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Actros BlueTec Fuel saving, emission-reducing HOT SEAT

Alllec Mack, National sales director, SCANIA Alec A Fossil F Fo oss fuels, suitable alternatives need serious thought P8 o ISSN 1684-7946 Feb/Mar 2012 Vol. 10 No. 1 / R35.00 incl. VAT


JHB/E TOYT133645/

The automatic choice. When you’re in the long-haul, you need a truck that delivers. Take our Hino 700 range, which now sports Automated Manual Transmission. This not only makes our trucks more comfortable to drive, it also helps prevent costly clutch degradation. Our engine derivatives range from 380 HP to 480 HP, offering you a range to handle any load. And our cabs come in single or double sleepers. See, trucking is in our blood. It has always been and it will always be.


Intraregional supply chain solutions from producer to consumer onsumee r

COVER STORY RY

INSIDE

The unmistakable design of the new Mercedes-Benz Actros, and d it’s innovative mechanical quality, makes akes this an exceptional truck. P4 4

FESARTA Regional infrastructure development

Carbon tax Who will pay the price

4

Hidden in the flames

COVER STORY Mercedes-Benz The Actros cuts fuel consumption

LEGAL AND TAX MATTERS

3

33

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 34 36

It’s a gas

HOT SEAT

TRANSPORT ENGINEERING Road to the future

SCANIA’s Alec Mack Steady as she goes

8

TRANSPORTER’S OPINION Border post barriers

11

COMMERCIAL VEHICLES It’s a MAN’s work Beauty and the beast Fuso’s heavy-duty hybrid truck Hino upbeat Set for more growth in 2012 Air resistance a fuel thief

13 15 17 19 21 23

REGIONAL FOCUS Market insight Economic perspectives The North-South transport corridor

34

24 27

Technology for clean and economical combustion

37 38

PUBLIC TRANSPORT 42

Mobile money

RAIL FREIGHT Does Transnet really want to run a railway Motivated, determined and capable

45 47

SEA FREIGHT Ship repair and refitting

48

AIR FREIGHT What goes down goes up again

51

REGULARS Editorial comment News desk The Tail End

2 6 52

19 33 42

511 5

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

1


EDITOR’S WORD

Stepping into the future

Publisher Elizabeth Shorten Editor Tony Stone • tony@3smedia.co.za

T

Creative chief executive Frédérick Danton Senior designer Hayley Moore Mendelow Contributors Barney Curtis, Tomas Hansson, Imperial Logistics, MTU, John Batwell Sub-editor Patience Gumbo Production manager Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator Jacqueline Modise Financial manager Andrew Lobban Administrator Tonya Hebenton Subscription sales Nomsa Masina Printers United Litho JHB • t +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales Hanlie Fintelman • h.fintelman@lantic.net t +27 (0)12 543 2564

MEDIA No. 4, 5th Avenue Rivonia

PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 t: +27 (0)11 233 2600 f: +27 (0)11 234 7274

www.3smedia.co.za Annual subscription: R270 (incl VAT) ISSN 1684-7946 © Copyright. All rights reserved. Editorial advisory board • Barney Curtis, executive officer of FESARTA • Garry Marshall, CEO, SA Express Parcel Association • Bill Cameron, director, Transport Research Consultancy • Graham Ross, retired road engineer • Dr Andrew Shaw, principal transport analyst for Development Bank of South Africa • Captain Colin Jordaan, CEO and commissioner of the Civil Aviation Authority • Prof. Leon Raath, board member, Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport, South Africa • Barlow Manilal, CEO, Automotive Industry Development Centre and National President of The Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport (CILTSA) • Anthony Cole, COD, Concorde Maritime Academy. All articles herein TWA are copyright-protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the publishers.

