector cannot be compared with the power sector, the fact remains that serious innovation is required if the water sector is to have any chance of addressing the growing challenges it faces. Continuing with the same outdated approach to water and wastewater infrastructure delivery clearly poses a greater risk than the adoption of new technologies and business models. In addition, regulation of the sector needs to change and incentives for investment are required to attract new, innovative participants.


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Leading innovation NuWater, a global leader in rapidly deployable and redeployable modular and mobile treatment plants, is successfully demonstrating that decentralised infrastructure can have an immediate and material impact on service delivery and sustainability in the water and wastewater sectors. Water&Sanitation Africa caught up with the NuWater team at its gleaming, new campus in Cape Town to better understand how the company is helping to define a new decentralised model through innovation. John Holmes, NuWater CEO, explains the company’s strategy. “NuWater was established just over six years ago, with the specific purpose of bringing innovation to what we felt was a neglected and staid industry sector, but one which is critical to both social and economic development and environmental sustainability. In a short period of time, we have confirmed our original view that technological and commercial innovation can have an immediate impact on both service NuWater's brand-new campus in Cape Town

delivery and sustainability. We chose to focus initially on the resources sectors to prove our modular and mobile model. The main reason for this is that the mining and oil & gas sectors are large users of water and producers of wastewater. In addition, their water and wastewater treatment requirements change quite regularly, as operations change and adapt to market conditions. While cyclicality in the resources sectors would seem to be a risk to our business, the reality is that environmental compliance and sustainability cannot be ignored, even in down cycles. Among things that do change in a down cycle are cost awareness and capital investment. In this environment, NuWater’s model of innovative, modular and mobile plants, combined with our innovative financing models, becomes even more relevant.” Holmes continues, “Having proven our modular and mobile model in the private sector, we are now demonstrating its relevance in the municipal sector with short-term, own-and-operate projects – something that is completely new. We are also leveraging our strategic relationships with leading service providers



complement our modis true not just for South Africa but globular and mobile model. ally, including developed markets like NuWater is playing an the US and Europe. Conventional infraimportant role in providstructure generally needs to be funded ing a channel to market over periods of 15 to 20 years and more for individual technoloto achieve the required investor returns gies that may otherwise without distorting tariffs. This results never see the light of in long planning and financing cycles, day with traditional marmeaning many projects never get off the Jeeten Nathoo, John Holmes, NJ Bouwer, CTO CEO head: Engineering ket participants.” ground. In addition, these public-private Bouwer goes on to projects are prone to corruption, given explain that achieving the scale of the financing required and to the municipal sector by helping them a truly modular, large-capacity plant that the political nature of the projects add distributed water and wastewater can be deployed rapidly, and redeployed themselves. treatment services to their own offerings. as necessary, requires a completely Given the fact that we can rapidly We are very excited about the progress different design philosophy to that of a deploy our plants and redeploy them we are making with our client base and conventional fixed plant. According to when customer demand changes or the leadership position we are carving Bouwer, “NuWater has been successful payment becomes an issue, NuWater is out in this new, decentralised world.” in maintaining the operational efficiency able to offer short-term, own-and-opof custom-designed fixed plants while erate contracts to its customers. This Modular and mobile nutshelled increasing the plant makes the purchasing So what does NuWater mean by its durability required for decision simpler, less We select modular and mobile model? According rapid deployment and risky, and less prone to technologies to Jeeten Nathoo, NuWater CTO, and NJ redeployment. Our plants corruption, and allows based on Bouwer, head: Engineering, the comrequire minimal fixed the customer to regularly efficiency, pany’s technology and innovative plant infrastructure, thereby reassess their requiredesigns underpin its business model. cutting deployment times ments without being durability, Nathoo explains the company’s and costs. As each module locked into long-term reliability and approach to technology and systems has significant capacity commitments. Our modform factor to integration, “Water is complex and, and plants can be readily ular and mobile model, complement our therefore, therefore, requires a variety of treatments expanded through the essentially to achieve the required final water quality addition of more modules, changes the risk profile modular and based on the source water available. That NuWater does not have to for our customers. The mobile model said, too much is made of this complexity compromise on scale; in risk profile is obviously and NuWater is bringing a simple plugfact, in our effort to achieve modularity, also different for NuWater but, as we and-play, or rather plug-and-produce, we have also managed to accommodate have already demonstrated to our cusapproach to the water sector that has, more capacity into the same footprint, tomers and investors, NuWater has also to date, been served by an array of with the associated capital cost benefits. built the delivery and risk management consulting engineers and engineering Our electrical and control systems, and capabilities to support this new model. contractors that rely on fees and traother shared components, have literEach successful project we deliver makes ditional construction work to ensure ally been designed to allow us to plug it easier to convince new customers and their existence. modules together.” our investors that this model will play a The structure of the water and wastesignificant role in the water and wastewater sectors creates a disincentive to Benefits of modular and mobile water sectors.” innovate and to take risks with new techSo what is the relevance of this modNuWater’s growth locally, and its rapnologies. While the market’s reluctance ularity and mobility beyond allowing idly expanding international footprint, to innovate remains a challenge, we NuWater plants to be rapidly deployed, bodes well for South Africa’s water sechave remained resolute in our view that readily scaled up or down, and easily tor. The company’s impressive portfolio the growing gap between demand and redeployed if and when necessary? of innovative projects appears to supservice provision is forcing all stakeholdAccording to Holmes, this technical flexport Holmes’ claim that NuWater’s moders to reconsider their approach. These ibility underpins NuWater’s commercial ular and mobile model is creating clear changing attitudes are being reflected model and allows the company to offer differentiation and is already making a in the pipeline of new business we terms to its customers that its competpositive contribution to service delivery are generating.” itors find difficult to match without and sustainability. Nathoo continues, “While NuWater taking on serious risks. Holmes breaks owns a significant amount of proprietary down the benefits of NuWater’s modular IP, we are just as focused on integrating and mobile model from a commercial third-party technologies into our plants. perspective, “To start with, it is clear that We select technologies based on efficienprivate sector investment is required in www.nuwater.co.za cy, durability, reliability and form factor to the water and wastewater sectors. This MAY/JUN 2016



Creative ingenuity in hydroelectric power

If it does not exist, create it. Eskom, along with civil engineers, has done exactly that. For a developing economy, South Africa is a technological marvel. What we are doing below ground is simply amazing. BY TONY STONE


hile most South Africans are not very happy with Eskom, given its past history of load-shedding, and the massive electricity price increases foisted upon clients over the last few years, they are in this situation because of government bungling back in 1995, and for some years after. The then ministers of energy did not see the need to


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invest in new power generation, despite Eskom’s warnings, until the load-shedding crisis hit. Even so, Eskom is a technological marvel, despite the delays at Medupi. All one needs to do is look below the surface at Ingula, the pumped storage hydroelectric scheme – an absolute marvel. So, let’s take a look at Ingula, and understand why it’s so important to South Africa’s future.

The Ingula pumped storage scheme

Coal-fired power stations represent 85.2% of Eskom’s current capacity. Another 4.3% is provided by South Africa’s only nuclear power station. Together, these power stations provide continuous baseload power to South Africa’s grid. The balance of generated electricity, is made up from a collection of other options


Schematic showing the nature and extent of the project

such as hydro, wind, pumped storage and solar. These green options are used to manage peak demand. Peak demand South Africa has some spare electricity generation capacity, but not much. On a typical weekday, the load starts increasing from 02:00 in the morning, climbing steadily as people wake up, get ready for work and open shops, offices and factories. Between 06:00 and 09:00 in the morning ,the system experiences its morning peak load, when the demand gets close to the available net maximum capacity. Then the load eases off until the afternoon peak, which usually starts around 16:00 in the late afternoon. As people get home, dinner is prepared, entertainment centres come to life, geysers come to life with people bathing and, depending on the season, air conditioners or electric heaters are switched on. The evening “Within 10 minutes peaks between 18:00 and 20:00. Occasionally, probof demand going lems arise, especially on into the red, Ingula exceptionally cold or hot will be pushing evenings, or if a generator electricity into in a power station develops a fault and trips or shuts South Africa’s down, no longer contribnational electricity uting to the supply, as hapgrid to ensure more pened to one of Koeberg’s power becomes units recently. Occasional, rotational load-shedding of available during large electricity users is one peak periods.” way of managing this, but there are times when even this is inadequate or not possible. “Once commissioned, this is where Ingula will kick in. It will prevent the veritable ‘straw breaking the camel’s back’. Within 10 minutes of demand going into the red, Ingula will be pushing electricity into South Africa’s national electricity grid to ensure more power becomes available during peak periods,” Colin Logan, director: Dams, Hydropower and Underground Works, Gibb Engineering and Science, explains. While the cost of electricity generation at Ingula is higher than its selling price, even at peak rates, the difference is offset by using electricity generated by the baseload power stations as a surplus when demand is at its lowest. Thus, the economics of MAY/JUN 2016


Ingula make sense, as does its existence in ensuring that the economic engines of South Africa are not negatively affected. To simplify Ingula, water from a lower reservoir is pumped up to an upper reservoir. When at capacity, the water is allowed to run downhill through two kilometres of tunnels to hydroelectric generators to produce electricity, with the water ending up in the lower reservoir once again. This process is repeated as an ongoing cycle. The two dams With a price tag of R28 billion, the selection of a site approximately 45 km east of Harrismith, straddling the escarpment of the Little Drakensberg and the provincial boundary of Free State and

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The released water collects in the lower reservoir

LEFT A pumped storage scheme may be regarded as a giant battery, where energy is stored by pumping water into the higher dam, known as the upper reservoir

KwaZulu-Natal, where the continental watershed between the Vaal and the uThukela catchments, was a choice carefully considered. The head reservoir, called the Bedford Dam, lies on the Vaal River system in the Free State and the lower reservoir, called the Braamhoek Dam, is on the uThukela River system, 468 metres below, in KwaZulu-Natal. The Bedford Dam is sited in an area requiring a relatively small dam wall, but which has plenty of space behind it to store the water needed. The Braamhoek Dam is sited at a natural narrow point in the valley, which offers an efficient dam area and, because of its larger catchment, will supply most of the water to the scheme. Also, both dams are situated on small rivers. The Bedford Dam is a concrete-faced rockfill embankment dam, 41 m high, with a total capacity of 22.6 million cubic metres and an active water storage volume of 19.3 million cubic metres. The 39 m high Braamhoek Dam is a roller-compacted concrete (RCC) dam, with a total capacity of 26.3 million cubic metres and an active storage volume of 21.9 million cubic metres. The Bedford Dam will store enough water to generate electricity continuously using all four units for 16 hours. Pumping the water back from the lower reservoir will take about 21 hours, giving an overall efficiency of 76% for the scheme. How Ingula works When the water is released from the upper reservoir, it travels downhill 1 000 m along two 9 m diameter headrace-inclined, low-pressure tunnels to a point roughly halfway between the dam and the hydroelectric turbines, where two vertical surge chambers, which go all the way to the surface, are purposefully designed to dampen water surges and the effects of water hammer. If the water


MAY/JUN 2016


fully equipped workshops are located in the transformer hall, one on each side, with each looking after two transformers. From the pump turbines, the tailrace tunnels (2.5 km long), take the water to the lower reservoir – the Braamhoek Dam. All in all, it is an ingenious and effective system. Such creativity and innovation can only come from the minds of engineers who are pressed for a solution.

ABOVE The twin headrace waterways, consisting of concrete and steel-lined headrace tunnels, pressure tunnels and shafts, link the upper reservoir with the pump turbines. The draft tubes, concretelined surge shafts and a single concrete-lined tailrace tunnel connect the pump turbines to the lower reservoir ABOVE RIGHT Schematic of Voith’s pumped storage reversible pump turbines

flowing into the turbines is suddenly slowed or gets rejected, and the water starts travelling in the form of back pressure or oscillating waves with a very high velocity, this has to be dampened or else the possibility of cracking the sluice gates or collapsing the tunnel linings may arise. From the surge chambers to the turbines, the pipes split into four 5.5 m diameter pipes, two each off the two 9 m diameter pipes, which run 1 000 m down to the four hydroelectric turbines at a steeper gradient, making these inclined high-pressure tunnels necessary to power the four 333Â MW turbines. This is the interesting part. The turbines act as turbines in one direction, but pumps in the other. This may sound a little Irish, but it is quite true. Voith Hydro, suppliers of these machines, has been quite ingenious. As far back as 1937, Voith Hydro developed the first large vertical pump turbine, which operated both as a turbine for energy generation and, in the reverse direction, as a pump. These machines have proven to be extremely durable. In many cases, they have performed reliably for several decades. Vertical turbine pumps are centrifugal pumps mounted vertically. They operate on the same principles as all centrifugal pumps operate, with a rotating impeller around a central shaft. Vertical turbines can be found in single- or multistage applications requiring high volume, high lift, as well as high discharge pressure. The machine hall, in which the four pump turbines are housed, is located 300 m below ground level, and is 180 m long, 27 m wide and 48 m high, and cut out of mud rock and sandstone layers using the drill and blast method. A little beyond this is the transformer hall, similarly excavated at 190 m long, 18 m wide and 28 m high, and housing four 280 tonne transformers. Two MAY/JUN 2016



Water, sanitation and hygiene across the continent AFRICA

African governments not ensuring safe water and sanitation Almost half of

Africans go without enough clean water for home use, and a majority have to leave their compounds in order to access water, according to new findings from Afrobarometer. The survey findings give voice to citizens who call on their governments to do a better job of ensuring access to water and sanitation. Public ratings of government performance in providing water and sanitation services have worsened over the past decade: A majority say their government is doing "fairly" or "very badly". The new report, titled ‘Lack of safe water, sanitation spurs growing dissatisfaction with government performance’, is based on nearly 54 000 interviews in 36 African countries in 2014/15. Across 36 countries, almost half (45%) of respondents said The Botswana government is researching technology to assist farmers with saline underground water


MAY/JUN 2016

they went without enough clean water at least once during the previous year. One in five (19%) did so "many times" or "always".


Cuban embassy wants to support Luanda government in sanitation

The Cuban government has expressed its willingness to support the provincial government of Luanda in the improvement of its sanitation sector. The guarantee of the aid was transmitted by the Cuban ambassador to Angola, Gizela Garcia, at the end of an audience granted to her by the provincial governor, Higino Carneiro, with whom she discussed issues of common interest. "We know that Luanda is facing many challenges in the health and sanitation sector, so we came to demonstrate the willingness of the embassy of Cuba in helping the government of Luanda in all that is necessary for the success of the governor's work and the well-being of the population," said the diplomat.


Government plans to develop underground water technology Government

will do research with a view to develop a technology to assist farmers with saline underground water. President Seretse Khama Ian Khama informed residents of Omaweneno in Kgalagadi South constituency, during a kgotla meeting, that he had tasked the ministries of Agriculture and Energy & Water Resources to embark on the research with a view to develop saline water treatment plant technology. He said the research stemmed from the fact that most of the farmers across the country were handicapped by saline underground water. "The challenge is not that we don't have water, but that most of it is saline," he explained. If developed, the president said the technology would come in handy – particularly for farmers in areas like the Kgalagadi District where the challenge was prevalent.


Institute looks for skilled human power to tap water resource The Ethiopian

Water Technology Institute said skilled and technically equipped human power is essential for proper utilisation of water resources in the country. In a discussion with stakeholders in Adama Town last Saturday, Water, Irrigation and Electricity Minister Motumma Maqasa said that, despite its rich water resources, the country has not been able to benefit from the sector properly. The institute is doing its level best to maximise the nation's utilisation of water resource. Motumma told journalists that the institute will be an agent to respond to the ever increasing water demand by

providing technical support and skilled human power to the sector. He also said that the institute will serve as a bridge for water technology transformation.


Nyusi inaugurates Cuamba Water Treatment Station

Mozambican president Filipe Nyusi recently inaugurated a water treatment station in the city of Cuamba, in the northern province of Niassa. The treatment station belongs to the government's Water Supply Investment and Assets Fund (FIPAG), and the contractor was the China Henan International Cooperation Group (CHICO). The station cost MT680 million (about $12.8 million at current exchange rates), and the money was disbursed by the African Development Bank. Data from FIPAG indicated that the water impoundment, treatment and distribution system can now supply water to about 72 000 inhabitants of the city. In the first, experimental phase, the availability of water will increase from 1 200 m2 to 3 200 m2 a day, and the time during which water is distributed doubles, from 8 to 16 hours a day. Eventually, the amount of water treated by the station will rise to 6 630 m2 a day.


