Page 1

Promoting professional excellence in the water sector

Water& Sanitation The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete water resource and wastewater management


ZETACHEM A member of the Omnia Group


chemical solutions

OPINION A legacy to be proud of! WATER QUALITY Monitoring drinking water quality in SA INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT Urgent interventions for AMD lauded


Nalco aims to provide and protect what is vital to ensure clean water, safe food, abundant energy and healthy environments. P14 Casimiro da Silva, Nalco Africa’s regional sales manager for Water & Process Services


May/June 2014 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R50.00 • Vol 9 No. 3

OUR VISION To be a provider of sustainable, universally competitive water and sanitation solutions for Africa.

OUR MISSION To deliver and supply world class affordable, reliable, and good quality water and related services to all stakeholders through: • Safe, efficient transport, sustainable and innovative business practices; • Empowered employees; • Mutually beneficial strategic relationships; and • Legislative compliance and best practice

OUR VALUES • Excellence • Caring • Integrity • Equity • Spirit of Partnership

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Our National Presence LIMPOPO PROVINCE











Richards Bay LESOTHO




East London WESTERN CAPE Cape Town


Port Elizabeth



North West

City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Council

Rustenburg Local Municipality

Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Council

Royal Bafokeng Nation Local Municipality

Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality

Madibeng Local Municipality

Emfuleni Local Municipality


Mogale City Local Municipality


Midvaal Local Municipality

Govan Mbeki Local Municipality

Merafong City Local Municipality

Thembisile Hani Local Municipality

Randfontein Local Municipality

Victor Khanye (Delmas) Local Municipality

Westonaria Local Municipality Lesedi Local Municipality


Free State

Kungwini Local Municipality Sandspruit Water Association

Ngwathe Local Municipality Metsimaholo Local Municipality

OUR INTEGRATED BUSINESS MODEL The following diagram presents a schematic flow of Rand Water’s preferred treatment regime of the process from abstraction to the end consumer.

Raw Water





Water is abstracted from the Vaal Dam to be purified at the Zuikerbosch and Vereeninging Purification Stations

Addition and rapid mixing of chemicals referred to as coagulants to form settleable flocs. Conventional treatment employs activated silica and hydrated lime.

Slow mixing of the water to assist the suspended particles to grow, forming heavier visible particles called floc.







Flocs settle by reducing the velocity and the turbulence in specially designed tanks, also engineered to reduce sludge.

Water flows into the carbonation bays where it is stabilised by bubbling carbon dioxide gas to reduce the pH of the water.

6 Water passes through the filter houses where the remaining suspended matter is removed by straining the water through rapid gravity sand filter beds.

Primary Disinfection

Main Pumping

Secondary Disinfection




The water leaving the primary purification works is disinfected with chlorine to kill any remaining micro-organisms, bacteria and viruses.

Water is then pumped from the primary disinfection plants, the Zuikerbosch and Vereeniging plants, and elevated by approximately 200m to the four booster pumping stations, namely Zwartkopjes, Mapleton, Eikenhof and Palmiet, situated in the southern foothills of the Witwatersrand.

Once received at the booster pumping stations, chlorine and ammonia are added to form monochloramine, which protects the water against bacterial growth.

Booster Pumping

Tertiary Disinfection





After secondary disinfection, water is pumped several kilometers to the tertiary pumping station for further tertiary disinfection and pumping.

Addition of sodium hypochlorite at the tertiary plants to prevent bacterial regrowth in the distribution system and to maintain good water quality.

Water is pumped through a pipeline network to reservoirs for storage and final distribution to customers.

Call Centre 0860 101 060

11 minute. minute. 11 technology. technology. 808,000 808,000 liters liters

of ofwater watersaved. saved. The The numbers numbers are are truly truly astounding. astounding. Looking Looking at at just just one one of of Nalco’s Nalco’s innovations, innovations, 3D3D TRASAR™ TRASAR™ Technology, Technology, these these areare thethe water water savings savings experienced experienced every every minute minute byby our our customers customers worldwide. worldwide.In In fact, fact, since since itsits introduction introduction 3D3D TRASAR TRASAR Automation Automation alone alone has has saved saved over over two two trillion trillion gallons gallons of of water. water.It’sIt’s only only one one of of a broad a broad offering offering of of Nalco Nalco technologies technologies and and services services that that save save water water and and reduce reduce energy energy consumption, consumption, helping helping companies companies reduce reduce operational operational costs costs and and environmental environmental footprints. footprints.

Visit Visit usus atat Stand Stand 3131 & 32 & 32 atat the the WISA WISA Bi-Annual Bi-Annual Water Water Innovations Innovations Conference, Conference, Mbombela, Mbombela, Mpumalanga Mpumalanga 2323 - 29 - 29 May May

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RRE EI N I NVVE ENNT TI N I NGG T THHE E WWAAYY WWAAT TE ERR I S I S MMAANNAAGGE EDD Nalco Nalco Africa Africa Operations Operations Building Building 14,14, Ground Ground Floor, Floor, Greenstone Greenstone HillHill Offi Offi cece Park Park Emerald Emerald Boulevard, Boulevard, Greenstone Greenstone Hill, Hill, South South Africa Africa Tel:Tel: +27 +27 10 10 590 590 9120 9120Fax: Fax: +27 +27 10 10 590 590 9130 9130 nalcoafricareception nalcoafricareception © 2014 © 2014 Ecolab Ecolab USA USA Inc.Inc.AllAll rights rights reserved reserved


Volume 9. No.3

Promoting professional excellence in the water sector

Water& Sanitation The official magazine of the Water Institute of Southern Africa

Complete water resource and wastewater management


ZETACHEM A member of the Omnia Group


chemical solutions

OPINION A legacy to be proud of! WATER QUALITY Monitoring drinking water quality in SA


Zetachem’s commitment to the water industry p6

17 A water and wastewater treatment legacy to be proud of!

REGULARS Editor‘s comment Africa round-up Product news COVER STORY Zetachem’s commitment to the water industry

4 21 95


WISA President's comment YWPs learn how to enter the water sector

8 10

WRC NEWS Water as a human right


HOT SEAT Nalco: Industry ensures sustainability


OPINION Water management in SA leaves much to be desired 16 A water and wastewater treatment legacy to be proud of 17 AFRICA Upgrading dam infrastructure


WATER QUALITY Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa Bold developments at Mpumanzi Specialists in potable water WRC at the forefront of water research

24 30 37 38

WATER DELIVERY Water infrastructure assets Northern Aqueduct start-up on track Brining hope to communities Bivane Dam lauded for sustainability Helping those in need Pilanesberg Bulk Water Supply Scheme launched

43 47 48 51 53 54

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT Urgent interventions for AMD lauded


Nalco aims to provide and protect what is vital to ensure clean water, safe food, abundant energy and healthy environments. P14 Casimiro da Silva, Nalco Africa’s regional sales manager for Water & Process Services


May/June 2014 • ISSN 1990-8857 • Cover price R50.00 • Vol 9 No. 3

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT Water-energy nexus Bundled operation and maintenance Urgent interventions for AMD lauded Specialist know-how for dewatering mines

55 57 59 63

PANEL DISCUSSION A country stands or falls on the quality of its water Andre Harding, NCP Chlorchem Christian-Wolf Mahncke, WAM Technologies Rowan Whittington, Talbot & Talbot

67 69 71 73

WASTEWATER The reality of South Africa’s WWT technology Flagship wastewater plant for Windhoek Resilient wastewater membranes Harbour sewerage upgrade a success

81 85 87 88

REGIONAL FOCUS Rand Water graduates to address municipal skills shortages Bulk water and sewage for Midvaal Driving quality Specialised joint sealant for Midvaal

90 91 93 94

24 Water quality in South Africa: Information systems for local needs





Publisher Elizabeth Shorten Editor Maryke Foulds Head of design Frédérick Danton Senior designer Hayley Mendelow Designer Kirsty Galloway Chief sub-editor Tristan Snijders Sub-editor Beatrix Knopjes Contributors Eiman Karar, Professor Eugene Cloete, Jeremy Rose, Dr Michele Kruger, Michael Champanis, Reginald Makoane, Rob Boyd, Ronald Brown, Ronell Viljoen, Shaun Deacon, Ulrike RIvett, William Bedser Marketing manager Hestelle Robinson Digital manager Esther Louw Client services & production manager Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator Jacqueline Modise Distribution manager Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham Financial manager Andrew Lobban Administration Tonya Hebenton Printers United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales Avé Delport Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6224 • Cell: +27 (0)83 302 1342 Fax: 086 502 1216 • Email: Publisher

Local water fraternity leads the way May is an important month for the water industry in South Africa, with the WISA 2014 conference being held in Mbombela, Mpumalanga.


Physical address: No 4, 5th Avenue Rivonia 2056 Postal address: PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117, South Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 Email: MEDIA

ISSN: 1990 - 8857 Annual subscription: R300 (SA rate) Email: Copyright 2014. All rights reserved.

HIS EXCITING event brings

The recent launch of

together water professionals

the De Hoop Dam by

from across the African con-

President Jacob Zuma

tinent as well as the global

brings with it the knowl-

water fraternity. The conference and

edge that new dams and infrastructure

exhibition is jam-packed with new

of this calibre will help bring South Africa

products and solutions as well as the

up to speed with its development goals.

latest on research and development.

Infrastructure expansion and maintenance


remain a priority for government and,

to be the official publication for the

with initiatives such as the Rand Water

Water Institute of South Africa as well as

Academy’s graduate programme, these

All articles in Water&Sanitation Africa are copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publishers. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Water Institute of Southern Africa or the publishers.

publishers of the informative WISA con-

issues are now being addressed. The ability

ference guide. The theme for this year is

to not only understand the theoretical

‘Water Innovations’ and, in keeping with

aspects of water management and infra-


this, the May issue looks at some issues

structure supply but also the practical and

around this topic, such as water quality

maintenance issues coupled to this, are

and delivery.

effectively being targeted through such

Water&Sanitation Africa

HEAD OFFICE Tel: +27 (0)11 805 3537 Fax: +27 (0)11 315 1258 Physical address: 1st Floor, Building 5, Constantia Park, 546 16th Road, Randjiespark Ext 7, Midrand

WASA looks at some of the challenges in providing water-quality solutions to

BRANCHES Eastern Cape Chairman: Hennie Greeff Tel: +27(0)41 453 3102 Secretary/Treasurer: Chris Dickson Tel: +27(0)41 507 8200

Free State Chairperson: D.R. Tlhomelang Tel: +27(0)51 403 0800 Secretary/ Treasurer: Riana Wessels Tel: +27(0)56-515-0375 KwaZulu-Natal Chairman: Chris Fennemore Tel: +27 (0)31 311 8734 Secretary/ Treasurer: Stephanie Walsh Tel: +27 (0)31 302-4077 Western Cape Chairman: Gareth McConkey Tel: +27(0) 21 712 4260 Secretary/ Treasurer: Eleonore Bondesio Tel: +27(0)21 872 0322


initiatives. We hope to see more of these in the future.

the industry with informative articles,

The water industry in South Africa is at a

and new developments and products.

very vibrant and innovative period in its

WASA also reports on the recent lower-

history. At Water&Sanitation Africa, and its

ing of acid mine drainage pipes at the

related products, we aim to continue bring-

Central Basin in Gauteng. This initiative

ing you the latest and most up-to-date

was launched by the Minister of Water

information on new projects, innovations,

Affairs, Edna Molewa, and has been

products and solutions. If you have any in-

lauded as a step in the right direction in

formation that would benefit the industry,

the fight against acid mine water.

please don’t hesitate to contact me directly

Water delivery has been a key issue in the past few months, with violent

to discuss. Your comments and suggestions are valuable to us.

service-delivery protests excellence

sector in the water

itation Water& San Africa Promoting


magazine The official

Com plet e

urce wate r reso

Institute of the Water

man agem

ewa ter and wast

of Southern


throughout the country.



of the Omn

ia Group

Cover opportunity


chemical solutions

WISA mission statement The Water Institute of Southern Africa provides a forum for exchange of information and views to improve water resource management in Southern Africa.

A legacy to

OPINION be proud of!

LITY WATER QUA drinking Monitoring ity in SA water qual EFFLUENT INDUSTRIAL ventions Urgent inter lauded for AMD

Endorsed by IN THE HOT SEAT

Nalco aims

, e clean water is vital to ensur protect what ts. P14 to provide and environmen s and healthy Process Service ant energy for Water &

safe food, abund Casimiro da


Silva, Nalco


al sales manag

Africa’s region

Maryke Foulds


1990-885 2014 • ISSN


3 • Vol 9 No. price R50.00 7 • Cover

In each issue, Water&Sanitation Africa offers companies the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the magazine. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings contact Avé Delport on +27 (0)83 302 1342 or email



COLLECTIVE ACTION DRIVING SUSTAINABLE WATER SOLUTIONS Sasol Water Sense puts the power of collective action to work. Together with our partners, the Emfuleni Local Municipality has seen 4.4 million cubic meters of water saved so far – that is the equivalent of 1 800 Olympic size swimming pools. 26 Water Warriors have interacted with the community to inform and educate people about how to use less water. About 90 000 households and 76 schools in Evaton and Sebokeng participate in a water meter monitoring and leak-fixing programme, whereby 70 000 leaking taps and toilets have been repaired by 60 plumbers. This is the power of collective action and the results speak for themselves.


It’s clear water Is a part of our future.

For more information on Sasol’s water stewardship projects visit




Zetachem's commitment to the water industry In a recent interview with Trevor Johnston, divisional managing director, and Susan Roodt, sales manager, the latest developments within Zetachem and the challenges currently facing the water industry in South Africa were discussed. Maryke Foulds reports.


What are the current developments within Zetachem?

services through innovative problem

sulphate production, we are rebuild-

solving and tailor-made chemical

ing the entire plant, with the aim of

TJ Zetachem is part of the Omnia

formulations. The Zetachem plant

reducing maintenance costs.

Group, which includes Protea

in Mobeni, Durban, manufactures

Chemicals Division, and as a group

the widest range of products used

we are looking at expanding our

in the water treatment industry and

services to meet the needs of the

we have a philosophy of continuous

market. In the past, Zetachem has

improvement in efficiency and

traditionally focused on supplying

productivity. We are currently

As a major player in the South African water industry, what do you consider to be the biggest challenges that our country faces?

product to the major water

increasing levels of automation and

SR There are a number of challenges

boards; however the latest group

are planning on expanding capacity

in the industry. Many municipalities

strategy includes the smaller water

in our DADMAC monomer, poly-

are battling with resource challenges

treatment entities via the Protea

DADMAC, aluminium chlorohydrate

i.e. finding the right people with

distribution network.

and polyamine plants. In addition,

the right skills to run the water

Zetachem operates in the area of

we are backward integrating in ACH

plants. This results in suppliers,

liquid-solid separation processes and

production to improve throughput

such as ourselves, being called

its vision and values include excel-

and reduce costs. In our Cape

on to supply technical as well as

ling in the provision of products and

Town operation, home of our ferric

product support. There are also


COVER STORY water source challenges where

constantly stretches our commercial

increased levels of pollution have

and logistical skills. It’s part of

to be dealt with by these smaller,

the landscape.

less sophisticated plants. The Blue

ago, have, however, gone a long way

We also hear that ISO 14001 is in the pipeline. What does that mean for your customers?

in improving the quality of water in

SR ISO 14001 is very much about

certain areas of the country, from a

reassuring our customers that the

holistic perspective.

environment is not negatively

and Green Drop programmes which were initiated a number of years

impacted during the production of

Many South African companies are looking north for expansion, is Zetachem following this trend?

our products.

TJ Yes, definitely. We have enjoyed

issues, as stated in our mission state-

good growth into Africa, we have a

ment, but to date we haven’t had a

footprint in Botswana and Namibia

formal rating for this commitment.

and our products are found in

Historically we were leaders with

Swaziland and Mozambique via

respect to ISO 9001 and Zetachem

resellers. We have made significant

pioneered NSF accreditation in

inroads into East Africa, particularly

South Africa. ISO 14001 is a formally

Uganda and Tanzania.

documented environmental man-

TJ Zetachem has always been concerned about environmental

agement system that will ensure the

With such global competition, why do Uganda and Tanzania choose South African products?

manufacturing processes are carried

SR Historically East Africa and India/

aiming for certification during this

China have strong trading ties and

calendar year.

out in a manner that minimises the

with these players are well as South

Omnia’s environmental policy. The

African competitors. Geographically,

Omnia Group is a voluntary signa-

“ISO 14001 is very much about reassuring our customers that the environment is not negatively impacted during the production of our products”

however, South Africa is a lot closer

tory to the Global Responsible Care

and this offers benefits.

Charter and as such we pledge to

Susan Roodt, sales manager

we see that we are often competing

TJ Also the East African countries

impact on the environment. We are

We are very much in line with

conduct our operations in a manner

are looking at increased service

that minimises adverse environmen-

entrepreneurial water technicians

levels due to the change from

tal impacts and protects the health

and engineers who can provide both

aluminium sulphate to more sophis-

and safety of our employees and

product and technical support to a

ticated polymer-type products; we

the public.

smaller customer.

can supply both the chemicals and

spond quickly to their needs. Service

What is the most important message that your customers need to hear at the moment?

is very important in this industry.

TJ Zetachem has always produced

We believe that major growth in

quality products. We are now

this market is more than possible

expanding our capacity to meet the

and we are taking advantage of the

needs of an ever-growing market

opportunities and doing everything

and continuing to backward inte-

we can to ensure that Zetachem

grate to ensure that we manufacture

continues to be a major role player.

at the lowest cost.

the support. Realistically South Africa isn’t terribly far away, so we can re-

The need for clean water in Africa is

BELOW Ferric sulphate plant

If you look at Zetachem’s product

growing and many of the countries

sales spread, it is extremely diverse.

we serve have a deep and growing

Our products reach a very wide

desire to run their water plants

market through both direct sales

efficiently and well. They are keen to

to major water boards and indirect

learn what they can from us and are

sales to resellers to the balance of

very enthusiastic.

the market. Resellers are important

The biggest challenge in working

ABOVE Polyamine plant

to our strategy as it enables our

in Africa is ensuring payment.

high-quality, responsibly manufac-

Managing the balance between

tured chemicals to be made availa-

supplying the customer and main-

ble to all levels of the industry. Most

taining a healthy revenue stream

of our resellers are highly skilled, MAY/JUNE 2014



Sanitation is dignity I thought it appropriate to discuss the recently published Report on the Right to Access to Sufficient Water and Decent Sanitation in South Africa: 2014, published by the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC).


HE REPORT is of significant


In support of the aforesaid, one

interest because it addresses

the SAHRC has regularly alerted

should also consider the following

the issues that concerns

Parliament to the problems that peo-


WISA, not only from a tech-

ple experience in realising and enjoy-


nical or managerial perspective, but

ing their rights, but it has not yet used


from a human rights perspective as

its powers to ensure government’s

Children’s Emergency Fund and Water

well. The SAHRC has been monitoring



Supply and Sanitation Collaborative

socio-economic rights in terms of

to the recommendations of various

Council’s report, ”Progress on Water

Section 184 of the Constitution since

Commission reports. It mentions that

and Sanitation 2014 Update”.

its inception shortly after

it is hoped that, “on this occasion”

the establishment of our

Parliament will use its powers to act.

new democracy in 1994.





For WISA this is a very serious


the in







“To achieve the targets, action must start now. Now is the time to act. Households, communities, local

The SAHRC was request-

matter as we need to consistently


ed in 2010 to report on

keep on urging all stakeholders in

society, and private companies all

two separate complaints

the water industry to be aware of

need to work together. Media and

regarding two munici-

these issues. Perhaps it is time for the

public opinion around the world

palities that built toilets

SAHRC to exercise the powers it says

can influence political leaders to

without enclosures in

it has. In 1994 there were 300 infor-

act now. For the principal target

their local communi-

mal settlements in SA, now there are

audience of politicians and gov-

ties. This necessitated

approximately 2 600.

ernment officials (particularly aid






The Commission’s recommenda-

administrators), the strategy for this

tions are nine pages long and I will list

year's World Water Day is designed

only a few of them below:

to increase substantive awareness,

• The Presidency, through the DPME,

ideally leading to decisive actions

will engage with the existing

in support of improved sanitation.



Related communication also consid-

violated the resi-

structures that deal with water and

ers the media, in developed but es-

dents’ rights to dignity, privacy

sanitation to ensure the necessary

pecially in developing regions, since

and a clean environment. It also ruled



the media has excellent capacities

that the Department of Performance

relation to the provision of water

to inform the population and guide

Management and Evaluation (DPME)

and sanitation.

their opinions.





and field.






both had

must provide a report on the right



• A national human rights cammust




Key areas of action that could create

of sanitation in every municipality


across the country to the SAHRC. This

addresses budgets and Integrated

• making political commitments

was done over a two-year period and

Development Plans (IDPs).

an impact are as follows: • creating legislation and regulations

led to the Commission deciding that

• The competency of sanitation pro-

to support improvement in access

the right to water and sanitation was

vision should be moved from the

and quality of sanitation and hy-

of such importance that it needed to

Department of Human Settlements

continue calling for accountability


from all spheres of government until







Water Affairs.

such time as concrete steps are in

• Government needs to evaluate and

place for improvement, hence the

address the systemic reasons for the

publication of this report.

failures at local government level. MAY/JUNE 2014

giene services • bringing together more resources, having stronger institutions and better trained people • culturally sensitive and appropriate hygiene education


choice is





environment-friendly • giving attention to gender and equity • supporting small-scale entrepreneurs • monitoring progress

towards these national objectives are:

other bodies having similar objec-

• When are we going to start imple-

tives, publishing papers, pamphlets,

menting the research recommen-

books and relevant information on

dations, in an integrated fashion,

the subject and acting as a channel

that will ensure the achievements


of these national objectives?

communities in need and the profes-

• How long are we going to con-


tinue competing with each other,

Clearly the water sector has our work

instead of assisting each other, to

cut out for us. We need to combine

achieve these objectives whilst our


our resources and use our intelligence

communities are suffering?

to the chairperson

disciplines. I wish to extend appreciation

to influence the various stakeholders

• How are we going to ensure that all

of the Community

to derive practical solutions for the

stakeholders play their respective

Water Supply and

dilemma that we are faced with as

roles adequately and with proper

Sanitation Division,

a country. We have the intellect to

planning in place?



address a host of impacting factors,

• How are we going to replicate the

for co-editing this

but we lack a cohesive and integrated

lessons learnt, and the successes, in

article and want to

approach, which affords the opportu-

other communities?


• How are we going to address the

efficiency. The water sector is the cus-

inequalities related to implementa-

todian of water- and sanitation-relat-

tion and service standards?


sionals of relevant

• and making information flow.

nity of resource optimisation and cost



bers to support this technical division. I would like to conclude


We can clearly see that WISA has a definite catalytic role to play in addressing these issues and we have to use our knowledge, skills and influence to speed up the transformation of this landscape

ed matters and as such must ensure

• What are we going to do about

that we provide appropriate solutions

undue interference in the rollout

my last article of

to restore the dignity of our citizens.

of agreed-upon implementation

a series during my tenure as WISA

This can only happen if we ensure

programmes, etc.?

President, with two very appropriate

that during the concept phase of any

We can clearly see that WISA has a

quotes from one of the most illustri-

intended initiative or intervention, we

definite catalytic role to play in ad-

ous leaders of all time - this with the

introduce the primary principles of

dressing these issues and we have to

dignity of sanitation in mind:

integration and research, for therein

use our knowledge, skills and influ-

"What counts in life is not the mere

lie the strengths or weaknesses of any

ence to speed up the transformation

fact that we have lived. It is what

of our endeavours.

of this landscape, and for that reason

difference we have made to the lives

We have very-well-resourced re-

we have various structures to facili-

of others that will determine the sig-

search institutions serving the water

tate that process, one of them being

nificance of the life we lead.”

sector such as the Water Research

the Community Water Supply and

“We must use time wisely and

Council, Council for Scientific and

Sanitation Division. The objectives of

forever realise that the time is

Industrial Research and the National

this division are as follows:

always ripe to do the right thing,”





To provide a forum by facilitating

millions of rands annually as funding

meetings, workshops, seminars and

the Honourable Nelson Rolihlahla

for research projects. The WRC has

conferences to disseminate knowl-

Both reports are available on WISA’s

funded projects regarding the provi-

edge and information on all matters

website (under doc-

sion of water and sanitation services

related to the delivery of water


to informal settlements and many

supply and sanitation services to the

stakeholders have participated in

disadvantaged people of Southern

Ronald M Brown

various initiatives. The questions that

Africa; collaborating with other pro-

President: Water Institute of

we are now faced with when striving

fessional and technical societies and

Southern Africa

“Madiba” Mandela.




YWPs learn how to enter the water sector The gap between university and a career in water can be a wide one. For young water professionals in the Western Cape, crossing it was made a little easier at an event hosted by the local chapter of the South African Young Water Professionals (YWP). By Jeremy Rose, secretary of the Western Cape branch of the YWP

A Prof Leslie Petrik (right) with YWP Western Cape members Godfrey Madzivire and Nora Hanke

T THE ‘ENTER the Water

national government, consultancies,

graduates, but cautioned that quali-

Sector’ workshop held in

the United Nations, research institu-

fications are only a small part of what

honour of Water Week in

tions, and NGOs.

she looks for in a candidate. Instead,

March 2014, YWPs met up

Gareth McConkey, chair of the

passion for the environment, demon-

with managers, directors, and senior

Western Cape WISA branch, summed

strated in concrete ways, plays a far

academics from across the water sec-

up his answer to the question,

greater part.

tor. Short face-to-face conversations

“How do I enter the water sector?”

YWPs who attended the event

allowed each YWP to learn as much

with the three Ps of passion, pride,

were excited about the chance to

as possible from experienced water

and professionalism.




outside of a formal (and stressful)

professionals. Thirty-five students and

Prof Leslie Petrik of the University

young professionals attended the

of the Western Cape emphasised the

event, enthusiastic about the chance

value of postgraduate study in pursu-

Tsiamo Mangadi found it “enlighten-

to meet with attendees from local and

ing a research career, offering some

ing and helpful” while Bukiwe Ntwana,

light-hearted asides on the best way

a research intern at the University of

to get a job as a professor.

the Western Cape, had this to say: "I

job-application process.

The World Wildlife Fund’s graduate

found the event very fruitful and it

development coordinator, Simonne

gave me a broader view about the

Stellenboom, highlighted the many

water sector and how diverse and

opportunities her organisation offers

exciting it is." The YWP will be hosting another series of ‘Enter the Water Sector’ workshops in May 2014, during the WISA conference in Mpumalanga. Look out for their stall in the YWP arena and sign up to take part!