2

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

Editor

his new look, revamped Transport World Africa is the first issue that launches the magazine into a purpose driven strategy of supporting and promoting intraregional trade as a means of driving economic growth in Southern and East Africa. Our working relationship with the Federation of East and Southern African Transport Associations (FESARTA) is further strengthened through the inaugural launch of the Trucker’s Forum being held on 14 and 15 March 2012. This is a joint initiative between FESARTA and 3S Media that gives trucker’s a voice, a forum to be heard and an audience, which includes regional authorities and governments alike. It is definitely not a ‘talk show’ but rather a ‘workshop’. We put SCANIA into the ‘hot seat’, take a peek at 2012 through the eyes of two truck manufacturers, consider an innovative truck hybrid and cut through a whole lot of hot and cold air. More importantly, we consider the economies and the ease of doing business with the four countries that are the backbone of the North-South Corridor - South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We also look at the levels of corruption in these countries. Our detailed look at the North-South Corridor provides added yet crucial information about this strategic distribution channel for the exporter/importer and distributor of goods and the transporters of those goods. In this process a lot of carbon from exhaust emissions will be generated. We look at the issue of carbon tax and the price to be paid. Amongst the goods transported are hazardous materials. But, it is not just the hazardous materials that are dangerous. The vehicles transporting these goods can be just as dangerous. We look at the toxic fumes hidden in the flames. As much as science and technology have contributed to global warming, so too can they limit damage to the environment. Clean combustion is critical in this endeavour and we consider this issue as a key element in transport engineering. Getting back to business and making money, mobile money brings convenience to the masses. The eThekwini municipality known for its forward thinking approach to municipal matters, has combined digital money and public transport to provide a rather useful, all-round solution to managing money. And in making money, the question is put to Transnet as to whether they really want to run a railway or not. Last but not least, bulk cargo is transported to and from South Africa by ship. With our having some of the most dangerous seas in the world, particularly along the Wild Coast, the ability and capability of repairing and refitting ships in our ports is vital. We look at South Africa’s capacity, and find it to be inadequate.

The ability and capability of repairing and refitting ships in our ports is vital


FESARTA NEWS & VIEWS

Federation of East and Southern African Road Transport Associations

Regional infrastructure development by Barney Curtis, executive officer, FESARTA

T

he first stakeholder workshop on the SADC Regional infrastructure development programme (RIDMP) was held in December 2011 with over 100 delegates attending, including the directors of infrastructure of COMESA, EAC and SADC. The RIDMP had been in development since 2009, but without funding. It was relaunched in July 2011 with the support of TMSA (Trademark Southern Africa) and DBSA (Development Bank of Southern Africa) and is planned to be in place over the next 15 years. The objectives of the RIDMP are to define benchmarks, minimum and ultimate regional requirements and development targets in the area of infrastructure, and to provide a development framework for infrastructure to meet the requirements and targets. It involves energy, transport, ICT, meteorology, water and tourism. While this is a SADC initiative, the objective is to involve COMESA and the EAC so as to make it a truly Tripartite Plan. Some 58 projects were included in the RIDMP. Consulting engineers, Aurecon, tabled a Draft Diagnostic Report on the RIDMP. This report focused only on transport sector matters: • The Report was divided into policy, infrastructure and transport services sections, with pipelines excluded. • There was expected to be a five times

increase in port throughputs by 2030. Existing port infrastructure would not be able to cope and this created a serious challenge. • The Shire-Zambezi waterway project was not on the projects listing, though possibly it would appear at some later stage. • FESARTA called for transparency in the costing of infrastructure upgrades and fees to be levied to recoup those costs. The whole process should be done in consultation with the relevant stakeholders. Aurecon concurred that in its opinion the financial implications of anything of regional importance (roads, borders, ports, etc) should be transparent. • Weighbridges were not included in the Report. SADC noted these were included in its regulation and policy programme. FESARTA suggested that as they were part of road infrastructure, they should also have been included in the RIDMP. • Whilst border posts were mentioned in the Report, there was no detailed coverage on them. FESARTA requested that as they were the main reason for border delays, they should have been covered in detail. • A selection criteria for projects was tabled by SADC and updated by the workshop. It gave preferential treatment to projects involving landlocked countries. • Identified projects did not necessarily have funding available. The sourcing of funding would be guided by priorities, as determined

by member states. Some of the projects were already in progress. The next step was for SADC to create a Framework and then an Action Plan for the RIDMP.