Namwater offered desalination plant The Economist has established that Rössing Uranium has, in the past, offered Namwater its own completed bankable feasibility study for a desalination plant that it intended to build in response to escalating production costs, including water. This was revealed by managing director Werner Duvenhage in a report delivered to Rössing's stakeholders earlier this week. Speaking to The Economist, Duvenhage

AFRICA ROUND-UP LEFT Rössing Uranium has, in the past, offered Namwater its own completed bankable feasibility study for a desalination plant RIGHT Tigo Tanzania has donated 12 water boreholes worth TSh174 to 12 villages in the Singida Region BELOW Lagos has been hit by water scarcity, which is aggravated by the lingering fuel shortage and power outage in the country

said Rössing intended to build its own desalination plant as a result of the high cost of water procured from the Areva desalination plant. He further added that Rössing had no intention to own and operate the desalination plant: “The only reason why we are pursuing this is because it is practically hundreds of millions [of dollars] that is going into water at the moment. We would just like to make it more affordable. “We have offered Namwater the full bankable feasibility study. We told Namwater that, if they would like to use it, we would be quite happy to give it to them. We just want cheap, affordable water."


Epidemic looms as water scarcity hits Lagos There is

palpable fear of an epidemic outbreak in Lagos as the state has been hit by water scarcity, which is aggravated by the lingering fuel shortage and power outages in the country. Residents had, in the last few weeks, lamented the development, which had unsettled them with severe economic and psychological implications. Presently, over 50% of the water needs of the state are serviced through boreholes, shallow wells and water vendors, while less than 10% of the residents have access to public water. Water from all these sources has, however,

become comatose due to lack of public power supply and petrol to power the generators that run the borehole pumping machines, among others. The inadequate supply of water has also come with such consequences as water pollution, with the attendant poor sanitation and waterborne diseases.


Singida villages receive boreholes Tigo Tanzania has

donated 12 water boreholes worth TSh174 to 12 villages in Singida Region, in support of the government's effort to curb the shortage of safe and clean water in the country. Speaking at a handover ceremony at Mtinko Village in Singida District, the director of Tigo North Zone, George Lugata, said the donation was in line with the company's commitment to support community initiatives, seeking to uplift people's living conditions.

“The donation is part of our investment in social projects that have high impact on the community. We believe that through these boreholes, the company is helping to solve perennial water shortages in Singida Region partly caused by lack of sufficient rains,” Lugata said. He said the scarcity of water in most districts in Singida Region has led to residents wasting a lot of time in search of the precious liquid. Minister for Water and Irrigation Gerson Lwenge thanked the telecommunication firm for the donation, which he said will help to bolster the resident’s social and economic well-being.

MAY/JUN 2016



Fissure water beneficiation A strategy for beneficiation of wastewater streams from fissure water developed for a gold mine operation in the west of Johannesburg was tested for viability in a pilot study. LELANIE DE KOCK, an engineer at Aecom, explains the process.


ater is pumped from underground to surface level and collected in a fissure water tank. From this tank, the water is disinfected before entering a dual-medium filter. The filter media consist of granular, activated carbon and silica sand. After filtration, the water is distributed to different sources on the mine. A small portion of the filtrated water is used for testing in a pilot plant. The pilot plant consists of three processes, namely: crystalactor (cold lime softening), cation exchange and degassing (CO2 stripping). The crystalactor is a fluidised bed reactor and is used for cold lime precipitation, in order to remove calcium and soften the water. The feed flow rate to the crystalactor is 20 000 â„“/h. The water enters at the bottom, through six nozzles, to achieve good distribution inside the reactor. The water flows through the reactor and exits at the top, where it overflows to the next process.


MAY/JUN 2016

The crystalactor, a fuidised bed reactor

Cold lime precipitation

The objective of the reactor is to maintain a pH of 9 in order for cold lime precipitation to take place. The pH is sustained through the addition of lime to the bottom of the reactor. The lime addition is controlled with a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, which increases or decreases the pumping speed according to the pH measured on the crystalactor overflow. Inside the crystalactor, seed material is fluidised. The seed material provides a large surface area for the precipitation to take place. At a pH of 9, calcium carbonate forms from the reaction of the water and the lime. The calcium carbonate then precipitates on the seed material. As the precipitation takes place, the seed material grows and the heavier particles move to the bottom. As the particles


grow, the level of suspended particles rises. Due to this constant growth taking place inside the reactor, some of the larger particles are removed daily and replaced with fresh seed material to increase the available surface area. The particles discharged from the reactor are sent to a drying bay to remove most of the moisture present. The particles are then referred to as pebbles. The lime used for the pH control of the crystalactor is slaked in a 1 000 â„“ batching tank; if the tank is empty, a pump will start feeding product water into it. Once the tank starts filling up, agitation is applied through a mixer, agitating at a low speed to introduce air into the water and prevent turbulent behaviour. As the level rises in the tank, lime powder is fed in through a screw feeder above the tank. The screw feeder will be in operation for short durations as the water reaches certain levels inside the tank. Once the tank is full, the lime is pumped to the lime storage tank. From there, it is fed

The fissure water pilot plant is located at a pumping shaft in the West Rand

MAY/JUN 2016



to the crystalactor and the next batch is prepared.

Cation exchange

After the cold lime precipitation process, only 2 000 ℓ/h of the treated water continues on to the cation exchange section of the plant. The reason for this is that the crystalactor cannot be scaled down any further than 2 000 ℓ/h without compromising efficiency. The water enters the resin column at the top and flows down through a strong-acid cationic resin bed to the bottom of the column, where it exits. Inside the column, cations such as calcium, magnesium and sodium are exchanged through adsorption onto the resin for hydrogen ions, which are released into the water. The water exiting the column has a high conductivity and a low pH, due to the hydrogen ions released into the water. Once all available adsorption sites of the resin are loaded with cations, breakthrough is achieved and the resin requires regeneration. The pH of the water exiting the cation exchange column is monitored continuously. As the resin approaches breakthrough, fewer hydrogen ions are released into the water and the pH begins to rise; once the pH reaches 5, the plant automatically begins regeneration. The first step of regeneration is the release of all cations on the resin sites. This is achieved by pumping 1.5 bed volumes of 4% nitric acid through the column at a flow rate of 900 ℓ/h (two bed volumes

per hour). The nitric acid will exchange hydrogen for cations such as calcium, magnesium and sodium to form calcium nitrate, magnesium nitrate and sodium nitrate. After the regeneration with nitric acid, the column is rinsed with 3.5 bed volumes of product water to wash any remaining regenerant. Rinsing takes place at 2 500 ℓ/h (8.3 bed volumes per hour). After rinsing, the system returns to its initial conditions.


The water exiting the cation exchange column proceeds to a degassing tower at a flow rate of 2 000 ℓ/h. The water enters the tower at the top then cascades down through a packed bed and exits at the bottom of the tower. The tower has a blower at the bottom that blows air upward though the packing and out the exit at the top of the tower. The aim of the degassing tower is to remove any carbon dioxide present in the water. The carbon dioxide is released by the packing and will move with the air to the top of the tower, where it is released into the atmosphere. An alternative to the degassing tower is a weak base anionic resin column. This column removes all anions present in the water. The treated fissure water will be used as drinking water. In order to achieve the specified drinking water standard, water blending is extremely important. The blending takes place between the feed water, the crystalactor overflow, the cation product water and

the anion product water. The blending is established through control over the different flow rates of the different streams.

Chemical composition of fissure water

The analysis for the fissure water compared to SANS 241:2011 is shown in Table 1. The water is not contaminated by any mine process or infiltrated with any poor-quality water at the mine. The fissure water input is mainly rain water infiltration through the top layers of the underground workings of the mine. The water is kept separate from the mine water at high levels and pumped separately to the surface. The water contains a little bit of temporary hardness but is, otherwise, suitable for human consumption. Biological non-compliance still needs to be tested and a disinfection process still needs to be developed. The aim of the pilot plant was to produce water that would comply with the SANS 241:2011 standard for drinking water. The fissure water was compared with SANS 241, and had very few non-compliant factors. The conductivity and hardness of the fissure water were the biggest concerns. Heavy metals were within the specifications required by Rand Water, except for selenium, which would be removed through ion exchange. The fissure water required only softening and a small reduction in overall salt load. Although the plate count was above the limit, it was not consistent and caused no concern as the water still needed to undergo a disinfection process prior to usage.

Conclusion and recommendations An illustration of the constructed pilot plant


MAY/JUN 2016

The crystalactor was able to reduce the calcium hardness of the water to between 40 mg/ℓ and 35 mg/ℓ. The lowest flow rate removed more calcium hardness, but would require a bigger unit in the full-scale operation. In larger units, a higher flow rate can achieve the same efficiency. The performance of the crystalactor was better at higher alkalinities. The feed pH, calcium content and alkalinity should determine the lime dosing. The alignment of the reactor is important to prevent bypassing in the column. Therefore, care needs to be taken in the manufacturing of the column to prevent any bypassing. The crystalactor produced calcium carbonate pebbles of high value, with very low metals content. The strong and weak acid cationic resins were successful in softening the fissure

TABLE 1 Fissure water analysis



SANS 241



7.6 -8.8

Conductivity (mS/m)



Hardness (mg CaCO3/L)


20 - 200

Standard Plate count



Suspended solids (mg/L) Oil & grease (mg/L) COD (mg/L) Lithium (mg/L) Sulphate (mg/L)

10 6 10 0.001 136


Calcium (mg/L)



Magnesium (mg/L)



Sodium (mg/L)



Nitrate (mg/L)



Potassium (mg/L)



Aluminium (mg/L)







Selenium (mg/L) Manganese (mg/L) Tellurium (mg/L)





Chloride (mg/L)



M Alkalinity



P Alkalinity


Ammonia (mg/L)





Fluoride (mg/L) Uranium (mg/L)


Chrome (mg/L)



Nickel (mg/L)



Cobalt (mg/L)



Copper (mg/L)



Iron (mg/L)



Barium (mg/L)


Strontium (mg/L)


Zinc (mg/L)



Lead (mg/L)







Arsenic (mg/L) Cadmium (mg/L)

water. It is suggested that SAC be used instead of WAC, due to the fact that a smaller portion of water is treated when using SAC. The anionic resin was more efficient than the degas tower in reducing the dissolved solids, as well as increasing the pH of the cationic water. Blending of the different water streams produced good-quality drinking water. The best results were achieved when only a small portion of cationic product water was mixed with the blend. It is also a good idea to add a relative portion of the anionic water, as this contains the least amount of salts. MAY/JUN 2016



Niche expertise

Industrial and mining wastewater often needs a set of niche solutions delivered with a high level of expertise, particularly when it comes to filtration types and equipment. Susan Cole, managing director, Aqua Resources SA, explains how her company meets these specialised needs.

Susan Cole, managing director, Aqua Resources SA

When was Aqua Resources SA established and what’s the concept behind your various market offerings? SC Aqua Resources SA was established in 2013 as a distributor for a water treatment flocculants manufacturer. Additional complementary product ranges include: • INGE ultrafiltration • Defra Water’s marine and offshore desalination systems and membranes for hard-to-treat waters • Chemra’s ion exchange resins and separation technologies • Everblue International’s prefiltration products • Phoenix Vessel Technology’s reverse osmosis (RO) pressure vessels • LG Water Solutions’ NanoH20 RO membranes. The basket of products Aqua Resources SA has chosen to supply is specifically related to the markets we serve. We have focused on a few quality, niche-type products to ensure we can give each client the hands-on, personal service they deserve, coupled with good technical service and support.

What qualities do you look out for in a solution or supplier and how do these translate into value for clients? Many of our clients rely on our expertise to assist them in running their plants efficiently and optimally. Others just need solid support and fast turnaround times for quotations and product supply. We have a network spanning a large number of water treatment industry players and influencers in the Southern African region. Our access spans numerous fields, from contacts in the consulting engineering segment to the end-user clients and other players, such as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and on-sellers. We also have access to academics in the water field and technical specialists located at end-user sites.

Nanocomposite membrane technology

We have links to all the major OEMs operating in this region. Our basket of products means that when we do visit them, it is on a number of platforms simultaneously. Additionally, having worked in both the conventional and high-tech application fields, we have a vast knowledge of the local membrane and chemical markets. This greatly enhances our understanding and knowledge of how to address technical issues commonly found in the markets we serve.

What markets and market segments do you cover? The markets we move in include conventional and high-tech (including UF and RO) businesses. Our market segments include municipal, sewage, industrial, wastewater reuse, and food and beverage.

What new products or services has Aqua Resources SA recently added to the mix? Our most recent addition to the product mix is the LG Water Solutions RO product range. We are very proud to represent this company in the sub-Saharan Africa region and look forward to sharing the benefits of their products with the greater water treatment market in the near future.

Aqua Resources SA is also proud to represent Phoenix’s trademarked vessel technology, supplying the company’s 2.5, 4.0, 4.6 and 8.0 inch RO pressure vessels. We also represent Everblue International’s range of prefiltration products including filter cartridge housings, filter cartridges, bag filter housings, filter bags, and self-cleaning and cyclon filters.

Your existing solutions focus on methods like ultrafiltration and RO; what does the new technology add to your existing capabilities? LG Chem acquired the NanoH2O thin-film nanocomposite membrane technology in 2014. The nanocomposite membrane technology is the first RO membrane innovation in 25 years and is 50% to 100% more permeable than existing polymer technology.

How does the new offering prolong the life of existing plants while enhancing clients’ environmental footprints? The LG Water Solutions NanoH20 RO product range offers: • improved best-in-class salt rejection • highest boron rejection in the market, with seawater RO membranes • innovative and patented nanomaterial technology designed to deliver exceptional membrane performance • nanocomposite membranes are proven to lower energy consumption and increase system productivity • Standard 61 certification by NSF for the production of drinking water. MAY/JUN 2016


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Thin-Film N an


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A p p li c a ti o

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2016 WISA Conference 15 - 19 May Stand #72

You already know our name. Now just add water. LG Chem, a leading global manufacturer of petrochemical goods, electronic materials and rechargeable batteries, has launched LG Water Solutions. With its vast network of sales and service centers, expertise in roll-to-roll coating technology and our full line of NanoH2O™ reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, LG Water Solutions is poised to lead membrane treatment well into the next generation. Customers now have more options and better solutions than ever before. From seawater desalination to waste water reuse, LG Water Solutions offers the right products to optimize your unique system. • • •

Seawater RO membranes featuring the highest flux Low energy brackish water RO membranes Residential RO membranes

In hundreds of installations across 50 countries, customers trust the performance of our NanoH2O™ line of thin-film nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes. Contact LG Water Solutions to find out how we deliver more water and less energy.

www.LGwatersolutions.com All trademarks stated herein are the property of LG Chem, Ltd. All rights reserved. © 2016 LG Chem, Ltd.


Welcome to the membrane revolution

One of the most important breakthroughs in reverse osmosis membrane technology in the last 30 years has reached South African shores. Udo Kolbe, sales director: Europe and Africa, LG Water Solutions, tells WASA what sets these membranes apart. LG is a brand that is synonymous with electronics – how long has the Water Solutions Division been in existence worldwide and how long have these solutions been available in South Africa? UK LG Water Solutions was founded in May 2014, when LG Chem acquired NanoH2O, a Los Angeles-based manufacturer of innovative reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for water treatment. These patented membranes utilise breakthrough nanostructured materials and industry-proven polymer technology to dramatically improve system efficiency and productivity by delivering higher flux and lowering energy consumption.

What products and services have traditionally been available through LG Water Solutions? Seawater RO membranes, Brackish Water RO membranes and residential-use RO membranes.

How has the company’s recent purchase of NanoH20 extended its existing market offering? LG Water Solutions’ technology site in Curaçao

Udo Kolbe, sales director: Europe and Africa, LG Water Solutions

LG Chem’s acquisition of NanoH2O was the company’s first major leap into the commercial water treatment market. However, since 2007, LG Chem has been investing independently in the development of seawater and brackish water membranes, and the company is known for its long-standing expertise in thin-film coating technology. Using LG Chem’s operational capabilities and vast manufacturing resources, LG Water Solutions has expanded its portfolio beyond the initial seawater product line to now include brackish water and residential/home-use RO elements.

improve water quality or reduce the number of RO membrane elements in use.

What are the characteristics of NanoH20’s offering that convinced LG to invest in the technology?

LG Water Solutions features benign nanoparticles embedded in the top polyamide layer of its thin-film nanocomposite RO membrane. This increases the membrane’s permeability while enhancing its salt-rejection capabilities. Increased permeability translates into high flux or lower energy consumption, while the improved salt rejection equates to better water quality.