Wilna Kloppers (left) of the Department of Water Affairs engages with Young Water Professionals




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Water as a human right The Constitution of South Africa has placed a legal obligation on the government to realise people’s right to sufficient water. In order to do this, South Africa has developed policies, strategies and institutions to manage water resources and deliver water services to people through local government structures. By Eiman Karar, executive manager, Water Research Commission





water has been included in our Bill of Rights, few people






the implications of a human rights approach to water, while those with a right to water also do not fully comprehend what is meant, particularly the most vulnerable and poor members of the South African community. The historical imbalances that have resulted in the spatial segregation and allocation of people and resources, respectively, are at the base of the problem; however, 20 years into democracy, access to water as a human right is an important issue to unpack. The generally accepted volume associated with the human right is 25 litres per person per day. However, we need to check if all citizens have access to this allocation. Does the country have enough water to allocate this volume to the population? By 2001, a number of povertystricken




afford to pay for water. In response, the government introduced “free basic water” to ensure that people’s human rights are honoured. At local government



provide an average of 6 000 litres per household per month to households as free water. This figure is based on the allocation of 25 litres per person per day for a household made up of eight people. Although the challenges of access are still real in some of our rural communities and informal settlements, the presence of this policy indicates that South Africa is serious about human rights. According to Eiman Karar, executive manager at the Water Research Commission (WRC), many of our other




depend on water. The right to live a dignified life can never be fulfilled unless all the basic necessities of life such as work, food, drinking water, housing, health care, education and culture are adequately and equitably available to everyone.




For example, the right to life depends on the availability of water. Unhealthy water is the cause of serious illnesses, such as diarrhoea, which kill over 2 million people worldwide each year. The rural areas of South Africa contribute significantly to these statistics as a result of the poor sanitation services in some areas of our country. The right to sufficient food means there needs to be enough water to irrigate crops or water livestock. The right to shelter is linked to the availability and accessibility of water from people’s homes.

You are a leading plant operator You want optimum water treatment We have the perfect solutions

“But perhaps the most important right linked to the right to water is the right to a healthy environment. If our environment and our rivers are not managed properly, there is no way in which people’s water needs can be met. The quantity of water can be affected by mismanagement of rivers on the one hand, and the varied pollution of our water resources by human activities, ranging from individuals to organizations, on the other hand,” explains Karar. The Bill of Rights also declares that all human beings have a right to a healthy environment. A healthy environment is one in which air pollution is reduced by plants that take up carbon dioxide and produce oxygen vital to animals and humans. Also, a healthy environment is one where there are plants available to feed both humans and animals, and where there are enough animals for other animals and humans to consume. Thus our activities as humans contribute largely to us realising our own rights which are enshrined in the Constitution and other legislation. The water we depend on for our lives is provided by the environment we live in. The health of our environment affects both the quantity and the quality of water

20 years into democracy access to water as a human right is an important issue to unpack

that is available to us. Without a healthy environment there will be no way that we can meet the basic water needs of people over the long term. Many parts of the water cycle need to be protected and monitored in order to ensure that we have enough water of sufficient quality to meet our basic and other water needs. Jennifer Molwantwa, research

manager at WRC says, “The right to water and the right to a healthy environment are difficult to separate. Without sustainable ecological practices, the availability and quality of water is threatened. To maintain a safe and secure supply of water we need to manage our environment in a holistic way: including managing our rivers and looking at the impacts of our agricultural practices”. Without careful management of our environment, we will not be able to meet the water needs of people in South Africa. We need river systems that work properly in a healthy environment, and rivers that are clean and healthy, if we are to supply people with 1THREAD_6335_WAT

their basic human needs. Additionally, a healthy environment lies at the base of our ability to provide people with their basic water needs. It is important to remember and understand this, because while people have voices and can make loud and clear objections when their needs are not met, the environment has no voice of its own and can easily be neglected when there are pressing demands being made by human beings. However, if we neglect the environment we will soon find that we are in a worse position when it comes to fulfilling other human rights. All South Africans have a role to play in ensuring better access to water which is our constitutional right. MAY/JUNE 2014


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Industry ensures Nalco Africa’s vision is to be the global leader in water, hygiene and energy technologies and services.



What options are available for industry to address issues relating to water scarcity in Southern Africa? he

water is something that all of

recycled and reused. It is about

us can play a role in. It is not

each company’s commitment

just the responsibility of in-

to the environment as well

dustry, but each one of us can

as the investment they are

safe food, abundant energy

issues relating to water scarcity

make a difference. Even though

prepared to make. There are

and healthy environments.

apply not only to South Africa

water is affordable in Africa,

various aspects in this process.

as a country and Southern

we need to increase awareness

Starting with treating the

Casimiro da Silva, Nalco Africa’s

Africa as a region, but to the

of the finite availability of the

water, followed by reusing,

regional sales manager for

entire continent of Africa. From

resource by highlighting recy-

and recycling, and then finally

Water & Process Services (WPS)

the 1.4 billion km3 of water

cling and reuse possibilities.

we are able to achieve what is

Division for the African region,

available in the world, only

about the solutions that the

35 million km3 is available for

state of assets. Infrastructure is

discharge and that is what

company offers to the water and

human consumption. To put

old and in some cases poorly

companies should strive to

process treatment markets of

the matter of water scarcity in

maintained, resulting in there

accomplish in terms of their


perspective, 70% of the world

being excessive leaks in the

sustainability commitments.

population lives in water

system and therefore wastage

is a full entity of the Ecolab

-scarce regions. Our philosophy

of water. On the industry side,

Company. The organisation

is that we promote the recy-

there are several technologies

offers expertise in the water

cling and reuse of industrial

that can be used that will

and energy sectors and that

water so that industry uses less

tackle the challenges relating

will ultimately assist the

water and subsequently the

to water shortages, recycling

Please provide an insight into options such as water reuse, recycling and repurposing that can be used effectively by industry Water

region in achieving its goal of

communities will have more

and reuse of water. In industry,

is a very simple molecule, but is

sustainable development.

water to use. In a world of

the water that is used in man-

also extremely complex in the

limited resources, protecting

ufacturing processes can be

way it can be treated. It can be

tect what is vital to ensure clean water,

Debbie Besseling speaks to

Nalco Africa, formed in 2010,

Another area of concern is the

What does your position as the regional sales and marketing manager for Water & Process Services Africa entail? Water and

cooled down, heated, and used

Process Services Africa includes

therefore small changes in

the entire sub-Saharan Africa

its environment can make it

region, which comprises

corrosive, or the tendency to

Southern Africa, East Africa

have scaling characteristics.

as a “conveyor belt” or means of transportation, because it can transport materials. It contains dissolved solids and

and western Central Africa. My

The term water reuse relates

function is to lead the team of

to where water can be used for

four district managers covering

another purpose, for example,

this region. I am responsible

the effluent of a wastewater

from a financial perspective,

treatment plant where it is

for the profit and loss of the

sterilised, cleaned, and then at

WPS, for Nalco Africa, in this

the end of the cycle reused for

region, as well as setting the

irrigation. Recycling refers to

business goals and defining

when the same water already

sales strategies.

used in the process, goes through a different process and

NALCO AFRICA, AN ECOLAB COMPANY Our Purpose: Every day, we make the world cleaner, safer and healthier – protecting people and vital resources: clean water, safe food, abundant energy and healthy environments.


known as ZLD, or zero liquid

is again used inside the same production area. For example, when water is recycled from

A 3D TRASAR for Cooling Water unit MAY/JUNE 2014

the wastewater treatment plant, back to the inlet of the


sustainability process, or in cooling water

or remote monitoring, the

performance impact we deliver

been reduced by 22 750 m3

systems, when used as a blow

correct response to detected

through our program and

(20%) per year. This has

down of a cooling tower and

changes in the chemistry or

services. As an example, glob-

resulted in freshwater costs

fed to the boiler.

process variables and; Delivers

ally, the 3D TRASAR systems

being reduced by R289 000 per

optimal performance and/or

installed saves over 808 000 ℓ of

year, wastewater costs reduced

savings that result in lowest

water every minute.

by R273 000 per year and the

How does the technology and expertise offered by NALCO assist in achieving the objectives of sustainable development? Our main goal is to assist the industry,

total cost of operation and/or

overall reduction in the total

environmental sustainability

complete package solution,

for the specific chemical or

from service, to equipment,

process application.

to chemicals, to monitoring

which a leading automobile

technologies. Nalco continu-

manufacturer, operating

ously looks for ways to extend

production facilities around

3D TRASAR Technology for

recycle and reuse water. All our

Cooling Water has saved the

technologies address this. We

amount of water equivalent

structure our business model

to the needs of almost

to address this vision. Globally,

1.5 million people in 2014, so

Ecolab has over 45 000 em-

far, and for over 13.8 million

ployees, with more than 25 200

people since the start of the

sales and service engineers

programme (based on 95 751.9

that work on-site with our


customers and in addition, we

The customer buys a

PARETO Mixing Technology

cost of operation is R562 000. Another case study refers in

“Customers will benefit from the expertise of a global network of experts that understand, breathe and live water”

have 19 innovations centres

effectively balances and

all over the world, with over

provides the optimal feeding

1 600 research, development

solution to significantly im-

and engineering (RD&E) asso-

prove chemical efficacy while

its innovative solutions to

the world, has made use of our

ciates and over 6 000 patents

minimising the consumption

more industries, geographies

advanced APEX technology

working together to constantly

of key resources, such as water

and systems.

for paint detackification. This

innovate our offerings to

and energy, further reducing

our customers.

the environmental footprint of


performance and has resulted

our customers.

A recent case study of savings

in delivering reductions in

demonstrated at a leading

the total cost of operation. In

regional producer of chemical,

terms of the environmental

agricultural, and mining

indicators, the following results

products operating across

have been achieved: sludge

that detects changing process

What benefits will clients achieve when they use NALCO’s technology in their water projects? Customers

Africa and the Asia-Pacific

dry solids have increased from

parameters, determines correct

will benefit from the expertise

region, which operates a major

22 to 40% (80% improvement),

actions and delivers unprece-

of a global network of experts

state-of-the-art nitric acid

eliminating >520 tonnes (45%)

dented return on investment.

that understand, breathe and

fertiliser plant in South Africa,

of sludge for disposal per year.

Critical aspects of any sustaina-

live water, all whilst making

producing granular, liquid and

bility strategy, such as resource

use of the best-in-class tech-

speciality materials, refers.

innovative NALCO paint

management, asset protection,

nologies. In addition, they will

The plant can deliver either

detackification solution that

safety and environmental

benefit from reduced water and

750 tonnes of production per

provides customers with supe-

compliance, are all improved

energy usage, improvements

day as 100% acid, or 1 200

rior sustainability performance,

with this technology. Nalco

in quality and through-put, and

tonnes per day as 60% acid.

in that it is 99% biodegradable,

creates significant value and

overall a reduction in the total

3D TRASAR Technology for

therefore saving water and

we help our customers achieve

cost of operation of any system.

Cooling Water from Nalco has

energy use, improving overall

maximum results.

We work on a philosophy

significantly improved sustain-

system collection efficiency

of environmental return on

ability performance and has

and cleanliness.

– Detects, as a detection tech-

investment (eROI). Through

reduced costs at this plant. In

nology to measure, key system

our eROI value approach,

respect of eROI, the following

parameters that can include

we demonstrate success in

environmental indicators have

chemistry or process variables

numbers. We quantify and

been achieved: freshwater

to detect upsets (e.g. pH, flow

consistently communicate the

demand has been reduced

and pressure); Determines,

environmental value along

by 22 750 m3 (20%) per year,

as a control system and/

with total cost of operation and

and wastewater discharge has

One of these is the 3D TRASAR Technology, which is one of the best tools for the reuse and recycling of water. It is a platform of technologies

3D TRASAR Technology

Casimiro da Silva

has improved sustainability


APEX technology is the



Water management in SA leaves much to be desired No one can live without water. However, judging by how many South Africans waste water, one would think we have an unlimited supply of it. By Professor Eugene Cloete of the University of Stellenbosch



of people without access to clean

which have been caused by the

of us may not

drinking water and sanitation.

mining industry. Ordinary taxpayers

realise is that there’s

Cities in Gauteng are threatened

now have to foot the bill for the


by acid mine drainage, while water

enough water to go around,

shortages in rural areas are leaving

and the little water we do

people without water for days on

that water, our most essential and

have is often too dirty for

end. Rivers are being polluted and

valuable resource, is disregarded

human consumption. It’s a

municipal water treatment systems

and abused.

gloomy picture, but true.

are failing. Furthermore millions of

In my view, the problem lies with

Let us not beat around the

people are flushing their toilets with

the fact that, although water is seen

bush, ­South Africa has ma-

potable water. The major irrespon-

as a human right, nobody owns it.

jor challenges when it

sible use of water by all, including

This negates the responsibility that

comes to the amount

the private sector, industry (e.g.

is supposed to go with securing this

of water we have and

acid mine drainage) and individuals,

natural resource.

the management of

is plunging us deeper and deeper

this critical resource.

into trouble.

Cities in Gauteng are threatened by acid mine drainage, while water shortages in rural areas are leaving people without water for days on end. Rivers are being polluted and municipal water treatment systems are failing.

treatment of this water. All





How do you make people understand their responsibility? By chang-

A lack of expertise

Meanwhile, accusations are flying

ing the value proposition, so that

at all levels and the

between individuals and state offi-

while water becomes everybody’s

concomitant lack of

cials. The individual is blaming the

right, it must also be valued and

the necessary infra-

government for poor services related

used responsibly by everyone. This

structure, especially in

to water supply and the state must

will require a drastically different

informal settlements,

simultaneously take the blame for

way in which we manage water.

have left thousands

the problems of acid mine drainage,

One possibility is to supply a minimum amount of water free of charge for human consumption (food, cooking and drinking) as is already the case, but to apply a more realistic “price” to water to increase its value to curb wastage. Industries should in the same way receive incentives for water “saving” in order to ensure the economy is not negatively influenced by the high price of water.

Prof Eugene Cloete, rector: Research and Innovation at Stellenbosch University (SU) and chairperson of the advisory board of the SU Water Institute.

Of course there are many ways in which the value proposition could be changed. One would be to look at new innovative technology to make the reuse of polluted water fit for human consumption possible on a major scale. The fact of the matter is that we do not have water to waste, and if we do not change our behaviour we will all be victims of load-shedding as

Mine water at Central Basin, Gauteng


was the case years ago when people took turns to get water. MAY/JUNE 2014


A water and wastewater treatment

legacy to be proud of!

South Africa has recently suffered from negative press regarding the quality of water being delivered to its citizens. By Dr Michele Kruger, Pr Eng





a purification works in the Hennops

plant has seen many upgrades and

know, good news doesn’t


River as well as the collection of

improvements and has been on



water from Grootfontein Spring. The

the cutting edge of technology, a


proposal was not supported by the

gem in the South African history of

Department of Agriculture.

water treatment.



that South African engineers together with government have made

Mr Chas E Stewart, chartered engi-

The capacity of the plant was

regarding service delivery and the

neer, was commissioned to plan and

upgraded to 40 Mℓ/d in 1988 and

development and implementation of

design the Rietvlei Dam. The con-

boasted the first full-scale application

first-class technology will never make

struction of the dam and purification

of dissolved air flotation and filtration

front page news, but credit needs to

works commenced in 1930 under

(DAFF) in South Africa. This combined

be given nonetheless.

the supervision of Mr BG Twycross

system removes algae and turbidity in

who was appointed as the resident

one step. The granular activated car-

Water – First-world technology

engineer. This work was carried out

bon filtration system was completed

The first documented mention of

thoroughly and conscientiously and

in 2000 and was the first operational

water treatment in South Africa

the project was completed four years

application of open-bed carbon grav-

was in 1929. Before then, water was

later in 1934. Most of the dam-wall

ity filters for drinking water treatment

supplied directly from springs and

pitching, stone walling and the dam

in South Africa. This fantastic system

other water sources. In the same

spillway was constructed by hand,

not only removes taste and odours,



due to the shortage of construction

but is able to adsorb endocrine

instructed consulting engineers to

machinery. Material for the earth-fill

disrupters as well. Talk about leading

commence with an in-depth study

wall was conveyed by ox wagons

the way! To top it off, Rietvlei water

of the Rietvlei-Grootfontein scheme

and donkey carts. Excavations and

treatment plant now also boasts

along with the drawing up of a report

building work for the purification

an ozone installation which assists

to be submitted to Parliament for the

works were also carried out by

in purifying water abstracted from

approval of a dam construction with

hand. The Rietvlei water treatment

eutrophic impoundments.





A state-of-theart wastewater treatment plant on the Cape Flats


OPINION developed including the Huisman Orbal and Carousel systems. In the 1970s capital became an extremely scarce commodity and it became economically advantageous to build much larger extended aeration plants, for instance the 80 Mℓ/d Olifantsvlei WWTW in Johannesburg, designed for nitrification. In 1948 Trevelyan identified that nitrate, activated sludge and a carbon source such as sewage can bring about denitrification. Barnard, a researcher at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research adapted these principles and in 1974 developed the

Katse Dam in winter

Bardenpho process. There are many gems like the

filter beds fitted with rotating trough

Rietvlei water treatment plant all

sprinklers which could be used either

enhanced phosphate and nitrogen

around South Africa that attest to the

as contact beds or percolating filters,

removal at the two-stage Alexandra

capability of South African engineers

but was only operated during wet

plant in Johannesburg by periodically

to enable municipalities to deliver

seasons. The honour of having the

switching off aerators for a number

First World, Blue Drop-compliant,

first operational sewage works fell to

of hours in the primary basin. In 1983

safe drinking water to South Africans!

Bloemfontein, where the plant com-

Paepcke reported that a number of



menced operation in November 1904,

first-generation biological phosphate

coming cheaper, treatment works,

two months prior to Wynberg. In 1906

removal plants were not performing

with limited space available for

a treatment scheme was recommend-

optimally and this led to the UCT and

expansion, can also be improved and

ed for Johannesburg, but it was not

modified UCT process, developed

more plants can be upgraded with

implemented and for many years

by the University of Cape Town.

this technology.

sewage was irrigated untreated on

Johannesburg Water took this process

land. Who knew Johannesburg would

further by rearranging the sequence

Wastewater treatment – prepare to be amazed!

be so outdone by Bloemfontein?

of the first two basins and this is now

In wastewater, the three components

in South Africa and many of these

What is astonishing is that all this

that need removal are carbon, ammo-

plants are still in use today. Biofilters

happened in our own back yard and

nia and phosphate. Carbon can quite

are able to reduce the carbon load

now these processes are used all over

easily be reduced by the introduction

in the sewage and, when designed

the world today and are described

of oxygen (in layman’s terms: bug

correctly, are also able to nitrify am-

in detail in all wastewater treatment

sees food, bug eats food in the pres-

monia. Later on engineers established

textbooks prescribed to prospective

ence of oxygen), but from there it gets

they were also able to denitrify by

engineers at all universities offering

tricky. Ammonia needs to be oxidised

means of recycling the effluent back

courses in wastewater treatment. An

to nitrates (and nitrites) and then

through the biofilters. The Union

achievement of which engineers in

denitrification needs to occur so that,

Health Act No.35 of 1919 permitted

this field remain extremely proud.

in the end, nitrogen gas

the Minister of Health to lay down

is released into the at-

standards for purified effluents, but

now advanced even further and

mosphere. Basically with

these powers were never exercised.


a lot of effort ammonia is

The Water Act No.54 of 1956 made

membrane bioreactor.

now a gas in the air and

it obligatory to discharge effluent to

With such an amazing history,

no longer a problem.

a watercourse, thereby recharging

wastewater in South Africa can over-



HISTORICAL DATA OBTAINED FROM: •E  wisa (19th, 20th century) South Africa’s Water History extracted from the world wide web: http://www.ewisa. default20c.htm •O  sborn DW (1988) Sewage purification in South Africa – past and present. Water Research Commission. Extracted from the world wide web: http://www. Hub%20Documents/ Water%20SA%20Journals/ Manuscripts/1988/03/ WaterSA_1988_03_509.PDF •R  ietvlei pamphlet distributed at Rietvlei Water Treatment Plant



In 1928 biofiltration was introduced





called the Johannesburg process.

Wastewater Cape

treatment Town





the catchment. This is extremely im-

come its challenges. Besides, we are

however, is extremely

portant in a water scarce country like

standing on the shoulders of giants!

tricky and an article on

ours. This Act, amended in 1984 has a

Stats SA reports that the govern-

its own. Now let’s get to

marked influence on the methods of

ment has improved the number of

the awesome stuff.

sewage purification.

South Africans who have access to



The first conventional activated

safe drinking water from 59% in 1994


sludge plant to be installed in South

to 95% currently. By introducing the

South Africa (1898) at

Africa, was at the Boksburg Hospital

special limits to wastewater effluent


in 1921. Extended aeration was tradi-

standards that discharge into sensi-


tionally reserved for package plants

tive catchments, the Department of


including those used in the gold

Water Affairs is working hard to protect our precious water resources.



operation After


commenced in





mining industry. This system used the




Pasveer Ditch (1959) and variations MAY/JUNE 2014

Go ahead! Spread the good news!


Upgrading dam infrastructure A major challenge in Africa is the ability of communities and businesses to access the water required for urban and rural human settlement as well as mining, industrial and agricultural development.


S PART OF the Angolan

responsible for the Kunene River

government’s ongoing ef-

Basin and manages this precious

forts to provide improved

resource together with Namibia.

basic services to residents,

GHABIC appointed Aurecon, in joint

Angola (LEA) appointed Aurecon in

Aurecon is increasingly becoming

venture with AECOM and Viaponte, in

September 2013 to carry out a condi-

involved in projects focused on the

2012 to provide project management

tion assessment and compile tender


services for the rehabilitation of the

documentation for the rehabilitation

Calueque Dam including technical

and upgrading of the hydro-mechan-

assistance for the design review and

ical and electrical equipment for the

construction supervision.

outlet works of the dam.



upgrading of Angola’s infrastructure. ​Aurecon has drawn on its extensive experience to assist the Angolan government in the rehabilitation and


Aurecon’s previous work on the

José Cordeiro, business develop-


ment leader, Aurecon Angola, says:

isting water infrastructure, including

pointment by GHABIC to provide

“Quiminha Dam was constructed in

Calueque and Quiminha Dams.



the period between 1964 and 1975.

documentation services for the dam

The dam was well planned and con-

Calueque Dam, Cunene province

and infrastructure. Additional services

structed to the highest standards and

Calueque Dam is located on the

included tender evaluations and con-

configured with long-term foresight,

Cunene River in southern Angola.

tract negotiations with the successful

i.e. provision has been made in one of


contractors for this 2005 project.

the 4.5 m diameter outlet tunnels for









upgrading of dams as part of its ex-





country gained independence from

Completion of the current Calueque

Portugal and was not completed by

Dam rehabilitation project is expect-

the time the Angolan civil war started

ed by July 2015.

a future 16 MW hydro-power station.” “We are very pleased with our Aurecon is committed to leading

Quiminha Dam, Bengo province

the developing world, which means


Quiminha Dam, approximately 80 km

that investing in key areas of oppor-

through the 1964 Cunene River

from Luanda, the capital of Angola, is

tunity is vital in order to produce

Scheme Agreement, the dam sup-

a 41 m high zoned earthfill embank-

lasting growth. We are committed to

plies water for a variety of uses.

ment dam with a storage capacity of

Angola and to engineering a better

Gabinete para a Administração da

approximately 1 560 million m3 and

future for its citizens,” says José

Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Cunene

was initially constructed to regulate

Miranda, Aurecon regional manager,

(GHABIC) is the Angolan authority

the Bengo River.

West Africa.




BELOW Intake Tower on right bank of Quiminha Dam basin

appointments on these two dams.

in 1975, which devastated the dam. A source of water for southern

ABOVE AND BELOW MAIN Caluque Dam, Angola



“Clean water?”


Delivering sustainable infrastructure that improves our world. “DOING GOOD WHILE DOING BUSINESS”

Contact, or the office most convenient to you: Pretoria (012) 842 8700; Johannesburg (011) 802 0560; Bloemfontein (051) 430 1423; Cape Town (021) 919 6976; Durban (031) 717 2571; East London (043) 748 6230; Gabarone; Kuruman (053) 712 2882; Mafikeng (018) 386 2111; Mthatha (047) 532 5234; Nelspruit (013) 755 1421; Polokwane (015) 297 4055; Richards Bay (035) 753 1235; Rustenburg (014) 597 3655; Windhoek +26 461 237 346.


INFRASTRUCTURE NEWS from around the continent

in association with

AFRICA Effective water management can prevent conflicts

about water rights and private sector

Countries with unreliable supplies

report says. “Corruption can increase

of water are more vulnerable to

marginalization and exploitation

conflict, according to a new report

of disadvantaged and vulnerable

from the U.S. Agency for International

populations,” it notes.

Development (USAID). The report, called the Water and

contracts that can mask preferential treatment or corrupt governance, the

Other factors that affect water availability, quality and access are

Conflict Toolkit says that conflict is

traditional practices, water politics,

often generated by competition over

upstream and downstream flows,

water and other natural resources.

pollution, climate change and

Effective water management can

natural disasters, the report says.

bring disputing parties together to

It says that low resilience to

prevent conflict and foster reconcilia-

environmental disruptions can

tion, it says.

lower economic productivity, trigger

The Water and Conflict Toolkit is

unemployment and damage public

meant to be a resource for aid and

perceptions of the competence of

development workers in fragile and

government institutions.

conflict-affected areas, says Melissa

“Water is a shared interest even

Brown, director of USAID’s Office of

in deeply divided communities and

Conflict Management and Litigation.

regions,” Chris Kosnik, acting director

In the introduction, Brown says that

of USAID’s Office of Water, said at the

the report can guide workers in

Wilson Center. As well, “Water can be

evaluating the risk of conflict in an

a powerful connector encouraging

area and the potential for negotiating

cooperation and negotiation in lieu of

peace and building resilience.

competition or violence,” he said.

The report says that population

to governing water infrastructure.

RWANDA Mobile technology improves water access A smart-

As demand for water grows,

growth and movement to urban

harvesting through this project. The

phone-sized device is being used to

UGANDA Underground water tanks ease water burden The

competition will likely increase if per

monitor water pumps across Rwanda,

Balimi Network for the Developing

visit to other farmers in the country.

capita freshwater availability is not

making it easier to locate broken

Enterprises in Rural Agriculture

The water has fetched dividends

effectively and fairly managed, it says.

pumps and quicker to fix them.

(BANDERA 2000), an innovative

for her and the neighbours. “I use the

areas pose significant challenges

Effective water management also

underground tanks after an exchange

agricultural community, operates

water from this underground water

should take into account factors like

University in the United States, one

out of Buzaya county, Kamuli district,

tank for domestic purposes. I also

intense agricultural and industrial

battery-powered device is installed

writes Paschal Bangonz.

share the water with my neighbours

demands, and needs to share water

on each pump. Its SIM card sends

supply fluctuation and water safety

information on water flow and the

harvest rain water, practice conserva-

she adjusts the blue cloth around

data, the report says.

general state of the system to a

tion agriculture and sustainable land

her waist.

central server.

management. This group, formed

“Effectively sharing water information during emergencies such

Developed by Portland State

members learnt to harvest water in

Although the prototype costs

Their goal is to empower farmers to

during the dry season,” she says as

To harvest the rainwater from her

over ten years back, comprises more

iron-roofed house, Tigawalana uses a

than 2 500 community members.