Mombasa port decongestion The Port of Mombasa is to be decongested in 100 days to prevent Kenya from losing more port business to Tanzania, the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA) announced. The decongestion will involve opening of new additional lanes by the Kenya Ports Authority (KPA) to ease movement of containers in and out of the port. KRA will also do a joint verification of cargo with other government agencies supposed to verify cargo in order to lessen the time spent on cargo inspection. It has also worked out with the private sector players to ensure that they honour the 24 hour operational schedule put in place at the port. Penalties have been agreed with traders who hold their cargo at the port for more than 48 hours. Importers are also expected to declare their vessels early enough to ensure that measures of clearing the vessels are put in place as fast as possible. The congestion is blamed on traders who declined to clear their cargo in December festive season because of the volatility of the shilling.

TABLE 1 Vehicle dimension limits as of 31st January 2012. Note: N/A = not applicable

Country Angola Botswana Kenya Lesotho Malawi Mozambique Namibia South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe SADC * COMESA *

Vehicle Combination Length

Articulated Vehicle Length

20

18

2.5

4

15

15

15

22

17

2.5

4.1

12.5

12.5

12.5

22

17

2.65

4.2

12.5

12.5

12.5

22

17

2.6

4.1

12.5

12.5

12.5

20/22*

17

2.5

4.6

12.5

12.5

12.5

* Allows 22 m on Tete corridor

18/22*

15

2.5

4.3

12

12

12

* Allows 22 m on N4 corridor

22

18.5

2.6

4.3

12.5

12.5

N/A

Width

Height

Rigid Vehicle Length

Trailer Length

SemiTrailer Length

22

18.5

2.6

4.3

12.5

12.5

N/A

20/22*

17

2.5

4.1

12.5

12.5

12.5

22

17

2.6

4.6

12.5

12.5

12.5

Remarks

* Allows 22 m

22

2

2.5

4.3

12.5

12.5

12.5

22

17

2.65

4.6

12.5

12.5

12.5

22

18.5

2.65

4.6

12.5

12.5

N/A

22

18.5

2.6

4.3

12.5

12.5

N/A

* Ratified by Ministers June 09

22

17

2.65

4.6

12.5

12.5

12.5

* Will adopt SADC limits

TWA TW WA | Feb Fe e b Mar 2012

3


COVER STORY

THE ACTROS

Ease fuel costs and environmental impact The Actros is a remarkable machine. It has to be. It won the 2012 Truck of the Year. And what is so significant about this truck is its fuel efficiency and global warming emission reduction achievements.

T

rucks in today’s world are subjected to impossible demands. It’s hard to imagine anything more difficult than meeting the high expectations of haulage companies and environmentalists alike. For this reason, the Actros offers optimum economy and a reduced environmental impact. This is achieved with the reliable, BlueTec fuel efficient engine and the MercedesBenz PowerShift automated transmission, which translates into reduced fuel costs and global warming emissions. And, the Actros is a true all-rounder when it comes to logistics and services. It is capable of reaching practically any location that is accessible by road.

But what is BlueTec

No other truck has been as thoroughly developed and tested before its production launch as the MercedesBenz Actros. The foundations for development were laid as many as ten years ago

4

BlueTec is a name given by Mercedes Benz to engines equipped with advanced Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reducing technology for vehicle emissions control in diesel-powered vehicles. The technology in BlueTec vehicles includes a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system that uses diesel exhaust fluid, and a system of NOx absorbers, called DeNOx, that uses an oxidising catalytic converter and a diesel particulate filter combined with other NOx reducing systems. In real terms BlueTec stands for efficient, fuel-saving and therefore environmentally friendly vehicle technology. BlueTec saves fuel and helps protect the environment. Every litre of diesel saved keeps around 2.64 kg of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) out of the environment.

BlueTec in South Africa Mercedes-Benz Commercial Vehicles and one of their long-standing customers, embarked on a pilot project in mid-2010 by incorporating four environmentallyfriendly Euro 5 trucks, into their fleet. The Mercedes-Benz BlueTEC Actros 1832 LS/36 and BlueTEC Actros 2651 LS/33 trucks went into service on the operator’s routes. The MercedesBenz BlueTec Actros 1832 LS/36 is ideally suited for local distribution and the

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

The new Actros, Mercedes-Benz BlueTec Actros 2651 2012 Truck of LS/33 is a perfect combination for long the Year distance applications. Following close tracking and accurate monitoring over the past few months, the results are conclusive: with more efficiency in reducing air pollutants and supremely frugal fuel performance, resulting in fuel savings have been reported. The operator manages the ongoing supply of the low sulphur fuel together with AdBlue – exhaust gas treatment fluid – and this has been implemented on a controlled basis (“Base Camp logic”), by a reputable fuel company with a strong local presence. Daimler is driving forward a drastic reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions from commercial vehicles with its Clean Drive Technologies. There are more than 300 000 trucks operating with BlueTec technology worldwide, along with over 30 000 buses and coaches. The BlueTec SCR technology from Mercedes-Benz is starting to break through globally, with the major markets of North America and Japan now following Europe’s trend and implementing this technology more and more. So is South Africa.