NanoH2O features a revolutionary thin-film nanocomposite formulation, which deliveres higher flux and higher salt rejection than any other RO membrane on the market. This enables desalination plants to lower energy consumption, increase production capacity,

What sectors does the new product range cater to? Wastewater reuse, high-purity water for microelectronics, industrial process water, seawater desalination, mining applications, municipal water and wastewater treatment, and residential point-of-use water treatment.

What design features set your membrane technology apart from the rest?

Are there any large or well-known sites where the technology is currently in use, either in Africa or elsewhere in the world? CUSTOMER




Via Maris Desalination & Construction

Palmachim Expansion


180 000


Water Ser vices Corporation



36 000



Santa Barbara


28 000


GS Inima

Ensenada Plant


26 000



25 000


Mostaganem O&M UTE


TAM Environmental Ser vices

Matrouh Remela Phase 1


24 000


TAM Environmental Ser vices

Matrouh Remela Phase 2


24 000



Lahat Station


23 000


Desaladora Carboneras UTE

Carboneras retrofit


20 000


Water Ser vices Corporation



19 000


Acciona Agua SA

Lanzarote V


18 000



Sabha B


16 000

2015 MAY/JUN 2016


Water& Sanitation Complete water resource and wastewater management


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Holistic approach for real change


t’s no secret that the poor operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) remains a major problem. New plants, refurbishments and upgrades are expensive, costing government and the taxpayer millions but there are all too rarely good, feasible long-term plans for the operation and maintenance of existing infrastructure. “The above is largely due to poor leadership and a lack of technical capacity of the people who are tasked to be stewards over these assets by the municipality. Sewer treatment does not seem to be a priority amid a list of other responsibilities these managers have within the municipality,” says Xoliswa Motsohi, business development consultant, Headstream Water Holdings.

Turning the problem around

According to Motsohi, the starting point for improving the situation is for municipalities to do an audit of what is working and what’s not, what needs to be done to restore these plants, how to develop concrete annual plans, and to ring-fence funding for operation and maintenance. Human capital is municipalities’ most important asset. Organisations need to take a holistic approach to provide support to people who work at these plants, mentor them and develop them so that they can feel like their work is noticed and appreciated by management.

Role of technology

For Motsohi, people come first in a comprehensive plan for making WWTWs

work better, but selecting innovative and reliable technology also plays an important role. “Innovation is key, given the existing problem of scarce government funding; for example, installing a technology like Headstream Water Holdings’ HYBACS for wastewater treatment will not only reduce municipalities’ capital spend by up to 30% or more, it will also make available these funds for operational expenditure or other vital new projects,” she says. “Innovation not only saves on capital expenditure but also reduces operation costs while being geared to conserve the environment. This is achieved through reducing land and resource footprints, and promoting waste recycling,” concludes Motsohi. MAY/JUN 2016

HYBACS is an international award winning innovative wastewater treatment technology ideally suited to upgrade existing Sewage Treatment Plants cost effectively and reduce ongoing energy use

Recently selected by ERWAT for the increase in treatment capacity at Tsakane STP from 11Ml/d 20Ml/d HYBACS (HYBrid ACtivated Sludge) is a proven and innovative biological wastewater treatment technology ideally suited to increasing the capacity of Activated Sludge Sewage Treatment Plants and improving overall treatment performance. Doubling of treatment capacity can be achieved within the existing STP footprint with limited civil works leading to significant cost and time savings. ü

CAPEX savings of up to 50% on upgrades to existing STPs


Ideal retrofit to existing STPs with no disruption to treatment


Up to 30% reduction in energy use per Ml/d treated


Simple operation and maintenance


Fast and simple installation and commissioning


Scalable: small scale on site package plants to >100ML/d

Supplied exclusively in South Africa by Headstream Water Solutions. www.headstreamwater.co.za Headstream Water Holdings (Pty) Limited T: 011 886 7805 e: info@headstreamwater.co.za

9Ml/d increase in treatment capacity with minimal civil construction and no increase in plant footprint. Minimal plant disruption as HYBACS SMART reactors manufactured and tested off site to be installed on site over a 3 week period.


The WISA 2016 Organising Committee will take place at the Durban ICC from 15-19 May 2016

S.A.M.E. WATER is highly specialised in full turnkey projects including: tender preparation; projects ; layout design; installation; commissioning and successful hand

S.A.M.E. MANUFACTURING fabricates world class quality products and provides excellent service and expertise, all backed by innovative design and cutting-edge technology for

over, for the water and waste water treatment industry in Southern Africa. Full after sale se services provided.

the water and waste water industry.

S.A.M.E. DREDGING has specialised solutions for the dredging industry. We offer a dredging service with a rent-to-buy option, rental only or purchase of a dredging system with training.

w w w. s a m e . c o . z a


Down by the

WATER FEATURE FOCUS • Intelligent, connected laboratory, “back office” services

• At the waterfront

• Water quality monitoring

•T  echnology, and its application in water-quality assurance

• SA general standards

• In the lab, and “front office”

• Robust, reliable solutions

•E  xception reports and Smart communication MAY/JUN 2016



Proudly South African, JG Afrika (previously Jeffares & Green) provides civil and structural engineering and environmental consulting services throughout Africa. With a century of in-depth industry experience, a rich history, and strong African roots, JG Afrika continues to offer clients sustainable solutions of uncompromising quality and integrity.

Tel: +27 11 231 2200 info@jgafrika.com www.jgafrika.com Johannesburg - Cape Town - Durban - Maputo - Maseru - Maun - Pietermaritzburg - Port Elizabeth - Postmasburg - Pretoria


South Africa remains the beloved country: a land of great opportunity – as is the continent of Africa. To express its commitment to the country, the continent and a transformed, democratic Africa, Jeffares & Green embarked on a rebranding exercise at the end of 2015.


ow known as JG Afrika, the company and its staff are excited about the message they are sending – a message that tells the world that Africa has a lot to offer. “Our name change speaks to our commitment to being proudly South African. We want to make a bold statement that we are locally owned and managed, and plan to remain so. The company has a rich heritage and history in Africa. We are very excited about the future and remain committed to our beloved continent,” confirms Phakamile Ngqumshe, director and branch manager: Johannesburg. A new name with history The inclusion of JG in the company’s new name denotes its acknowledgement of, and appreciation for, its history, while Afrika indicates its independence, its love for the continent, and is a nod to the native African spelling of Africa. This is most obviously represented in our first democratic national anthem, ‘Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika’. "With this name, we will show the world that we are true to our African roots, while remaining unique and maintaining our independence,” believes Ngqumshe. The brand development started with the selection of a new name. After much research, the selected options were presented to our staff and a vote was held. “We really enjoyed the process of evaluating the naming options and involving our staff,” says Paul Olivier, managing director, JG Afrika. The firm announced its new

Engineering a new future,

developing together name to clients in February 2016, and has launched the new brand throughout Africa in April. “The brand identity was developed and designed with a purpose: to remember the company’s history, to reflect its ethos and project its future,” says Olivier. “The logo’s icon is representative of man-made, engineered, symmetrical lines. These lines are contrasted with organic shapes, which represent the environment (green) and water (blue), denoting the environmental sphere of JG Afrika’s services. The design and name incorporates the three pillars of the company’s ethos – experience, quality and integrity – while displaying fresh, innovative thinking.” The JG Afrika personality is perfectly portrayed through the new brand colours – blue and green. In addition to the environmental  connotations of these colours, they are associated with trust, dependability, strength, peace, growth and health. These characteristics perfectly reflect the company’s culture. The way forward “In planning for 2016, part of our goal for the new year was to sustain the advancement and success that we have achieved are

“The time has come to look to the future and to align our corporate identity with our diverse expertise, our modern approach and the great future Africa has as a growing continent” Paul Olivier, Managing Director

The JG Afrika board members, standing (from left to right): Martha Makhetha, Phaks Ngqumshe, Seetella Makhetha, Jan Norris; seated: Paul Olivier (MD), Nomsa Mkaza, Harold Tiganis

the past 94 years. Over this period, the company has progressed and evolved to keep pace with fluctuations in demand, the industry and customer requirements. To remain relevant, this must be a continuous process,” says Olivier. “As such, a strategy was meticulously devised to take JG Afrika to the next level on all fronts.” As the African proverb goes: “If you want to go quickly, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.” This is the basis of JG Afrika’s long-term plans. “Together, we will continue to grow, learn and develop, with a focus on continuous improvement. The time has come to look to the future and to align our corporate identity with our diverse expertise, our modern approach and the great future Africa has as a growing continent,” concludes Olivier. As JG Afrika looks to the future, it recognises the importance of maintaining what the industry considers best practice – especially when it comes to the company’s ownership structure. As a result, JG Afrika is moving to an employee owned model and  has established 51% empowered shareholding. “This model enables us to retain the young stars that we have developed (through our Accelerated Development Programme), provide a platform for rewarding and mentoring key staff members, and moving towards achieving majority empowered ownership from within our own ranks,” confirms Olivier. MAY/JUN 2016



Who’s testing your water? In the Department of Water and Sanitation’s 2014 Blue and Green Drop reports, 206 and 212 treatment plants, respectively, were categorised as being in a critical state. With a myriad of technological advances, what is best practice when it comes to water quality assurance? BY CANDICE LANDIE


onstitutional fact: all South Africans have the right to water. Absolutely nothing can grow or survive without this precious asset. Two factors are considered the major problems affecting water: agriculture, which consumes a staggering amount of this natural resource and uses about 70% of the planet’s accessible fresh water, and


MAY/JUN 2016

pollution. Ironically, agriculture is considered among the leading causes of water pollution today. As at August 2015, about 95.2% of South Africans received clean drinking water since 1994. Whether they have access to this water every day, however, is debatable. With only 20% of global wastewater being treated, the United Nations urges governments to see treated wastewater

as a valuable resource, and a priority for its post-2015 development agenda. The 2014 Blue Drop status report revealed significant dips in the level of water quality. Limpopo’s score, in particular, dropped from 79.4% in 2012 to 61.5% in 2014. The report states that 45 water systems in Limpopo received scores below 50%, with 18 systems being placed in the

Water Treatment

OPPOSITE Apart from choosing a sound laboratory, a good water monitoring system is also important BELOW Bluetooth solutions transmittable to smartphones and tablets are fast becoming the norm in the latest generation of water testing equipment

high-risk category and 2 systems in the critical risk category. In Polokwane, the number of supply systems scoring less than 50% increased from 17 in 2012 to 45 in 2014. Regarding Green Drop status, although more municipalities participated in 2014, as compared with the previous report, the results were much lower. Global best practice Since 2007, the European Benchmarking Co-operation (EBC) has been operating an international benchmarking programme for mainly Western European water and wastewater utilities, with the objective to improve their services. In 2014, EBC organised its eighth international benchmarking exercise, welcoming 48 participants from 17 different countries. The report states the obvious: water quality is seen as the most important aspect of the drinking water service. To assess the water quality of the participating utilities, EBC measures the percentage of quality tests in compliance with national regulatory standards. The critical factors taken into consideration when conducting the report include reliability and service quality of the water utility, sustainability of water resources and asset management. While regulatory standards may differ from country to country, certain fundamentals (such as the aforementioned) should never be overlooked. No surprise that the same principles were applied to the EBC’s report on wastewater standards. Laboratories hold the key According to the research paper, ‘Improving credibility of water quality testing in South Africa: A toolkit to empower practitioners and decision-makers’, by authors Faye Balfour of Jeffares & Green, Debbie Trollip of Umgeni Water, and Hanlie Badenhorst of the National Laboratory Association, water quality testing laboratories are a vital link in the water quality value chain. Too little focus on these laboratories can affect the credibility of the results produced. Lack of knowledge and understanding at a management level is partly responsible for this undervaluing, which directly impacts on the quality of work at an operational level. The paper explores the Water and Research MAY/JUN 2016


Making Waves in Water Treatment Lonza Water Treatment – a leader in water sanitation serving the Industrial, Commercial, Municipal and Surface Water markets. Stemming from a water treatment heritage of more than a century, Lonza Water Treatment is one of the leading suppliers of treatment chemicals, disinfectant feeder systems and specialized services to the South African and African markets.

Water Treatment Specialists in: – – – – – –

Waste Water Cooling Systems Hard Surface Disinfection Drinking Water Irrigation Surface Water

– – – – – –

Pulp & Paper Process Water & Mining Commercial Swimming Pools Beverage Poultry Post-harvest Washing

Extensive Product Range R&D Expertise Regulatory Excellence Turnkey Solutions NCP Factory Site 9 Hytor Road ZA – 1624 Kempton Park Tel + 27 11 393 9000 sa.icm@lonza.com

www.lonza.com www.lonzawatertreatment.co.za

Clean solutions in your process automation.

Water is Our Life – Water and Wastewater Water is a vital resource and therefore needs to be managed carefully throughout the complete process. Endress+Hauser assists with technical and process support having expert experience and knowledge of the standards within the Water and Wastewater industry. Furthermore Endress+Hauser offers high-quality solutions that will increase your plant efficiency and optimise your operational costs. CA80FE Iron analyser Liquiline System Colorimetric system for monitoring of drinking water, mineral water and process water • Compliance with standard ferrozine method ensures direct comparability to lab measurements • Supports predictive maintenance by advanced diagnostics • Reduced operating costs through automatic calibration and cleaning as well as low reagent consumption • Easy upgrade of functionality – even to a complete measuring station – simply by adding modules and connecting Memosens sensors • Comfortable remote access via integrated web server • Seamless integration into process control systems thanks to digital field busses such as Modbus, PROFIBUS or EtherNet/IP www.za.endress.com/water

Endress+Hauser (Pty) Ltd Phone +27 11 262 8000 Fax +27 11 262 8062 info@za.endress.com www.za.endress.com

No limits

Laboratories must be capable of conducting chemical, microbiological, toxicity and bioassay testing on water and wastewater samples

Commission’s (WRC) project – ‘A Gap Analysis of Water Quality Testing in South Africa’ – which identified laboratories across South Africa that undertake water quality testing. Balfour, Trollip and Badenhorst’s study included a survey of the status, capacity and geographical location of all available laboratories that would be capable of conducting chemical, microbiological, toxicity and bioassay testing on water and wastewater samples. Among the challenges found, training featured quite prominently, as it was a priority for 79% of laboratories surveyed. Recommendations for training include: awareness around training courses, more training centres outside of Gauteng, affordable training, and skills shortage due to lack of experienced personnel who can mentor new staff. Smart solutions Apart from choosing a sound laboratory, a good water monitoring system is also important. Mining company Xstrata Coal runs many open-cut and underground mining operations in Mpumalanga. To ensure its mining operations don’t contaminate the surrounding natural water resources, OTT Southern Africa supplied and installed a remote water quality monitoring solution, which also includes software for data handling. But remote water monitoring is not new to South Africa and can even be accessed via smartphones. South African water monitoring companies take innovation by the horns. Following is a list of a few such companies: • Aquatico specialises in laboratory testing and environmental monitoring and makes use of electronic handheld devices that provide task lists to field technicians. Information is synchronised via satellite with the Aqautico server database. • SGS offers agricultural water testing services, accurately evaluating water quality and conducts farming water testing against parameters such as ammonium, arsenic, chloride, fluoride and potassium levels. • SM Enviro specialises in water monitoring and instrumentation and is responsible for the monitoring of dewatering borehole levels and temperatures for an iron ore mine near Kathu in the Northern Cape, among other projects. • VEGA Controls SA recently introduced a new display and calibration module: PLICSCOM with Bluetooth allows for easy adjustment of sensor parameters. It is the first instrument manufacturer in its field to bring a Bluetooth solution to the market. With no wiring needed, adjustments are made using a smartphone or tablet via Bluetooth low-energy technology. MAY/JUN 2016


Integrated solution for leakage detection in drinking water networks? No problem with WATERFLUX. WATERFLUX electromagnetic water meter is now available with integrated pressure and temperature sensor as option. Thus it can be used for leak detection and quality monitoring in drinking water networks. The integrated solution eliminates the need for installation and wiring of external sensors, and presents pressure and temperature readings for each metering point. The integrated pressure sensor provides an alarm via a status output when the programmed upper or lower limit is reached. The integrated temperature sensor helps to monitor water quality. Adding the advantage of no straight inlet or outlet sections needed, the battery-powered meter can be installed even at remote monitoring points. GSM antenna (also battery powered) for remote transmission of readings is available as option as well as a protection class IP68 version. KROHNE – Water is our world. KROHNE South Africa 8 Bushbuck Close Corporate Park South Randtjiespark, Midrand Tel.: +27 113141391 Fax: +27 113141681 Cell: +27 825563934 John Alexander j.alexander@krohne.com www.za.krohne.com



Committed to


Buckman’s most important commitment is to a sustainable future, which it sees as vitally important to the business, the people it serves and the planet.


uckman first established a South African presence in 1971. Since then, its customers have been able to benefit from focused, local support while leveraging the vast technological resources of a global leader. Companies across the African continent, in a wide variety of industries, rely on Buckman’s advanced chemistries to boost productivity, conserve energy, protect natural resources, and promote the health and safety of employees and communities. The company offers clients an exceptional level of commitment and support, with its business practices being reinforced by: • locally manufactured chemistries that keep costs down, reduce lead times and accommodate customisation • on-site, hands-on expertise to identify needs, understand goals and find creative, more sustainable solutions •a  commitment to serving Africa’s key industries, including: water treatment, paper, leather, metals and mining, bio-fuels, utilities, and food and beverage • innovation that wins awards, including: Sappi African Achievement Gold Award, the Chemical and Allied Industries Responsible Care Award, the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Green Chemistry Challenge Award, and the Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise Award. Maximising efficiency There are increasingly persuasive calls for increasing production while reducing environmental footprint. A particular feather in Buckman’s cap is its ability to provide solutions that are designed to ensure a healthy return on investment and a responsible return on environment.