15 000 ℓ underground water tank.

as floods or severe contamination

around $500, its developers say

is crucial for protecting human and

this is a worthwhile investment

environmental health and managing

considering that each pump costs

village, Kamuli district, approx-

Tigawalana’s family from walking long

perceptions of insecurity in tense

around $15 000.

imately 80 km east of Uganda’s

distances to the nearest water point.

and tenuous circumstances,” the report says. Also affecting water management is the issue of the lack of transparency

By the end of the year, 200 devices

This project is found in Nalimawa

capital, Kampala.

are due to be installed in Rwanda,

Betty Tigawalana is a member of

which will help to improve water

BANDERA 2000. She is one of the 12

access by reducing system failures.

farmers who has embraced rainwater


The water tank has saved

Daily tasks for her and her family have now been made easier. “I thank SLM (sustainable land management). This water also helps


me in irrigating my crops. I give the

reserved in tanks can be used,”

same water to my cows. I then use

elaborates Muhumuza.

the cow dung for my biogas project,”


Convention to Combat Desertification

ZAMBIA Zambian government formulates a 3-year water resource strategy The

(UNCCD), desertification, land

Zambian government has formu-

degradation and drought affect more

lated a strategic plan to improve

than two billion people.

water resource infrastructure cover-

she adds, smiling in consonance with the sun. According to United Nations

Water Supply | Water Treatment | Industrial Water Management Minesite Water Management | Water Reuse & Recycling Chemistry and Geochemistry | Numerical Modelling

UNCCD adds that the situation

ing 2013 to 2016, Minister of Mines,

might worsen due to the unsus-

Energy and Water Development

Water management

tainable use of soil and water under

Christopher Yaluma has said.

for sustainable business

Tigawalana, like other members of

vision is to increase access to

BANDERA 2000, is trying to counter

water and sanitation to over 80 per

this through sustainable land and

cent by 2016, for both rural and

water management.

urban areas.

UGANDA Living Water International helps thousands to access clean water Living Water

a national stakeholders’ consultative

International, a faith-based non-profit

with access to safe water supply

organisation that helps communities

stands at 66% in rural areas and

in developing countries to acquire

82% for urban areas, while the

safe drinking water, has constructed

proportion of the population with

up to 263 boreholes in north-eastern

access to adequate sanitation in

Uganda. The move has helped thou-

rural and urban areas stands at 51%

sands of households in the region to

and 60%, respectively.

present scenarios of climate change.

Yaluma says the government’s

He was speaking in Lusaka during

access safe water. North-eastern Uganda includes

Water Partnership Southern Africa. The proportion of the population

Yaluma said the government will also develop skills to ensure effective

the semi-arid Karamoja sub-region

water resource management and

where water scarcity has been a big

efficient provision of reliabl

challenge. Most people in this region


derive their livelihood from pastoral-

“We will provide a long-term

ism since rainfall is not sufficient to

implementation framework for

support agriculture.

water-related programmes in the

Alex Muhumuza, the programme’s manager at the western region

WorleyParsons has a strong track record in delivering innovative solutions utilising pipelines, groundwater and membrane technologies and sustainability modelling for cost-effective water solutions.

meeting on water, hosted by Global

national development plans,” the minister said.

office for Living Water International,

Yaluma said government has

Uganda, says the problem of water

created an enabling environment

shortage has been a big challenge

through the development of the

to the people of Karamoja and

revised national water policy of

their livestock.

2010 and the Water Resources

“Harvesting rainwater is also a

Management Act of 2011.

challenge because people there

He said the Water Resources

live in grass-thatched houses but

Management Act provides legal

now, at least, they have boreholes

and institutional frameworks for the

which can provide clean water,”

water sector.

notes Muhumuza. The agency has also supported

- Over 30 years’ experience - Deep local knowledge - Global expertise - BBBEE Level 2

communities in south-western Uganda to access clean water by constructing two gravity-flow water systems and seven rainwater tanks in Ruhaama county, Ntugamo district and Nyabushozi, in Kiruhura district.






“People in these areas dig water


dams but when drought comes, the dams dry up so the water


Zambia’s Minister of Mines, Energy and Water Development, Christopher Yaluma



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Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa Designing information systems for local needs. By Ulrike Rivett, Michael Champanis and Toni Wilson-Jones


ETWEEN 1994 and 2012

or on the overall management of


over 21 million people in

water supplies.

the ability and means to implement

South Africa were given access

Ulrike Rivett

Michael Champanis

Toni WilsonJones






policy and best practises. Small and

al looks at the findings of a study


water source and in 2008 the initiative



the other hand, could be negatively

of Blue Drop certification tackled the

cell-phone-based information system

impacted by these systems to the

challenge of decentralising the moni-

which was implemented in four rural

extent that water-quality monitor-

toring of water sources.

municipalities in South Africa. The

ing has turned into a bureaucratic

The national government has im-

study formed part of the Aquatest

function that has limited impact on

plemented regulations and policies

project, an international research

decision-making at local level.

to deliver safe water to all, but some

programme, which was established

local municipalities have not neces-

to develop a lost-cost water test for


sarily caught up with the national

the developing world. It was initiated

The research was structured around

guidelines. This is particularly true for

in 2006 under the European Union’s

a case study of four field sites in rural

rural communities and municipality

Sixth Framework Programme. In 2007,

South Africa. The scope of each case

structures where water supply is only

the project secured funding from the

was a single water services authority

practically reticulated and treated,

Gates Foundation for the period from

(WSA), which was responsible for

and a majority of the population still

2008 to 2012. The project consortium

multiple communities in outlying

rely on individual boreholes.

included universities in the UK and

areas and with a dispersed popula-

The low compliance rate is generally

the US, two US-based non-profit or-

tion. It was initially noted that there

explained using reasons such as un-

ganisations and the iCOMMS team at

was little commonality in monitoring

der-resourcing, skills shortages, lack of

the University of Cape Town.

programmes between the different







understanding of required standards,

During the course of the research,

WSAs. Thus, one requirement for the

lack of intervention to address prob-

it was observed that the apparent

system design was that it had to cater

lem areas, inadequate management,

inability of rural municipalities to

for local data and information needs.

and limitation on finances, assets and

respond to regulations might be

fiscal accountability.

closely linked to the structure for de-

ment of monitoring were:

The measurements for the improve-

It is widely accepted that rural areas

centralising water-quality monitoring

• An increase in reporting of the wa-

in South Africa are more difficult

to local municipalities. The national

ter-quality standards in rural areas

to manage and monitor due to the

monitoring systems that have been

limitations highlighted, as well as the

put in place in order to maintain an

geographical layout of a dispersed

overview – such as the Blue Drop sys-

population and the historical set-up,

tem – may, in their reporting require-

although some have noted that this

ments, disadvantage under-resourced

• An increase of awareness, at bore-

may be exaggerated by manage-

municipalities. Decentralisation of a

hole operator level, of the require-

ment practises of controlling limited

national function can either be merely

ments of management, and the


bureaucratic or can form part of a pro-

need for data collection for national




cess of ceding power to a community.

policy implementation.

with borehole water supply. • An





managerial level, of the status of rural supply.

monitoring purposes.

Rural authorities are also not always

Depending on which of the two forms

• An increase for awareness regard-

responsive to legislation and regula-

is the basis for the decentralisation,

ing problems and issues at the

tory requirements and consequently

the national monitoring of the decen-

water quality monitoring of outlying

tralised function will vary.

supplies might only be conducted


In this research paper, Rivett et


In this article it is argued that the

information has very limited impact

implemented to monitor drinking-

on the identification and prevention

water-quality compliance nationally

• An experience of usefulness of the


are designed for the economically

information for decision-making.





and transparency of the authori-

on an ad-hoc basis. Such ad-hoc



water-supply site. • An experience of accountability ties responsible for water-quality monitoring.


The following generic procedures

managers and borehole operators,

and comment boxes allowed opera-

were followed to develop the system

as well as analysis of the data flow

tors to provide additional information

as well as monitor the changes at

between the various stakeholders

relating to the physical elements of

each of the four WSAs:

by analysing the information avail-

water-quality monitoring, such as pH,

• Documentation of existing moni-

able on the database.

turbidity and electrical conductivity.

Important to note is that the research

Once the water-supply caretaker had

design was kept flexible in order to

collected the data, a completed form


respond to the varying local needs at

was sent via GPRS to a central server.


each site. Whilst the procedures out-

Once the form was received at the

lined above were adhered to broadly,

server, a message manager verified

• Analysis of the information needs,

the number of interviews or the

the data and checked its integrity

as identified by local managers,

number of stakeholders interviewed

before storing it in the database.


varied slightly between sites. The

A notification and feedback sub-sys-

frequency of reporting of water-qual-

tem was configured to send various

ity parameters was decided together

messages when the sample data

toring programmes. • Identification of relevant actors within



water-quality structures.




stakeholders. • Analysis of the difference between local




with the municipalities, based on local needs. The information systems were

national guidelines. • Re-framing of the findings of the

designed using cell phones as the

analysis into an information system

tool for data collection, information

design that responds to the identi-

transfer and analysis. The cell phone

fied needs.

applications were labelled: the Water

• Development of a first software application,







National government has implemented regulations and policies to deliver safe water to all, but some local municipalities have not necessarily caught up with the national guidelines

Rural authorities are also not always responsive to legislation and regulatory requirements


Quality Manager.

were received centrally. The borehole

the application and observation of

operator sending the data received a

the use of the system for a defined

The WQR and WQM system

message requesting re-capturing if a


The WQR cell phone application was

value was above a limit, or appeared

• Analysis of the appropriateness of

installed on the phone of the wa-

erroneous. The manager with the

the design and functionality of the

ter-supply caretaker, who was usually

overall responsibility for water-quality

system, through interviews with all

a borehole operator. The caretaker

monitoring also received a message,

users and stakeholders.

was guided through a number of

in case a result was outside the ac-

• Response to findings by refining

questions regarding the water quality

ceptable parameters.

the design of the system, imple-

of the water supply and was asked

After the first phase of the imple-

mentation of the revised applica-

to select a response. The questions

mentation it was realised that most

tion and subsequent observation of

for the operators varied between

of the managers required a mobile

the system application for another

the WSAs and were decided on in

application that allowed them to

period of time.

collaboration with the managers and

check the status of their various sites

• Assessment of the improvement

borehole operators. Aspects such as

while being outside the office. Thus,

of the measures above, through

questions relating to water-safety

the four managers of the municipal

another set of interviews with

plans or best practises were included

field sites were provided with Android




Water quality monitoring has turned into a bureaucratic function that has limited impact on decision-making at local level

In general, the literature on infor-

municipalities indicates that an un-

mation systems failure suggests that

derstanding of the decentralisation

failure occurs because some aspect of



the system context – social, technical

vital if a national monitoring system

or political – is inadequately under-

is to be successfully implemented.

stood, ignored or underestimated.



The discipline of e-government and

Based on literature review, the

e-governance offers some finding

researchers identified that govern-

with regards the implementation of

ment literature does not discuss the

national government systems. A study

contentious nature of government

of the e-government literature reveals

information system successes. For ex-

an academic discourse of overwhelm-

ample, is a project successful if it helps

phones that had the WQM application

ing optimism about the potential of

government to carry out a function

loaded. The application allowed each

e-government for development. Yet,

more effectively, but results in job

manager to review water-quality test-

in over a decade of e-government re-

losses or redundancy in specific social

ing across all relevant water sources

search, most government information

groups? This question does not aim to

in real time. The system also provided

systems projects in the developing

underestimate the value of efficient

spreadsheets for reporting that could

world have ended in either partial or

and effective technical systems; in

be downloaded via an Internet appli-

total failure.

fact, most people would agree that a

cation. Users were able to decide on

Systems failure is ascribed to enforc-

system that improves the delivery of

the relevant data points and could

ing unwanted or contentious change

basic services, supports development,

download reports for a chosen time

in organisational processes, or be-

or helps citizens hold public bodies

period for each site.

cause the technology requirements,

to account, is broadly desirable.

such as hardware and connectivity,

However, if the information system re-

Observations and discussions

did not exist or were not maintainable

sults in already constrained resources


due to limited human, technical and

being used to collect information that

financial resources.

is only relevant for bureaucratic and




government departments manage


water quality in each of the rural


WATER QUALIT Y reporting purposes, the effectiveness and desirability of a government system could be questioned. Information systems can be experienced as an appropriate tool to support decentralisation of core government function since the design and structure of information systems is hierarchical in nature, which is often a mirror to the monitoring of a decentralised national function. By collecting



at local level, national government is able to track progress. The experience of the information system in this context is that, due to the system, information is collected that allows the citizen to hold politicians, municipal officers and other public organisation accountable. However, if the system design fails to address the notion of devolving responsibility as part of the decentralisation, it could be argued that the system might be doomed to fail. According to a paper by Brett1 there are three

justifications for

decentralisation: • It



performed annually. Borehole oper-

and that resources would be allocated

ators performed weekly operational

appropriately. Thus, control would be

monitoring tests at some sites, yet


ceded to local municipalities and it

these tests were not performed at all

local community to exercise closer

can be expected that other variables

in other municipalities

control over local politicians.

such as resources available to local au-

Formal workflows only existed in

• It should improve management of

thorities, the political autonomy and

one of the municipalities. In three of

local services by making local offi-

the local democratic process, would

the four municipalities, the person

cials directly accountable to local

be taken care of by the people who

managing the borehole operators and

politicians and society at large.

know their environment best.

the water supplies was also directly




more appropriately to the local needs,


• It should help overcome possible

However, the challenge of the

ethnic or sectarian divisions by

ceding of control becomes apparent

allowing minority communities to



The managers of water supplies were

control political decisions.

expects to main a level of control by

employed through the Department

Brett further makes the argument

monitoring the municipality from

of Health, the Department of Social

that, whilst certain aspects of central

a distance, through a centralised

Works, the municipality, or the district

government have to be delegated

information system. The BDS was

in different cases. There was no con-

to local beurocratic structures, a

designed as a generic monitoring

sistency in the requirements of the

devolution also means that there is an

programme, based on the outline

management function – water-quality

obligation to cede control to a local

of best practises at national level.

monitoring was a minor part of the

municipality that may have differing

This research confirmed that the wa-

workload in some instances, due to

political structures, different resources

ter-quality monitoring programmes

other job requirements.

or different management structures.

employed in each of the munici-

For the design of an information

In the context of water provision

palities varied greatly. None of the

system that would be applicable na-

in South Africa, the Constitution, in

four municipalities monitored water

tionwide, the functionality and the in-

Schedule 4B, makes clear that the

quality using similar structures, or a

formation collection would be based

function of providing safe water rests

generic programme. For example, in

on assuming a certain set of common

with both national and provincial

one of the study sites, the manager


government. The decentralisation to

visited each supply site once a month

monitoring, these denominators are

local level is facilitated based on the

for compliance monitoring, whilst in

tasked with the various functions.

notions that Brett has highlighted

another site, environmental health

In rural communities, one person

above. By allowing municipalities to

officers were tasked with compliance

often fulfils multiple functions due to

design their own water-quality man-

monitoring. Since there are very few

limited resources, but also because it

agement structures, it can be expect-

environmental health officers, com-

is often sufficient to have one person

ed that municipalities would respond

pliance monitoring was often only

doing multiple tasks.



FIGURE 1 Overview of the WQR and WQM system

involved in the water-quality compliance monitoring.




E.A. BRETT, 2009: Reconstructing Development Theory, ISBN-13: 978-0-230 22981-5 1


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WATER QUALIT Y Based on the local context,



all municipalities documented







efficiency in


and and of

communication requirements

improving the accountability of

between managers and local

government service providers


to the public.


operators. was




Much investment is spent



towards addressing the aspects









of which included national


monitoring requirements.

as a measure of improved ac-







countability. This can often be

increase in regular commu-

achieved by designing systems

nication and an increase in

which allow tracking of progress

awareness of the status quo of

or communication of the latest

water quality in the various field

statistics. For example, the Blue

sites. Since only one of the field

Drop system communicates to

sites had a monitoring proce-

the public the status of water

dure in place, the reporting of

quality in each municipality


of South Africa. However, it


Important to note is that the research design was kept flexible in order to respond to the varying local needs at each site increased in all of the WSAs. The

neither communicates who is

WQM, as well as the WQR, were

responsible nor who the various

experienced as easy to use, due

accountable local government

to replicating already existing

structures are.

workflows. Three of the munici-

The study of the WQR and

palities improved their workflow

WQM implementation pointed

by amending data requirements

towards a need to improve the

after the first revision of the

second aspect of accountability

software. Managers also report-

regarding government provid-

ed that the amount of travel to

ing services to the public. The

remote sites was reduced due

ability to keep local records

to being able to assess sites


from the office. Managers felt


that their confidence in water

transparency as well as account-

quality had increased and the

ability – which was confirmed

system was experienced as pro-

by both managers and borehole

viding relevant information for

operators. One of the borehole

decision-making. All managers

operators had used the WQR

felt that they had a better un-

application to show community

derstanding of the movements


of the borehole operators and


their needs. In some of the

cated to the municipality, and

sites, the system became an

expressed that this resulted in

HR management tool and one

the community feeling more

manager commented that the

closely linked to the govern-

tool had increased his workload,


due to him being more aware

felt that national government

of the challenges in one of the

should include the information

outlying villages.

collected at local level into the












One of the issues highlight-

national system, in order to un-

ed by Brett is the notion of

derstand the information needs

democratic accountability. The

at rural level.

tension here lies in thinking of accountability in terms of

Source: WaterSA MAY/JUNE 2014



Bold developments at Mpumamanzi

We recently reported on Mpumamanzi Laboratory Group, the first wholly owned, professionally managed and operated black laboratory in South Africa. Maryke Foulds met with group manager Tony Bowers to discuss what exciting developments are in the pipeline for 2014.

initiative to work collectively and independently



influences. The end objective, says Bowers, is for South African water companies to showcase their skills in other countries although this is definitely a long term plan.




expand our business model. One

“We have recently secured two ser-

through its Laboratory

of the primary reasons for entering

vice contracts with large parastatals

and Engineering Division

the market is that black-owned

to give effect to this ambition. We are

has entered the market

companies seem to be unwilling

confident that this will set the stage

to independently showcase their

where African entrepreneurs can

control and monitoring of water and



showcase their skills independently



required core competencies. We

and not only in the effective man-

division also looks at the full scope of

are natural water care managers


borehole management. We are really

and yet we fear to challenge the

monitoring of wastewater treatment

excited about this development as we

established sector.”

works, but in all other water-related



management, treatment

operations, works.







effect to this initiative.

aquatic science, boiler water

we are facing stiff competition



reputable companies

and water boards operating in South Africa, we are confident that this move will offer us the opportunity of further

The company remains committed to its core business of water quality management control in line with the Blue and Green Drop certification programmes MAY/JUNE 2014



have the local expertise to give “While we are aware that


Mpumamanzi is determined to reverse this legacy and will take the


monitoring, etc.” Current assignments exclude the maintenance and repair waterworks as this is viewed as a specialised support function. Mpumamanzi



remain responsible for the quality of the workmanship

MPUMAMANZI LABORATORY SERVICES CC Showcasing the best of African skills in water Contributing to the excellence of water quality management in South Africa Mpumamanzi is the fastest growing wholly-owned – and black managed Water Laboratory in South Africa. Mpumamanzi is supported by SEDA in its development and certification towards a fully-fledged SANAS Laboratory. Mpumamanzi participates and maintains an acceptable “z” score in terms of both SABS- and NLA performance proficiency schemes. Our laboratory has a staff compliment of fourteen (14) supported by a highly professional team of comprising of Analytical Chemists, Water Technologist, Environmentalist, Chemical Engineer, Microbiologist and Professional Office Manager.

Thusi Motsepe and Tony Bowers at the Mpumamanzi Laboratory Centre

In addition to our laboratory functions we also serve as specialist advisors for: the Blue – and Green Drop Compliances; Environmental issues, Analyses and Interpretation of Water analytical data; Evaluation of applied water treatment chemicals; Asset Management; Serious microbial and viral failures.

similar to any other support

washing plants, the control


of black dew, disinfection of




mains committed to its core business




remote reservoirs, etc. • The


of to



management control in line



with the Blue and Green Drop

troubleshooting at various


certification programmes.



This is a state-of-the-art in-

Keeping up to date: new technologies

strument in predicting sludge problems well ahead before

In support of the new initiatives,


they actual appear.


•T  he use of Nualgi to stimu-

also entered the market of

late the growth of diatoms

importing new technologies

that in turn will assist with


the removal of phosphates




tional practices of water and


wastewater management in

where the technology of

Southern Africa.

biological nutrient removal

Over the last three years it


BBBEE Status: Level 1 Mpumamanzi Laboratory Centre, 6 Newton Rd, Industrial Area, Ex 11, Middelburg, Mpumalanga, 1055 GPS: 250 47” 7.57’ S and 290 29’ 33.62’ E


(BNR) is absent.

has been looking into three


unique products and projects:

in 2001 Mpumamanzi has


• The use of packed chlorine di-

become a recognised fixture

oxide (XzioX) to supplement

in the water industry and is a

the disinfection industry with

shining example of what can

respect to the cleaning and

be achieved through hard

certification of potable water

work, expertise and sheer

trucks, JoJo tanks, vegetable

tenacity. MAY/JUNE 2014


Tel (013) 246 2633/35/36/49 | Fax (013) 246 2692 eFax (086) 629 7360


Senior Partners: Tony Bowers B.Tech, SFWISA: (084) 505 2171 Thusi Motsepe Nat. Dip Anal Chem: (082) 372 8434



Leading liquid filtration specialist Filcon Filters, one of the leading liquid filtration companies in South Africa, was established in June 2000 with offices in both Johannesburg and Cape Town. of sizes and chemistries, and are scalable to produce some of the highest volume and rate demands globally. Units available cover a range from 38 m3/d to 380 000 m3/d.

Diefenbach has been manufacturing quality filter presses since 1907


underwent a major

structural reorganisation in 2007, which has ensured that it has the

Filcon boasts its own manufacturing arm. All products comply to ISO quality standards


ability to continue producing com-

N ADDITION to representing




designed chemical generators give

filtration manufacturers, Filcon

customers the freedom to produce

Filters has a wide range of

disinfectants in the amount they

press: • quality-engineered for long-lasting







petitively priced, quality filter presses for another 100 years. Reasons to use a Diefenbach filter


need, when the need it. MIOX brings

to its design in Johannesburg. This

new technology to an old problem:

range includes the Dirt Gobbla (a

water disinfection. State-of-the-art

• minimal maintenance required

centrifugal separator), back-flushing


• technical support, spare parts and

automatic strainers, in-line basket

facility safety by replacing the need

strainers, purge strainers, and bag

for on-site storage and handling of

and cartridge housings.

hazardous chemicals. In addition, the




consumables readily available • over 100 years’ experience building quality products.

But now, Filcon has more to offer

generators produce more effective

Diefenbach filter presses serve a wide

the industry having been appointed

water treatment while saving money.

spectrum of industries, such as min-

as the Southern Africa distributors/

Serving a full spectrum of industries,

ing, pharmaceutical, chemical, textile


MIOX’s patented chemical generators

and wastewater, but in recent years

(USA), Diefenbach SRL (Italy) and

are available in sizes to fit every appli-

there has been an increase in sales to

Microbac (UK).

cation and produce superior results

Russian mines because the strength



and robustness of the overhead beam

hypochlorite and biocides. With over

presses have proved a great success

20 years of experience in the water


disinfection market and thousands


of MIOX installations in over 40 coun-

presses are 20 to 30 % heavier than




MIOX is the innovator and industry leader in on-site chemical generators for water disinfection









tries, MIOX chemistries are cleaning

those of other manufacturers and

MIOX technol-

over 26 billion liters of water globally

consequently are ideally suited to

ogy combines

per day. Putting that into perspective,

mining operations. The less robust



it is equivalent to half the volume

side-beam filter presses are available



of water going over Niagara Falls

either operating automatically, or with

each day.

simultaneous or manual opening, and






Field tested and proven, MIOX


generators are available in a variety MAY/JUNE 2014

are ideally suited for municipal sewage and industrial sludge.

ADVERTORIAL laboratory

sewage. Services comprise design,

or land polluted with organic resi-

and their on-site pilot units enable



planning, procurement, fabrication,

dues, and for the decontamination of

their engineers to design and build


polluted groundwaters.

the best-suited filter press for the

commissioning and testing. A wide

application in question. More than

range of adapted biological products,

100 years’ experience building filter

including customised bacterial for-

presses and with over 1 000 units

mulations, are also available for start-

operating in 45 countries ensures

up and remediation of wastewater

that Diefenbach stays at the forefront

treatment plants.

of design and manufacture.



Microbac designs complete wastewater treatment plants for all types of

Microbac has 30 years’ experience in microbial biomass engineering

Filcon has more to offer the industry having been appointed as the Southern Africa distributors/partners for MIOX Corporation (USA), Diefenbach SRL (Italy) and Microbac (UK)

industrial wastewaters and municipal sewage, including marine grey and

Filcon Filters prides itself in the

black waters. The plants are primarily

number of years of filtration expe-

based around Microbac's submerged,

rience that the technical members

aerated fixed-film bioreactors, ver-

have, which enables the company to

tical plate interceptor settlement

provide clear solutions to all filtration

chambers, induced air flotation units,

needs and problems, ensuring total

pH dosing units, coagulation and

customer satisfaction.

flocculation dosing units, filters and UV disinfection units. Microbac bioreactors are designed Microbac is a privately owned com-

specifically for biological treatment

pany with 30 years’ experience in

and detoxification of industrial and

microbial biomass engineering, offer-

municipal wastewater streams. In

ing complete wastewater treatment

addition, the units can be used for bi-

packages for industrial effluents and

oremediation of oil spills, oily sludges

NO_DIG_SA2014Ad3_NO-DIG SA 2014 Ad 19/03/2014 17:03 Page 1

Tel: +27 (0)21 702 0979 (Cape Town) +27 (0)11 608 173 (Johannesburg)



4 29-30 July 2014 CSIR Convention Centre Pretoria, South Africa

South Africa’s premier forum on trenchless technology Exhibition

Trenchless works in South Africa

New infrastructure installations as well as essential renovation of ageing underground services can mean huge disruption to the travelling public, particularly in the country’s major conurbations. NO-DIG SOUTH AFRICA is an exciting forum for the industry to come together to see the technology, debate the benefits, share knowledge and network with like minded industry colleagues.

In conjunction with

International Society for Trenchless Technology

Organisation by

Educational Forum

The two day conference programme will feature a new Trenchless Technology Masterclass presented by expert representatives of The International Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTT). Case study presentations will illustrate many successful projects in a range of geotechnical site conditions. South African professional delegates will receive CPD points.

All enquiries to: Tel: +44 (0) 845 094 8066 Organised by

See and evaluate a wide range of equipment and services, displayed by international exhibitors, which will truly demonstrate trenchless technology and its capabilities. Platinum sponsor:

Bronze sponsors:

Media partners:



Solutions for analytical challenges A major challenge in Africa is the ability of communities and businesses to access the potable water required for urban and rural settlement as well as mining, industrial and agricultural development.




requirements and is the smallest

in its quest to be the

bench-top ICP-MS available – mak-



ing it the ideal choice for laborato-

equipment for any water

ries where space is at a premium, for

lab and is excited to announce the

example, clean-room installations.

inclusion of the Thermo Scientific

The iCAP Q is the only ICP-MS



system to include proprietary QCell


technology: maintenance-free with

existing product range of water

easy access via the front of the


analysis products.

analyzer makes this an ICP-MS that

different from any other atomic

anyone can use.

absorption instrument. They are





Thermo Fisher Scientific is the only instrument manufacturer to offer AA, ICP and ICPMS (Quadrupole and Sector) spectrometers





Thermo Fisher Scientific is the only instrument manufacturer to offer


AA, ICP and ICP-MS (Quadrupole


Thermo Series







compact, stylish and designed with ease of use as a priority.