Thoroughly convincing The durable and powerful V6 and V8 engines provide the heart of the BlueTec system. The engine range has benefited from an extensive package of enhancement measures – significantly raising engine output and torque, whilst keeping fuel consumption low. The Telligent® engine system plays a central role in achieving this. This proven electronic engine management system adjusts the injection of fuel with extreme precision to reflect the driving situation. This optimised injection strategy, coupled with an injection pressure of up to 1 800 bar, results in outstanding mixture preparation and greater efficiency as a result. The Actros


engines have moved forward in terms of durability too. Modifications to the engines ease the thermal load on the pistons and thus ensure that oil consumption is reduced and then kept at a constantly low level. The injection nozzles are fitted with heat-insulating sleeves, which also help lower the thermal load. In addition, these sleeves reduce the amount of soot deposited in the engine oil – which brings us to the subject of maintenance. Inlet valves and seat rings made from more durable materials allow the valve setting intervals to be extended. The crankcase breather with its improved oil separator, plus the compact alternators and starter motor – which have both been designed for a longer service life – also help to reduce the maintenance work required. And the resultant benefits for the Actros? Higher performance and lower costs!

Mercedes PowerShift adapts the rotational speeds of the main shaft and gear wheel by means of the electronic engine or gearbox control. This dispenses with the need for servo-lock synchronisation. A propeller-shaft brake on the countershaft decelerates the rotating gearbox masses when up shifting. When downshifting, the engine speed is boosted to ensure synchronism of the corresponding gear wheel with the countershaft. * All Actros models, excluding tippers, concrete mixers and all-wheeldrive vehicles.

Telligent Shift transmission ®

Lots of power, low emissions The proven Unit-Pump System (UPS) is used in the Actros for fuel injection. Each of the cylinders has its own plug-in injection pump, which is driven by the camshaft and builds up the required fuel pressure. The high injection pressure guarantees fine fuel atomisation and homogeneous mixture formation for efficient combustion.

Mercedes PowerShift Transmission Just how confident we are of our further-enhanced automated gearshift, Mercedes PowerShift, is plain to see from the fact that it is fitted in the Actros as standard*. It excels with optimised shift smoothness, fast gear changes and low fuel consumption. The bottom line of all this is: more Actros, more economy.

The unmistakable design of the Actros is as exceptional as the truck as a whole

“Our aim is to reduce fuel consumption and minimise emissions” Kobus

van Zyl, vice president, commercial vehicles, Mercedes-Benz South Africa

The manual 16 speed Telligent® synchromesh transmission is standard for off-road and construction 6x4, 8x4 and 6x6 vehicles. This is because when running over tricky and uneven surfaces, fully manual gear changing gives drivers the greatest possible control. Particularly ideal in offroad tipper and construction applications where road surfaces can be uneven and gradients severe, the Telligent® manual transmission reassures the driver with full gear shifting control – but effortlessly Telligent® autoshift transmission is also available as an option.

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

5


NEWS DESK

GENERAL MOTORS

Trailblazer coming to South Africa GENERAL MOTORS South Africa announced today that it will be launching the new Trailblazer into the South African market

LAND ROVER

On the rim of an erupting lava lake KINGSLEY HOLGATE sent greetings from Erta Ale, the most active volcano in Africa. With armed guards and a camel to carry the water, they walked through the night to avoid the fierce heat of the Danakil Depression to stand on the rim of an erupting lava lake. None of the expedition team has witnessed anything like this in their lives before. To propitiate the spirits of their Rift Valley odyssey, they tossed a silver coin into the bubbling caldera. Several earthquakes have been recorded in the vicinity of Erta Ale suggesting that a major eruption maybe imminent. It was tough going back to base camp, hard underfoot over blistering volcanic landscape. There people survive by drinking whatever water they can find, be it stagnant pools or puddles left over from the last rain. Each LifeStraw filters a thousand litres of clean drinking water. It is fulfilling to improve lives of others while on an adventure - thank you Land Rover.