MAY/JUN 2016

About Buckman Nature of business Specialty chemical manufacturing Products Specialty chemicals for the pulp and paper, water treatment, leather and per formance chemical industries Date established 1971 Customer base Includes Mondi, Sappi, Sasol, Arcelor Mittal, RCL Foods, Illovo, Tongaat Hullets, Richards Bay Minerals, Hulamin, ASSMang, Dulux, Sibanye Gold No. of employees 170 BBBEE status Level 4 Company mission We, the associates of Buckman, will excel in providing measurable, costeffective improvements in output and quality for our customers by delivering customer-specific ser vices and products, and the creative application of knowledge. The company’s numerous chemists and specialists also work together to provide industry-specific feasibility studies, troubleshooting and technical guidance for customers, ensuring that clients stay at the leading edge of industry, with the most current, forward-thinking solutions available. Driven by sustainability Underpinning all of the processes is Buckman Green, the company’s global sustainability initiative. This comprehensive approach to environmental stewardship, social leadership and financial responsibility, is an initiative

that can naturally help your company be more sustainable too. Areas of focus include environmental sustainability; safety through long-standing OHSAS 18001, ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 accreditation; Membership min key, proactive  organisations; accountability via the  Global Reporting Initiative, the  Carbon Disclosure Project and Sedex; and social  outreach through community projects. 

+27 (0)31 736 8800 • www.buckman.com


Industry & Mining

IDEXX Laboratories


Veolia Water South Africa




Vovani Water Products


MAY/JUN 2016




Technical Sales Manager: Export

Who is Idexx Laboratories?

We also provide specific

processes as well

other methods

DC Idexx Laboratories is a

instrumentation that makes it

as the products

requiring additional

market leader in water and

easy to test and identify specific

themselves. Our

confirmation taking

animal health diagnostics. The

pathogens. These instruments

Water Division has

company was founded in 1984

include the Quanti-Tray Sealer (for

ISO 17025:2005 accreditation,

to give a definite result. The

in Portland, Maine, USA. It is now

quantification), Quanti-Trays, UV

while the Idexx Colilert/

Quanti-Tray System enables

represented on every continent

lamps and flitration systems (for

Quanti-Tray System meets the

quantification of the bacteria by

and employs more than 6 000

cryptosporidium and giardia).

standards set by the new ISO test

counting positive wells on the

9308-2:2012. The Enterolert test is

Quanti-Tray and extrapolating

validated by AFNOR for detection

them through an MPN system.

testing methods. We want you to

Which markets are you currently serving?

run your test with confidence.

Idexx South Africa currently

These are among some of the

because municipalities and

people globally. We endeavor to provide accurate and easy-to-use

of enterococci in drinking water.

up to 36 hours

This innovation is unique

supplies products in South

quality validated products Idexx

water companies can test water

What salient features make Idexx Laboratories unique?

Africa as well as the sub-

Water offers. In addition, our

and get a confirmed result in

Saharan Africa region. In South

processes are in compliance with

18 hours. This allows them

We are a research-oriented

Africa, we supply directly to

the new mandatory standard

to take the corrective action

company, spending more than

end users, which include water

ISO 11133:2014 concerning the

needed in a short period of time

$76 million on new research

processors, government and

preparation, production, storage

and provide safe drinking water

initiatives. Idexx Laboratories

private laboratories involved

and performance testing of

to the public.

holds patents for most of its

in water quality and food

culture media for microbiology of

products. This makes us one

processing entities.

food, animal feed and water.

of the few companies coming

Beyond South Africa, we

Please explain your laboratory business.

up with new and innovative

work with various regional or

solutions to address water

in-country business partners

microbiology quality. We

to provide the most efficient

employ a vast number of

service. Water utilities, private and

As discussed, Idexx supplies a variety of products, but which would say is your star product and why?

scientists globally who are

government laboratories as well

All Idexx products are unique;

diagnostic, as well as water

continuously working at

as food processors remain our

however, I would highlight our

quality, services. Our key

improving our value offering.

target markets. Regionally, NGOs

Colilert-18 and the Quanti-Tray

sections are haematology,

We have three laboratories in South Africa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in Johannesburg, Pretoria and Cape Town. Our laboratories offer animal

biochemistry, serology, microbiology and pathology. Water quality is run in the microbiology section, where we run various cultures as well as own patented products, including Colilert and Enterolert.

What differentiates your service from other laboratories? All of our sections are headed by fully qualified, highly experienced professionals. For example, our microbiology section is headed by a PhD holder with more than 30 yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

What water products do you offer?

also play a key role in ensuring

System. These two systems

experience. We are efficient

water quality standards are

complement each other to ensure

and fast because we use the

Our primary focus is water

maintained, especially outside of

that billions of people around the

latest accurate technology.

microbiology. We have

the major cities.

world have safe drinking water.

For example, by using Colilert

The Colilert-18 test allows an

for doing coliform and E.coli

entity to know the status of their

count estimates, we can give

water as far as total coliforms and

a definite result in less than 24

E. coli are concerned, after just 18 hours of incubation. This test uses defined substrate technology and, therefore, also serves as a confirmatory. This is unlike

hours. Our accuracy is high and

tests for total coliforms,

E. coli, enterobacteria, giardia, cryptosporidium and pseudomonas. We also have a quantification system called Quanti-Tray, which is used to give a bacterial count using the MPN (mean probable number) system.

What quality systems do you use to ensure peace of mind for your clients? We follow principles of good manufacturing practice. Over and above that, we have various ISO certifications for manufacturing

there is little room for human error. Our team of experts always gives solutions or guidance with every result. MAY/JUN 2016



SEW-EURODRIVE Raymond Obermeyer

What services does SEW-Eurodrive offer?

drives and conveyor lines, while

Drive technology

our parallel F-Series gear units

from SEW-Eurodrive

EL SEW-Eurodrive not only

can be used for the same, as

implements an

offers mechanical systems but

well as in screw conveyors and

infinite number of customised

cabinet. It also does not require

also supplies drive electronics to

box feeders.

solutions matching the specific

any cabling apart from the

requirement profiles.

supply and an integrated AS

match. We supply airports, the

Our helical-bevel K-Series

automation, food and beverage,

gear units are used in medium

construction, packaging, port

to large conveyors, screw

logistics, timber, mining and

conveyors, box feeders and

water treatment sectors.

ribbons blenders, while the

Managing Director

interface is offered as an option

helical-worm S-Series gear units

What categories of products does the company supply?

In what way are SEW products able to withstand exposure to extreme ambient conditions?

are used in medium to large

SEW-Eurodrive offers various

conveyors, screw conveyors and

optional protective measures

We supply the following

small elevators.

that, when combined, provide

for the motor. In addition to that, this geared motor impresses by its compact and robust design.

• industrial gear units

unit is used in small conveyor

operation of motors and

How can SEW assist factories and mines in selecting and implementing the right technology for a particular application?

• geared motors

lines, small screw conveyors and

gearmotors under special

We have a highly skilled and

• frequency inverters

small dumb waiters.

ambient conditions. KS

experienced Engineering

corrosion protection for motors

Department. We are fortunate

comprises the following

to have some of the country's

measures. Instead of standard

leading experts across all

surface protection, motors

drive technology fields, from

- operator terminals

SEW-Eurodrive often refers to its products as being modular. How do you define this modularity?

and gear units are optionally

electronics to industrial gears, on

- project planning tools

The modular concept of SEW-

available with OS1, OS2, OS3 or

the SEW-Eurodrive team.

- start-up software.

Eurodrive stands for product

OS4 surface protection.


Finally, our SPIROPLAN gear

• servo drive systems • decentralised drive systems • control technology: - remote maintenance

variety, quality, reliability

optimal protection for the

In the fields of electronic and

SEW also offers specialised KS

mechatronic engineering, we

What are some examples of helical, parallel, helical-bevel and SPIROPLAN applications?

and innovation, which are

corrosion protection, to ensure

are able to assist with project

characteristics that all our

minimal corrosive deterioration.

planning and offer advice

that have made SEW-Eurodrive

use in different environmental

components. These capabilities

Our helical R-Series gear units are

one of the leading drive


are underpinned by extensive

used in mixers, aerators, pump

technology manufacturers.

products have in common and

These equip the gearmotors for

on the optimal selection of

industry experience.

No matter whether these

What is a MOVI-SWITCH?

are mechanical, electronic or

MOVI-SWITCH is an efficient

mechanical engineering

mechatronic components,

solution when it comes to

requirements, through project

they are used depending on

decentralising at power levels

planning for industrial gear

the speed and torque range,

up to 3 kW: the gearmotor with

installation and operation,

space, and ambient conditions

an integrated switching and

with particular expertise in

required by the specific

protection function does not

7-Series geared units and


take up space in the control

geared motors.

We can also assist with

MAY/JUN 2016


Waste absolutely nothing


Water is too valuable to be used only once. Through custom-designed evaporation and crystallisation technology, Veolia Water Technologies South Africa enables municipalities and industries to recycle their process water, extracting maximum value from every drop. By utilising the resources contained within industrial and municipal effluents, Veolia enhances plant feasibility, reducing the volume of effluent discharge to minimise the environmental impacts of industrial development. Let us help you work towards zero liquid discharge. www.veoliawaterst.co.za | info.southafrica@veolia.com +27 11 663 3600

Resourcing the world


VEOLIA WATER TECHNOLOGIES SOUTH AFRICA Can you put into perspective why water is so critical in South Africa?

solutions for each mining and

liquid discharge

Chris Braybrooke

industry project requirement.


We also manufacture and supply

would be

General Manager: Business Development

CB South Africa is experiencing a

our own specifically developed

used. Our

water crisis, with tangible evidence

and packaged industrial water

Multiflo™ system incorporates

containerised, portable and

of decreased water flow and water

treatment chemicals, which are

chemical precipitation with

scalable system. These can be

quality. And the problem is likely to

proven products.

sludge thickening to produce a

either skid mounted or modular

sludge that is easily dewatered.

plants. These solutions are ideal

get worse before it gets any better.

To ensure that the right solution

With the protection and more

is implemented, a situational

Multiflo™ achieves an extremely

in remote locations, offering a

efficient use across the complete

assessment is made of what

low concentration of suspended

low maintenance, cost-effective

water cycle becoming critical in

the water problem is and its

solids in wastewater through a

alternative to in-ground

preserving our water resources,

implications, and a suitable process

low-footprint, efficient solution

treatment plants.

of particular concern is the state

is designed within the specified

with low capital and operating

of wastewater treatment facilities,

environmental requirements.

costs. Multiflo™ was used at

acid mine drainage, and how

From full engineering study to

Sasol’s Landlord Project and, in

industry and municipalities are

pilot plants and complete design

combination with ACTIFLO®,

How do you go about delivering your projects on time and within budget?

managing their wastewater.

and build, Veolia ensures that

at Eskom’s Tutuka.

Veolia has developed a tool

Veolia Water Technologies

our customers' real needs are

South Africa provides complete

identified and the best and most

to upgrade wastewater to a

and opex calculations with

solutions for water and wastewater

efficient solution supplied. We

range of standards, including

analyses of water risks and their

treatment across Southern Africa

also manufacture and supply

process water, environmentally

financial implications to enable

and Africa, allowing municipalities,

a complete range of modular

safe discharge water and even

municipalities and industrial

mining and industry to manage

treatment plants, which are

potable water. This biological

companies to implement advanced

their water resources more

manufactured in our own

treatment method utilises

water treatment solutions in the

efficiently and sustainably.

workshop in Sebenza.

lamella plates. Veolia has over

most efficient, sustainable manner.

Some of Veolia’s unique

60 references for trickling

We use this to underpin a complete

Which industries have wastewater treatment challenges?

technologies to treat municipal

filter technology in sub-

range of services required to

and industrial water and

Saharan Africa.

design, build, operate, maintain

Most recently, we’ve helped

• One of our most successful

companies in the following

wastewater include the following:

• We use trickling filter technology

• In industries such as mining,

that combines traditional capex

and upgrade water and wastewater

we use thermal processes, i.e.

treatment systems as required by

technologies in upgrading

evaporation and crystallisation,

our customers.

industries optimise the efficiency

wastewater to standards

to remove salts from wastewater

and sustainability of their

acceptable for reuse or

streams. These processes can

but prefer to manage and execute

water management:

discharge is our ACTIFLO®

be used in not only the recovery

an entire project ourselves, as this

• automotive

system. This is a high-rate and

of water from brine or waste

gives us the necessary control

• food and beverage

compact water clarification

streams, but in the recovery of

and the ability to bring a project

• mining

process in which raw water is

valuable minerals that can be

in on time, within budget and to

• pulp and paper

flocculated with microsand and

used, for example, as fertiliser,

specification. By doing this, we

• petrochemical

polymer in a Turbomix™ draft

as demonstrated at Ambatovy

can guarantee that we deliver our

• pharmaceutical

tube reactor. The microsand

Mine in Madagascar.

maxim, “Resourcing the World”,

• power generation

enhances the formation of

• steel processing

robust flocs and acts as ballast,

of package plants, supplying

• municipalities

significantly increasing their

water and wastewater treatment

One of our biggest problems in

settling velocities. The unique

technology trains in a fully

South Africa is mine water, where

characteristics of the resulting

acid mine drainage from our

microsand ballasted flocs allow

gold mines is a well-documented

for clarifier designs with very

challenge. However, it is not just

short hydraulic residence times,

gold but other minerals as well,

high rise rates and extremely

especially coal.

compact system footprints that

• Veolia is a specialist provider

We are happy to subcontract,

every single time.

are up to 50 times smaller than

What skills and technologies does your company have that will assist other companies to deal with their industrial wastewater challenges? We have a significant portfolio of proprietary technologies that we use to supply customised

other clarification processes of similar capacity. Veolia used ACTIFLO® in clarifying wastewater generated by Eskom’s Tutuka Power Station and Tubatse’s chrome smelter. • In wastewater with very high metals concentrations, a zero MAY/JUN 2016


Supplier of commodity and specialised products for the manufacturing of Water Treatment Plants.




+27 72 249 0825 www.vovani.co.za


Ultrafiltration Water Treatment Solutions: gravity fed or automated Surface Disinfection systems for hospitals, laboratories, medical companies and the wine industry.



Managing Director

What products and services do you offer?

design model for your

We also target the

for both user and

UF water plant using our

marine industry,

environment, a lack

HS Vovani Water Products

IMT UF membranes.


of residue deposits,

(VWP) represents and supplies

Southern African market:

What advantages do your products and company offer customers?

• ROPV: FRP pressure vessels

VWP represents unique

the following commodity and specialised products to the

high biocidal

systems, air conditioning, and oil

efficacy and the ability to ship

minerals, through our

via air freight.

flexible pipe couplings.

Which markets do your fogging solutions target?

together on one water

What are the advantages of your fogging systems, and how do these work?

ultrafiltration membrane

treatment project. We offer

The Phileas machines and the

industry, research, public services


up to four products crucial to

unique chemicals we supply

and health practices, everything

most water treatment projects,

are easy to use, lightweight

from food processing facilities

multi- and single-stage

through a single supplier. This

and mobile, making it easy to

and laboratories to hospitals,

centrifugal pumps

gives the client the advantage

use one machine in various

prisons and public transport, to

of dealing with fewer suppliers,

places within a building or

name just a few.

for RO, NF and

products that complement

UF applications

each other and can be used

• GE IMT: micro- and

• FEDCO: high-pressure,

• FEDCO: energy recovery devices for high-pressure

and benefiting from discounted

reverse osmosis applications

prices when buying multiple

• PASS: flexible couplings and weld stubs • Aqua Solutions: low-flow,

targets five sectors – healthcare,

products from VWP. We also offer direct access to the suppliers we represent,

gravity-fed ultrafiltration

in order to assist the client

units for various applications.

in getting the best technical

With our suppliers of the

The Devea Phileas systems

assistance and service possible.

products above, we offer our

The acquisition of IMT by GE

customers a unique support

(our UF membrane supplier) in

service where VWP makes use

October 2015 has opened new

of customised software to assist

doors for VWP and our clients.

in making the best use of our

Becoming a GE partner has also

products in the design of your

strengthened our position in

water treatment plant.

the South African market.