Anatech is an authorised distributor of Thermo Scientific Instruments

and Sector) spectrometers to satisfy every aspect of routine to highly demanding research applications. All instruments are designed with cutting-edge technology and are ideal for a wide range of applications including: municipal laboratories,




contract, and environmental laboratories. Combined with the Thermo discrete analyzer for nutrients and anions, chromatography equipment, and microbiological supplies, we are able to completely fit out and modernize your laboratory, with the most up to date, user-friendly equipment available. The low-cost ICP-OES will maximize



ceutical, industrial or food safety facility analysis. Technology, driven by the Thermo Scientific Qtegra Intelligent Scientific Data Solution (ISDS) software platform, delivers fast, low-cost analysis, for both high




research environments. The iCAP Q ICP-MS range has been developed to produce the most reliable ICP-MS solution. It has significantly


installation MAY/JUNE 2014



Specialists in potable water Water Purification Chemical & Plant (WPCP), a multidisciplinary water treatment specialist, offers a range of services that encompasses the chemical aspects of drinking water treatment, the latest filtration technologies and the design of major water purification plants.

that include small communities, farms and game ranch-


es. These units have capac-

NCLUDED IN these water treat-

which is manufactured to exact

ities between 1 000 and

ment services are the design


3 000 ℓ/h and accommodate

and construction of drinking

reinforced polyester resin or coated

a wide range of water conditions,

water plants, which are available

mild steel. These modules are availa-

from low to high turbidity.

in modular, skid-mounted and con-

ble in 6 m³/h and 15 m³/h units, with

Skid-mounted units have been

tainerised designs.



a 45°cone for efficient sludge remov-

designed for easy portability. All

“Transforming raw surface water

al. The upflow velocity is between

equipment is secured to a rugged,

from dams and rivers into pristine

1.2 m/h and 1.5 m/h, with a retention

portable, epoxy-coated steel skid.

drinking water that is safe, forms

period of approximately one hour.

an important part of our business,”

Modules with inclined tube settlers

plants, available in capacities from

says Martin Overy, WPCP’s manag-

have a flow rate between 50 m³/h

6 m³/h to 24 m³/h, are also designed

ing director. “The company, with a

and 160 m³/h.

to handle all water turbidity con-




commitment to the highest quality

WPCP manufactures single and/

ditions. Equipment is secured and

standards, has made a significant

or dual-media filter units for the ef-

housed in a newly designed robust 6

investment in the latest equipment

ficient separation of suspended and

m shipping container.

and ongoing research, to ensure

particulate solids. Advanced dual-

WPCP offers a technical advisory

optimum efficiency and the total

filtration technology ensures highly

service, as well as maintenance con-

hygiene of every installation. The

efficient filtration capabilities – the

tracts to ensure optimum efficiency,

water quality of these units con-

high dirt storage capacity of Hydro-

total hygiene and extended service

forms with SANS 241:2001 drinking

Anthrazit and fine filter quality of

life of each drinking water system.

water specifications.”

silica sand, combine to ensure high

Rental options, with a chemical sup-

levels of water purity.

ply are also available.

WPCP’s modular drinking water plants





The company also offers a full ana-

using non-corrodible materials to

in capacities of 1.5, 3, 15, 25 and

lytical service from its in-house labora-

ensure extended service life of the

50 m³/h.


tories and a full range of flocculants is

system. Flocculant mixing (velocity

available in various capacities, from

manufactured at the WPCP factory in

coefficients) is designed to suit the

1.5 m³/h to 600 m³/h.

Hammarsdale, KwaZulu-Natal. Various

water quality of each installation.






Also in WPCP’s range of drinking

forms of disinfection include bromine/


water plants are skid-mounted units,

chlorine tablets via a tablet feeder,

encompass an upflow sludge blanket

which are suitable for applications

ozonation and hydrogen peroxide.





Included in WPCP’s water treatment services are the design and construction of drinking water plants, which are available in modular, skidmounted and containerised designs



WRC at the forefront of water research Maryke Foulds speaks to research manager Jennifer Molwantwa, on some of the challenges facing the water sector.


HE EARTH’S fresh-

contamination, endocrine

of research products that are

water resources are

disrupting compounds (EDCs),

aimed at salinity treatment

limited: 99% of the

microcystins, micropollutants

published in WRC reports and

earth’s water is saline

and heavy metal contamination.

even implemented at pilot scale

(and becoming more so by the

Water-quality standards are

in industry and mining.

actions and activities of man),

set by government through

and only 0.3% of the world’s

technical/scientific parameters

referred to as eutrophication)

freshwater is usable. Driven

defining how the water can

results from the enrichment of

by rapid industrialisation in

be used, based on the desired

water nutrients such as nitrate

the developing world, food

use. This is a highly technical

and phosphate, which are pres-

production, energy demand,

process, which is based on

ent in treated sewage effluent

population growth, climate

resource-directed measures

(that may not be compliant

change and the environment,

(RDM) and source-directed

to the discharge standards)

it is estimated that 50% of the

controls (SDC). The RDM aims

as well as agricultural runoff

world’s people will live with

at achieving a balance between

where fertilisers are used. The

chronic water stress by the year

protection and use of water in

nutrients encourage the growth

developed products that have

2025. Water is a source of life,

order to achieve socio-economic

of algae resulting in problems

made positive impacts in the

livelihoods and prosperity. It is

development, while the SDC

during water purification, such

drinking water, wastewater

also an input to all production:

links the protection of water

as undesirable taste and odour,

treatment and water resource

in agriculture, industry, and

with its regulation, by ensuring

production of trihalomethanes

management areas.

energy. Water is also a force for

compliance to set standards.

or other potentially carcino-

destruction, through drought,

EDCs are the emerging

genic products in water that is

contaminants which are a

What is the current state of water quality in South Africa? Salinity is affecting our

treated with chlorine for potable

concern for South Africa and

purposes. The WRC has been

the global village. The WRC

extensively involved in eutroph-

has, since 1998, focused on,

water resources through natural

ication research and has, to

and partnered with, other

and man-made impacts. While

date, published over 80 reports

research organisations in global

of variables that determine

natural salinisation of water may

on the subject, ranging from

research initiatives relating to

water quality, namely chemical,

result from geological aspects,

understanding eutrophication,

this topic. Numerous studies

physical and biological. The

the man-made causes vary

its sources, its management,

were completed at the WRC,

chemical parameters include

from increased releases of salts

cyanobacteria, drinking-water

including the EDC Manual

pH, hardness and dissolved

through point-source (industrial

treatment adaptation, as well

aimed at developing a frame-

oxygen, metals, etc. The

and mining effluent discharges)

as wastewater treatment to

work for the management

physical parameters include

and diffuse pollution (poorly

remove phosphorous.

of EDCs in water resources.

odour, turbidity/transparency,

managed urban settlements,

solids dissolved, as well as

leachate from landfill sites

our water resources results from

in the manual is based on a

electrical conductivity, amongst

and mine dumps). The diffuse

the faecal matter present in the

precautionary principle and

others. Biological parameters

pollution from both mining

water resources. This may be

risk-based approach. Together

may include microorganisms

and agriculture poses a greater

associated with poorly treated

with the Global Water Research

such as invertebrates, algae,

risk on groundwater, which

sewage as well as point-source

Coalition (GWRC), the WRC has

molluscs, plants and fish

is problematic in terms of

pollution from runoff that

funded research on the EDC

that are found within a

remediation. The WRC has

is associated with informal

Toolbox 2 project, which is a

water sample. Water-quality

conducted a vast body of work

settlements. The impacts asso-

continuation and expansion

parameters that are of particular

on understanding salinity from

ciated with microbial pollution

on previous GWRC efforts to

importance on a country-

mining, industry and agriculture,

include diseases such as cholera,

develop and validate methods

wide scale include salinity,

as well as the management

typhoid and dysentery. The

to measure estrogenic activity

eutrophication, microbial

thereof. There are a number

WRC has funded research and

in water, to include a range of

floods, landslides, contamination and disease.

What defines the quality of water? There are a number


Hypertrophication (commonly

Microbial contamination of


The framework developed


substantially less well-studied

as pesticides.

endocrine endpoints.


Microcystis are harmful

"The WRC has conducted a vast body of work on understanding salinity from mining, industry and agriculture, as well as the management thereof" Jennifer Molwantwa

incidents of

hepatotoxins, produced by cy-

health impacts

anobacteria, and are persistent

to man and animals have

websites. The nationally driven

in our water impoundments

occurred at places throughout

concept of incentive-based

such as the Hartbeespoort

the world, through uncontrolled

regulation, by means of the Blue

to assess and monitor the

and Roodeplaat dams. These

exposure to these micropollut-

Drop (for drinking-water-quality

ecological state of South Africa’s

microcystins occur in the form

ants. Pollution of this type tends

management regulation) and

rivers using standardised

of excessive blooms on the dam

to be highly localised and asso-

the Green Drop (for wastewater-

indicators, to garner information

surface and the bloom-forming

ciated with specific industries

quality management regulation)

on the long-term environmental

cyanobacteria occur in toxic and

or activities. Mining activities

certification programmes,

trends of the country’s fresh-

non-toxic strains that co-occur

often expose pyrite-containing

is based on the concept of

water resources, known as the

and are visually indistinguish-

rock formations to air and water,

respective municipalities

South African Scoring System

able, but can be identified and

to produce acid rock drainage.

and water service providers

(SASS). The RHP rests on the

quantified molecularly. There

Due to the low pH of acid rock

reporting on their effectiveness

foundations of the biomoni-

have been studies at the WRC,

drainage, heavy metals are

and efficiencies in relation to the

toring of aquatic ecosystems,

which are aimed at addressing


set of compulsory norms and

which has been defined as “the

standards aimed at protecting

systematic use of biological

the interests of consumers,

responses to evaluate changes

by ensuring that certain basic

in the environment, with the

minimum standards are met.

intent to use this information in

Furthermore, monitoring

a quality-control programme”.

by cyanobacteria, which is as-

Major risks to the industry are the lack of water-quality data and monitoring. How can your organisation assist in offsetting these risks?

sociated with the public health

The DWA, as the trustee of

players at different levels

to piece together, in a sustain-

threat posed by cyanobacterial

water resources, conducts

within the DWA. Whilst the

able manner, the objectives of


regular monitoring of our water

River Health Programme (RHP)

aquatic ecosystem health, eco-

resources and also stores the

is a monitoring programme

nomic growth, human health

water-quality issues affecting

water-quality data, which is

implemented at a national

and codependent land- and

industrialised nations, including

increasingly becoming more

scale, the Adopt-a-River and the

water-use principles. Human

pollution by metals and man-

accessible with time through

miniSASS programmes are more

behaviour lies at the hub of

made organic compounds, such

different media such as

localised water monitoring and

most, if not all, of these aspects

the issues, including one recently completed on understanding the nutritional factors that affect the biosynthesis of neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-amine

Micropollutants cover the

is undertaken by other role


management programmes. The RHP is a national initiative

The Adopt-a-River project aims


WATER QUALIT Y and will be treated as the key

miniSASS application are offered

ensuring that there is adequate

Predicted extreme events

success factor in the sustainabil-

to schools for implementation

time to mitigate the impacts.

can lead to more soil erosion

ity of the programme. It further

and reporting, thus making

requires the active participation

the management of our water

programmes stated above, the

of communities to ensure

resources a community matter.

WRC itself has accumulated

Together with the monitoring

and hence increased runoff nonpoint-source pollution.

sustainability. The benefits of

It is therefore important to

this programme include water

note that all water users also

large number of projects that

How can good water quality be sustained? There is a need

saving, skills development, job

have a responsibility to be

have been funded over the last

for more support to the policy

creation, and the improvement

observant about water-quality

forty years. This data could be

and local responses to water-

of water quality and of the state

impacts and report these to the

part of electronically published

quality challenges, such as in the

of our rivers.

department. There might be an

reports freely accessible to the

updated national water resource

issue with the consistency of

public on

strategy, and the respective

The miniSASS programme

water-quality data through the

is a simplified version of the

monitoring and capturing data,

For industries, and others,

SASS programme. It is focused

and whether it is readily availa-

perhaps the integration, format

catchment management strategies for the nine different

on the active participation

ble and within what turnaround

and timing of this data are what

catchment management agency

of communities (particularly

time. In some overseas areas

might prove problematic. To ad-

areas, as well as in the catchment

sector partners and education

real-time monitoring of water

dress this, the WRC has funded a

management plans for the

institutions) to ensure that the

resources is implemented (uti-

project that is completed and is

individual catchments. The

water-quality monitoring and

lising telemetric and automated

currently being piloted. Its aim

successful implementation of

reporting is broadened, and

monitoring and reporting

is to determine if there is the

the above strategies will require

that all become part of the

systems), making it possible to

possibility of reporting data (by

a conserted effort from both the

sustainable water resource man-

know what is happening within

water users) to the authorities at

DWA and all water users. The

agement system. The courses on

a reasonable period of time and

an increased frequency (month-

implementation of the strategies

It is therefore important to note that all water users also have a responsibility to be observant about water-quality impacts and report these to the department ly rather than twice per annum)

must also be within the context

and in a format that is more

of water allocation reform, which

useful (electronic instead of, or

is aimed at ensuring that there

as a compliment to, the hard

is equitable access to water and

copy reports). This may be a

that the benefits derived from

breakthrough that is needed for

using water include poverty

all to ensure that water-quality

eradication and the promotion

data is available and accessible

of economic growth.

on a real-time basis.

The implementation of a waste discharge charge system


Does climate change have an effect on water quality?

(WDCS) by the DWA is another

Overall, water-quality impacts

improvement of water quality,

will be different depending

which will assist the achieve-

on geographic location and

ment of the water-quality

water-body location within a

objectives for water resources.

catchment. Predicted increases

The WDCS is aimed at reducing

in temperature in some

the overall waste load in the

areas can lead to increases in

water resource by means of


at-source and in-source load

and an increase/concentration

management. At-source man-

of elements that increase

agement will focus on punitive

water-quality deterioration.

measures being applied to all

Therefore, it is conceivable

those contributing to an increase

that climate change will

in load to the water resource/

affect river flows and dilution

those discharging loads that

potential of water pollutants.

exceed the set standard; the


instrument that will assist in the

in-source management will fo-

resources pose a public health

cus on implementing measures

threat. While the overarching

to reduce the already existing

role of management is that of

load in the water resources.

DWA, CMAs, etc., it is important

The review of the current

that there is volunteerism and

water-quality guidelines will

advocacy from all sectors of

result in improved target-setting

society, to partner with the DWA,

in the risk-based guideline

and to ensure that the work of

development philosophy. The

the DWA and other government

targets set in this regard will not

entities results in sustainable

only be general but will also drill

water quality and an improved

down to site-specific targets and

state of the water resources.



Whatever you need, Rescue Rod has quality equipment backed up by fast, efficient, productive service!

variables to be assessed based

strategy, for example, is needed

Please give me a technical perspective on your company and how it deals with water quality issues

based on a multi-stakeholder

The WRC conducts research in

and possibly sector-based

most of the water areas across

approach for supporting

the various key strategic areas

different policy interventions.

(KSAs) including water resource

Eutrophication affects all

management (KSA1), water-

water-use groups, and is in

linked ecosystems (KSA2), water

part caused by diverse users

use and waste management

such as local government and

(KSA3) and water utilisation in

business sectors such as irrigated

agriculture (KSA4).

on the predominant water use and likely impacts. A national eutrophication

agriculture and manufacturing.

On a national scale, the WRC

It is only in engaging with these

funds research that is undertak-

sectors to assess and address the

en by a suite of researchers from

underlying drivers of these prob-

a wide spectrum of institutions

lems that they can be solved.

including universities, research

There is a need to improve

institutes, science councils,

national water-quality monitor-

small, medium and micro enter-

ing systems and reviewing the

prises, non-profit organisations

current water-quality guidelines

and even communities. This

in line with the international best

provides a concerted effort

practices and scientific advances,

through which water issues can

particularly the risk-based ap-

be researched. The research

proach with various levels, from

strategy of the WRC is based

the general to the site-specific.

on its knowledge tree, covering

The WRC and DWA undertook a

aspects relating to informing

study on the risk-based philoso-

policy and decision-making,

phy, and the terms of reference

human capital development

for this update were developed.

(through capacity building

The irrigation portion of the

and training of students who

agricultural water-quality guide-

undertake research in various

lines is being undertaken in the

institutions), new products

2014/2015 financial year, with a

and services for economic

proposal being made to update

transformation, community em-

the domestic water-quality

powerment, transformation and

guidelines in the following year.

redress, as well as sustainable

However, discussions between

development solutions.

the DWA and WRC are underway

Drain Cleaning Services Septic Tank Services Directional Drilling Wet & Dry Vacuuming Water Tankers Waste Management Services CCTV Inspections

The WRC as a local and

to discuss further updates to the

global player is a member of

water-quality guidelines for the

the GWRC, which is an affiliate

other water uses.

of the International Water

Improving capacity and

Association. In this regard, joint

knowledge with regards to

projects and expertise provide

water-quality management

South African researchers

among all stakeholders is essen-

exposure, joint publications

tial, as the impact to the water

and benchmarking. MAY/JUNE 2014

Contact us now on 010 040 3219 for more information or for a FREE SITE INSPECTION •



Water infrastructure assets An integrated approach to programme, portfolio and project delivery.



Water industry trends

taxpayer or shareholder. Owners are



In recent years, we have seen sig-

also increasingly using efficiency and



nificant changes in how owners

effectiveness as key drivers for strate-

cally in recent years,

manage their infrastructure portfolios,

gic change in infrastructure spend and

water utilities need to get the

particularly in how they think about

we have also seen the growing focus

most out of their existing assets,

risk and value. In addition, as a result

many owners place on forging strong,

whether it is improving water qual-

of the budget and related pressures

successful relationships with industry.

ity, increasing capacity, extending

owners face in trying to deliver, sup-

As Aurecon continues to assist water-

the life of the asset or lowering

port and maintain their infrastructure

related infrastructure owners and

energy consumption.



operators in infrastructure delivery

Aurecon’s programme, portfolio

departments and agencies, as well as

and management, the business is

and project delivery leader, John

private sector owners, are now being


Mason, says that programme and

asked to make do with less. Strategic

roles that enable us to bring our

portfolio management offer benefits

reforms and market dynamics there-

global experience and expertise to

to the planning, delivery and main-

fore, continue to challenge owners

help owners with their investments in

tenance of water infrastructure.

to think smarter about how they de-

organisational reform, improvement

liver, support and sustain their critical

and delivery.

In this article, John discusses the opportunities that owners may wish



Katze Dam


infrastructure capabilities.

The challenge

to consider to help them manage

Optimising decision-making around

risk and optimise value for money in

the sustaining capital spend is critical

As water infrastructure continues to

their investments.

– getting the best outcome for each

age, despite investments made over




the past decade, there is growing

The solution is not merely to seek

physical asset life-cycle costs and

evidence, in some areas, of decline

more money or to reduce the quality

simultaneous productivity increases

and the reduction in the estimated

of the owner’s infrastructure hold-

from improved reliability of their

remaining life of critical infrastructure

ings. The more desirable solution

physical assets.

assets due to underfunding in the up-

is to design and implement a more

keep of infrastructure. This increases



treatment plants comprise a vast

the risk of future unfunded liabilities.

infrastructure model, which utilises

number of buried metallic assets that

integrated, best-practice programme,

require an effective corrosion mitiga-


portfolio and project management

tion strategy to minimise the risk of


to make the right investments in

unscheduled maintenance, and avoid

interrelated options for addressing

infrastructure and maintenance and

costly failures with the risk of plant

these challenges.

achieve the best value possible from

shutdowns, environmental pollution

available funding.

and even the endangering of life.

Whole-life infrastructure asset management

corrosion management regime with

governance around the programme

Many of Aurecon’s clients who are sig-


or portfolio and the strategy for deliv-

nificant asset owners and operators

successfully applied

ering them.

are increasingly focused on life-cycle

to its buried water

Whole-life infrastructure solutions, programme portfolio




However, all too often, insufficient



By way of example, many water

consideration is given at the outset of a programme or portfolio to the owner’s







Aurecon has jointly developed a a major water utility in Australia, has



solutions that optimise infrastructure

pipelines and steel

complex undertakings and the stake-

outcomes and service delivery – a


holder and supply chain management

“cradle to grave”  approach.


impacts are normally critical factors in


The of

Whole-life infrastructure solutions, programme management and portfolio management are all interrelated

A whole-life infrastructure asset

this regime has also

management framework enables as-

enabled the utility to

set owners and operators to achieve

adopt a unified and

the overarching priorities for delivery



structured approach

are clear, commence with a set of

optimum cost and risk across the full

to monitoring and

strategic objectives in mind, but then

asset lifecycle.

managing corrosion issues.

determininga successful outcome. Programmes and portfolios, where




require a major effort in terms of

This type of framework has tre-

In South Africa, all municipalities

planning to ensure these factors are

mendous potential to help owners

manage large portfolios of infrastruc-

adequately addressed before delivery

address their infrastructure challenges

ture assets. One such municipality

commences in earnest.

and still have the opportunity to iden-

wanted to optimise service levels, risk

tify and unlock strategic reform and

and expenditure for all assets over the

A vision for an affordable, safer and sustainable infrastructure model

efficiency benefits, particularly around

entire asset life cycle and appointed

informing investment priorities.

Aurecon to develop a full asset man-

Public sector owners will continue to

strategic view at assets from the

A risk-based asset renewal model

compete for their share of available

beginning through to the application

was implemented to aid with long-

funding against other government

of proven process methodologies

term planning of infrastructure in-

priorities and programmes. Private-

contained within the framework.

vestments and has proven valuable in



same challenges.




Maguga Dam

The framework takes a whole-life

This approach has seen owners realise




agement programme.

optimising budgets. It considers the social, environmental and economic



risks associated with infrastruc-

There are four critical goals

ture services to prioritise capital

required to establish a new

renewal interventions.

management framework for

The model was subsequently

improving sustainable infra-

extended to cover all of the

structure outcomes:

other infrastructure categories

• Establishing and sustaining

typically managed by the mu-

the right cultural environment

nicipality such as stormwater,

within the owner’s team and

water supply, sanitation, solid waste and electricity.

programmes. • Creating

The benefits to asset-intensive businesses in adopting a



boundaries and interfaces. • Measuring



leading-edge framework are in

making decisions focused on

an improved return on the con-

successful programme deliv-

siderable investment in physical assets and improvements in

ery and outcomes. • Establishing robust data and

the safe and sustainable use of


these assets.

systems combined with clear

The other clear benefit is in




mation and analysis around


reporting enables strategic investment



be made.

A key to achieving outcomes is implementing them as part of a totally integrated and managed approach to programme, portfolio and project delivery investment priorities and their

What is clear is that all pro-

necessity: a key challenge. This

grammes and portfolios are

contributes to a better under-

different, so any solution needs

standing of risk and allows

to be tailored to an owner’s

more informed decision mak-


ing about investment priorities.

unique policy and regulatory



Integrated solutions framework



its out-

comes it is seeking.

A key to achieving these out-

Looking ahead

comes is implementing them

The sustainable management

as part of a totally integrated

of our water resources presents

and managed approach to

an increasing challenge and


arguably requires greater focus



project delivery.

than any other of our other

At its most basic level, it

natural resources.

provides a framework that

Water quality and availability

integrates and reconciles com-

impacts on the well-being and

peting demands for resources

prosperity of our communities

and also provides a context

and underpins business, agri-



culture and the sustainability of

the investment priorities and

the natural environment – this

projects within the programme

is a collective responsibility for

or portfolio.

the water sector.



It also often involves changes

Aurecon, working collabora-

to the culture, style and charac-

tively with our industry part-

ter of organisations by provid-

ners, is committed to delivering

ing a controlled environment


in which there is are common

recreation, water supply, sani-

approach to programme or

tation, irrigation and environ-

portfolio direction, manage-

mental services at the lowest

ment, delivery and reporting.

cost possible.





Northern Aqueduct start-up on track Construction of Durban’s Northern Aqueduct Augmentation (NAA), which will begin to put in place urgently needed bulk water infrastructure for the rapidly developing northern areas of the city, is on track.




Water Treatment Works to a large

building plans for much-needed new

Martin Bright, says that

number of terminal reservoirs in the

developments such as Cornubia, the


system. These, in turn, supply water

Dube Tradeport, DubeAgrizone and

to residents and businesses.

DubeCity, La Mercy and Westbrook



awarded the contract for

the first phase of the NAA project

The Durban Heights purification

at the beginning of this year, is

works draws water from the Albert

Bright explains that the Northern

already on-site.

Falls, Nagle and Inanda dams and

Aqueduct was not being construct-

This first phase of the NAA ex-

supplies about 93% of total water

ed in a linear fashion. Segments in

tends from the Phoenix 2 reservoir

demand for the entire northern area.

areas of critical need would be put

in Phoenix to Waterloo and then




could be expedited.


in place first, which would allow for

to Umhlanga with a feed to the

reached capacity on various sections

backfeeding of reservoirs in order to

new Blackburn reservoir. It com-

of the trunk mains as a result of

guarantee an uninterrupted supply

prises 22 km of pipeline valued at

growth in demand over the years.

of water.

R150 million.

We may have enough water to meet

Construction of the second con-

Awarding of the tender to con-

the current demand but we don’t

tract of the NAA project, a 6 km pipe-

struct the Blackburn reservoir is

have the infrastructure or network

line valued at around R80 million,

imminent. This reservoir is essential

capacity to deliver it to where it

which stretches from Duffs Road to

for further development of Cornubia

is needed,” Neil Macleod, head of

the Phoenix 2 reservoir, is expected

which is now regarded as both



to begin during the first half of 2014.

Durban and KwaZulu-Natal’s largest

(EWS) says. However, he says that now that

second contracts is scheduled for the

"sustainable integrated human settlement initiative".



Completion of both the first and

the NAA was about to commence,

2nd quarter of 2015.

Once completed, Cornubia will be

concerns about the tenuous water

¹Report tabled before the Human

a 1 300 hectare, multibillion-rand

situation to the north of Durban had

Settlements Infrastructure Committee, 7

development, incorporating indus-

been alleviated and the approval of

February 2014.

Working on the Northern Aqueduct Augmentation project are from left Zamani Khumalo, technical assistant; Clyde Mudly, general foreman at Esorfranki; Heyman Booysen, engineer’s representative assistant; Petro Sibeko, general foreman; Hector Nxumalo, truck driver; and in the foreground Sean Geeson of Esorfranki

trial, commercial, residential and open-space uses¹. Construction of the first residential phase of the development is underway and completed houses have been allocated. A total of 25 000 units is expected to be built within the next 10 years. Construction on the 200 hectare Cornubia Business and Industrial Estate has also commenced, with the majority of sites already sold to developers. The existing Northern Aqueduct, currently





stretched to the limit. This network of bulk supply pipelines serves the north-eastern portion of the EWS area of supply to the north of the Umgeni River, to the south of the Ohlanga River and to the east of Ntuzuma. The aqueduct conveys potable water from the Durban Heights MAY/JUNE 2014



Bringing hope to communities The De Hoop Dam, commissioned in 2004, straddles the Steelpoort River in Limpopo and forms part of the Olifants River Water Resources Development Project, writes Maryke Foulds.

De Hoop Dam under construction


HE PROJECT brings water

of the dam was one of the projects

R3 million spend on construction

to the Nebo plateau where

which fell under the umbrella of

created more than 1 000 jobs

the vast majority of the



estimated 800 000 people






stated that like so many other rural

have very little access to potable

was established in 2010 to coordi-

communities, residents were essen-

water, as well as encouraging plat-

nate and fast-track infrastructure

tially excluded from access to fresh

inum mining in the area, which was

projects in South Africa.

water under the previous regime.

of water supply. The construction






originally restricted due to a lack





“Coupled to the fact that the area

ing, President Zuma said that the

itself is naturally water stressed,


WATER DELIVERY government identified the need for

take forward projects such as dams,

million m3. By con-

serious infrastructure investment in

bridges, schools, hospitals, roads,

crete volume it is

the region.”

power stations, universities, further

one of the largest

The bulk distribution system con-

education and training colleges and

RCC dams in the

nected to the dam will ensure that

a host of other projects that will

world. The dam is

over a period of time, all the people

improve quality of life and boost

being constructed

of this area will be served with an

economic growth.”



uninterrupted water supply, which

The De Hoop Dam is a large dam by

is the ultimate goal of government.

classification category. The dam wall


“We have introduced central co-

is approximately 1 015 m in length

ventional concrete

ordination of the work of national,

and 81 m in maximum height. At full

in the upstream

provincial and government bodies to

supply level the reservoir will cover a


surface area of approximately 1 690


ha and have a capacity of 347.6

Hoop Dam ensures

THE PROJECT IN A NUTSHELL Project name De Hoop Dam Client name

Department of Water Affairs


South Africa

Project value

R3 billion


concrete with


downstream The




ment to the rural population


locking large-scale agriculture mining



RECORDS SET DURING THE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT: •F  or the first time in South Africa, a grade of high-paste, highworkability, roller-compacted concrete was used. • T he first of its kind in the world where both immersed poker vibration and roller compaction were used together in the placement of what is commonly known as RCC. •A  t 1 015 m long, the De Hoop Dam is the biggest rollcrete dam, as well as one of the largest dams, constructed in South Africa over the past 20 years.

and water supply to the Steelpoort pumped storage scheme (1 500 MW) in an environmentally sensitive area. GIBB was responsible for project management, construction



administration and cost control.

LEFT De Hoop Dam; R3 billion of infrastructure


Tel: +27 (0) 31 700 4143 Fax: +27 (0) 31 700 4147

The Utility Systems Prepaid Metering water system is extremely versatile, and capable of addressing a wide range of metering options. It is a tried and tested system, with a very large deployment. With its team of experienced product development engineers, and years of metering experience, Utility Systems is confident of staying at the cutting edge of technology.


Bringing water to Africa and the rest of the world for

ELEVATED TANKS: ABECO offers full-service design, manufacture and installation of support towers steelwork. Basic towers consisting of the support steelwork with a caged access ladder to the roof of the tank are offered in the absence of further specification. Walkways around the base of the tank or rest platforms on access ladders are available on request. Access is required all around pressed steel tanks to tighten bolts. The recommended minimum space around the four sides and above the roof is 600mm and 450mm beneath the tank

CIRCULAR SECTIONAL STEEL TANKS: In developing sectional steel tanks, ABECO recognised a need for tanks that have the following features: • Low cost hygienic water storage • Rugged and easily transportable • Minimal site preparation and foundations • Quick and easy to install • Can be installed using basic equipment • Durable and long lasting • Can be dismantled and re-erected at new sites.

GROUND LEVEL TANKS: Ground level tanks are commonly supported on reinforced concrete dwarf walls fitted with steel capping strips. The purpose of the capping strip is to spread the load over the full load of the support wall and to provide a level platform on which to erect the tank. For practical reasons concrete cannot be cast with sufficient accuracy of level. The capping strips should be positioned in place before the installation of the tank starts. Recommended tolerance is ±2mm. Care should be taken to ensure that foundation walls are parallel and square to each other. Foundation walls must protrude beyond the edge of the tank by a recommended distance of 150mm. The tapered top section of the wall assists in providing access for the tools to fasten.

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Bivane Dam lauded for sustainability In the mid 1990s, Bosch Stemele was appointed by the Impala Irrigation Board to provide engineering services for a much-needed large dam for the Pongola community.


OMPLETED IN 2000, the

irrigated area’s increased land value

and our engineering team, led by


to R1.3 billion.

Bosch Stemele in association with


Bivane Dam was a major

Walter Visser, vice chairman of

BKS (Aecom), at a time when sustain-

success achieving all its

the Pongola Sugar Cane Growers'

ability has become a global buzzword

primary goals in providing contin-

Association, says investment in the


ued benefits to its communities.

dam had stabilised the supply of

to achieve.”

A plaque-unveiling ceremony was

irrigation water to the area and was

Sid Turner, Bosch Stemele national

held on 7 February 2014 to honour

an unmitigated success. “Over the

operations director, states, “We are

the dam committee’s four members;

last 14 years, the dam level had never

proud to have been associated with

the late Piet Marais and Louis du

dropped below 10% (even during a

the Impala Water Users Association on

Preez, Esuan Höll and Quartus Botha,

severe drought in 2003) and it was

this 115 million m3 dam flagship pro-

who successfully obtained the au-

able to supply agricultural and do-

ject and it is even more satisfying to

thorisation from Water Affairs and

mestic demand, and provide for the

see the project delivering triple-bot-

directed the planning and construc-

environmental releases required by

tom-line sustainability in terms of

tion of the project.

the operating rule,” he says.

economic, social and environmental




Besides supplying potable water

Johann Boonzaaier, chief executive

to 48 000 people, the dam also sup-

manager of the Impala Water Users

plies irrigation water for 16 200 ha of



Pongola farmland. It will ultimately




to the whole Pongola community

supply a further 260 000 people

cio-economic benefits are a credit to

from which many future generations

with water. Because of sustainable

the four dam committee members

will benefit.




benefits 14 years down the track.” The 72 m-high Bivane Dam will be a lifelong value-adding monument

From left: Esuan Höll (Bivane Dam Committee), Sid Turner (Bosch Stemele Project Director), James Perkins (Department of Water Affairs Chief Engineer), Piet Viljoen (Aecom Resident Engineer) and Quartus Botha (Bivane Dam Committee)

irrigation supply, the dam created an estimated 900 jobs as well as the




emerging farmers west of Pongola to farm sugar cane. These farmers are now contributing an annual 53 000 tonnes of cane to the Pongola mill. The R300 million project cost has been justified by the 16 200 ha

Completed in 2000, the double award-winning Bivane Dam was a major success achieving all its primary goals in providing continued benefits to its communities MAY/JUNE 2014



Helping those in need Most of us have no problem accessing fresh running water, but for rural communities in the Bronkhorstspruit area, this is a daily struggle. In celebration of National Water Week (17 to 23 March) and World Water Day (22 March), Xylem Water Solutions South Africa did its part to make their lives a little bit easier.


YLEM, WITH THE help of

household received one of the 50

did on World Water Day. Interestingly

Nan Hua Buddhist Temple

litre drums, which will help to make


in Bronkhorstspruit, iden-

their lives a little bit easier. Each

South Africa made the decision

tified two underprivileged

member of the community was also

to celebrate World Water Day and

communities in the Bronkhorstspruit

treated to a special goodie pack

National Water Week retroactively

area without access to running

with treats in celebration of the day.

on 25 March, because of unrelenting

water, except for a central donkey

“We are honoured to be involved in

rains all over Gauteng from the 17

pump. Some of the residents in the

helping communities in desperate

to 23 March. It seems as if Mother

Rietfontein and Modderfontein infor-

need and we look forward to our

Nature joined in the celebrations,

mal settlements have to travel two

future plans with them. It was a great

just like people from all over the

kilometres on foot, with impaired

privilege working with a non-profit

globe. Xylem Water Solutions is, as

water containers, in order to get wa-

organisation like Nan Hua Temple

always, proud to be a thought-leader

ter for their families for everyday use

in identifying the communities who

and champion in the water cycle –

like washing and drinking water. The

needed urgent assistance. We hope

especially when people in dire need

majority of the water containers used

this celebration for World Water Day

benefit from its initiatives.

to transport the water are unsanitary

and National Water Week will lay the

and damaged, and also heavy to

foundation for many more initiatives

carry when filled.

to come,” said Heinrich Louw, region-

Xylem Water Solutions South Africa donated mobile water containers

al marketing and communications manager, Middle East & Africa.

to all the households in these com-

Initiatives like these help not only

munities in celebration of World

to assist the beneficiaries, but also

Water Day. These water containers

to raise awareness around water

are durable and effective, especially

needs, as people all over the world







ABOVE The initiative forms part of Xylem's global corporate investment programme BELOW Recipients of the mobile water container

Xylem Water Solutions South Africa donated mobile water containers to all the households in these communities in celebration of World Water Day


rural communities in need of a clean and accessible water supply. Xylem Water Solutions South Africa also announced further involvement in these communities and future developments within the area – the current donkey pumps in the area will be refurbished and Xylem is looking into the prospect of training people within the community to maintain the newly refurbished pumps. This initiative forms part of Xylem Watermark – Xylem global corporate social investment programme. The communities welcomed the team from Xylem Water Solutions South Africa with open arms and each MAY/JUNE 2014



Pilanesberg Bulk Water Supply Scheme launched The multimillion rand project will boost economic activity, support the local mining industry as well as benefit 109 villages in the Moses Kotane and Rustenburg local municipalities. UR community has


The BBK master plan envi-

truly begun its jour-

sioned that after 20 years the




Ngweding village.

ney of growth with

community will have a dam

Ngweding village is one of the

the ongoing implementation of

with the capacity of 50 million

32 villages within the Bakgatla

projects in the tourism, agriculture,

megalitres that would supply

Ba Kgafela (BBK) community,

mining and manufacturing sectors

sufficient water to the commu-


and this is just the beginning of

nity and developmental projects

350 000 people.

the fulfilment of the Bakgatla Ba

particularly in agriculture.







Kgafela Traditional Administration

Among Kgosi Nyalala Pilane,

already started to benefit from

(BBKTA) master plan” says Kgosi

were Water and Environmental

the ongoing implementation

Nyalala Pilane, chief of the BBKTA.

Affairs Minister Edna Molewa;

of projects in the tourism,



agriculture, mining and manu-

Municipality former acting may-

facturing sectors and has iden-

or, Violet Molotsi; and Moses

tified numerous results-driven



programmes, some of which

mayor, Fetsang Mokati-Thebe,

are already under way, in areas

who co-officiated the launch

such as health, education and

of the project preceded by a

skills development.

Kgosi Nyalala Pilane, chief of the BBKTA



Minister of Water Affairs, Edna Molewa, during the ceremony




Water-energy nexus The demands for freshwater, energy, and food will continue to increase significantly over the coming decades. This will greatly amplify the existing pressures on limited natural resources and ecosystems.


SKOM IS responsible for

measures are put in place. Solving

power stations, which means that

approximately 2% of the

water challenges is, therefore, a

they are more efficient than our



collective effort, with water as the

current fleet of coal-fired

consumption annually and

link between energy, food, climate

power stations, resulting in

supplies in excess of 95% of South



being able to produce more

Africa’s electrical energy, and more

integral part of all interventions. He

electricity with less coal

than half of the electricity used on the

recently represented Eskom in an

and water.

African continent. Without water, this

expert panel discussion on “How

output would not be possible.

do we reconcile the asymmetries

efforts do not end there.


Many Eskom power stations are built areas,


water-scarce necessitating






between water and energy, and how



do we build an enabling environment

electricity, such as wind solar




for the greater integration of water


transfers. These complex water-sup-

and energy?” at the United Nations



ply schemes were developed to

International World Water Day event

small amounts of water,

ensure secure water delivery to

hosted in Tokyo, Japan.

mostly for cleaning. Eskom



Eskom collaborates with the DWA at various levels and participates in the DWA’s Water Conservation and Water Demand Management initiative

Eskom power stations. Tasked with

Closer to home, Eskom collabo-

was granted a generation

managing water delivery is Nandha

rates with the Department of Water

licence for a wind farm in

Govender, general manager: water

Affairs (DWA) at various levels and

the Western Cape.



participates in the DWA’s Water

Govender adds: “How wa-

within the Primary Energy Division

Conservation and Water Demand

ter is prioritised, allocated,

of Eskom Holdings. Govender knows

Management initiative, as seen in the

and licensed will vary at a country

first-hand that an important element

Kriel-Matla mine-water recovery pro-

level and sector level. It is clear that

in water and energy management

ject, which addresses the challenges

the era of business’ easy access to wa-

is a behaviour change at all levels of

associated with mine water in the

ter is ending, creating an opportunity

the organisation.

water-stressed Highveld region.

for the private sector, which brings in


Govender states that “we need to

Eskom’s new Medupi and Kusile

innovation, resources, skills, expertise,

become smarter and more innova-

power stations will use dry-cooling

funding, and investments to provide,

tive in our decision-making and the

technology. Both Medupi and Kusile

and be part of, the solutions to ensure

choices we make, and change our be-

are similar supercritical, coal-fired

sustainable water for all.”

Boilers, water treatment plant, fly ash silos and chimneys at Medupi

haviour and mindsets to address the challenges and risks facing the domains of the water-energy-food nexus in a polluted and climate-changing world.




management is required to take us to 2030 and beyond, which calls for rethinking water use and energy use, reducing waste and losses, improving water and energy efficiency and productivity, and becoming resilient to the impacts of pollution and climate change.” Govender recognises that a nexus approach to the sectorial management of water-energy-agriculture is needed through enhanced dialogue, collaboration, and coordination to ensure that co-benefits and tradeoffs are considered, and mitigation MAY/JUNE 2014



Bundled operation and maintenance Some of South Africa’s largest manufacturing and industrial-sector companies have turned to water services companies to manage their on-site water treatment plants, reports Maryke Foulds.


URING THE last year, one

the skills and know-how available



to suitably manage their own water

secured operations and


treatment plants. Companies tend to



focus on their primary activities and,

from leading salty snack and cereal

if water plants experience problems,

manufacturers, industrial and mu-

the efficiency and effectiveness of

nicipal plants, and large-scale water

the entire production process can be

reuse plants.

placed at risk.”

According to Veolia’s MD, Gunter

“Unplanned downtime and process

Rencken, the trend can be attributed

wide inefficiencies can be costly,

to companies’ needs to cut costs and

which makes it increasingly viable to

reduce the risk of downtime, while

wholly outsource water and waste-

ensuring compliance with water pu-

water treatment plant operation

rification standards at the same time:

and maintenance to suppliers who

“Our experience in the Southern

have the necessary skills, infrastruc-

African water industry has shown

ture and footprints in the region,”

that many companies do not have

he adds.

A worker carries out maintenance at the Mossel Bay reuse plant



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INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT Veolia has a 20-year operations and maintenance contract for the Durban water recycling plant it constructed in 2002. The plant recycles industrial and domestic sewage to near-potable standards for industrial reuse

Improving efficiency to cut water treatment costs

Operations & Consumables divi-

One of the contracts Veolia

the complete spectrum of water

recently secured requires full

treatment services from a single



supplier, who wholly under-

as well as continuous chemical

stands their business’s needs,”



sions, our clients have access to




says Van Niekerk. Throughout




the Western and Eastern Cape,

to improve the quality of dis-

Veolia has been operating and







from a global food company’s

municipal plants that desalinate

plant near Johannesburg.

seawater and produce water

Hein van Niekerk, GM at Veolia’s



suitable for drinking and other


freshwater applications, includ-

Consumables Division, provides

ing the large-scale seawater

details: “Before we started man-

desalination plant in Mossel Bay,

aging the plant, the water leav-

and other plants in Plettenberg

ing the plant into the municipal


sewer system wasn’t meeting

Coast, Knysna and Saldanha Bay.

the discharge standards, result-

The company also manages the

ing in our customer having to

large-scale Mossel Bay reuse

pay penalties to the municipality.

plant for PetroSA and the Mossel

Without any upgrades to the

Bay municipality.




plant, and simply by managing

Veolia also operates and main-

the day-to-day operations, we’ve

tains nine plants throughout

improved the plant’s wastewater


quality to exceed the municipal-

flagship Durban water recycling

ity’s minimum standards, which

plant which treats up to 47 Mℓ/

has drastically cut costs for treat-

day of domestic and industrial

ing the factory’s wastewater.”

sewage to near-drinking stand-

A second global food company



ards for direct reuse by industry.

has contracted Veolia to operate


plants at its Cape Town and

two containerised wastewater

Johannesburg factories.

treatment plants at King Shaka













International Airport, which has


special wastewater discharge


requirements due to its location

contract has matured and we’re

in an environmentally sensitive

now also responsible for all their

area. Veolia is further helping a

on-site water utilities as well,

leading global FMCG company

such as boiler-feed water and

to recover up to 70% of all water

cooling water circuits. Combined

used by operating and main-

with our dedicated Design &

taining a large-scale rainwater

Build, Engineered Systems and

harvesting plant.





Urgent interventions for AMD lauded Another step has been taken toward resolving the challenge of acid mine drainage (AMD) in the Witwatersrand writes Maryke Foulds.



level which is prescribed by legisla-



tion and will also guarantee the safe-

Basin was previ-

ty of the environment and people.

ously character-




greater part of the City of Johannesburg




Forming part of the strategy of

ised by sporadic

been the subject of critical debate

the 2014 Water Week celebrations,

surface decant

regarding the impact of AMD on the


r e s u l t i n g

future survival of Johannesburg as

Department of Water Affairs and


a city and as the economic hub of

Susan Shibangu of the Department


the country.

of Minerals and Energy opened


the event.


A newly built pump station will convey acid mine water from deep in








negative impacts.


of the immedi-

the mine void to the surface where

the Western Basin in April of 2012

ate solution for

it will be made safe for the environ-

to commission the recommended


ment. The important process will

immediate solution and by August

tion of AMD and contaminant sur-

ensure that the acid mine water does

2012 surface decant of AMD in this

face decant eradication has yielded

not reach the environmental crucial

basin was completely eradicated.

positive environmental benefits for



ABOVE The AMD site at Central Basin BELOW Mine water run-off


INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT This initiative will ensure that underground AMD in the Central Basin is managed at a suitable level to not to create adverse environmental and socioe-conomic impacts the area, including improvement in ground and surface water qualities.

• Construction of an on-site water

formance of these state-of-the-art

treatment plant in each basin with

AMD pumps, we need to mention

the option of refurbishing and up-

that once in place and fully opera-

grading the existing plants owned

erage of 57 million liters of AMD per day will be treated and discharged into the Klip River – which is one of the critical tributaries of the Vaal River – and this treated decant will

ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN THE WITWATERSRAND Acid mine drainage has been a problem ever since mining commenced in 1886. At first the water from mines was discharged untreated into the adjacent streams which flowed into the Suikerbos and Klip Rivers. Since these rivers flowed into the Vaal above the Vaal Barrage, the Witwatersrand ended up polluting its own water supply, as well as those living downstream. As mining went deeper the individual mines became connected and this eventually resulted in the formation of four basins, the Eastern, Central, Western and Far Western Basins. The result was that as mining ceased and the mining void filled up with water, it could flow between the mines and eventually reached a common rising level across a basin. In the 1970s, the CSIR developed the high-density sludge treatment process which neutralised the acidity and partially reduced the salt load. Treatment plants were established at the South West Vertical Shaft in Germiston and the No 3 shaft at Grootvlei Mine, Springs, to treat AMD from the Central and Eastern Basins respectively. However, this did not remove all the salts from the effluent and as a result Rand Water started to draw water directly from the Vaal Dam and water was released from the Vaal Dam to dilute the salty water in the Vaal Barrage. Pumping stopped in the Western Basin in 1996, the Central in 2008 and the Eastern in 2011 resulting in the AMD rising to the surface. In 2002, AMD reached the surface in the Western Basin and starting flowing untreated down the Tweelopiespruit, causing environmental damage along the stream and polluting the groundwater in the Zwartkrans Compartment. With the mines in the basins in liquidation, or with very little share value left, the possibility of the problem being resolved by the individual mines was remote and in 2010 the government formed an interministerial committee to look at the problem and develop recommendations on how to solve it. From the report that was presented to the committee came the recommendation that an interventional be made to keep the water below the environmental critical level, by pumping and neutralising it, whilst a long-term solution was developed. The Department of Water Affairs then directed the TCTA to implement the project on its behalf.


treatment plants.

“With regard to the expected per-

tional by the end of April 2014 an av-

A close-up of the unit

water from the mine void to on-site

by the mines. • Installation




convey treated water to nearby water courses. • Operation of the pump stations and treatment works by DWA.

therefore not impact negatively on

The three main basins’ risk profile

the Vaal River.”

differs from basin to basin. The main

Linked to this process is the treat-

objective of the emergency works

ment of the solid sludge. The solid

is to maintain the AMD below the

waste sludge will be pumped into

environmental critical levels (ELCs)

the mine waste storage facilities and

as defined for each of the basins and

this initiative will ensure that under-

thereby prevent an environmental

ground AMD in the Central Basin is

catastrophe from occurring. The key

managed at a suitable level to not

environmental risks identified are:

to create adverse environmental and

• Flooding risks: contamination of

socioe-conomic impacts. She


shallow groundwater, flooding of


recognises that the long history of




creased seismic activity.

mining in the Witwatersrand has

• Decanting of AMD to the envi-

created the AMD challenge we

ronment risks such as ecological

face today. As efforts are intensified

impacts, regional impacts on major

to further manage the problem

river systems and localised flooding

sustainably, a proactive approach

in low-lying areas.

is required to prevent a duplication of the situation in other mining

Design criteria

areas such as Mpumalanga, the

The AMD-neutralising process entails

KwaZulu-Natal coalfields, Free State

a modified High Density Sludge


(HDS) process which incorporates the




metal mines, etc. In this regard we

following unit treatment processes:

will continuously apply regulatory

• Preneutralisation of the feed AMD

mechanisms for the adoption and

using limestone, an alkaline agent,

implementation of long-term AMD/


mine water management strategies

um-associated acidity and a fraction

by mining companies.”




of the feed iron-associated acidity. • Aeration to oxidise the ferrous iron

The project in a nutshell

and manganese. The preneutrali-

On 8 April 2011 TCTA received the

sation, as well as the main neutral-

directive from the Minister of Water

isation, reactors are equipped with

and Environmental Affairs to implement “Emergency Works Water Management on the Witwatersrand Gold Fields with special emphasis on Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)”. The

surface mechanical aerators. • Conditioning of the recycle sludge using lime. • Final neutralisation of the AMD using lime.

immediate actions required (Phase

• Gypsum

1) over the next 12 month period


was the following: • Installation of pumps to extract MAY/JUNE 2014

crystallisation superannuated




sulphate. • Solids




3847 Wetpaint Advertising


clarifier/thickener and produc-

progress daily on-site and

tion of a clear product water.

reports to the DEA monthly.

• Handling and disposal of



the waste sludge, mainly

audits are conducted by an

containing metal hydroxides

independent service provider

and gypsum.

and the audit reports are

• The treatment process also

submitted to the DEA every

requires the storage, make-

six months. The EIA progress

up and dosing of limestone,

for disposal of sludge in the

lime and polymer.

Eastern Basin is ongoing and it is planned for submission to

Environmental authorisation

the DEA by December 2014.

The EIA for short-term com-

the treatment of the water

menced in December 2011.

will entail the neutralisation

In terms of water quality,

A newly built pump station will convey acid mine water from deep in the mine void to the surface However, due to the dire

of the acidity and removal of

nature of the project and

the heavy metals. The process

other compelling stakeholder

followed is based on the



proven and reliable high den-

had to be suspended and an


sity sludge process optimised



through the use of limestone.






exemption the



The water, once treated, will,


however, still contain high

Environmental Affairs. The




salt loads. con-


Source: The Department of Water Affairs MAY/JUNE 2014


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Specialist know-how for dewatering mines Acid mine water drainage pumps for the Witwatersrand Central Basin were delivered by Ritz Pumps South Africa during a landmark event held recently, writes Maryke Foulds.



approximately 1 500 m3/h per unit to

are inoperative or dead

the treatment plant. The fact that the

mines, they still need to

pump station is so far underground,

be dewatered to avoid

and still needs to be maintained,

contamination of underground water

means that a dead mine has to have

and keep the water at an acceptable

access to fresh cooled air for people

and safe level. Either this, or the

to service and operate the pumps.

contaminated water needs to be

In fact, such a dead mine has to be

brought to the surface for treatment

operative just like any active mine in

The pump is simply suspended in

or acid mine dewatering.

terms of power supply for hoists, ven-

the shaft opening where it can hang

tilation, cooling and lighting, costing

free from 1 000 m with piping from

millions in annual operating costs.

80 nb to 600 nb and achieve head

The planned installation of two Ritz HDM 6737.3/15 stage double suction heavy-duty mine dewater-

The Ritz system works on the fol-

of 1 500 m. It is also possible to drill

ing pumps with 2 400  Kw, 6  600  V,

lowing basis. The pump is assembled

a borehole from the surface straight

50 Hz submersible motors took

above ground and then hung free

down into the water source, suspend

place at the South West Vertical

suspended from the surface so that

and hang the pump into the water,

Shaft in Germiston by TCTA to pump

no underground access is needed.

pumping it out directly without


ABOVE A sample of the pipes to be lowered BELOW Ministers Edna Molewa and Susan Shibangu commissioned the new AMD project


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INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT having to go through the



shaft with a complex piping



system as is required for more

that utilises the optimum

standard, traditional under-


ground high pressure pump

diffuser and casing, leading

station set-ups.

to the best possible adaption



There module


The system is also not only

to a desired operating point

for old mines. New mines in

at extremely high efficien-

Australia and in Africa are

cy. The materials module

now installing the system

provides a wide choice of

from the start of a new min-

materials enabling flexible

ing operation. Although it is

adaptation to suit all combi-


nations of chemical or abra-



retrofit the system, it is very

sive operating conditions.

cost-effective to install it on

With the HDM systems, two contra-rotating submersible motor pumps are arranged on top of each other and driven by a continuous pump shaft

new mines where the conventional mine dewatering system of building underground pump stations today will cost millions more. One of the greatest advantages is that if the engineers know where the water is, it can simply go straight down through

While this technology is

a borehole with no need for a

not new and is being used

shaft to get the water out.

the axial thrust while loads on the

worldwide, it has not been fully ex-

unit are kept to a minimum and

plored in the South African mining

The technology

the thrust bearing is no longer


The use of a single-suction submers-

subjected to tonnes of

ible motor pump for pumping huge

thrust. This significantly

quantities to or from great depths is

reduces wear and tear

associated with extreme loads on the


unit in the design of the HDM pump

tended service life it is

system that comes in a wide range of

currently achieving.




sizes. The higher the pump perfor-

The division of work

mance, the stronger the axial thrust

between the two pumps

exerted on the pump motor and its

not only achieves com-

thrust bearings. The consequence

plete compensation for

of this is overloading and untimely

axial thrust but impeller

shutdown. The solution is to double


up, meaning greater durability. This

causing less wear. It also

is what design is all about. A double

halves the suction ve-

suction pump provides full compen-

locity outside the pump.

sation for axial thrust. In short the

This protects the well

HDM is designed for a longer life.

walls around the intake



opening and minimises

How it works

the intake of abrasive

With the HDM systems, two con-

solids and silt. There is



an even more compel-

pumps are arranged on top of each

ling benefit. With half

other and driven by a continuous

the delivery flow going


to each pump, smaller






branches of the two pumps are lo-



cated at the end of the HDM module.