One of these is the

GE IMT ultrafiltration membrane modules

modules, where we can take

Which markets do your water treatment products target?

laboratory. The machines make

the water analysis provided and

VWP chiefly targets the water

use of the unique spinning

assist in giving you an accurate

treatment industry, treating

disc technology that disperses

Do you provide added value services, and to whom, how?

surface water, potable water,

the chemicals in a vapour with

VWP provides training on all

industrial and mine wastewater,

droplets of between 5 and

our products to companies

water desalination, brackish

10 microns.

when required, especially

software used for the GE IMT ultrafiltration membrane

Containerised ultrafiltration system using GE IMT UF modules

water and special applications.

Our two chemical products

to their manufacturing

used, O2Safe+ and Phileasafe,

and maintenance teams.

are stabilised by a physical

Through this, clients come to

process during fabrication. As

understand our products, their

such, they do not have any

functionality and maintenance

chemical additives and will


not leave any residues on the treated surfaces. They are made of

In which geographical areas do you operate?

pharmaceutical-grade raw

VWP has offices in

materials and their physical

Potchefstroom and Pomona,

stability gives them an

Kempton Park, where we

exceptional shelf life of

moved into our new warehouse

36 months when unopened

in February 2016.

and 6 months in an opened

We serve our existing and

container. Advantages of using

new customers in all nine South

these chemicals include their

African provinces, as well as in

biodegradability and safety

Namibia and Botswana. MAY/JUN 2016



South Africa’s

water supply status

Government’s response

As a natural resource that forms the crux of our economy, water plays a critical role in the day-to-day running of households, businesses and industries. But, with South Africa facing its worst drought in more than a century, are we geared up to face the tough times ahead? BY CANDICE LANDIE


ith 2015 being one of the driest years for farmers – with KwaZuluNatal, Mpumalanga, the North West and the Free State being adversely affected – maize shortages loom, placing a strain on local food prices. The drought has been exacerbated by the global El Niño weather phenomenon and South Africa may need to import up to half of its maize requirements


MAY/JUN 2016

• a heavily strained wine industry, which faces a shocking R500 million income loss • impacts on milk production as farmers prepare for a shortage of milk • escalated food prices as South Africa braces itself for massive imports • water scarcity in Gauteng due to persistent high temperatures coupled with a high evaporation rate from reservoirs. South Africa’s dams were 55.4% full on 11 January 2016, although it is still some way off from the 35-year low point of 34% reached in November 1983.

over the course of 2016 and beyond. White maize is only grown in meaningful quantities in Mexico and the US, and given the rand to dollar discrepancy, South Africa could see the imported crop steadily move out of financial reach. This is just one issue arising from the country’s water shortages as a result of drought. News reports have been inundated with the devastating effects:

The Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), through its National Water Resource Infrastructure Unit, has responded in full force to the drought and has embarked on many drought interventions. Thus far, KwaZulu-Natal has been hit the hardest and was declared a disaster area, while the Eastern Cape has been the least affected. The DWS committed R352.6 million to the initial drought intervention projects in KZN. Some of the emergency relief projects in the province include water tankers, boreholes, water conservation, water source augmentation, and demand management. Water tankers: It was announced that 682 water tanks with stands are being distributed to KwaZuluNatal’s Ugu District Municipality (DM), uMkhanyakude DM, Illembe DM and Harry Gwala DM. In some areas, the water tanks – each with a capacity of 18 000 litres – have been installed. Illembe has completed its tank stand installation; Umgeni Water has completed 30 tanks in Harry Gwala and 20 tanks in Ugu. 81 tanks have been installed in uMkhanyakude. Additional water tank sites are being identified. Boreholes: Approval was granted to appoint a turnkey service provider to procure siting, drilling and hydrogeological services to implement borehole interventions where the abovementioned DMs do not currently have contracts in place. Work started at uMkhanyakude and Ilembe in September 2015. Operation Hydrate: Through this project, individuals, corporates and organisations have joined forces in a colossal water collection drive. The campaign launched on

A strong foundation for infrastructure success

29 January 2016. Pledges came streaming in from all across the country and, within just one week of the launch, Operation Hydrate distributed 6.1 million litres of water to people and animals in drought-stricken areas. Even the National Lotteries Board put forward a pledge of R50 million, which was directed toward the provision of water, and the refurbishment of boreholes and water tankers. “Government will continue with its interventions to ensure citizens in drought-hit areas receive water via water tankers. Our refurbishment of boreholes is ongoing and the maintenance of infrastructure to prevent water losses through leaks will continue,” said the Minister of Water Affairs and Sanitation, Nomvula Mokonyane. Rainwater Harvesting Solutions

Crunch time for KZN

In a bid to conserve the water resources it does have available, eThekweni Municipality’s Water and Sanitation Unit proposed the Umgeni System Drought Implementation Plan, which also includes scheduled water shutdowns. As at 3 March 2016, the drought situation resulted in the level of the Midmar and Albert Falls dams in KZN decreasing to 46% and 36%, respectively. A proactive decision was taken to impose restrictions to the greater Umgeni River System of 15% for domestic, industrial and commercial consumers, and a high 50% for farming and irrigation. In the first phase of the Drought Implementation Plan, focus is directed around the supply received from the two critical reservoirs, Midmar and Albert Falls. The average volume currently supplied to eThekwini from this system is 606 million litres per day. But, with a proposed 15% restriction, the water supply will be reduced to 515 million litres per day. The second phase will affect areas supplied from the Inanda Dam system, which supplies the Wiggins Water Works and the central and southern areas of eThekwini Municipality. The current average demand here is 208 million litres per day. Restrictions will be implemented if the situation worsens.

A helping hand

The drought aside, Bushbuckridge in Mpumalanga was already experiencing a water crisis, with approximately 70% of its communities not having access to bulk water supplies. The drought has just added to this problem. At the end of last year, Rand Water – South Africa’s largest water supplier – was seconded to take over water supply infrastructure management from Bushbuckridge Water. This followed President Jacob Zuma’s visit to Bushbuckridge in November 2015, and forms part of national MAY/JUN 2016


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government’s broader measures to deal with water shortages. A R1 billion rescue programme to secure water supplies in Bushbuckridge is under way and R500 million has already been spent on Phase 1.

The non-conventional approach

During its water reuse road show in February 2016, the Water Research Commission (WRC) emphasised the need for water resource managers and planners to think outside the box for unconventional water sources, since water shortages stretch far beyond a drought. Sembcorp Siza Water, a municipal-commissioned distributor of bulk water in Ballito, KZN, has responded to the crisis with recycled water. The company recycles sewage water, which is closely monitored every hour to ensure safe consumption. Sembcorp receives its bulk supply from Hazelmere Dam, which is only 26% full. Umgeni Water announced last year that it would only provide 50% bulk water supply to areas north of Durban, leaving Sembcorp with little choice but to get creative. The company successfully augmented


MAY/JUN 2016

supply to provide an additional 4 million litres of clean, drinkable water to Ballito over the dry 2015 festive season. “Rapid population growth, urbanisation, the unpredictability of conventional water source sustainability due to climate change and pollution are among the key drivers of the need to change the way we currently do things,” said Chris Swartz of Water Utilisation Engineers, at the WRC road show. “An alarming fact is that, by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world’s population could be under water-stress conditions.” According to Swartz, South Africa is still at the stage of assessing feasibility, with only a study of one water reuse plant, in Beaufort West, completed. Windhoek has successfully demonstrated the possibility of water reuse in Goreangab. Much like Sembcorp’s approach, Dr Jo Burgess, research manager: Mine Water, WRC, is all for the reuse of wastewater. “Municipalities in South Africa are beginning to look at possible technologies that could be used in augmenting their

water supplies through reusing water. Msunduzi Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, for example, is reclaiming domestic wastewater from Darville Wastewater Works for potable reuse using membrane bioreactor technology.”


Looking at South Africa’s water shortages in relation to the drought is not the answer to solving our long-term goals of water for all. More must be done to bring the South African water sector into balance and reconcile future national water withdrawals with future national supply. Innovation is key in the fight for a stronger water network – one that is able to cope with the demands of rapid urbanisation and industrialism. Further research by the WRC indicates that, in an attempt to reconcile water supply and demand, South Africa needs to increase its available water supply by nearly 2.5 km3 and reduce withdrawals by 0.57 km3 by 2035. The research indicated that, even with all of these interventions, withdrawals would exceed supply every year through to 2035.


World-class water services


Mhlathuze Water is one of the leading water utilities in South Africa today, providing a world-class service to its customers. Based in KwaZuluNatal, Mhlathuze Waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s area of supply spans the entire KZN province. The utility operates an inter-basin transfer scheme, a major water t also operates and mainLake Nsezi, which supplies treatment plant, and an tains water and wastewatreated and semi-treated water ter infrastructure for local to domestic and industrial conoffshore effluent disposal government and industry, sumers. Semi-treated water offers pump station. implements water projects on a less expensive option for use by

and behalf of the Department of Water and Sanitation. Mhlathuze Water is also appointed to act as an implementing agent for projects with various government sectors, such as the Department of Education in the Schoolsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Water and Sanitation Infrastructure Project. The Working for Water Programme, on behalf of the Department of Environmental Affairs, is another key

project that has been undertaken by the organisation in recent years.

Water provision

The flagship installation of Mhlathuze Water is the Nsezi Water Treatment Plant (WTP) situated on the bank of

industrial customers. Mhlathuze Water supplies world-class treated water to the local paper mill and its municipalities. The Nsezi WTP uses a dissolved air flotation system, commissioned in 1984, which was the first of its kind in the country. Additionally, Mhlathuze Water oversees the abstraction of raw water from Lake Nsezi and the Mhlathuze River to

The Nsezi WTP situated on the banks of Lake Nsezi, Richard's Bay

MAY/JUN 2016



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s we welcome the he end end of the butend not requiredtrees is usually required he ofthetheshare alphabet but not the s we welcome the s we welcomeisforusually the of alphabet water saving ideasestablished end any of water saving ideasshare for established trees for established trees end of water saving new year, may your ideas you discover via email to ideas- share and shrubs. new year, may your new year, may your any ideas you discover via email to any ideas you discover via email to and shrubs. and shrubs. Mhlathuze Water. soul refreshed like Mhlathuze Water. Mhlathuze Water. soul be be refreshed like soul be refreshed like earth when rains thethe earth when the rains thethe earth when the rains fall onto the parched ground. fall onto the parched ground. fall onto the parched ground. Putting past behind, WISHWE WISH Putting thethe past behind, maymay youyou be be may you be Putting the past behind, WE WE WISH revitalised and raring to move forward to revitalised and raring to move revitalised andforward raring totomove forward to YOUYOU A A YOU A new goals, recognising making new goals, recognising andand making the the new goals, recognising and making the BLESSED BLESSED 2016 2016 To the water andprovider waste most of every opportunity encounter. Tobe be theregional water most of every opportunity youyou encounter. most of every opportunity you encounter. BLESSED 2016 To be the water services To services beprovider the water services provider water service provider of choice for all


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of choice for all stakeholders in of choice for all stakeholders infor all stakeholders of choice in stakeholders in thevalue waterchain. value chain. thevalue water the water chain. the water value chain. 035 902 Tel: 035 9021000 1000 Tel: 035Tel: 902 1000 Tel: 035 902 1000 Web: Web:www.mhlathuze.co.za www.mhlathuze.co.za Web: www.mhlathuze.co.za Web: www.mhlathuze.co.za Email:communication@mhlathuze.co.za communication@mhlathuze.co.za Email:Email: communication@mhlathuze.co.za Email: communication@mhlathuze.co.za







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Designed by the Zululand Observer



Designed by the Zululand Observer

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the mining operations north and south of Richard's Bay.

ABOVE Water released from the Goedetrouw Dam into the Mhlathuze River flows to the Weir transfer pump station for abstraction

Wastewater disposal

LEFT FROM TOP TO BOTTOM Water sample preparation for analysis

Designed by the Zululand Observer

Mhlathuze Water’s effluent disposal system, which it also manages, is the largest sea outfall disposal system in the country and has been in operation for over 30 years. Through the two separate pipelines that are part of this system, buoyant and dense effluent from the local municipality and industries in the Richard's Bay and Empangeni areas is pumped offshore. The system’s disposal licence requires that Mhlathuze Water conducts annual marine impact assessments to assess the potential impacts of the effluent on the marine ecosystem. Furthermore, diving surveys are done annually to check the integrity of the pipeline and perform routine maintenance and repairs.

Laboratory services


Since 1984, Mhlathuze Water’s ISO 17025accredited laboratory has provided a world-class analytical service to a broad spectrum of clients. Today, services have been expanded to include commercial analyses to a broader client base. The laboratory facility is equipped to provide a broad analytical service to industry, local authorities, government departments, consulting engineers and the community. Internally, the laboratory routinely monitors raw and treated water from the Nsezi WTP, the catchment area and effluent from different contributors and at the effluent disposal pump station.

Transformation, specifically targeting women, is one of our main focus areas Steel pipe laying at Jozini Bulk Water Supply Project

Water infrastructure development

Mhlathuze Water is mindful of the critical role infrastructure development plays in the socio-economic development and growth of the country. The organisation’s mandate as an implementing agent is to provide sustainable water solutions while simultaneously creating new jobs and supporting the delivery of basic services to the people of South Africa. The organisation is currently implementing water infrastructure development projects in the uMkhanyakude District Municipality area to the value of R5.4 billion. The projects involve the construction of bulk water pipelines, a water treatment plant, reservoirs, pump stations and reticulation.

www.mhlathuze.co.za MAY/JUN 2016


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Protecting, conserving and managing water


ituated in southwestern South Africa, the Breede-Gouritz Catchment Management Agency (BGCMA) plays a pivotal role in protecting, developing, conserving and managing water resources. Formerly known as the Breede-Overberg Catchment Management Agency, the Gouritz region was recently incorporated within the organisation’s mandate. The merger came after the former Minister of Water Affairs, Edna Molelwa, approved the expansion of the boundary and area of operation of Breede-Overberg CMA in terms of Section 78(4) of the National Water Act, 1998 (Act No 36 of 1998). The area of operation of the BreedeGouritz Catchment Management Agency includes the previous Breede-Overberg Water Management Area and the Gouritz Catchment.

Quality for all “The strategic focus of the agency incorporates water resource planning, water use management, institutional development, water resource protection and water allocation reform,” says CEO Phakamani Buthelezi. “The vision of the BGCMA, ‘quality water for all, forever’, was developed around the question of how the BGCMA can make a positive contribution and engender meaningful change within a broader social context.” The main elements of the vision are inclusion and participation of all stakeholders; mediation between competing environmental and human priorities; ensuring availability of good-quality water; and a responsibility to assist in eradicating poverty. Buthelezi explains that the BGCMA works closely with local governments on water management

and water-related services to ensure synergy between the priorities of the CMA and the local and district municipalities. “The BGCMA is the operating arm of the Department of Water and Sanitation, and its aim is to bring water resource services, in an efficient manner, to the inhabitants of the BreedeGouritz Water Management Area,” explains Buthelezi. “Furthermore, the BGCMA works closely with other government departments to ensure compliance in all water use practices. The BGCMA provides comments on rezoning and consolidations to relevant municipalities, and on environmental impact studies and basic assessment reports in conjunction with the Department of Environmental Affairs.” Legal compliance The BGCMA is currently busy with the validation and verification process whereby all water users will be evaluated for legal compliance. This process will assist with the management of water allocations in the Breede-Gouritz Water Management Area. MAY/JUN 2016

Our Vision is

“Quality water for all, forever”

Our Mission is to manage our water resources responsibly through stakeholder engagement and to devolve decision making to the lowest level for the benefi t of all water users in the Breede-Gouritz area. Breede-Gouritz CMA is responsible for: • Water Resource Planning • Water Allocation Reform • Water Use Management

• Institutional Management • Resource Protection

For more information contact us on: Ms Malehlohonolo Mlabateki Public Relations and Marketing Officer Tel: (023) 346 8000 | Fax: (023) 347 2012 E-mail: mmlabateki@breedegouritzcma.co.za

Breede-Gouritz CMA (BGCMA) 51 Baring Street, Worcester, 6850, 101 York Street (New Office), George, 6529

Breede-Gouritz CMA Private Bag X 3055 Worcester, 6849



Quality supplier stands up

Magalies Water provides quality bulk water and secondary services directly to municipalities, mines and other industries, which, in turn, helps to grow the economy and improve the lives of communities.


agalies Water’s service area extends over three provinces: North West, Limpopo and Gauteng. The core strategy of Magalies Water is to meet the mandated Section 29 obligations and provide viable Section 30 initiatives, as and when required, per the Water Services Act (No. 108 of 1997). This is achieved through reliable provision of quality and affordable potable water to customers. Through a commercially sustainable business, Magalies Water is able to contribute to the economic development in the service area and support local government.