Each of the two pumps transports

and there is, therefore,

half the capacity to the middle of


the pump at full pressure. There, a

velocity in the seal gaps.



Every HDM pump is a

the pressure line via the external

one-off as each one is

casing channels. The double suction

tailor-made from stand-


ard modules for each



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Storage MEYERTON 0861STRUCT (787828) Fax: 016 362 3608


deviating stage directs the flow of


LEFT A first for South Africa: Each HDM pump is tailor-made for each specific application


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A country stands or falls on the quality of its water Although scientific measurements are used to define the quality of water, the most important criterion is if water is good enough for its intended use, reports Maryke Foulds.


HIS COULD be for domestic, farming, mining or industrial purposes or its suitability for maintaining a healthy

ecosystem. Broadly defined, water quality is the term used to describe the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water. In South Africa, effective water management is the tool through which the quality of water sources is measured. From a regulatory point of view, the business of water quality management entails the ongoing


Water quality management in South

process of planning, development,

water quality management applies,

Africa has evolved from a pollution

implementation and administration

in which active measures are taken

control approach, which essentially

of water quality management policy,




the authorisation of water uses that



may have, or may potentially have,

• The









the environment.

an impact on water quality, as well

• In general, the principle of polluter

as the monitoring and auditing of

pays applies. In accordance with this

the resource.

principle, the cost of remedying pol-

The following should form the basis

lution or the degradation of resource

of water-quality management policies

quality and consequent adverse

and practises in South Africa:

health effects, and of preventing,

• The management of water quality



management measures, to the cur-

In South Africa, effective water management is the tool through which the quality of water sources is measured

minimising or controlling pollution,

rent approach where water quality

must be carried out in an integrated

is the responsibility of the polluter.

management consists of an integrated

and holistic manner, acknowledging

• Participative management in the

source, remediation and a resource-

that all elements of the environment

management of water quality must


are interrelated.

be advocated, ensuring that all inter-

which recognises the receiving water

• Decision-making must ensure that

ested and affected parties, and previ-

users’, as well as the aquatic ecosys-

the best practicable environmental

ously disadvantaged persons, have

tem’s, water quality requirements.

option is adopted by taking into

an equal opportunity to participate.

account all aspects of the environ-

• Transparency must


ment, including all the people in


the environment.

decision-making processes.




We asked a number of key players


in the water quality arena what their


products can offer to this fascinating sphere of water management.



Give Water, Give Life Disinfection Ch orine Chlorine Chlor ne Sodium Sodiu So diu um Hypochlorite Hypoch Hyp ochlor lorite ite

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Customer Solutions Centre Field Service Technicians

Traded T raded Products


Soda S So oda Ash s sh Lime Lime m Calcium Ca C alci lc cium Hypochlorite H Hyp Hypoch y hlor orrrit o ite it tte e

Portable Porta Por tab ble e Chlorine Chl Chlori h ori o ne Dosing Dos sing g Systtem em m System

P Phospha Ph Phosphate h ate at P recipitatiion & Precipitation Removal C.O.D Rem moval

Ferric F Fe Fer ric c Ch Chl Chloride loride lor e Ferrifl Fe F erri rr floc floc oc (Chemically CEPT CE PT (Ch PT hemica ally ally y Enhanced Primary E Enh n anc a ed e Pri P Prima imar mary y Treatment) T atm Tre ment ent))

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Commodity Products Caustic Lye, Caustic Flake, Hydrochloric Acid


PO BOX 150, Kempton Park 1620 Tel: 27 11 921 3211 • Email: •



Andre Harding Managing Director NCP Chlorchem



hat defines the quality of water? Quality of

globe in order to bring some of

role in managing

the monitoring equipment in-

water quality, it will

strategies. Successful

water is defined by the chem-

house while at the same time

have an adverse


ical, physical and biological

exploring technology such as

effect. Proper

contaminants present that

telemetry. To prove this point,

planning and a controlled

will result in sustainable and a

will influence the suitability of

we have developed a system

expansion are needed.

quality water resource.

water for a specific end use.

in conjunction with partners

More specific to this broader

such as Alldos to ensure that

quality statement, it means

we measure water quality,

Does climate change have an effect on water quality?

that quality for potable or

apply the correct dosage and

It will have an influence on

drinking water is in essence

most importantly apply it on

the complexity of the water

Please give a technical perspective on your company and how it deals with water quality issues

different to that of water being

a 24/7 basis. These units have

environment and therefore will

NCP is the manufacturer of key

used for industrial purposes.

been made available to the

have an effect. Catchment-level

water treatment products such

municipal industry already with

management will be affected.

as chlorine, flocculants and

What is the current state of water quality in South Africa? This is a very difficult

and enforcement

various other products. Since

some good results.

How can water quality be sustained? All relevant

the introduction of the Blue

stakeholders will need to play

there has been a lot of focus

their individuals roles and

on ensuring water quality

the effective management

at relevant treatment works

here is that we don’t know.

What are the challenges when dealing with water quality issues in South Africa? The main challenge is

Not enough is done to actively

“ownership”. Accountability

of water quality is key to

whether they are potable

measure water quality across

needs to be moved down

the sustainability.

or waste water plants. With

the entire spectrum i.e. from

the line to all stake holders

industrial waste streams, to

and they should adopt full

municipal sewage plants, to

ownership of measuring and

streams and rivers adjacent to

controlling water quality.

question to answer and the first thing that jumps to mind

it effectively you cannot manage it effectively.

Major risks to the industry are the lack of water quality data and monitoring. How can your company assist in offsetting these risks?

our trained sales-force and

What is the way forward to ensure a sustainable and quality water resource?

extensive laboratories we can

Government departments, wa-

having the infrastructure to

How do population growth, urbanisation and industrial production affect water quality? Immensely – all of the

ter boards and local authorities

add value such as dosing and

needs to implement proper

control equipment. Having

water-resource management.

been closely associated with

Although there are very well

the water industry for over 50

factors mentioned will have an

defined plans and strategies

years we can play a pivotal

effect on water quality and if

in place the key is the actual

role in achieving proper wa-

any of these do not play a vital

implementation of these

ter quality.

informal settlements. With that being said, if you can’t measure

Drop/Green Drop certification,

advise users on how to maintain proper standards whilst

LEFT Vehicles for field technicians to conduct chlorine audits

One of our key products is Gaseous Chlorine, which plays a vital part in managing

BELOW Portable chlorine containers

and controlling the chemical and biological contaminants in drinking water as well as controlling biological contaminants in waste streams. A lot of R&D time and money has been spent over the past year to come up with effective ways to ensure continuous monitoring and dosing and this has led to the company back integrating into the control and dosing equipment markets. We are also engaging with future strategic partners across the

RIGHT NCP Chlorchem chlorine container branding MAY/JUNE 2014






hat defines the quality of water? The moment

level, where all users are directly affected by issues in their own

Christian-Wolf Mahncke CEO so-called experts and consultants. •S  everely lacking

and standards for

water is used, another interde-

water-use cycle. However, con-

pendent link is added to the

sidering the complex ‘machinery’

operational man-

receiving water,

water-use cycle and key issues

required for the sustainable

uals, consisting of equipment

within a complex and integrated

use of water within an area, a

brochures and engineering

process have to be considered.

holistic mechanism is required

drawings that have no

The fitness of the water can be

to manage all stages within the

relevance to plant operation

Does climate change have an effect on water quality?

described as: “the use of the

water-use cycle – raw water

and inventories of equipment

Reduced water resources will

water with no, or minimum,

abstraction, treatment of water,

on spreadsheets with no

stress users and have an effect

adverse effects on the user/

distribution of treated water,

practical value.

on usage patterns.

consumer”. This fitness can be

reticulation of used water and

quantified and defined in terms

various other phases.

before entering the water cycle again.

• IT departments in certain mu-

influence the quality of water for

to maintain the water-use

technical departments (water

What is the way forward to ensure a sustainable and quality resource? By address-

a specific use.

cycle includes vital components

services) on what software to

ing the challenges listed, we can

such as civil, mechanical and

purchase or deploy.

ensure the resource remains of

of measurable parameters, which

What is the current state of water quality in South Africa? Surface, ground and

The ‘machinery’ required

electrical parts, skilled staff, clear procedures and strict work plans, to name but a few.

nicipalities control and override decisions or proposals from

• Identification of problematic

quality and is sustainable.

urban and rural communities. •L  ack of emphasis on the

With our management

concern; these areas are linked to

system, full support and

major industrial activities, mines,

knowledge-sharing, we assist in

urban environments and certain

limiting and timeously attending

agricultural areas. A holistic over-

the ‘weak links’, thus offsetting

view is not simple, as detailed

the risks related to water quality

Medium- to long-term

data resides at numerous centres

for all the users. Concerns can


and in numerous formats. The

be addressed by providing a

•E  valuation of the immediate

flagship product, Municipal

Green Drop status of the DWA

holistic picture of all aspects in

challenges will define proce-

Assistant, is a software tool

for wastewater treatment plants

the water-use cycle – addressing

dures and strategies to address

developed in conjunction with

is a direct indicator of the health

constraints clearly.

the medium- and long-term

local municipalities to assist in

challenges and restore confi-

the operational management of

dence in the community and

municipal assets, maintenance

commercial/industrial sector.

and operations.

of South Africa’s surface and ground water and non-compliance of these standards are a cause for great concern.

What are the challenges when dealing with water quality issues in South Africa?

treatment of wastewater and

Please give me a technical perspective on your company and how it deals with water quality issues We are a

marine water have areas of major

compliance with standards. •L  ack of funding for critical interventions.

professional services company providing specialist services in the health and water sectors. With regards to water, our

Although each project

Blue Drop status of the DWA for

ment (past lifespan); acute lack

water treatment works.

of artisans at treatment works,

How do population growth, urbanisation and industrial production affect water quality? Directly, and proportional to

and high turnover of staff at

the degree of growth. Any user

populate the solution with

> 100 treatment plants, > 200

all levels; prioritisation of tasks

of water introduces effluent to

data, train staff and support the

reservoirs, and 100s of kilometres

such as refurbishment, mainte-

the used water stream, which

solution thereafter with an SLA.

of bulk water pipelines, paints

nance or replacement; inferior

has to be removed/reduced to

Our aim is to provide a solution

a grim picture of the present

services and advice by some

comply with required guidelines

jointly, together, rather than us

For drinking water quality, the best national overview is the

Our recent assessment of

Immediate challenges: • Age and condition of equip-

and, more importantly, the near

is unique, our approach remains constant: obtain all requirements, develop a solution, deploy the solution,

imposing a solution.

future situation of maintaining

The services we offer are ex-

the supply and quality of

tensive, from asset assessment,

water to all.

including cost and lifespan assessment, to pipeline profiling

Major risks to the industry are the lack of water quality data and monitoring. How can your company assist in offsetting these risks? A

and hydraulics, preventative and

holistic information system

process and layout drawings,

was developed for managing

water-related libraries and a host

water quality on local authority

of other services.

reactive maintenance scheduling, water quality compliance reporting, staff management, CRM, GPS plotting, training,



One of these is safe enough to drink. Would you know which one?

Does your company have an environmental, analytical or plant operations treatment challenge? Identifying potential problems with water and wastewater is Talbot & Talbot’s area of expertise. Our team of specialists are dedicated to creating and implementing scientifically engineered solutions, that reduce your environmental footprint and conform to legislation. The team is also proactive in maintaining your water or wastewater treatment plant and identifying alternative energy resources that are key to driving down production costs. So if you are looking for solutions, call Talbot & Talbot - it’s a simple choice.

+27 (0) 33 346 1444





hat defines the quality of water? RW In South

• Talbot Laboratories: Provision

Rowan Whittington Process specialist wastewater treat-

of sampling officers and a

ment technologies.

from torrential rains can

Africa we have various quality

SANAS-accredited laboratory

If urbanisation is

burst sewage pipes in

standards to comply with de-

based in Pietermaritzburg ca-

uncontrolled, so

areas where stormwater

pending upon the type of water

pable of analysing all required

is the pollution

use. The SANS 241 standard

water quality parameters.

entering water catchments.

is used for drinking water. For

enters the sewer. • Increased temperatures in the

Population water-use figures

water supply network may

for civil engineering range from

encourage the growth of path-

100 to 200 litres of water per

ogens and disinfection must be

general and special limits for

What are the challenges when dealing with water quality issues in South Africa?

day. Most of that water will end

improved in response. At the very

discharge (which can vary

The biggest challenges are

up as domestic sewage and

least, higher chlorine doses may

depending on the water licence

knowledge and education – from

must be treated to prevent the

issued) and there are also mu-

the poorest, most illiterate child

spread of disease and preserve

nicipal by-laws for trade effluent

to the middle-class housewife

downstream water resources. A

(CO2) in the atmosphere will

i.e. companies discharging their

to the senior civil engineer. We

potable water supply should not

in turn increase surface water

industrial wastewater into a pub-

simply do not think about what

be made available unless there is

CO2 levels and this completely

lic sewer system. Other standards

we are doing with the water we

the absolute minimum wastewa-

changes aquatic life. Algal blooms

exist for other uses, e.g. reuse for

use, usually because we do not

ter treatment available – a septic

and red tides may occur more

irrigation and anti-dusting.

know or are not educated to

tank at least.

treated wastewater there are the Department of Water Affairs’

know. Almost every interaction

During industrial production

be required. • Increased levels of carbon dioxide

frequently. • Droughts increase the concentra-

What is the current state of water quality in South Africa? It varies geographi-

that we have with fresh water

specific pollutants are introduced

tion of pollution in water resources,

results in pollution of some

to wastewater, e.g. chemicals.

placing strain on them.

type – from something as simple

These differ from domestic

cally, depending on how each

as taking a bath (which increases

usage pollutants. Usually

entering these systems. Some

How can water quality be sustained? What is the way forward to ensure a sustainable and quality water resource?

systems are healthy due to

Successful treatment and reuse

good management and others

of wastewater is the key. As our

are either polluted beyond use

economy develops and expands

or accumulating pollution at a

there is a higher pollution load

threatening rate.

entering the catchment systems

catchment system is managed and what pollution load is

that downstream populations

Major risks to the industry are the lack of water quality data and monitoring. How can the company you work for assist in offsetting these risks? Each of our three divisions

use for drinking water. We are all downstream of someone else. If pollution is entering our water resources faster than it is being re-

Activated sludge plant , built by Talbot & Talbot in Nampula Town, Mozambique

can assist in the following ways

moved, in time it will increase the cost of water treatment to meet our domestic and industrial water

in developing, implementing

the salt content of water and

industrial wastewater is still

quality requirements. Reclamation

and managing a water quality

removes oxygen) to washing

contained within a public sewer

of water from wastewater can

monitoring programme:

hands (anti-bacterial products

system but may require pre-treat-

drastically reduce the pollution

• Talbot Engineering: Installation

are toxic to aquatic life).

ment to avoid overloading a

load entering water resources, de-

municipal wastewater treatment

pending on the environmental fate

works and affecting treated

of the pollutants being removed.

of in-line sampling and monitoring points (manual sampling, auto-sampling and in-line

How do population growth, urbanisation and industrial production affect water quality? Urbanisation inevitably

wastewater quality.

support and consultation for

increases the pollution load gen-

Does climate change have an effect on water quality? That’s

a water quality monitoring

erated in a smaller area. However

a very broad question. There are

Please give a technical perspective on your company and how it deals with water quality issues. Talbot & Talbot provides

programme, determination of

it also provides a feasible

many mechanisms by which

services specific to the design,

sampling points, outsourcing of

situation for sewage reticulation,

climate change can affect water

installation, operation and main-

process controllers and analysts

improved treatment technology

quality and they are linked to the

tenance of water and wastewater

for on-site monitoring, super-

and water reclamation. Rural ar-

extreme weather patterns that

treatment works, including water

vision of process controllers’

eas or small towns have smaller

occur with climate change. Here

quality monitoring. Our SANAS-

compliance with a water quality

development budgets and may

are only a few examples:

accredited lab can analyse water

monitoring programme.

not be able to afford adequate

• Increased stormwater surges

samples to any requirement.

instrumentation). • Talbot Operations: Expert



HEAD OFFICE: (011) 615-6076 DURBAN: (031) 701-2711 CAPE TOWN: (021) 946-1722 Website: E-Mail:

HI 96711 (01)

HI 9829

HI 991300


HI 9146-04

Package Deal Promotion - R42 847.00 (Prices Quoted Exclude VAT)

“The Department of Water Affairs launched the Green Drop Certification Programme for waste water care works in 2008. The Green Drop status implies excellent wastewater management and a respect for the environment and health of the community at large”.

HI 9829-10042 & HI 7609829-10 – Portable pH/EC/TDS/Temp/DO/Ammonia Meter with GPS – R48 105.00 HI 96711(01) – Portable Chlorine Meter with 100 Free Chlorine & 100 Total Chlorine Tests – R5 453.00 HI 96733(01) – Portable Ammonia Meter with 100 Ammonia Tests – R 5 553.00

Option 2:

Package Deal Promotion - R25 273.00 (Prices Quoted Exclude VAT)

HI 96711(01) – Portable Chlorine Meter with 100 Free Chlorine & 100 Total Chlorine Tests – R5 453.00 HI 96733(01) – Portable Ammonia Meter with 100 Ammonia Tests – R 5 553.00 HI 991300 – Portable pH/EC/TDS/Temp Meter – R8 766.00 HI 9146-04 – Portable DO Meter – R9 960.00

Option 1:

Instruments recommended for Blue & Green Drop Water and Waste Water Treatment

HI 98703 Option 1: HI 98703 – Portable Turbidity Meter – R16 300.00 HI 96711(01) – Portable Chlorine Meter with 100 Free Chlorine & 100 Total Chlorine Tests – R 5 453.00 HI 991300 – Portable pH/EC/TDS/Temp Meter – R8 766.00 Package Deal Promotion - R25 942.00 (Prices Quoted Exclude VAT) Option 2: HI 9829-11042 – Portable pH/EC/TDS/Temp/Turbidity Meter, with GPS – R46 800.00 HI 96711(01) – Portable Chlorine Meter with 100 Free Chlorine & 100 Total Chlorine Tests – R 5 453.00 Package Deal Promotion - R44 415.00 (Prices Quoted Exclude VAT)

“The Department of Water Affairs implemented the Blue Drop Certification Programme in September 2008 to introduce incentive-based regulation of drinking water”.


Analytical instrumentation for the water industry Ralf Christoph, newly appointed sales and marketing manager for Hanna Instruments, speaks to Maryke Foulds about the direction the company is taking as a world leader in analytical instrumentation.


one of the leaders in innovative

and buffer solutions. Concludes

analytical instrumentation, its R&D

Christoph, “Our five manufacturing



facilities are each specialised in a

itself to improve on existing tech-

product family, ensuring stability

nology and to invent new testing

and greater quality. Our engineers

techniques, with the common goal

in manufacturing strive to achieve

to simplify the analytical testing.

higher standards at all times, con-

Concurs Christoph, “This not only

tinuously investing in new manu-

applies to instrumentation, but also

facturing technology equipment,

to sensors development, reagents

as well as new manufacturing

and chemicals. The idea of water-

techniques. As a vertically

ITH ITS network of

proof instruments was pioneered


60 subsidiaries in 43

by Hanna, as well as the concept of

Hanna does not subcontract



Ralf Christoph



and a product hand-

book of over 3 000 products, this family-owned business has come a long way in supplying customers with practical, affordable solutions

In 2005, we introduced the world’s first single parameter series of automatic titrators dedicated to food analysis

for testing needs. Says Christoph, “There have been

giving users the possibility to check

any part of the manufac-

a number of milestones within the

the accuracy of its digital ther-

turing process, from plastic

company. The introduction of the

mometer, and is still unique today.

moulding, to glass blowing

pHep (pH Electronic Paper) in 1986

Another exclusive to Hanna is the

and chemical bottling to PCB

literally revolutionised the world of

simultaneous testing for ph and EC

and electronic assemblies.”

testing by allowing millions of peo-

with a single instrument, which was

ple in various industries to test for

introduced in 2000.”

ph in a simple, accurate and afforda-

All products are quality controlled

ble way. In 2005, we introduced the

throughout the entire manufactur-

world’s first single parameter series

ing process. It manufactures all the

of automatic titrators dedicated to

products it brings to the market-

food analysis, putting thousands

place, including meters, elec-

of users around the world in the




position to perform their own analytical tests in-house and improve


the quality of their product.” Research



remains a key focus for Hanna. As

Hanna Instruments opened its doors in Johannesburg South Africa, in 1991. Being owned by the manufacturers, we are able to supply the best customer service, supply and technical backup and support, resulting in customer satisfaction, which is the key for us being at the forefront of our competitors in South Africa. Business grew rapidly, and a need was created for branches to be opened in Durban as well as Cape Town, in order to keep up with customers growing demands. The Hanna philosophy is to employ people within their own country, to run their business. This allows customers to not only get manufacturers service, but also the service required by the South African market.




Enhancing sludge digestion at Johannesburg WWTW The recent increases in electricity tariffs imposed by Eskom have had a direct bearing on the cost of wastewater treatment in Johannesburg and could lead to an additional financial burden for the water services authority (WSA) and water services provider (WSP) in the future. By Ronell Viljoen, Reginald Makoane, William Bedser, Shaun Deacon and Rob Boyd






• Remove the potential for struvite

against this potential burden,

precipitation by the recovery of

in reducing the impact of this

Johannesburg Water has em-


financial burden.

barked on the implementation


of a combined heat- and power-gen-



phosphorus sludge,




sludge dewatering.




In 2013, JW treated 998 Mℓ per day of wastewater, 249 dry tonnes

eration programme, using biogas

This paper describes the various tech-

of sludge and consumed 17.5 MWe

produced at their wastewater treat-

nologies evaluated by Johannesburg

of electricity at their six wastewater

ment works.

Water for the enhancement of the

treatment works. The five large

In 2013, the five large treatment

existing digester operation in order

wastewater treatment works had the

works operated by Johannesburg

to fully comply with the 2006 Sludge

potential to generate 9.5 MWe of

Water had the potential to generate

Guidelines, increase biogas produc-

electricity by enhancing their sludge

9.5 MWe of electricity. This would

tion and electrical power generation


have accounted for 54% of the treat-

and control struvite precipitation.

percent of the electricity required for

ment works electrical power require-



wastewater treatment could have

ments and resulted in a saving of


been generated on-site and resulted

R80 million in electricity supply costs.

The recent increases in electricity tariffs

in a saving of R80 million in electricity

In order to obtain the maximum

imposed by Eskom have had a direct

supply costs.

benefit from the operation of the

bearing on the operational cost of



wastewater treatment in Johannesburg

CHP generation programme


and the cost could rise from 81 c/m³ in

The revised Sludge Guidelines were


2013 to above 124 c/m³ by 2020.



implementation additional




were recommended:

Cost of wastewater treatment





This probable increase will place

of Water Affairs in March 2006 and

• Thicken the digester feed sludge

an additional financial burden on

these guidelines now form part of the

from 2.5% dry solids concentration

both the WSA (City of Johannesburg)

Johannesburg wastewater treatment

to between 5% and 6%, using grav-

and the WSP (Johannesburg Water

works licence conditions. One of the

ity belt thickeners.

SOC Limited).

ten options offered in the guidelines,

• Lysis sludge

the cell




ultrasound technology.






for sludge stabilisation, was anaerobic

(JW) began implementation of a

digestion and this option was con-

combined heat and power (CHP)

sidered the most cost effective and sustainable process for Johannesburg. In order to comply with the new Sludge Guidelines, JW had to embark on a major sludge digester refurbishment programme that included structural repair and the installation of heating and mixing equipment at




Goudkoppies Works. New mesophilic sludge digesters have been recently installed at both Driefontein and Bushkoppie Works. During 2013, the successful installation of a 1.14 MWe CHP unit at Northern Works led to the decision to extend the programme to Driefontein




FRP PRESSURE VESSELS Struvite precipitation

Wastewater Treatment Works


by the installation of 2 x

contains an excessive amount

380 kWe reciprocating en-

of water and it is necessary

gines. The experience gained

to increase the digester feed











digester and CHP operations

< 2.0% to between 5% and 6%

identified areas of concern

in order to enhance the volatile

and the need to implement

solids reduction and biogas

solutions for improved sludge

production rates. Information

thickening, cell lysis and con-


trol of struvite precipitation.





literature that


following could be achieved if

Enhancement of the sludge digestion operation

the digester feed sludge were

All of Johannesburg’s treat-

M • The volatile solids loading

ment works incorporate the

rate could be increased from Y


to be further thickened:

In 2013, JW treated 998 Mℓ per day of wastewater, 249 dry tonnes of sludge and consumed 17.5 MWe of electricity








1.2 kg  VS/m³ of digester ca-

(BNR) process for wastewater


pacity to 2.6 kg VS/m³ at a 15




primary sludge and controlled

day solids retention time. • Volatile






during the sludge digestion




process could be increased by

removal process but, at the same time, also reduces the

about 25%. • The




amount of waste fermented

in existing digesters would

sludge available for biogas

be increased.

production. The digester feeds therefore consist mainly of

Sludge thickening methods

waste activated sludge (WAS)

In order to thicken the waste

which is thickened from an


average 0.35% dry solids con-


centration to 2.5% in concrete

were investigated:

gravity thickeners.

• Dissolved air flotation (DAF) –

Additional sludge thickening

• Gravity belt thickeners (GBT)



further, processes

2 variants. The






with of

– 5 variants. • Rotary drum – 1

biogas at Northern Works is

• Thickening press – 1

that the digesters are being

All of the above processes


require polymer addition with



waste activated sludge of <


2.0% dry solids concentration.

the lowest dosing rate. Due






TECHNICAL PAPER Some of the advantages of in-





formation was provided by literature

into the existing sludge digestion

surveys, presentations by local agents

Digester feed solids conc.

12 days retention

15 days retention

20 days retention

2.5 %

1.5 kg VS/m³

1.2 kg VS/m³

0.9 kg VS/m³

operation are:

and contact with overseas users of

5.0 %

3.0 kg VS/m³

2.4 kg VS/m³

1.8 kg VS/m³

• an increase in the carbon available

some of the above technologies.

5.5 %

3.3 kg VS/m³

2.6 kg VS/m³

2.0 kg VS/m³

6.0 %

3.6 kg VS/m³

2.9 kg VS/m³ 2.1 kg VS /m³

for biogas production • enhanced


The results of the investigations power


was probably the most cost-effective

• a reduction in digester foaming

and suitable cell lysis technology

Johannesburg and that redundant

• a reduction in the mass of digested

for Johannesburg.

sludge produced

ment on the works, it was decided

• improved sludge stabilisation and

that this mode of sludge thickening

a reduction in odour and vector

Anticipated improvement in sludge treatment operation


It is anticipated that the following

was the most cost-effective option and carried the least risk for Johannesburg Water.

Cell lysis

Gravity belt thickener

indicated that the ultrasound option

to past experience with GBTs in GBTs were available for refurbish-

In order to decide on which cell

could be achieved by enhance-

lysis technology to include in the



treatment operations:



were investigated:

breakdown of cell clus-

• thermal hydrolysis – 2 variants

ters and disintegration

• thermo chemical hydrolysis – 1

of the cell membrane of waste activated sludge prior


gramme, the following processes

Cell lysis involves the

to sludge digestion, which allows


Valuable process and operational in-


• mechanical





• 25% increase in volatile solids reduction during digestion • 25% increase in biogas production • 15%

variants • ultrasound/ultrasonic – 2 variants





power generation • 20% decrease in digested sludge production

the release of the organic fraction

• electric pulse – 2 variants

to be readily available for enhanced

• chemical treatment – 1


biogas production.

• mechanical shearing – 1.

power costs.



• 50%








TECHNICAL PAPER (The percentages have been

removed at a pH of 9.0 and a

rounded off to the nearest 5%.)

MAP mole ratio of between 1:1:1 and 1.2:1:1.

Struvite precipitation (MAP)

The recovery of struvite crys-

Struvite is commonly referred

tals for use as a slow-release

to as MAP (magnesium, ammo-

fertiliser was being investigat-

nium, phosphate) and during

ed by JW.

the digestion process, phosand ammonia produced by

Enhanced sludge treatment operation

the reduction in volatile solids


concentration. Struvite precipi-


tates after the sludge digestion

digestion operation in a cost-

process by the entrainment of

effective and efficient manner,

air mainly through turbulence

a combination of technologies

in pipelines and pumps, an

is required. After thoroughly

increase in pH through CO₂

investigating the suitability of

stripping and a MAP mole ratio

the various technologies avail-

of 1:1:1.

able for sludge thickening, cell

phorus is released from cells

Struvite pipelines,












lysis and struvite recovery, the following


storage tanks and dewatering

were made:

equipment and, to prevent

• thicken




the struvite forming, ferric salts

existing gravity thickeners,

or alum salts or commercial

to achieve a solids concentra-

additives are dosed into the

tion of 2.5%

digester feed to chemically precipitate



• the gravity-thickened WAS M is


to be further thickened to beY

so prevent struvite crystals

tween 5% and 6% dry solids CM

from forming after the digestion process. However, this process does not prevent high

concentration, using gravity belt thickeners


CY • the thickened WAS is lysed

concentrations of ammonia in

using ultrasound technology CMY

the sludge dewatering liquors

• the lysed WAS is combined K

from being recycled back to

with waste fermented sludge

the bioreactors for treatment,

and recovered fats, oils and

which could lead to final efflu-

greases (FOG) before being

ent non-compliances.

fed to the existing mesophilic

The recovery of both nitro-


gen and phosphorus from

• after the sludge digestion op-

the digested sludge can be

eration, the digested sludge is

achieved by the controlled

passed through a MAP recov-

precipitation of struvite crys-

ery process for ammonia and

tals. Since magnesium is the

phosphorus removal

limiting element for struvite

• the sludge is then dewatered

precipitation, magnesium ions

on existing belt filter presses,

are added to the digested

solar dried, composted and

sludge to increase the magnesium concentration.

screened before final disposal • the recovered struvite crystals

In most cases, after mag-

can either be blended with

nesium enhancement, phos-

the compost or used separate-

phorus becomes the limiting

ly as a slow-release fertiliser.

factor in struvite precipitation.


Although phosphorus in the

treatment processes are to

digested sludge is reduced

be installed at the Driefontein



Wastewater Treatment Works

controlled struvite precipita-

in order to verify the assump-

tion, test results also indicate

tions made for digester vol-

that in excess of 90% of the

atile solids loading, volatile



solids reduction, volume of

the digested sludge can be

biogas produced, electrical








TECHNICAL PAPER energy generated and the reduction


in the mass of digested sludge to

Future increases in electricity tariffs

Precipitation of struvite immedi-

be dewatered.



ately after the digestion process,

burden on the WSA and WSP, espe-

allows the digested sludge treat-

cially for power-intensive activated-

ment operation to function without

sludge-type processes.

blockages to pipelines, pumps and

Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions By implementation of an enhanced


on-site electrical power generation. an


An improved anaerobic sludge di-

sludge dewatering equipment. It


gestion operation enables wastewa-

also prevents high concentrations

Driefontein Works, it is estimated that

ter treatment plants to fully comply

of nitrogen and phosphorus, in

the following reduction in greenhouse

with the 2006 Sludge Guidelines,


gas emissions would be achieved.


from being recycled to the biore-

• CO2

6 690 tonnes/annum

enhance CHP generation.

• SO2

113 tonnes/annum

• NOx

31 tonnes/annum

sludge thickening from 2.5% to

• CH₄

26 tonnes/annum

between 5% and 6%, enables the


• CO

20 tonnes/annum

volatile solids loading rate to be

would ensure reductions in fu-

If all five large treatment works in

increased from 1.2 kg VS/m3 to

ture electricity supply costs for



2.6 kg VS/m3 at a solids retention

wastewater treatment.

enhanced digestion operation, the re-

time of 15 days in the digesters.

duction in greenhouse gas emissions


would then be:


• CO2

146 000 tonnes/annum

sludge stabilisation.

• SO2

2 480 tonnes/annum

• NOx

672 tonnes/annum


• CH₄ • CO










substantially capacity



actors which could cause effluent additional

non-compliances. The proposed enhancement of










gas emissions is dependent on



the amount of kWh of electricity produced, and large reductions in CO₂ emissions could be achieved


by the wastewater treatment works

582 tonnes/annum

carbon available for the enhance-

incorporating CHP generation from

438 tonnes/annum

ment of biogas production and

the biogas they produce.





NO_DIG_SA2014Ad3_NO-DIG SA 2014 Ad 19/03/2014 17:03 Page 1








4 29-30 July 2014 CSIR Convention Centre Pretoria, South Africa

South Africa’s premier forum on trenchless technology Exhibition

Trenchless works in South Africa

New infrastructure installations as well as essential renovation of ageing underground services can mean huge disruption to the travelling public, particularly in the country’s major conurbations. NO-DIG SOUTH AFRICA is an exciting forum for the industry to come together to see the technology, debate the benefits, share knowledge and network with like minded industry colleagues.

In conjunction with

International Society for Trenchless Technology

Organisation by

Educational Forum

The two day conference programme will feature a new Trenchless Technology Masterclass presented by expert representatives of The International Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTT). Case study presentations will illustrate many successful projects in a range of geotechnical site conditions. South African professional delegates will receive CPD points.

All enquiries to: Tel: +44 (0) 845 094 8066 Organised by

See and evaluate a wide range of equipment and services, displayed by international exhibitors, which will truly demonstrate trenchless technology and its capabilities. Platinum sponsor:

Bronze sponsors:

Media partners:


The reality of South Africa’s WWT technology South Africa is at a “tipping point” in terms of what is required of municipalities to comply with, what needs to be achieved, and what is appropriate and necessary to ensure an acceptable and reliable level of performance.


HIS IS AN extract from

to the engineering, science

the recently released


report by the Water

of wastewater treatment in



Research Commission

South Africa. More recently,

in partnership with the South

attention has been redirected


M to assess the performance and



Government enti-

compliance status of wasteY

tled: Drivers for Wastewater

water treatment facilities, and CM





to identify the challenges and MY

Assessment of the Selection

root causes that underpin poor


performance – in particular CYby



Technology by Municipalities in Relation to the Management Capability



municipal institutions. The









Requirements by M van der

the appropriateness of the

Merwe-Botha and G Quilling.




Over the past decade, much

relation to the current ability

attention has been devoted

of the municipality to administer such choices. Fifteen

Technology choices should be appropriate to the challenge presented

municipalities from across the country took part in the study. Established in 2010, under



WASTEWATER SEWPACKSA is an association of like-minded professionals in the watertreatment industry aimed at providing a unified representative body of suppliers of package plants in South Africa the recommendation of the WISA Small



Works (SWWTW) division, the Small Wastewater



Suppliers Association (SEWPACKSA) is an association of like-minded professionals in the water-treatment industry aimed at providing a unified representative body of suppliers of package plants in South Africa to create a sustainable and selfregulated industry. Paul Gaydon, EXCO member of SEWPACKSA who is responsible for legislative matters, comments on behalf of SEWPACKSA on the findings of the report.



Welcome to the future – a future of Mwangaza We are all writing a part of the script which tomorrow’s society will play out. At Royal HaskoningDHV we would like the title to read: ‘Welcome to the future’ - and for our chapter in that script to read ‘Mwangaza’ - a Swahili word which means ‘light’. Together with our partners and clients we consider how we can create a welcoming future - developing efficient and smart living. Whether switching on a light, travelling to work or drinking a clean glass of water - the solutions and work of our engineers surround us, making lives better and brighter. Our work contributes to the sustainable development of communities. Together, we deliver innovative sustainable answers to today’s challenges. Royal HaskoningDHV is an independent, international engineering and project management consultancy.

(2009). Due to the fact that most




extensions are already overdue by the time the project actually commences, it forces the consultants to resort to using the standards rather than the RWQOs. The question is, does the Department of Water Affairs have the capacity to manage RWQOs?  SEWPACKSA



generally be forced to use the standards approach, and match




these,” says Gaydon. In







sustainable choices, Gaydon discusses how SEWPACKSA as an organisation ensures that their members adhere to certain standards. “SEWPACKSA members




staff to operate and maintain C

the plants, or provide this M function on a contract basis. If

suitable staff are available Y

A number of WWTW may have opted for less suitable technologies due to resource contraints

from the client to operate CM the plant, then a minimum MY

of a maintenance contract is CY preferred. Plants are moni-

tored on a monthly basis and CMY

Inappropriate technologies The findings of the report

improvements made where K problems arise. Repairs are

indicate that 44% of the

conducted on an urgent basis,

studied wastewater treatment

and spares for the equipment

plants may have opted for

installed are readily available,”

less suitable (inappropriate)

explains Gaydon.

technologies ering and









Performance and compliance

and provide effluent-quality


requirements. Gaydon says:



“The report states that stand-

there are a number of chal-

ards should not determine

lenges that underpin poor

the treated effluent quality,


but rather use the Receiving

Gaydon the main challenges

Water Quality Objects (RWQO)

are the lack of trained person-

for the river as the point of

nel and the awareness of the


While I agree

need to comply. SEWPACKSA

with this, the problem is that

provides training, and com-

RWQO studies have not been


conducted on the majority

operations and maintenance

of South Africa’s rivers.








manuals to prevent problems.


“Our clients, being in the

three years to perform, and

private sector, are also acutely

a rapid desktop study takes

aware of the need to comply



with the standards from both

to perform and costs the

a legal and environmental

municipality around R600 000

point of view. All equipment









According to Gaydon: “Certain

The private sector is a straight-talk-

consultants may have little expe-

ing environment and should a



member be shown to have erred,

plant design, but are appointed

the matter will be resolved as an

on the basis of the lowest tender

aspect of priority.



bid – this is a recipe for disaster, as

SEWPACKSA is an organisation

they have to sacrifice on all aspects

that represents a number of in-

of the work to maintain a profitable

dustry suppliers. How do suppliers



benefit from becoming a member

be allowed to discount more than


2% on the Engineering Council

bers are bound to a specific code

of South Africa’s fees, to ensure a

of conduct and have to comply

quality job, and their experience

with certain guidelines which will

should carry a heavy weighting

make sure that a good reputation

in appointments. In fairness to

is maintained. As such clients are

consultants, municipal infrastruc-

ensured of a professional service

ture frants are often awarded on

and product which would not apply

a budget price in a certain year,


and may fall short during project

assured of doing more business as a

implementation, which results in

result of their affiliation.



non-members. Members


certain areas of the plant having is provided with duty

to be under-equipped. An example

Complaints procedure

and standby units, and these are

of this is undersized drying beds,

SEWPACKSA has in the past year

repaired as a matter of urgency in

which results in reduced wasting of

introduced a complaints procedure

order to ensure good quality efflu-

sludge, and results in solids carryo-

for handling of complaints. Mark

ent,” comments Gaydon.

ver, destroying effluent quality and

Ross, SEWPACKSA chairman, says

the aquatic environment,” he says.

one of the negative issues that

The overall performance of a plant spans the planning, design and

Impact on the environment

of the water industry were unsub-

ment facilities. SEWPACKSA mem-



stantiated “wild” supplier claims

bers are intensively involved in the

requirements for the package plant

that to the layman were impressive,

operations and maintenance of their

industry and the impact on the

but from a process perspective

environment if these standards are

totally misleading. Also, striving for

SEWPACKSA has in the past year introduced a complaints procedure for handling of complaints

not complied with, Gaydon says




process and general engineering

design plants to comply with the

of treatment plants which contrib-

General Authorisation Limit Values,

uted to failure, with consequent

due to the fact that our plants

damage to the environment and

discharge less than 2Mℓ/d. We are

danger to human health. “While

plants and, as such, design plants

acutely aware that our plants must

the complaints procedure has no

that are robust, reliable, and simple

achieve good compliance in order

current jurisdiction over non-SEW-

to operate. As a result of this, more

for us to retain a good track record

PACKSA suppliers, it is a self regu-

experienced personnel are used to

and stay in business. Most of our

lating internal procedure to keep

design plants, which ensures ease of

staff are also environmental en-

association members true to our

operations and maintenance.

thusiasts and thus the importance

published standards of quality and

of maintaining excellent effluent

integrity. The sequential  procedural

quality is paramount to us”.

steps embodied in the document

ABOUT SEWPACKSA The main objectives of the Small Wastewater Treatment Works Suppliers Association (SEWPACKSA) are: To provide a unified non-governmental representative body of suppliers of package plants in South Africa to create a sustainable and self-regulated industry. To create a sustainable, self-regulated package plant industry that can treat wastewater on-site in remote areas, or where authorities do not provide sewer connections, or where additional capacity to the wastewater treatment facilities of various government bodies is required, whilst complying with legislative requirements for discharged water quality. To enable the supply of compliant package plants and management services of such package plants on the basis of best corporate governance practice and a code of ethics as adopted by the association.


historically surrounded this sector

management of wastewater treat-






are fair and allow for corrective

SEWPACKSA in the industry

action. Only in the most severe

The package plant industry has in

situations of non-compliance, and

the past had a poor reputation and

persistent adherence to such, will

SEWPACKSA has made significant

a result be sanctioned whereby the

progress since its inception to

member could be expelled from the

further strengthen this industry.

association along with concomitant

SEWPACKSA has taken substantial

notification of such being posted on

strides to improve their reputation

the SEWPACKSA webpage. Prior to

in terms of effluent quality, and

this ultimate and final step, external

this includes the entire life-cycle of

and impartial professional interven-

the project from initial design to

tion would have been sought by

ultimate operation.

SEWPACKSA” says Ross.



Flagship wastewater plant for Windhoek


The new Ujams wastewater

HE ELECTRICAL treatment plant in Windhoek, DESIGN and currently under construction, mechanical


lation of the new

R125 million Ujams industrial



will treat 5 000m3/day of Y wastewater for industrial reuse CM and irrigation MY

wastewater treatment project near the city of Windhoek’s

CY developments in the greater

northern industrial zone is


currently underway.

Veolia’s managing director, K








Solutions is




explains CMY

Gunter Rencken. “This new plant will enable reliability, efficiency



to treat up to 5 000 m3/day

with the country’s standards









and is one of the city’s key




for irrigation.” The



water infrastructure projects

wastewater is screened and






Namibia’s updated national


water regulations.














Treatment Company, a special

leased from the plant, the

purpose company, contracted

water is disinfected with UV



treatment, and the various

Wabag in 2012 to design,

treatment areas are linked to

build, install and commission

an odour removal process.






finance for the project and

Improved water for the Elisenheim and Brakwater communities

will operate and maintain the


plant for 21 years.


plant. The Ujams Wastewater Treatment Company raised







wastewater plant



replaces UJAMS

water plant is designed to

wastewater treatment plant,


located roughly 20 km north


effluent from future industrial

of Windhoek. MAY/JUNE 2014



Resilient wastewater membranes To keep up with improved production performance at its coal-to-liquids refinery in Secunda, Sasol has successfully completed a R13 million upgrade of its tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) water treatment plant.


HE TRO plant helps to


reuse water from the facil-

manager at Veolia. “These modules

ity’s ash water system for

are ideally suited to the harsh

various refinery processes,

conditions, such as high turbidity,

reducing overall raw water intake

organics and salinity experienced

while limiting the release of poten-

at this unit. After Sasol’s own pilot

tially harmful pollutants into surface


water systems.

proved to be the best solution for






designed and built in 2001 by Veolia



Solutions Africa,





this application.” Featuring a large 12 mm bore


construction and a robust design,


Membratek’s TRO membranes were

known as Weir Envig. The recent

chosen for Sasol’s most recent up-

upgrade was accommodated for in

grade based on their unique ability

the plant’s original designs, which

to resist fouling, even in highly de-

significantly reduced engineering

manding operating circumstances.



“The membranes are superb at

ensuring maximum plant uptime.

dealing with the variable nature of

lifespan are identified and replaced

The expansion was implemented

the feed water, requiring minimal

with minimal impact on standard

and commissioned by Malutsa, a

pre-treatment and chemical condi-

plant operations.

70% black-owned water projects

tioning which reduces running costs

company affiliated with the Veolia

significantly,” says Wessels.





Water multinational.


typical lifetime of between four and

using a sponge ball will further

five years at this Sasol plant. Due to

Membratek was subcontracted to

reduce operational costs of the TRO

the modular nature of the system,

manufacture 2 620 unique 4.3  m

plant, while regular testing on site,

membrane replacement is an easy

tubular reverse osmosis membrane

facilitated by the unique membrane

and non-invasive task facilitated



train design, ensures that mem-

by a steady supply of replacement

of the TRO treatment plant,” says

branes at the end of their useful

modules,” says Wessels.





“On average, Membratek tubular membranes have proven to have a




The expansion was implemented and commissioned by Malutsa


Membratek tubular reverse osmosis modules being loaded for transport to Sasol. These modules assist the reuse of water from the facility’s ash water system for various refinery processes, reducing overall raw water intake



Harbour sewerage 966 part 2

Leading fluid conveyance products and solutions expert DPI Trading has successfully supplied R1.1-million worth of heavy duty Grundfos pumps and high density polyethylene (HDPE) piping products to the Simon’s Town harbour sewerage upgrade project.




to Cape Town-based

mechanical installation of the

pumping systems ex-

pump stations. “The Grundfos

PVC-M Pressure Pipe

• Ultraflo PVC-M pressure pipes are available in diameters of 50 to 630mm and pressure ratings of 6 to 25 Bar. • Ultraflo is tough and reliable making it ideal for African conditions. • Ultraflo is also energy efficient and has a low carbon footprint.



pert Vacuum & Fluid Technology,


which was responsible for the

specified by the consulting en-

installation of 16 new pump

gineer, as a result of their high

stations that featured a total

motor efficiency and excellent

of 30 heavy duty Grundfos


sewerage pumps and 1.8 km of

operating environments.”

HDPE piping.

SANS 966-2 –PVC-M (modified poly vinyl chloride) pressure pipe systems for potable water conveyance.


for the project included full







The Grundfos SL series is

DPI Trading Western Cape

designed for the transfer of

external sales representative,

drainage and surface water,

Charlene Curlewis, explains: “A

domestic, municipal and indus-

total of twenty-six Grundfos

trial wastewater, and process

SLV and four Grundfos SE

water. The Grundfos SE range

model pumps were supplied,

of pumps is ideally suited to

together with 1.8 km of HDPE


pipes manufactured by leading

and unscreened raw sewage

Southern African extruded pipe


manufacturer Sangio.”

utility and large-flow industrial

Vacuum & Fluid Technology technical






applications. Curlewis points


out that a combination of

Frans Pienaar, notes that the

the two pump models served as an ideal solution for this

A total of 26 Grundfos SLV and four Grundfos SE model pumps were supplied

demanding project. “Both


For a complimentary copy of our latest Product and Technical CD, e-mail

Johannesburg : +27 11 345 5600 Cape Town : +27 21 957 5600

Southern African Vinyls Association

Member of the Dawn Group



feature an S-tube impeller for



Sensitive but strong

upgrade a success applications high






matter content up to 3%, and a spherical free passage up to 100 mm. The S-tube impeller is the only impeller on the market designed to cope with the challenges of modern wastewater with varying dry matter content.




robust design of the S-tube impeller


A combination of the two pump models served as an ideal solution for this demanding project


hydraulic efficiency without compromising free passage,”

on time and within budget

she continues.

in late 2012. “Although the

According to Curlewis, DPI



Trading also supplied Vacuum



& Fluid Technology with PN 10

they had to be completed

pressure rated, 110 mm diame-

in intervals to minimise dis-

ter HDPE piping products. “The

ruptions to the harbour, and

PN 10 rating guarantees an op-

this proved to be the largest

timal operating pressure at up

operational challenge.”

to 10 bar. What’s more, HDPE








is the ideal piping material for



this highly corrosive applica-


tion, as it boasts excellent cor-

Technology and DPI Trading

rosion-resistant characteristics

contributed to the success of

and is highly durable.”

the project. “We have been do-




The HDPE pipes were joined

ing business with DPI Trading

together by Vacuum & Fluid

for the past four years and the



partnership has proven to be

Plasson electrofusion fittings,

mutually beneficial during this




period, as the two companies

Plasson electrofusion fittings

have a good understanding of

are part of a complete electro-

one another and complement

fusion smart system, whereby

each other well.”






Vacuum & Fluid Technology

process is executed and fully

was established in 2004 and

monitored by a computerised

has 25 full-time employees that

control box to ensure safe,

specialise in vacuum pump

dependable connections.

solutions. “We offer an entire

“Plasson electrofusion fittings

turnkey solution to our clients,

are specifically designed for






piping fabrication and struc-

pipe joining and a prolonged

tural fabrication. We service

system lifespan. This automat-

the entire pump industry, from

ed system has been proven to


be the most economical due to

wastewater management to

the low potential for operator

the standard water industry.

error,” adds Curlewis.

With the continued upgrade







of water infrastructure taking

challenges associated with a

place across South Africa, I

project of this scale, Pienaar

am confident that Vacuum &


Fluid Technology can achieve




Town harbour sewerage up-


grade project was completed

Pienaar concludes. MAY/JUNE 2014




Accurate flow measurement for partially filled pipes? The TIDALFLUX 2300 F from KROHNE has got you covered. Backed by over 90 years of expertise in flow measurement, there’s a KROHNE meter for every job. The TIDALFLUX 2300 F reliably measures flows in pipes filled to between 10 % and 100 % of their inner diameter. Even fat and oil floating on the surface are not a problem for the TIDALFLUX 2300 F – its capacitive sensors are integrated into the liner and are never in direct contact with the liquid. Featuring a sturdy polyurethane lining, the TIDALFLUX 2300 F is also perfect for demanding wastewater environments. Ex approvals to ATEX and IECex Zone 1 are available as an option. When a rugged job demands a high degree of precision, the TIDALFLUX 2300 F performs and never quits. KROHNE – Water is our world. KROHNE South Africa 8 Bushbuck Close Corporate Park South Randtjiespark, Midrand Tel.: +27 113141391 Fax: +27 113141681 Cell: +27 825563934 John Alexander


Rand Water graduates to address municipal skills shortages The Rand Water Academy’s official bursary and handover ceremony will see municipalities gaining by the placement of graduates throughout the country, writes Maryke Foulds

T Minister of water affiars Edna Molewa with Rand Water Academy graduates

HE EVENT, held at Thaba Y

Says Molewa, “The handover is an im-

According to STATS SA there is cur-

Batswana, saw the Minister of

portant milestone in the history of the

rently a 94.2% water delivery in South

Water Affairs, Edna Molewa

RWA as it symbolises the outcome of

Africa. This is an impressive figure and

presiding over the 73 Rand

the vision shared with the Department

also a good story to tell. We must how-

Water Academy (RWA) graduates who

of Water and Environmental Affairs

ever strive to fill the 4.8% remaining

completed their 18-month vocational

and the municipalities which is aimed

and more still needs to be done. A key

training in the fields of science, engi-

at increasing the skills pool in the wa-

focus are for us is the rural areas where

neering and technical expertise.

ter and sanitation sector.”

faulty and often non-functioning infra-

The RWA is a three-year vocational

The academy will assist in the crea-

structure is leading to service delivery

program offered to qualified, unem-

tion of employment for young, qual-

protests. In order to build our skills

ployed graduates during which they

ified graduates by providing critical

capacity as a country and to maintain

spend 19 months at the academy and

skills that are so desperate needed in

proper infrastructure we need the

are then handed over to identified

the water sector.

skills of these young people. Initiative

municipalities for another 18 months.

Chairperson, Advocate Petlane says,

such as this as well as partnering with

“Our aim is to deliver practical special-

municipalities will take us a far way

ists who are able to deliver where it

towards this goal. Extending a hand on

is most needed. My appeal would be

the development trajectory will build a

that the graduates must be put hard

better life for all our people. “

to work and hit the ground running.

The graduates consist of 30 quality

This is a good story for Rand Water and

generalists, 40 process controllers and

highlights the contribution that we

three engineers. The recipient munici-

can make to the country.”

palities are Govan Mbeki, Emalahleni,

Molewa concurs, “This is one element






in the development of the water sec-

Ekurhuleni. Rand Water will provide an

tor. We must all first recognise in what

oversight function while the graduates

has been done collectively since 1994.

are at the municipalities.



Bulk water and sewage for Midvaal GIBB (Pty) Ltd, a leading consulting engineering firm has been instrumental in new projects for bulk water and sewage infrastructure in the Midvaal region. Maryke Foulds spoke to Mr Carel Davids, project leader and civil engineer to look at some of the challenges provided by these projects.


WO OF THE projects in

shape of a lilly. This flagship project is

and in some cases overflowing of



funded by the Gauteng Department of

sewers and the pump station have

(Mamello) will aim to provide

Human Settlements, Midvaal LM funds

occurred in the past. Furthermore the


and MIG funding.

Rothdene sewage pump station is



Vaal and


infrastructure to these regions where

With Vaal Marina being a holiday

located in close proximity to the Klip

the aged infrastructure and service

town, one of the challenges was

River which poses a significant health-

inequality have left a large number of

that for 80% of the year the town is

and environmental risk if it overflows.

people without access to adequate

empty and therefore it has a unusual

The objective of the project is to

water and sanitation.

demand pattern. Says Davids, “We

increase capacity of the bulk sewer

addressed this by looking at the

network in the area as well as provide

The Mamello project

capacity of wastewater treatment

for future low cost housing devel-

Near the Vaal Marina next to the Vaal

which included reinstatement of a

opments in the area by providing

Dam is the informal settlement of

derelict balancing pond at the Vaal

larger bulk sewers and upgrading of

Mamello which currently has little to



Rothdene pump station. This project

no sanitation or access to water. In

Works. From a municipal standpoint,

will furthermore reduce the risk of

an effort to uplift the community, the

Midvaal LM must adhere to all leg-

overflowing sewers or the Rothdene

Mamello low cost housing initiative

islation contained in the National

pump station and the associated

has been developed in cooperation

Water Act. The provision of adequate

health and environmental risks. GIBB’s

between the Gauteng Department

sanitation services and ease of main-


of Human Settlements and Midvaal

tenance was also a priority. The R10

preparation of funding applications

Local Municipality (LM). As the Water

million construction value included

to procure governmental funding

Services Authority Midvaal LM is

the tower, bulk water mains as well as

and then provision multi-disciplinary

therefore responsible to provide bulk

new sewage capacity to the region.”

engineering services.

water and bulk sewage services to this



This project epotimises effective

proposed development. Midvaal LM



appointed GIBB to provide multi-dis-


ciplinary engineering services on the

and solutions.