MAY/JUN 2016

Magalies Water’s chief operations officer, Sandile Mkhize, adds, “The water board ensures that sectors such as municipalities, industry, tourism and mining continue to enjoy secure water supply in terms of quality and quantity. This is achieved through water quality monitoring and, as a result, we have achieved a greater than 95% assurance of supply.” Infrastructure agency The water board provides a number of key services to its clients, including the expansion of infrastructure to channel bulk water from the national water carrier and distribute it to water service authorities, water

service institutions, mines, businesses and other industries. Additionally, Magalies Water boasts a continuously improving capability and an ever-developing distribution network. This includes pipelines, water treatment plants, reservoirs, pumping stations, reticulation systems as well as a South African National Accreditation System-accredited laboratory that is authorised and certified to analyse and rate the quality of water. New laboratory According to Mkhize, Magalies Water recently set up a new scientific laboratory, providing state-ofthe-art services to clients, ensuring that areas within the water board’s


RIGHT FROM TOP TO BOTTOM The water board provides a number of key services to its clients, including the expansion of infrastructure to channel bulk water Magalies Water has recently opened a new state-of-the-art scientific laboratory The water board provides a number of key services to its clients, including the expansion of infrastructure OPPOSITE PAGE Reliable provision of quality and affordable potable water is essential to a number of industries, including eco-tourism

service area continue to comply with the latest national standards. “At our new facility, we have all of the chemical and microbiological analysis tools and expertise necessary for environmental monitoring, water and wastewater quality monitoring and sludge analysis. Our analytical equipment is highly advanced and industry leading,” says Mkhize. “The scientific laboratory is being managed by a scientific services manager, Lerato Morake, with postgraduate qualifications in science and business leadership,” he adds. Mkhize ranks the construction of the technologically advanced scientific laboratory as one of the water board’s highest achievements to date, ranking alongside other fantastic goals achieved in the capital projects arena, including the completion of the Vaalkop and Klipdrift water treatment works. Environmental performance Limited water resources are not just a South African issue. In fact, the United Nations has been highlighting the increasing significance of water shortages worldwide. Considering this, the importance of recycling water through professional wastewater treatment in the water supply sphere cannot be overemphasised. Magalies Water offers a repertoire of water management and wastewater treatment solutions ranging from consultation and treatment, to themonitoring and operation of wastewater treatment plants on entities’ behalf. Compliance with the relevant legal standards is essential for maintaining a high standard of service. Magaglies Water sets its standards by the internationally recognised ISO 14001 environmental management standards. This enables the water board to comply with environmental and other requirements in conducting

MAGALIES WATER AREAS OF SERVICE: Bojanala Platinum District Municipality: Bulk Water Supply • Rustenburg LM • Moses Kotane LM • Moretele LM Waterberg District Municipality • Modimolle LM • Bela Bela LM • Thabazimbi LM Section 30 areas of operation • Moretele LM • Madibeng LM

all activities, products and services. “All our operational sites are ISO 14001-certified,” says Mkhize. He emphasises that the water board’s success is due both to its people and its commitment to continuous improvement of environmental performance in its service areas. “We endeavour to hire the best people and I am particularly proud of our scientist, Kepler Diphale, who is currently studying for a Master’s in environmental management while working with us.” Future expansion There’s growth in Magalies Waters’ future, with the water board’s trajectory being, “To be a regional water utility covering an extended footprint into Limpopo and consolidating our roles in Bojanala Platinum District Municipality,” concludes Mkhize.

www.magalieswater.co.za MAY/JUN 2016


Africa, it would seem, is about 30 years behind Europe and the USA, and even South America, in the deployment of slurry pipelines as a cost-effective alternative, water-based transport for minerals. We look at the technology. BY TONY STONE

Slurry pipelines as


a transport system

or those of us who are not too familiar with slurry pump technology, and to refresh the memories of those who have forgotten, slurry is a mixture of a liquid, usually water, and solids, the make-up of which can range from small, particle-sized matter to large chunks of coal, and, as in the latter instance, a thickener such as magnetite. The combination of the type, size, shape and


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quantity of the particles, together with the nature of the transporting liquid, determines the exact characteristics and flow properties of the slurry. From conventionally thickened slurries to paste slurries, as illustrated in Graph 1, we see that different pump technologies are needed. The thicker the material and the greater the distance and height, the more complex the pumping requirement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to the point where

a thick paste or cake can no longer be pumped. Slurry characteristics Slurries with very fine particles, which are referred to as non-settling slurries â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which can form stable, homogeneous mixtures, exhibiting increased apparent viscosity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; usually have low wearing properties. Even so, careful consideration selecting the correct pump and drive is

necessary, as these slurries often do not behave in the manner of a normal liquid. At the opposite end of the scale, settling slurries, formed by coarser particles (greater than 1 mm), tend to form an unstable mixture. In these cases, particular attention must be given to power calculations in terms of flow-velocity and friction-loss factors. Coarser particles tend to have higher wearing properties, and tend to form the majority of slurry applications. This type of slurry is also referred to as heterogeneous. In both instances, homogeneous and heterogeneous, height differentials and the distance between source and destination need to be factored in to the equation. Consulting firms such as Paterson & Cooke

and Ausenco can assist with the complex designs and calculations involved. Breaking new ground in slurry pipeline technology Slurry pipeline technology is a safe transportation alternative that minimises impacts on local communities and the environment. Its benefits include lower pollution levels, road transport and fuel costs and staffing requirements, and a reduced reliance and impact on highuse transport corridors. Slurry pipeline technology offers a sustainable solution in many environments. What is more, the technology is reliable and efficient. Ausenco has designed and engineered

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TWO CHALLENGING, LONG-DISTANCE SLURRY PIPELINE PROJECTS: Antamina Multiproduct Concentrate Pipeline Location: Peru Client: Compañia Minera Antamina S.A Year: 1989-2009 Ausenco provided a full range of engineering services on this 304 km copper-zinc concentrate slurry pipeline system – the first multiproduct slurry pipeline system in a mountainous region. Work began with a feasibility study, including route planning, constructability evaluation, conceptual design and a ±15% cost estimate. It continued to include basic and detailed engineering and expansion and repair projects throughout the life of the system. The steel pipeline was designed to transport a maximum of 1.4 Mt/y of copper and zinc concentrates from Antamina mine site in northern Peru at an elevation of 4 100 m above sea level to terminal facilities at Huarmey.

Samarco Iron Concentrate Pipeline Location: Brazil Client: Samarco Mineração S.A. Year: 1995-2012 The Samarco project is an integrated open-pit mine, pipeline and por t operation in Brazil. The project includes the longest iron concentrate pipeline in the world, which currently spans 398 km, with a peak altitude of 1 150 m above sea level. Ausenco has provided Samarco with a variety of ser vices throughout the development of this project, ranging from laborator y testing, simulations, studies and design through construction and star t-up suppor t. Though the original pipeline predates the formation of Ausenco, several key members of the design, construction, and star t-up team are principals at Ausenco today.

MAY/JUN 2016


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suppliers, and taking ash to tailings facilities. At the moment, with the hundreds of trucks transporting coal from mines to power stations, the damage to road infrastructure, as well the environment, is substantial. The town of Ermelo in Mpumalanga is a prime example.

GRAPH 1 Flow behaviour vs solids concentration (Source: Jewell et al, 2002)

long-distance pipelines to transport virtually every type of mineral – from concentrates such as copper, zinc, lead and iron to crushed ore, bauxite, nickel laterite, phosphate, limestone and coal. The company’s experience includes projects in extremely cold climates, over record-breaking distances, at high altitudes, and in mountainous terrain. If Chirodzi mine’s coal-slurry pipeline had been implemented by Arup, it would have been Africa’s first coal slurry pipeline from Mozambique’s Tete province to the Port of Beira, with its port capacity of 20 Mt, over a distance of some 500 km. The Chirodzi mine is an open-pit coal mine with proven reserves of 700 Mt and an expected life of



LEFT Centrifugal pump RIGHT Piston-diaphragm pump

POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS (e.g. piston-diaphragm pumps)

Imparts velocity to the liquid or slurry resulting in pressure at the outlet (pressure is created and flow results)

Captures confined amounts of liquid or slurry and transfers it from the suction to the discharge port (flow is created and pressure results)

Per formance

Flow varies with changing pressure

Flow is constant with changing pressure


Efficiency decreases with increasing viscosity due to frictional losses inside the pump (typically not used on viscosities above 850 cSt)

Efficiency increases with increasing viscosity


Efficiency peaks at the best-efficiency point. At higher or lower pressures, efficiency decreases

Efficiency increases with increasing pressure

Inlet conditions

Liquid or slurry must be in the pump to create a pressure differential. A dry pump will not prime on its own

Negative pressure is created at the inlet port. A dry pump will prime on its own

Inlet conditions

Liquid or slurry must be in the pump to create a pressure differential. A dry pump will not prime on its own

Negative pressure is created at the inlet port. A dry pump will prime on its own



mine of 25 years. The mine commenced operations in 2012 and was scheduled to produce in excess of 10 Mtpa of high-grade coal from 2015 onwards. Nonetheless, what this means is that South Africa, and other African countries, can look at this technology with renewed interest, especially in coal transport. Eskom would do well to look at the possibilities with its coal

Design considerations As Patterson & Cooke advises, increasing solids concentration has a number of requirements that are different from a conventional slurry system. Designing a high-density system requires an overall systems approach, as there is strong dependence between the destination point and pumping requirements, and the preparation facilities at source. High-density slurry pipelines often operate at a higher pressure than conventional tailings pipelines, and pipeline mechanical design must take this into account. Centrifugal pumps will be adequate for medium-density systems with short pipeline lengths, whereas positive-displacement pumps will be required for high-density systems with long pipelines. Table 1 illustrates the comparisons between centrifugal

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and positive-displacement pumps in high-density slurry pipelines. Positive-displacement pumps, of which piston, piston-diaphragm and hose-diaphragm pumps are a subset, are specifically designed to handle slurry, sludge or paste applications. These pumps handle long-distance slurry pipeline transport, mine dewatering and backfill, autoclave, reactor and digester feed, gasifier feed and high-density tailings disposal applications. Variations of this category of pump include: • Crankshaft-driven piston pumps: Crankshaft-driven piston pumps handle slurries and sludges with moderate abrasivity, medium to high viscosity, mild corrosivity, up to 6 mm particle size and up to 75% solids content. • Hose-diaphragm pumps: The hydraulically driven, two-chamber, single-acting, high-pressure hose-diaphragm pumps handle unsettled mine water. • Hydraulic-driven piston pumps:

Piston pumps with cone valves or transfer tubes handle slurries and sludges with moderate abrasivity, high viscosity, mild corrosivity, up to 50 mm particle size and up to 90% solids content. • Piston-diaphragm pumps: Crankshaft-driven piston-diaphragm pumps handle slurries and sludges with extreme abrasivity, medium to high viscosity, high corrosivity and elevated temperatures.

Weir Minerals’ experience with slurry pipeline transportation using the GEHO pump: • Longest pipeline (550 km): MMX (Brazil) • Highest pipeline pressure (240 bars): Collahuasi (Chile) • Highest flow (540 m3/h): OEMK (Russia) • Total number of pumps: 130+ • Total number of long-distance pipeline projects: 36+

In summary Flowing out of this brief overview is the clear picture that high-density slurry pipelines are suited to long-distance mineral transport, including coal. This presents Africa with an opportunity to catch up with the rest of the world in deploying this technology – to achieve efficiencies in operations and costs, and for the benefit of the environment. MAY/JUN 2016



RPC is a three layer co-extruded pipe with outer and inner layers of advance PE100-RC polymer and a PE100 core, that conform to ISO 4427.2 and PAS1075. Rare Plastics, in conjunction with its technology partner Borealis, has produced a water and sewer pipe specifically for AIT (Alternative Installation Techniques). This polymer technology has high resistance to slow crack growth and point loads, compared to standard PE100. ThE GROUP IS STRUCTURED INTO fOUR OPERATING DIvISIONS AND A ZAMBIAN SUBSIDIARy: TRADING info@rare.co.za www.rare.co.za






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Replacing the bucket system


pumping system designed to separate solids and pump wastewater over longer distances holds the key to providing acceptable sanitation to rural villages and sparsely inhabited areas where, until recently, the bucket system and pit latrines have been the only alternative. Designed and developed by KSB Pumps and Valves, the Ama DS allows treatment of wastewater to be undertaken further from treatment plants and makes it viable to collect wastewater from larger collection areas for treatment at centralised plants. According to Hendrik Enslin, wastewater projects and applications manager, KSB, the Ama DS system enables wider and more cost-effective collection of wastewater, and paves the way for the development of sanitation systems in

rural areas or areas where sanitation was not deemed possible due to unsuitable geographical location or where gravitational systems were not possible. Large coverage area “The genius of the system is the ability to immediately remove solids from the system and separate them from the water. This enables pumps with smaller free passages to be used and, as a result, allows the system to pump the water over much longer distances than previously possible. “In addition, with the solids removed, there is nothing to impede or block the impellers and other such components. This allows for a far more reliable system and cleaner, more hygienic pumps for ease of serviceability. Once solids build up to a predetermined level, some of the processed wastewater is then

used to bypass the pumps and flush the solids to the treatment plant. “This effectively frees municipalities or communities to pump waste to more distant treatment plants or to establish centralised plants that can be shared by many different communities in a region. We are hoping that this will play a significant role in bringing sanitation to all parts of the country,” says Hendrik. Gains made Besides the obvious benefit of providing sanitation in far flung and rural areas, the system also provides a solution that is more efficient than traditional pumping systems, is more reliable as a result of solids being removed before entering the pumps, has less downtime as a result of less wear and blockages, and provides a cleaner and safer operation and less maintenance. MAY/JUN 2016


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Abalone, pumps and


Leading pump manufacturer Mather+Platt has harnessed two quite diverse nanostructured materials to achieve greater durability and efficiency in its new range of horizontal centrifugal pumps. BY TONY STONE


MAY/JUN 2016


he two drivers behind Mather+Platt’s technology development are the two objectives every public or private sector entity should pursue in order to be effective and sustainable. Minimising costs and maximising productivity are important contributors to service delivery, and the two critical success factors that Mather+Platt’s new range of horizontal centrifugal pumps, launched 18 months ago, achieve in no small way. Cast iron and aluminium pumps often suffer from corrosion and/or cavitation

as a result of high alkalinity or high acidity. In such instances, a pump’s reliability, efficiency and performance are affected, especially the pump’s power consumption, which substantially increases its lifetime running costs. Minimising performance deterioration is, therefore, a major concern for pump manufacturers and users. The question is: how do you limit or prevent these constraining factors? Duplex stainless steel The first of the technologies developed by Mather+Platt’s parent company,


2205 DUPLEX 1.4462 S31803/S32205 2205 Duplex (ASTM A890 grade 4A for Castings) is a generic term for the most common of the duplex stainless steels. It has become the grade of choice where 316/316L does not have adequate corrosion resistance. It is the natural choice for more aggressive environments. Its approximate composition is 22% Chromium (Cr), 5% Nickel (Ni), 3% molybdenum (Mo), 0.15% Nitrogen (N) (exact composition ranges var y between EN and ASTM standards).

Worthington Pump India (WIPL), is the duplex stainless steel horizontal centrifugal pump, manufactured from grades 4A and 4B stainless steel. This type of steel is called duplex because it has a two-phase microstructure consisting of ferritic and austenitic stainless steel grains. Initially, when molten duplex stainless steel solidifies, it does so as a completely ferritic structure. Then, as the material cools down to room temperature, about half of the ferritic grains transform to austenitic grains, which form layered islands in the microstructure. The result is a mix of roughly 50% austenite and 50% ferrite. So, what does this all mean? Firstly, duplex stainless steels are twice as strong as regular austenitic or ferritic stainless steels. Secondly, it has significantly better toughness and ductility than ferritic grades and, most importantly, it has an exceptionally good pitting resistance equivalent number corrosion value of >40, as well as good stress-corrosion-cracking resistance. It also functions effectively between -80° C and 300° C. Lastly, duplex stainless steels have a better ability to absorb energy of any dynamic or static state. All of this makes for a near perfect pump. For example, a large Gansbaai abalone farm, with its cold temperatures and high-alkalinity seawater, struggled with pump corrosion until it installed five LN type split-case Pumping cold, high-alkalinity seawater through Aqunion’s Roman Bay abalone sea farm corrodes pumps of lesser quality

super duplex stainless steel horizontal centrifugal pumps, each with a capacity of 1 250 m3/hour to draw seawater under negative suction head from the seawater intake gully. Not only do they have greater efficiency but reduced running costs as a bonus. Epoxy coating The second of the technologies, using third-party developments in microstructure technology, ushers in a solvent-free, glass-like epoxy coating that provides excellent adhesion to metal substrates, including stainless steel, duplex steels, carbon steel, aluminium, cast iron and bronze, as well as specialist alloys. Any fluid passing through its hydraulic passage is subject to resistance caused by friction, the extent of which is determined by its viscosity. Hydraulic losses represent most of the efficiency reductions and resultant energy-consumption increases, which are exacerbated by corrosion and cavitation. The epoxy coating helps to reduce these losses, thereby increasing a pump’s performance. In choosing the best pump, the liquid’s chemistry, the pump head requirement, sump depth, plant layout and pump capacity requirement are all important factors. If full automation is required, this can be implemented using WIPL’s electronic control gear. Last, but not least, as reliability is critical, Mather+Platt pumps are manufactured to ISO 9001 quality certification and backed up by full spares availability and support. MAY/JUN 2016


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A continued case

for automation


f the principles that mark a healthy democracy, open dialogue and transparency are two important facets. The Department of Water and Sanitation’s Blue Drop, No Drop and Green Drop reports demonstrate this in quantified and qualified terms. And, it is from these reports that we are able to implement workable solutions. Herein is the value of transparency – because it benefits everyone. In the last publically available Green Drop report, published in 2014, it stated that of the privately owned wastewater treatment systems, four of the five (80%) achieved Green Drop Certification. Among the Department of Environmental Affairs’ wastewater treatment systems, 11 of the 13 systems (85%) received Green Drop Certification. Of the 152 municipalities surveyed, only 24 of the 824 municipal wastewater treatment systems retained their Green Drop Certification. Lastly, of the Department of Public Works’ 121 wastewater systems, not one achieved Green Drop Certification. This is clearly a problem. In her executive summary, Minister of Water and Sanitation Nomvula Mokonyane said, “Ageing infrastructure, inadequate maintenance and repairs of existing

Technology advancements over the last 200 years have improved the lives of billions of people. So, when faced with challenges, the first thing to do is to look at technology for solutions, and, in this instance, the answer is automation.

infrastructure, long response times to water leaks/bursts, technical competency shortcomings in municipalities, and a culture of water wastage are some of the challenges facing the South African water sector.” One of the biggest challenges is what the minister classifies as “technical competency shortcomings”. Politically, as much as jobs need to be protected, the danger to the greater population of failing to manage wastewater treatment effectively will be problematic and politically damaging, if not addressed. This then is the underlying purpose of the Green Drop survey. For South Africa, now faced with water scarcity, time is running out to address an already problematic situation. The solution The capability of technology today is that a pump, a motor and/or a valve can be controlled and monitored electronically using programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and remote telemetry units (RTUs) integrated with software specifically designed for a wastewater treatment works (WWTW). At the same time, and as we detailed in the last issue of WASA, the full spectrum of laboratory testing requirements can be fully


automated as well – providing a completely integrated and automated WWTW. What is more, the entire WWTW can be monitored by the manager or supervisor via his or her cell phone. Not only can this be done but the entire WWTW can be integrated into a network and monitored by a remote, central office, be this at district, provincial or national level. With programmable exception reporting parameters defined, action can be taken timeously as and when needed. This would take Green Drop to the highest level of efficiency, and ensure the safety and protection of the environment and our scarce water resources. Enabling technology Scada is the acronym for “supervisory control and data acquisition”. According to Schneider Electric, one of a number of suppliers in South Africa, the major function of MAY/JUN 2016



LEFT Scada system overview BOTTOM Wide area network Scada OPPOSITE PAGE Scada host platform

Scada is to acquire data from remote devices such as valves, pumps, transmitters, etc. and provide overall control remotely from a Scada host software platform. This provides process control locally so that these devices turn on and off at the right time, supporting your control strategy and a remote method of capturing data and events (alarms) for monitoring these processes. Scada host platforms also provide functions for graphical displays, alarming, trending and historical storage of data. Looking at the overall structure of a Scada system, there are four distinct levels, these being: • field instrumentation • PLCs and/or RTUs • communications networks • Scada host software. Field instrumentation The ability to fit pumps, motors and valves with actuators and performance measurement instruments, enabling a PLC/RTU to control the device rather than relying on manual control, and integrating laboratory testing equipment, means the control system can react more quickly to optimise process operations or efficiently shutdown processes under specific alarm conditions. PLCs and RTUs PLCs and RTUs, through technology convergence, are now almost the same thing. RTUs used to be “dumb” telemetry boxes that would essentially relay the data from an instrument to the Scada host without any processing or control. Its strength was that it had well-developed communication interfaces or telemetry. However, in the 1990s, control programming was added to the RTU so that it operated more like a PLC, which usually hosts the programmed code (instruction set) to control a particular instrument. Remote communications networks The remote communication network is necessary to relay data from remote RTU/PLCs, which are out in the field (the


MAY/JUN 2016

WWTW), to the Scada host located at the WWTW office, and/or to a central control centre. With assets distributed over a large geographical area, communication is the glue of a Scada system and is essential to its operation. How well a Scada system can manage communication to remote assets is fundamental to how successful the system is. With advances in technology, the communication medium changed to protocols. Protocols are electronic languages that PLCs and RTUs use to exchange data, either with other PLCs and RTUs or Scada host platforms. Many manufacturers gravitated to a single protocol, Modbus, but added on proprietary elements to meet specific functionality requirements. In recent years, protocols have appeared that are truly non-proprietary, such as DNP (distributed network protocol). These protocols have been created independently of any single manufacturer and are more of an industry standard. Many individuals and manufacturers have subscribed to these protocols and contributed to their development. However, there is still a heavy investment in Modbus variants. As the benefits of these protocols become more apparent to users, it is expected that they will be more readily accepted and become a component of standard solutions provided specifically for WWTWs. Scada host software Scada host software is the mechanism to view graphical displays, alarms and trends. Control from the Scada host itself

now provides real-time access to data that the software generates. Accounting, maintenance management and material purchasing requirements are preformed, or partly preformed, from data derived from the Scada system. Modern Scada software that encapsulates telemetry functionality uses drivers that are integrated into the Scada host itself. These drivers contain different types of protocols to communicate with remote devices such as RTUs and PLCs. As technology developed, Scada host software platforms were able to take advantage of many new features. These included the development of integral databases specifically designed for Scada host software requirements, being able to handle thousands of changes a second, for really large systems, yet still conforming to standard database interfacing such as open database connectivity, and object linking and embedding for databases. These standards are required so that third-party databases can access data from the Scada host software. Remote client access to the host is another technology that has enabled users to operate and monitor Scada systems while on the move between, or at other, locations. Security Security for Scada systems incorporates an open standard that has been produced to provide secure encrypted and authenticated data exchanges between remote assets and a Scada host platform. Scada security solutions are not a technological silver bullet, but a series of practices and procedures in conjunction with technological solutions. These practices and procedures would include items of training, Scada host access and procedures


to follow when Scada security has been compromised. In modern systems, IT departments are integral to implementing and maintaining Scada security for an organisation and should be included in setting up practices, procedures and implementing technologies. In a nutshell From the introduction of actuators and transducers (which made process monitoring easier, more accurate and less costly) at the instrumentation level to the introduction of open standards (to improve the interchange of data between a Scada system and other processes within an organisation), Scada systems have exploited the various technological advances to drive forward their proficiency. The drive of modern Scada systems is to: â&#x20AC;˘ provide instrumentation and RTUs/ PLCs for asset or process solutions that can be easily managed and to provide operational benefits from the SCADA host down to the instrumentation, not just in terms of controlling and retrieving data but also engineering,

implementing, operating and maintaining these assets â&#x20AC;˘ develop and employ open standards to further ease the integration of assets within a Scada system, using best practices defined by open groups and not a single manufacturing entity; this reduces the cost of Scada â&#x20AC;˘ provide secure environments for Scada systems and the assets or processes by not only providing technology solutions but by implementing a series of practices and procedures.

Clearly, the technology is readily available to achieve the solution as described. All it requires is the political will and, of course, the budget to make it a reality. Automation brings huge operational benefits, but the most important benefits are those that will protect the environment and the population of South Africa from contaminated water. Nothing could or should be more important than this, particularly for those in positions of authority who control the treatment of wastewater. MAY/JUN 2016


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Innovative qualities Quality and innovation define what Amanzi Meters is all about. In a remarkably short period of time, the company has established itself as a leading innovator in the water metering industry.


ts small team is focused on product development and providing solutions for water management. Amanzi’s products are all locally manufactured, in support of government’s initiatives to retain and expand manufacturing skills as well as create employment opportunities. Amanzi Meters operates an accredited SANAS verification lab and is currently training additional verification officers. Its water meters are NRCS approved and the strong meter body, manufactured from a composite engineering material, ensures a robust meter that can withstand extreme weather conditions. Amanzi Meters also designs and manufactures its own meter boxes, ball valves and components. Smart residential expertise Amanzi’s products are focused on the residential market and well suited for utilities seeking automated metering, as well as submetering of gated communities and residential complexes. The Amanzi Meters Smart System (AMSS) applies radio frequency and GSM to communicate and read meters remotely. Satellite communication

is also available in collaboration with a supdesigned for the allocation of subsiplier who has been providing solutions to dised water to indigent communities, the Department of Water and Sanitation, has now been upgraded with prepaid as well as the SANDF for the past 12 years. capabilities. A unique, trickle-flow funcUnlike the proximity meters used in a tion is being patented. The AMR reader walk-by, drive-by system, the AMSS is an is a cost-effective alternative to the iMexample of advanced metering infrastrucvubu valve and can be wirelessly linked ture (AMI) and is an integrated system of to a display on the user’s premises. Data smart meters, communication networks can be sent to the utility for monthly and data management systems, enabilling, without the constraints of bling two-way communication between the iMvubu. utilities and customers. It uses bidirectional, ultra-low-power radio networks, Growing footprint integrated with GSM and/or satellite Raufoss Water & Gas of Norway has to allow reading of meters as well as appointed Amanzi Meters as the sole the control of the iMvubu valve (open/ distributor of Isiflo Sprint couplings – close/restrict) from a remote office. a suitable replacement for more The AMSS is a true AMI system, with expensive brass fittings. eThekwini advanced functionality not requiring an Municipality is currently conducting a electricity connection. The AMSS operates pilot project with Isiflo fittings, yielding in the ISM 868 MHz licence-free bandwidth positive test results. The success of this and does not pose any pilot project will health hazards due lead to the local The exponential to electromagnetic manufacturing of growth Amanzi is emissions. The longsome of Isiflo’s comcurrently experiencing ponents, which will, life battery can be has seen it relocate replaced in the field in turn, facilitate the to ensure an extended sale and distribution to larger premises lifespan of the equipof Amanzi Meters’ to cope with the ment. The system can products in Europe. increasing demand effectively be used for Amanzi Meters for its products credit control, meter continues to make reading and billing, inroads into Africa, service suspension and reconnection, as as it establishes itself as an exporter well as leak detection. with considerable opportunities being The iMvubu valve can be applied for considered in Africa, Europe and other drought control in cases where water territories. The exponential growth restrictions are enforced. One residential Amanzi is currently experiencing has complex, where a pilot seen it relocate to larger, more upgradproject was imed premises to cope with increasing plemented since demand for its products. November 2015, Amanzi’s owners and shareholders has since reported have invested heavily in research and a 30% saving development, which is indicative of on water. Amanzi’s their unwavering belief in the future iMvubu valve, initially success of the company. MAY/JUN 2016




When the lights go out

he many benefits of automation are negated by extended power failures. In mitigating this, steps can be taken to prevent such occurrences but, as usual, it takes time and money, and a careful assessment of needs. The options available are twofold, diesel generators or a solar-powered system. First things first: noise is pollution. Obviously, if you are going solar, noise will not be a problem. However, if you are going the diesel generator route, and depending on your location, noise could be a problem. In selecting a generator, be sure to specify whether you need a “quiet” or “very quiet” generator. Secondly, and the most important of all, is to assess your power needs. This is not too difficult a task and just requires some simple arithmetic. Each pump, motor, instrument, light, computer etc. will have a manufacturer’s label detailing, amongst other information, the watt or kilowatt rating of a specific item. It is a simple case of recording this rating for every item, multiplying this number by the hours in operation per day and then computing the result to get an overall total. If an instrument does not specify watts but, instead, amperes, the conversion formulas are: • for resistive load: Wattage = amperes x volts


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• for reactive load: Wattage = (amperes x volts) x load factor Resistive loads are typically used to convert current into forms of energy such as heat. Common examples include most electrical heaters, and traditional incandescent lighting loads. Reactive load is a little more complex. Alternating current (AC) is supplied in a 60 Hz waveform. Reactive power is produced when the current waveform is out of phase with the voltage waveform due to inductive or capacitive loads. Current lags voltage with an inductive load, and leads voltage with a capacitive load. With this in mind, it is clear that the best person to determine your total wattage requirements is a certified electrician. The advantages of choosing the right size generator, now that you have an idea of how to choose the right size generator to suit your needs, are: • no unexpected system failures • no shutdowns due to capacity overload

• increased longevity of the generator • guaranteed performance • smoother, hassle-free maintenance • increased system lifespan • assured personal safety • a much smaller chance of asset damage. The benefits of automation are numerous, the most important of which is keeping the customer happy. From an operational perspective, it results in higher productivity, reliability, availability, increased performance and reduced operating costs as a result of increased efficiency. This, quite simply, is why blackout mitigation is so necessary.

In time and off-grid

From concept ...

A South African company has developed a solarpowered and quick-to-install solution that provides a safe, reliable water source.


rentec is the developer of the Aquastation – an off-grid system that provides water to rural communities and eco-tourist lodges that are not in close vicinity to reliable sources of water and power. Speaking about the new technology, which he personally developed, Adrian Viljoen, process director, Prentec, explains the background to the company’s project at Boekenhouthoek, where much-needed supply has been provided to the community. “The requirements at the outset of the project were to augment the bulk water supply to community members using underground water, so that they have access at all times. Prentec partnered with Active Power to deliver an Aquastation-based system to this community,” says Viljoen. Boekenhouthoek is a small village in Mpumalanga and the project serves almost 2 000 dwellings at “free basic water” level. Technology focus Ryan Stewart, project manager, Prentec, discusses the technology: “Four solar-powered Aquastations, with integrated transfer pump stations, produce high-quality, safe drinking water for the community. Seven 30 000 litre sectional steel storage reservoirs are provided, which, together with 14 km of piping and 61 stand pipes,

Four solar-powered Aquastations, with integrated transfer pump stations, produce water for almost 2 000 Boekenhouthoek households

ensure that all members of the widespread community have easy access to water.” The Aquastation is a self-contained water treatment solution able to produce safe drinking water from surface or groundwater. The unit uses Hydranautics PVDF ultrafiltration membranes with a pore size <0.01 microns, which reliably removes all bacteria, viruses and microbial cysts. Automation in action Stewart explains that the system is fully automated and takes care of backwashing, cleaning and chemical dosing. Key components of the control system are a Mitsubishi mini programmable logic controller and a rugged variable-speed drive. Direct current power from the solar panels is used by a control board specially developed to supply power to the system. On-site operation Harry Seshabela, the site agent, adds, “On start-up, it took less than an hour for the water to be treated from the borehole through the Aquastation to the storage reservoirs and finally to the communal standpipe, and it was clean. Since startup, the plant has produced clean water every day.” MAY/JUN 2016


... to reality

Delivering intelligent turnkey solutions to the water industry since 1974. Prentec is internationally recognised as being at the forefront of SBR wastewater treatment solutions and has extensive experience in most treatment technologies. At Prentec, we are designers, engineers and manufacturers of water,wastewater, industrial and mine water treatment and reclamation plants.