ABOVE The proposed Mamello water tower


Concludes Mr Davids, “One of the biggest challenges during the whole process was the granting of water licenses and well as environmental

project. One of the major challenges in

impact assessment from the relevant

terms of water provision was low wa-


bodies. Should it be easier to obtain

ter pressures. This was to be overcome

The area of Sicelo in Meyerton is

these, the backlogs in water infra-

by the construction of a water tower as

serviced by several bulk sewers which

structure and supply as well as service

the reservoir is close to a reticulation

drain towards a bulk sewer along

delivery backlogs could be more ef-

area. Due to the town of Vaal Marina

the Klip River and onwards to the

fectively erradicated by all involved.”

being a mostly tourist/weekend visitor

Rothdene sewage pump station in the

The project is currently underway

town conventional steel water towers

south of Meyerton. This pump station

with the first phase (700 mm diameter

were deemed to be unsightly. GIBB

pumps sewage to the Meyerton

outfall sewer) complete and a total

by use of its architectural services pro-

wastewater treatment works. The

estimated project value of approxi-

posed a concrete water tower in the

existing sewers are nearing capacity

mately R 78 million.



Geared Motors \ Drive Electronics \ Drive Automation \ Industrial Gears \ Services


We drive the water industry

SEW-EURODRIVE, a BEE company, leaders in the field of geared motors are now able to supply an Industrial Gear Unit that offers more efficiency for mixing and agitating applications with their MC range of Extended Bearing Distance (EBD) Industrial Gear Units. In process plants, large axial and radial forces occur at the agitator shaft during agitating processes. Traditional designs solve this problem with separate, external bearings that take on the function of the agitator shaft bearings, a solution that very often proves cost intensive. Our new EBD concept extends the bearing span across the low speed shaft and offers stronger bearings within the gear unit itself, which means that in many cases separate bearings are no longer required in the agitator or an over sizing of the gear unit can be avoided. These high torque MC Industrial Gear Units can be used for the reliable operation of mixers, mounting flanges, agitators and surface aerators.

SEW-EURODRIVE - Driving the world.

Tel: +27 11 248-7000 Web:


Driving quality A partnership powered by innovation and quality, Marley Pipe Systems and Rho-Tech have joined forces on the construction of civil and building work for Module 2 at the Welgedacht water care works.


HE PROJECT, which is cur-

to the success of this project by


rently underway, is based

successfully manufacturing and sup-

mining operations.







plying approximately 600 m of high

Rho-Tech, the trusted specialists in

on the East Rand in the

quality 900 mm HDPE pipe within

installation of thermoplastic piping

Gauteng province. Born from the

stipulated timelines. Boasting several

systems, is contributing to the success

increasing need for better sewerage

unique features, the HDPE pipes were

of this project by utilising the state-

facilities in South Africa, the goal of

selected by Rho-Tech for their good

of-the-art McElroy TracStar 900

this project is to increase the volume

abrasion resistance, making it almost

with a built-in data logging fea-

of sewerage that can be discarded

10 times more resistant to abrasion

ture that keeps a record of each

through the current sewerage plant.

and providing a longer life cycle in

fusion joint, which allows you to

The expected growth in housing de-

abrasive applications compared to

verify joint integrity. Combining

velopments in the surrounding area

steel. The second most highlighted

the high quality of the HDPE

plays a pivotal role in the necessity

feature is the flexibility offered by

pipes supplied by Marley Pipe

of this project.

Marley HDPE pipes, which facilitates

Systems and the internationally

ease of installation.

accredited welding service pro-

In an interview with Rho-Tech’s general



HDPE pipes were selected by Rho-Tech for their good abrasion resistance


As a market leader in HDPE pipes,

he explained the emphasis Rho-

some of the other features include

vided by Rho-Tech, the accomplish-

Tech places on partnering with ISO

high impact strength, ensuring a

This partnership between Marley

9001-compliant suppliers. “This was

greater resistance to the rigours of

Pipe Systems and Rho-Tech is the

a key consideration factor when we

pipe-laying conditions; high flow

beginning of a long-term plan driven

chose to partner with Marley Pipe

capacity ensures that material dep-

by the respective companies’ quality

Systems, as they are renowned for

osition is inhibited and the smooth-

ethos to provide an internationally

manufacturing the highest quality

bore characteristic is maintained over

recognised standard of work in an

pipes in South Africa”. At Rho-Tech,

the working life of the pipeline; and

industry that is generally subjected to

quality is not compromised”, Schutte

because of its outstanding resistance

a sub-standard service.

further elaborated, “The reasoning

to a wide range of chemical reagents,

behind the partnership is the fact that

polyethylene systems are

Marley HDPE pipes are manufactured

favoured in applications

to carry the SABS mark of trusted

such as tailings pipelines

quality for SABS ISO 4427 which is in


ment of this project is guaranteed.

Rho-Tech are trusted specialists in thermoplastic piping systems


keeping with the standards Rho-Tech complies to, with specific reference to pipe extrusion and fabrication”. Marley Pipe Systems is contributing




Specialised joint sealant for Midvaal Midvaal Water Company in Stilfontein supplies potable water in bulk to an area of some 900 km2 in the North West province. During and after application of Combiflex

system could withstand in comparison to the site requirements. Finally the Sikadur-Combiflex SG sys-

tem was the product accepted and approved. The Sikadur-Combiflex SG system consists of a modified flexible polyolefin (FPO) waterproofing tape that is glued in place with Sikadur-31 CF, a moisture-tolerant, thixotropic advanced adhesive based on a combination of epoxy resins and special fillers. This high-performance joint sealing system is suitable for expansion, construction and connection joints as well as for cracks, and once fixed to the joint, allows irregular and high movement in more than one direction, while still maintaining a high quality seal. The versatility of this product makes it suitable for many difficult situations, as was the case in this project. Multi Contracts Specialists applied the



Sikadur-Combiflex SG system to the filter

ing was required at one of the

unit, consisting of 24 filter segments, each

company’s filter units, Sika’s

made up of two filter banks. With the product

Sikadur-Combiflex SG system

consumption per filter bank measuring 38.3

tested the best.

metres, a total of 1 838.4 metres was applied.

The filter unit consists of precast concrete

Although Combiflex tape is available in a vari-

slabs that form a suspended floor to carry fil-

ety of widths and thicknesses, the 150 mm x

ter sand media. Filtered water passes through

2 mm tape specified had to be cut to 130 mm

nozzles in the concrete slabs to a holding

wide to accommodate the site-specific re-

sump from which it is pumped into a chemi-

quirements around and between the nozzles.

cal treatment facility prior to being distribut-

Water testing was subsequently conducted,

ed to the surrounding areas. The project ob-

resulting in all 48 filter banks passing the

jective was to prevent the sand from passing

first test.

through the joints, which would contaminate

The Sikadur-Combiflex SG system is ex-

the filtered water passing through the nozzles

tremely flexible, easy to install and suitable

into the sump.

for both dry and damp concrete surfaces. It

Botjheng Water, a company whose core

performs well within a wide range of temper-

focus is water and wastewater bulk infra-

atures and is weather- and water-resistant as

structure construction, was consulted on the

well as root-resistant. Besides being resistant

sealing around and between the nozzles of

to many chemical substances, this outstand-

the filter unit. Engineers soon realised that

ing product comes with approval for potable

the joint sealant originally specified would

water suitability.

not be viable, so turned to Sika for a solution.

Evidently this joint sealing system was so

Various product samples were supplied to

impressive that various similar filter units at

Botjheng Water who conducted various tests

Midvaal Water Company are all scheduled to

to ascertain the amount of pressure the Sika

be sealed, in the near future.




Set Point launches water solutions division The Set Point Group is pleased to announce the launch of a water division, Set Point Water Solutions, at this year’s WISA biennial conference, set to take place from 25 to 29 May, Mbombela, Mpumalanga.



Horsfield, CEO of Set Point Group.

division which offers the

Specialists in the process automa-

industry with water and

tion field, Pneumax offers a wide



variety of pneumatic products and

comprises of Set Point Laboratories,

services for process automation,

Pneumax, Brubin Pumps and Meter

industrial automation, and motion

Systems, all leaders in their respec-

and control applications.

tive fields.

Pneumax offers process automa-

“These companies combined have a wealth of experience in pumping equipment,



tion products and services such as: • air





techniques, and providing process

• solenoid valve terminals

automation and control equipment.

• process actuators (quarter-turn)

We are confident that this new divi-

• process valves (butterfly, ball, dia-

sion will provide the industry with

phragm and angle-seat)

conductivity, alkalinity,


value-added solutions – all this with

• control cabinet manufacture


a single contact point,” says Graeme

• PLC and SCADA integration.



The fluid-handling equipment sup-


plier, Meter Systems, offers a range

and orthophosphate, to

of Dwyer instrumentation process

mention but a few to the


equipment for all stages


of water and wastewater





processes. Their product


“These companies combined have a wealth of experience in pumping equipment, analytical testing techniques, and providing process automation & control equipment” Graeme Horsfield

includes: • level control • pump control • flow control • p r e s s u r e control • t e m pera-


tested expertise in the industry with


skilled personnel and

B r u b i n

are set to service the in-

Pumps serves the

dustry across Southern

drainage, water and





try with renowned high-quality


We invite existing and


new customers to visit

ucts that focus on

us in Hall 1, stand HY08

energy and cost saving

during the event and

in line with ISO9001:2008. Set


Point ISO

Laboratories, 17025

find out more about our a


laboratory, offers tests such as pH,




in the water and waste waterindustry.


SET POINT PRODUCT OFFERINGS: • AllPrime self-priming pumps • Sondex end suction centrifugal pumps • Sondex waste water submersible pumps • Pumpex submersible sludge pumps • Vogelsang lobe pumps • Vogelsang RotaCut inline macerator • Vogelsang X-ripper • Vogelsang BioCrack


South Africa


Ingérop South Africa is a multi-disciplinary consulting engineering and project management company with more than 120 qualified personnel involved in various projects throughout Africa. As a member of the Ingérop Group of companies - a long established privately-owned French consulting engineering firm currently employing more than 1,500 permanent staff members – we have immediate access to international expertise and technologies enabling us to continuously provide our clients with innovative and appropriate world-class solutions. Established in 1957, Ingérop South Africa has developed strong capabilities to serve both the public and private sector clients in the fields of: infrastructure, public transport, energy, water, environment and socio economic studies. Our range of services include consulting and feasibility studies on any subject relevant to our disciplines, design and construction supervision, as well as commissioning of works on major projects. Corporate Social Investment (CSI) is another key element of the company's business strategy. Our CSI initiatives are aimed at establishing and sustaining positive social development in our surrounding communities. With education being one of our primary CSI focus areas, we continuously concentrate on improving and uplifting previously disadvantaged schools.

Ingerop South Africa supports the MH Joosub Senior Secondary School in Lenasia

Hatfield Station, Pretoria

LJVBPL Raccordement de Laval – West France

Cahorra Bassa Dam, Mozambique

Vidin Calafat Bridge, Bulgaria

Head Office: Block E, Edenburg Terraces, 348 Rivonia Boulevard, Rivonia P.O Box 3867, Rivonia 2128, Tel: (011) 808 3000, Fax: (011) 808 3001, Offices situated in South Africa: Gauteng, Western Cape, Kwa-Zulu Natal & Limpopo Also present in: Botswana, Lesotho, Mauritius, Mozambique and Senegal


Smart-scale energy solutions


F WE look at Endress+Hauser’s

M, in combination with the Field

a further competitive advantage. The



fulfilment of customer needs by scal-



we can distinguish between





analysis device.

able solution packages, the higher

single-point energy recording,

Solutions for the following energy

flexibility obtained by this and lower

smart-scale energy solutions as well

applications are available: steam (e.g.

complexity (shorter decision-making

as company-wide solutions.

boiler efficiency), compressed air (e.g.

processes), create a considerable

In single-point energy recording the

compressor efficiency), cooling (e.g.

added value for the customer.

energy usage is measured by using

cooling system efficiency), heating

Endress+Hauser measuring technolo-

(e.g. heat boiler efficiency), electricity

gy in order to obtain transparency. In

(e.g. specific energy consumption)

company-wide energy solutions the

and a performance package for data

energy evaluation software eSight

connectivity and integration (e.g.

rounds off the performance package

data integration into other systems,

by generating automatic reports and

such as SAP).

analyses as well as comparing the

Our smart-scale energy solutions

energy use of different locations with

record the readings gained from

each other.

the individual energy values using

In between these two systems

the RSG40 Memograph M, and store

we can find the smart-scale energy

these in order to carry out higher

solutions. Here we find different

energy-efficiency calculations.


By focusing on smart-scale energy

based on the RSG40 Memograph

solutions, Endress+Hauser has gained








Previously called 3rd Annual Dam Management

-Best practice in water conservation and dam management

Date: 18 & 19 June 2014 EXPERT ADVICE


• • • • • •


• • • • • • • •

Focusing on alternative water conservation methods to ensure an abundant supply of clean water An overview of Dam Safety Regulations in South Africa Making use of waste water in an effort to preserve water Implementing project management systems for large water infrastructure projects Charting the way forward and addressing Ekurhuleni’s Blue-Drop certification Water governance and principles guiding water use in Swaziland Emerging trends in transboundary water cooperation: experiences from the Orange Senqu River Basin Water Resources Management in Botswana: challenges & opportunities



For more information contact Amrita on 011 326 2501 or email Quote WRM-W&S to claim your 10% discount

ITC is a proud member of The South African Quality Institute


e es








e op





Davey’s water treatment raises the bar Malcolm Corns, brand product manager for Safequip, is passionate about the company’s ability to provide products that will ensure safe drinkable water to the public, writes Maryke Foulds.


AYS CORNS, “Davey has

Safequip we have the right range of


probably got one of the most

products for every need.”

receiving waters from the harmful







These include products such as

effects of stormwater runoff. Says

ranges in the world. It is much

AquaShield and Microlene. The Davey

Corns, “The Aqua-Swirl hydrodynamic

more than just fire-fighting equip-



separator removes coarse sediment,

ment. It is a brand that offers solutions

are under-bench water purifiers for

debris and free-floating oil, while

designed to solve specific problems

municipal and tank water supplies.

the Aqua-Filter is a treatment train

such as the water drinking quality in

It reduces and removes chlorine,

device that combines hydrodynamic

South Africa. Our products are built to

chlorinamines, iron, hydrogen sul-

separation and filtration technologies

help lift water, treat it, use it, and even

phide, heavy metals, lime and calcium

for the most sensitive stormwater

move wastewater.”

hardness, and has the added effective-


Continues Corns, “Municipal water is

ness of removing unwanted odour.

catch basin insert provides an effec-

not always consistent, and much of it

Independent lab tests indicate a

tive means of point source sediment

going into homes or the agricultural

99.94% removal of nasty cysts such as

removal and is ideal for smaller pro-

environment is not purified, creating a

giardia and cryptosporidium, making

jects. A green infrastructure "tree box"

real threat of disease. Water treatment

drinking water safer too.

solution is now available with the

and water harvesting are becoming buzzwords in South Africa and at


AquaShield water







AquaShield Bio-Filter. This modular


biofiltration device, along with the other AquaShield products, serves to enhance or complement many low impact development design strategies. Construction sites and industrial facilities can also benefit from using the Go-Filter mobile treatment system to meet stringent water discharge limits and low turbidity levels.” AquaShield also offers a line of products that provides technologies associated with surface infiltration, underground infiltration and rainwater harvesting systems that use either




underground structures.

Experts in wate r.





are becoming more onerous and South Africa is now at a point where the water situation is a major crisis. Concludes Corns, “We are rapidly running out of water and the water we are using is not adequately purified. The challenge is to conserve water and to make it safe to drink. I believe that South Africans need to realise the seriousness of the situation. It is time that South Africans embrace water conservation in all its facets.”



How much risk does your family face every day?

Experts in water.

Experts in water.

Davey have water disinfection covered. All around South Africa, water is collected from unsecured sources such as rainwater harvesting tanks, rivers and bores. This surface water can carry micro-organisms that are potentially dangerous to your wellbeing. So it goes without saying that a safe, economical and pleasant water supply is very important for your family’s health. From using your collected rainwater, bore water or well water Davey has a range of pumps to get water for use in and around your home. We can also help you treat your water for safe use in your bathroom, laundry or for great tasting water in the kitchen. From manual dosing with liquid to point of entry filtration, UV, and water softening systems. It is easy to treat all incoming water into the home to ensure water clarity and safety for your family at every tap. Davey’s home Water Purifiers are available in both countertop and under-bench styles while the range of Filterpure cartridges and housings are perfect for single tap or whole of house water filtration with the cartridges removing larger sediment right down to cysts. The carbon filtration options also help to remove unwanted tastes and odours from your water. For more information on Davey’s range of water treatment products or to find out more about the full Davey range, email us on Gauteng: 011 397 7723 | Western Cape: 021 907 2500 | Kwazulu-Natal: 031 563 8807 | Eastern Cape: 041 451 0026


Davey is exclusively distributed by Safequip.


Upskilling the youth The War on Leaks projects was recently launched and will see 200 youths benefitting from a skills development programme and basic plumbing job opportunities within the City of Tshwane.

The beneficiaries at the launch who will be participating in the War on Leaks project in Tshwane

challenges faced by our country. The

project aims at eradicating water

government’s request is intended to

leaks in households, schools, clinics

galvanise the private sector to help

and other public buildings, which

realise the national objectives of

will significantly reduce the volume

poverty alleviation, job creation and

of unaccounted for water, currently

skills development expressed in the

estimated at R7 billion per annum. It

National Development Plan: Vision

is estimated that approximately 37%

for 2030, and Fiberpipe has partnered

of our water supply is lost due to

with the Department of Water Affairs

water leaks. The War on Leaks project

in addressing these challenges. The

aims to remedy this situation by pro-

objective of this partnership with

viding basic plumbing skills training

Fiberpipe is to strengthen govern-

of the youth and job creation in this

ment’s arm in addressing the water

field. Speaking at the launch, Vanessa

IBERPIPE HAS responded

challenges our country is currently

Khathwane, executive at Fiberpipe,

to the call of government for

experiencing and to create a platform

said: “My message to the candidates

private sector involvement

for the employment of the youth

is that today you have been given a


within the water sector.

tremendous opportunity and chal-




in addressing the socio-economic

The War on Leaks initiative high-

lenge to contribute not only to your

lights the importance

community, but to the country as a

of water conservation,

whole. Through this project that you



will be involved in, you will be signif-

on the state of the

icantly contributing to the conserva-

water losses owing to

tion of our limited water resource by

water leaks, and gives

reducing water losses, for the present

a working platform to

and future generations. Let us em-

the youth to gain critical

brace the War on Leaks programme

skills that are required

and make it a reality”.


by the sector to main-

As part of the transformation pro-

tain our infrastructure

cess in the water sector, Fiberpipe

and hence protect our

strongly encourages the involvement



of women in this industry, as well as

Department of Water

their visible involvement in the War

Affairs initiated the War

on Leaks project. Of the 200 benefi-

on Leaks project which

ciaries that will be participating in the

is a national flagship

project, 66.5% are young women, and

project implemented at

all the beneficiaries are within the age

different municipalities

group 18 to 35 years of age. This age

across the country. This

group is one of the highest categories


of unemployment in the country and

The Fiberpipe team


is a very significant group.


PRODUC T NEWS Khathwane highlighted that it is our

various organs of state in pursuit of

generation’s (the youth’s) responsibil-

addressing the socio-economic chal-

ity to stand up and show enthusiasm

lenges that plague our country.

and commitment in supporting our

According to Nizaam Hendricks,

government with the various initia-


tives they are coming forth with, in

Fiberpipe, “we have designed numer-

order to address the challenges facing

ous programmes that seek to address

our country.

these challenges which will make a









definitive impact on the fulfilment of

Fiberpipe have expressed our support

the values within the Bill of Rights, in

to our Honourable Deputy Minister

partnership with government. Our

and her department in launching the

programmes are collectively known

War on Leaks programme in Tshwane,



partnership with the Department of

by donating 20 plumbing tool kits and

they include various projects which

Water Affairs aims at ensuring that

220 t-shirts to the value of R300 055”

focus on youth unemployment, skills

we build sufficient capacity within

said Khathwane. Certificates of dona-

development, job creation, school in-

the water sector to maintain our in-

tion and sponsorship were officially

frastructure, women in water (woman

frastructure. By addressing the current

presented to the Honourable Deputy

enterprise development), small town

skills demand through training and

Minister Mabudafhasi at the launch.

revitalisation, and local empowerment

up-skilling of the unemployed youth,

(beneficiation) to name just a few”.

we will thereby create a platform for

Fiberpipe transformation agenda




“As a manufacturer within the

the skilled youth to access jobs within

Fiberpipe is committed to leveraging

water sector we have embraced the

the sector with their newly attained

on its experience and resources to

National Development Plan: Vision

skills and qualifications, addressing

ensure the values of equality, free-

for 2030 and are working together

the challenges plaguing the sector.

dom and human dignity, enshrined

with government to ensure that the

“Our view at Fiberpipe is, “Let’s walk

in the Constitution and Bill of Rights,

national imperatives highlighted in

the talk”, when it comes to moving


government’s plan are realised. Our

South Africa forward,” he concludes.




Sensus iPerl Ad2013(2).pdf


with 8/18/13

5:21 PM


LEFT Vanessa Khathwane Executive at Fiberpipe RIGHT Honourable Deputy Minister Rejoice Mabudafhasi speaking at the launch on the War on Leaks project in Mamelodi


Siemens Aeration Solutions

Expanding our decade long success story as HV-Turbo and now Siemens A/S Turbomachinery Solotions with more than 7.000 references in waste water treatment plants in the world Siemens is offering a complete product portfolio of Single Stage Centrifugal Turbocompressors, both direct drive and integrally geared. With more than 7.000 references worldwide, our specialists in Denmark can select together with you the right choice of equipment for your project requirements. The Siemens Integrally geared Turbocompressor combines the proven air-end technology with Dual-Point Control tm and a state-of-the-art design which is specifically tailored to the unique environmental and process needs of the wastewater aeration process.

Siemens Partner: EFTEC Unit D1 141 Edison Cresent Hennopspark Centurion

Answers for energy


Specialists in bulk liquid storage Videx Storage Tanks, leading role players in the water storage industry since 2010 have secured its position as a supplier of innovative and quality products at competitive prices. Maryke Foulds reports.



a mine in Mpumalanga. During all

in existence since 1984 and

times strict codes of health and safety

set up the separate division

are adhered to and deadlines are

to offer solutions for liquid

strictly followed.

bulk storage. Initially focused on

One of the most exciting products

the mining sector, it has grown its

in the range is the GRP tank, which is



very popular globally. Its corrosion-|re-

can now cater to all industries. It



sistant and rust-free properties make

currently employs 700 people and

it ideal for difficult environments.

has a highly competent installation

The panels are also light-weight as

team to ensure compliance and

opposed to conventional RC-plinths

customer satisfaction.

or heavy beams, resulting in reduced

The Videx range of tanks can be used in a variety of applications rang-

installation times. It is also a greener product than the traditional tanks.

ing from storage for drinking water,

Part of the Videx strategy is to ex-

raw water, potable water, fire water

pand into Africa and supply the entire

and effluent water to diesel and

continent with its storage solutions.

other chemicals. Its customer base

With the growing need for a stable

includes government departments,

water supply in Africa, several coun-

municipalities, commercial buildings,

tries have been identified as potential

mines, farms, rural habitats and

markets and are actively pursued. The

residential developments.

markets are challenging to operate in,

Every tank and project is unique

but the reward is in seeing the effect

and Videx aims to design and supply

of successfully completed projects on

tanks for each different and challeng-

communities. Water is a key element

Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Zambia

ing application. Mining is still a big

in uplifting a community and by

and Zimbabwe.

part of its customer base and one of

ensuring a stable water supply these

Being relatively new to the liquid

the more challenging and unique

rural areas can function optimally,

storage market, Videx continues to

installations was that of a water tank

benefitting all. Currently Videx has

innovate and research new products.

on top of a 35 m-high steel tower at


Says Corrita Steyn of Videx, “We





A tower tank

supply innovative, quality products at competitive prices, coupled with professional service and advice.




selves on always putting the




to try and provide solutions to any bulk liquid storage challenge. “Where



make use of local labour during the tank installation stage, so that in a small but significant way we can help further uplift the communities in which we operate by creating jobs.” MAY/JUNE 2014

CLIENTS AND PROJECTS • Liviero Civil – HDG Tank and 35 m tower • Vicol – GRP Tank for SAB Pietersburg • IPL Engineering & Construction – Insulated Hot Water HDG Tank • Imperio – 1 Meg HDG Fire Water Tank • Artane Projects – 1 Meg HDG at Chevron Kroonstad and Engen Petroleum Rustenburg • CEA Refrigeration – Hot well/ cold well insulated HDG Tank



Simple plant automation


HE OLDER a manufactur-

supply voltage as the existing hard-

ing plant is, the more dif-

wired plant. When this is possible,

ficult it is to run efficiently,

automating such a plant would only

therefore automating the

require a PLC of sufficient capacity to

plant can only prove beneficial. NewElec’s


meet the plant’s demands.


NewElec’s MA relays can accom-

relays make it easy to adjust the

modate from 24 to 220 V AC or DC

operations of an older plant for

supply on their digital inputs. The

maximum productivity.

main advantage is that personnel

The advantage in automating an

will be working with the existing

older plant can be found if the motor

equipment and will be familiar

protection and control relays used

with the current wiring, eliminat-

can accommodate digital inputs

ing the need for additional train-

that operate on the same auxiliary

ing. Implementation is easy and there is no need to wait for years

Motor protection and control relays

to automate.

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 4th Annual Water Resource Management


Abeco Tanks




Anatech Instruments


Structa Group


Mather & Platt


Talbot & Talbot


Mpumamanzi Laboratory Services


ThyssenKrupp Processing Technologies



2, 14,15

NCP Chlorchem


Tracker Connect




Utility Systems


Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies


Verder Pumps


Vermeer Equipment Suppliers


APE Pumps


Bigen Africa Services


Vovani Water Projects

Buckman Laboratories


No Dig




Quality Filtration Systems




Rainbow Resevoir


DPI Plastics


Rand Water

IFC Gatefold


Rescue Rod




Royal HaskoningDHV


Water Research Commission



West Trade (No Dig)






WorleyParsons Water

22 52

Endress & Hauser Festo Fiberpipe


34, 35

Krohne South Africa

11 100

77, 79, 81, 83, 85

Videx Storage Tanks WAMTechnology Water & Sanitation Services

Filcon Filters



Gast International SA





SBS Water Systems

Group Five Pipe


Sensus SA

Hanna Instruments


Sew Eurodrive


Xylem Water Solutions

Ingérop South Africa







SRK Consulting

5 28 101



Zevoli 361/Eftec

103 70 OBC

OFC, 6, 7 102






 " #$%          &     


       ' #$(                  



 ' #$)*+     ,   


   &  ! !         &      


      !! " #$$$    !! " #$"    

Water and Sanitation Services South Africa (Pty) Ltd (WSSA) is a specialised provider of sustainable water services in Southern Africa

Water&Sanitation Africa May/June 2014  

The May/June 2014 edition of Water&Sanitation Africa

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