PO Box 12181, Kempton Gate, 1617 t +27 11 976 5234

f +27 11 976 2802



Engineering a Greener Future

Sustainable solutions that work Kaytech will help you to implement sustainable solutions that work. Technological innovation is combined with a practical balance between engineering imperatives and cost-effectiveness to give you the greener answer to your ecological challenge. From landfills to coastal erosion, from basic rural amenities to large scale water infrastructures, each project presents its

Backed by professional engineering support, Kaytech is always a better solution. For more information on how Kaytech can help you, contact us today.


Johannesburg Port Elizabeth East London Cape Town Durban

011 041 043 021 031

922 453 727 531 717

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Filtration & Drainage • Separation • Road Maintenance & Rehabilitation • Water & Waste Containment • Erosion Control • Reinforcement

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own unique challenges. Kaytech has an extensive range of environmentally sound and recycled products to ensure that you get exactly what you need for your specific project.


Improving water efficiency in fruit processing

A newly completed Water Research Commission (WRC) study has developed a system to treat agri-industrial wastewater using enzymatic processes.


he fruit industry is a multibillion-dollar industry that is growing rapidly in all regions of the world. The production of juice consumes a large amount of fresh fruit and water, while generating large quantities of recalcitrant material called pomace. Citrus fruit production can produce up to 25% of wet mass in pomace. The industry does not have a particular use for the pomace and, as a result, it is considered waste. Fruit wastewater has poor water quality, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 10 000 mg/ℓ. This wastewater is normally released into the sewerage system, which can result in clogging. If it is introduced directly into rivers, it can lead to eutrophication of water bodies.

wastewater using enzymatic processes in order to generate clean water and, at the same time, produce value-adding products from such waste. The study focused on apple pomace and apple-derived wastes from industries in the Western Cape.

Study objectives Most fruits waste is lignocellulosic in nature, which poses specific problems for hydrolysis as an enzymatic treatment – as such substrates are particularly stubborn. The proposed process was suggested as a successful and cost-effective solution to the treatment of these wastes and involved the enzymatic treatment of agricultural wastes using suitable combinations of cellulases and oxidases (ligninases) in an effective ratio. The primary aim of the Tunable Immobilised Lignocellulosic Enzyme (TILE) system was to treat agri-industrial

Methodology Commercial enzyme mixtures presented a relatively cheap source of enzymes due to the fact that they are not purified and, therefore, present a lower processing cost. Activities of the individual mixtures, and mixtures in combination with each other, were determined. Synergy studies assisted in the optimisation of ratios of these enzyme mixtures to achieve optimal hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and enzyme mixtures were assayed to determine optimal pH and temperature conditions. Stability of enzymes was an important parameter, as this would reduce the overall cost of

Fruit juice production is a multibilliondollar industry, but the wastes remain an intractable problem

The primary aim of the system is to treat agriindustrial wastewater using enzymatic processes in order to generate clean water and, at the same time, produce valueadded products enzymes by allowing enzymes to be reused through several hydrolysis cycles. Apart from the optimal ratios of enzymes, the optimal enzyme concentrations, substrate concentrations and enzyme-substrate ratios were also determined for optimal hydrolysis. The change in the degree of synergy over time for the selected enzymes was also determined. This was important to achieve maximum hydrolysis and also for bioreactor design. Bubble batch reactors (1ℓ to 2ℓ) and 20 ℓ stirred-tank reactor systems were set up in order to monitor the release of the products and to follow MAY/JUN 2016



Water Purification Plant & Equipment INTRODUCTION SWANSA (PTY) LTD trading as SWAN’S WATER TREATMENT is a privately owned South African company specializing in the design and manufacture of the full spectrum of water purification equipment. Cost effective innovations are incorporated in our process and equipment designs with the plant being customised for each installation. Our extensive in-house expertise, ensures that out advanced technology is applied to the clients best advantage. PRODUCT RANGE • Water filters • Moore Airlift Rapid Gravity filters • Steel pressure filters • Steel rapid gravity filters Liquid/Solid Separation • Sludge Blanket Vertical Upflow Clarifiers • Diminishing Intensity Floc Conditioners • Incline Sheet Clarifiers • Upgrading of Horizontal Flow Clarifiers Chemical Dosing • Helical screw feeders • Rotary disc dry feeders • Water operated dry feeders • Gravity solution feeders • Metering pumps • Gas Chlorinators Effluent Treatment • Biofilter rotary distributors • Aerators • Clarifiers Miscellaneous • Package plants • Ammoniators • Sulphonators • Pilot operated diaphragm valves • Laboratory floc testers • Automatic pH control • Comparators • Domestic and industrial cartridge filters


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Swan’s Water Treatment | Prop. Swansa (Pty) Limited | Reg. No. 80/11814/07 Plot 91, Honingklip, Muldersdrift PO Box 777 Muldersdrift 1747 Tel: 010 594 9999 | Fax: 086 609 1595 www.swanswatertreatment.co.za P Swan


Besides glucose, other products are released in high amounts from the hydrolysis of apple pomace – these products can be used for value addition the reaction kinetics over time within these bioreactors. In order to determine the hydrolysis yield of specific sugars, the substrate used in reactions was also analysed to identify its chemical composition, allowing further optimisation of enzyme mixtures. This was combined with advanced analytical techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography, to determine the specific sugars produced, which also assisted in the optimisation of the enzyme combinations. Main results The most appropriate enzymes, based on previous studies related to the composition of the fruit wastes and wastewater, availability and cost, were

selected for the desired conversion of the apple pomace substrate. The specific commercial enzyme mixtures, Celluclast 1.5 L and Viscozyme L, were especially efficient, and synergy studies with another commercial enzyme mixture, Biocip Membrane, were performed. Synergy studies assisted in the optimisation of the ratios of the enzyme mixtures to achieve optimal hydrolysis, pH and temperature. Temperature stability studies were obtained and important areas of overlapping enzyme activities were also identified. Immobilisation of Viscozyme L and Celluclast 1.5 L posed a major challenge. A consolidated bioreactor system with both immobilised lignisases and hemi (cellulases) was established. However, the requirements of the glycoside hydrolases versus the laccase enzymes were very different, and these enzymes may have to be used in different reactors. Based on the challenges and costs experienced with using an immobilised system, scientists changed to using a free enzyme system. In addition, the commercial enzymes showed a very

The proper treatment of fruit farm effluent significantly improves local wastewater treatment plant performance and river water quality

high degree of stability during the hydrolysis reaction, further supporting the choice of using a free enzyme system. Room temperature could be used for the TILE bioreactor and this assisted in lowering the operational costs. An alternative mixing method was explored for the enzyme bioreactors – mechanical mixing instead of air-sparging. Spiking of the bioreactors with new substrate resulted in a subsequent increase in the amount of sugars released and high substrate loadings resulted in high sugar yields. Viscozyme L and Celluclast 1.5 L were highly stable (even after 400 hours) and were not limiting to the hydrolysis of apple pomace. Due to the stability of these enzymes and the low formation of inhibitory products like cellobiose, Viscozyme L and Celluclast 1.5 L could be used in a fed-batch bioreactor system without immobilisation. A yield of 35 g/ℓ glucose was possible after 400 hours’ MAY/JUN 2016




To obtain the full version of this repor t, ‘A tunable lignocellulosic enzyme system for treatment of industrial wastewaters’ (Repor t No. 2009/1/15), visit: www.wrc.org.za to download a free copy.

hydrolysis using high substrate loading. Besides glucose, other products such as galacturonic acid and arabinose were released in high amounts from the hydrolysis of apple pomace. These products can be used for value addition, making the whole TILE system more cost-effective. Using a one-litre batch reactor, 4.2 g/ℓ glucose and 16.8 g/ℓ reducing sugars were released, which corresponded to a 75% yield. This was an indication that the conditions employed were optimal for sugar release by the enzymes. The release of reducing sugars and galacturonic acid from apple pomace were faster than that of glucose, suggesting that the pectin and hemicellulose component of the pomace was hydrolysed first. Using experimental data of varying temperature, initial pH, enzyme concentration and substrate concentration, an artificial neural network (ANN) was successfully constructed to model and predict glucose and reducing sugars release. Initially, it was found that in-houseTrametes pubescens produced laccase could potentially enhance the amount of sugars released from


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the lignocellulosic substrate with the use of Viscozyme L and Celluclast 1. 5 L. However, the use of laccases was effectively negated by the addition of the third enzyme cocktail. When using all three enzyme cocktails in an optimised ratio, the addition of laccases did not improve the generation of sugars from the substrate and was subsequently eliminated during the reactor trials. With regards to bioreactor performance and tenability, enzyme cocktails and conditions efficiently reduced the bulk solids of two industrial apple pomace substrates, industrial peach pomace and industrial pear pomace. Sugar release was minimal from the AFP-Decanter substrate and the process did not reduce the fine solid nature of the substrate. This showed that this process was most efficient for the treatment of pomace (after pressing) and not the fine solids generated during classification of fruit juices. Apples, pears and peaches The COD results showed an increase in COD content after treatment, reflecting the release of organics (including sugars) due to the physical breakdown (during stirring) and the enzymatic degradation of the lignocellulosic pomace substrates. In general, treatment of apple (AFP-B and CFP) and pear pomaces resulted in similar reduced sugar and COD generation; peach pomace yielded only slightly

Lignocellulosic pomace can be affordably treated using suitable combinations of cellulases and oxidases (ligninases) in an effective ratio

lower reduced sugar and COD generation. The project showed that apple pomace solids can be efficiently reduced within 24 hours in a 20 ℓ stirred-tank reactor system using a mix of commercial cellulose cocktails. Besides the reduction in bulk solids, the treatment generated an effluent rich in sugars that can be directly fermented (i.e. no dilution required) for ethanol production or used as a substrate for the production of commercially and industrially important fungal enzymes (e.g. laccase produced by Trametes pubescens). Furthermore, the COD results show that the enzymatic treatment was complete within 24 hours and further treatment of the remaining solids in the current system was unnecessary. Conclusions The study, therefore, confirmed that, via optimising enzyme synergy in the bioreactor, the TILE system was able to hydrolyse apple pomase substrate loadings of up to 20%. Overall, this system has been shown to be flexible and robust, as it could be used to effectively reduce the bulk solids and release sugars from different pomace substrates – i.e. the TILE system was ‘tuneable’ to various fruit waste types.


Faster, safer copper pipe installations


raditionally, in providing gas services, copper pipes were either hard or soft soldered, or used compression fittings, depending on the application and medium. However, with the evolution of press connecting technology, a more practical, safer and faster alternative is available. Approved by the Germany’s Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water, Viega’s press connecting technology covers pipe diameters of between 12 mm to 54 mm, and can be used on any gas installation, including LPG and inert gases, diesel and heating oil – where copper pipework is specified. After just three processing steps – cutting the pipe to length, installing the press connector and verifying the insertion depth – pressing can be carried out, all in one pass. No calibration, as in the case of other piping systems, is necessary. This saves as much as 30% to 50% of labour time, compared with soldering. And, as the connectors are always pressed upstream and downstream of the leak, with a sealing ring, the connectors exhibit high longitudinal force.


raditional irrigation systems use a multitude of pilot-operated, self-actuated control valves for infield pressure reduction and flow control. However, there is much simpler equipment available that is less expensive to set up, and which provides long-lasting maintenance-free irrigation operation. One such control valves is the Maric flow control valve, which can function in most applications. These valves are very simple, tamper-proof, and are not vulnerable to

Pressings can be done using mains-powered or battery-powered press tools and jaws. This provides a high degree of flexibility, and, because of the extremely compact design, these tools can also be used to work in difficult-to-access locations, such as in installation ducts. 180-degree swivelling jointed press jaw sets provide even greater flexibility where required. Preselected pressing pressure is always maintained, which ensures leak-proof connections. Because it is safer to use than soldering, Viega’s press connecting technology has become quite popular. With no open flame, there is no fire hazard. Consequently, press-connected pipes can often be installed in explosive industrial environments without interrupting production operations. The pressing technology found in the Profipress G-range is an integral part of Viega’s other pipework offerings of piping systems in thick-walled mild steel (Megapress), stainless steel (Sanpress and Sanpress Inox) and galvanized steel (Prestabo) as well as dimensionally stable piping (Pexfit Pro). This means piping installations for a wide variety of media can be executed by a single contractor, using one press tool and the press jaws.

Long–lasting, maintenance-free dirt. The average expected service life is 20 years. Maric flow control valves control the flow rate chosen, irrespective of pressure fluctuations. Installing a Maric flow control valve is a lot simpler, and cheaper, than a pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve. Centre-pivot sprinkler systems are a typical application where the Maric flow control valve can be used instead of pressure-reducing valves. To explain, pressure-reducing valves are normally installed on centre pivots, so that the sprinklers can

be protected from over-pressure, and the flow rate can be set to the ideal setting. If you know the number of sprinkler heads on a centre pivot, and you know the ideal flow rate for each, you will know the total flow required. By simply installing a Maric valve in front of the centre pivot, the ideal volume of water will be supplied to the centre pivot. Pressure will also be automatically reduced to what is ideal for the centre pivot. This will ensure even distribution of water to all the centre pivots. MAY/JUN 2016



Africa Utility Week & Clean Power Africa


he 16th annual African Utility Week and Clean Power Africa is a networking, conference and trade exhibition for African power and water utility professionals. If you are an engineer, stakeholder or solution provider for these industries, this is an opportunity to meet with utilities, governments, large power users, IPPs, consultants, contractors and regulators. With 250 exhibitors, on a 12 000 m2 area and a conference with 1 200 delegates and an estimated 6 000 visitors, African Utility Week is set to be a global view of the power and water industries. African Utility Week promises to be the right place to find suitable


solutions, best practices and case studies from around the world for power generation, T&D, metering, clean energy, finance, reliability, water supply and energy efficiency. Keynote speakers include Elham Mahmoud Ahmed Ibrahim, who is a commissioner for Infrastructure and Energy for the African Union, Ethiopia; Michael Liebreich, chairman of the advisory board and founder, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, UK; James E Rogers, former CEO and board chairman of Duke Energy USA; and Anton Eberhard, professor of the Management Programme in Infrastructure Reform and Regulation at the Graduate School of Business at UCT.

WHEN 17-19 May 2016 WHERE Cape Town ICC FOR MORE INFO, VISIT www.african-utility-week.com

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A R C H I T E C T U R E • H O U S I N G • C E M E N T • C O N S T R U C T I O N • P R O P E R T Y D E V E LO P M E N T





4 – 5 O cto be r 2016 | Safari Park H otel, Nairob i, Kenya CONSTRUCTION EAST AFRICA

Endorsed by

B o o k y o u r s p a c e n o w t o g e t i n s i d e E a s t A f r i c a ’s p r o p e r t y a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n b o o m ! A c c e s s t h e r a i n m a ke r s a n d g a m e - c h a n g e r s t h a t h a v e b r o u g h t t h e I n c o m e Re a l E s t a t e I n v e s t m e n t Tr u s t ( I - R E I T ) t o E a s t A f r i c a i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t y a n d l i q u i d i t y i n E a s t A f r i c a ’s p r o p e r t y m a r ke t s .




Host media partners

As part of a global series of African events CONSTRUCTION


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WISA Conference & Exhibition 2016 The Water Institute of Southern Africa is holding its biennial conference in Durban from 15 to 19 May 2016. As the official journal of the Institute, Water&Sanitation Africa extends an invitation to you to attend this event.

WISA Biennial


he local organising committee has created a jam-packed conference programme that is as diverse as it is comprehensive. With over 100 unique exhibitors participating, this is the most important event on the water calendar. The theme, Water – the Ultimate Constraint, will be supported by sub-themes ranging from community water supply and sanitation, industrial water and effluent, all the way through to information technology, legislation,

Conference & Exhibition

Water and Sanitation Services South Africa (Pty) Ltd (WSSA) is a specialised provider of sustainable water services in Southern Africa

15-19 May 2016 •

management and institutional affairs and fracking, to name a few. The range of events at WISA 2016 is diverse and exciting. The three days include presentations, workshops, technical tours, sessions on all sub-themes running concurrently, social functions – including the Gala Dinner – and Young Water Professionals events run by YWP-ZA. There are so many options that you will end up having to choose what you are prepared to miss!

Durban ICC

South Africa


Water Our most precious resource

ISBN 978-0-620-70953-8

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Water & Sanitation Africa May/June 2016  

The Water and Sanitation Africa magazine publishes content dealing with the supply, treatment and measuring of water in southern Africa.

Water & Sanitation Africa May/June 2016  

The Water and Sanitation Africa magazine publishes content dealing with the supply, treatment and measuring of water in southern Africa.

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