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TWA | Feb Mar 2012

before the end of this year. The Trailblazer will be an all new entry for General Motors South Africa in the large Sports Utility Vehicle

(SUV) segment of the market, says Malcolm Gauld, Vice-President of Sales and Marketing for General Motors South Africa. “This great product will further strengthen our Chevrolet product portfolio offering which has rapidly expanded over the past two years. The response from customers has been very favourable with our Chevrolet sales volumes growing by over 50% in 2011 versus 2010.” The Trailblazer, which is Chevrolet’s toughest and most refined SUV, made its global debut last year at the opening of the Dubai International Motor Show in the Middle East. “We are very excited about the addition of the Trailblazer into our already strong line up of Chevrolet products on the South African market.” The Trailblazer is a robust seven-seater SUV, providing superior third row seating, exceptional ride comfort and a modern and fresh design. The vehicle combines the hauling and towing capability of a body-on-frame SUV with the ride comfort and efficiency of a crossover.

AIR NAMIBIA

Fleet expansion

AIR NAMIBIA, the Windhoek based national airline of the Republic of Namibia, has ordered two new Airbus A319 aircraft. Seating 112 passengers in a two class layout, the aircraft will bring new levels of comfort to regional routes from Windhoek to other major African cities. Air Namibia already operates two leased A319s on regional routes, and two A340300 aircraft on its international route between Windhoek and Frankfurt, Germany. Airbus aircraft share a unique cockpit and operational commonality, allowing airlines to use the same pool of pilots, cabin crew and maintenance engineers, bringing operational flexibility and resulting in significant cost savings. “Our in-service experience with Airbus aircraft has confirmed that the A319 is the ideal aircraft for Air Namibia’s regional

routes,” says Theo M. Namases, Acting CEO of Air Namibia. “The efficiency of our new aircraft, together with their commonality with our existing fleet will provide a strong basis for our continued growth and contribution to the Namibian tourist industry.” The A320 family, which includes the A318, A319, A320 and A321, is recognised as the benchmark single-aisle aircraft family. Each aircraft features fly by wire controls and all share a unique cockpit and operational commonality across the range. More than 8 300 A320 family aircraft have already been ordered and almost 5 000 delivered to more than 340 customers and operators worldwide reaffirming its position as the world’s best-selling single-aisle aircraft family. With proven reliability and extended servicing periods, the A320 family has the lowest operating costs of any single aisle aircraft.


NEWS DESK GOODYEAR

Symposium on driving efficiency GOODYEAR EUROPE has hosted an event that saw over 170 of the continent’s top commercial fleet representatives, industry leaders and transportation policy makers attend a one-day symposium in Brussels designed to open a wider debate on increased demand for more fuel efficiency from Euro’s road freight sector. The symposium was built on a newly introduced report called “Driving fleet fuel efficiency: The Road to 2020“. The report predicts how fleets will cope with cutting carbon dioxide and increasing fuel efficiency in an era of rising fuel costs and environmental legislation. The symposium was opened by Siim Kallas, Vice-President of the European Commission in charge of Transport, who welcomed Goodyear Europe’s 'Driving Fleet Fuel Efficiency' initiative. Kallas emphasised that road freight is a key element of the economic system and its sustainable development is essential for the long term competitiveness of Europe. He also underlined that increased energy efficiency should be a bridge to alternative fuels. "To meet the policy objectives of the European Union's (EU) 'Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area', the EU needs a clear and coherent vision helping to accelerate the use of alternative transport fuels", he said. A strong transportation industry is vital to the European economy, but at the same time, the EU has set a target for the industry to cut carbon emissions by 60% by 2050.

GABRIEL

2012 product catalogue GABRIEL, THE PREMIUM brand of

Michel Rzonzef, Vice President of Goodyear's commercial tyre business across Europe, Middle East and Africa was pleased with the symposium’s outcome, where stakeholders debated and discussed key issues affecting the sector in an open and transparent manner. In different panel discussions, some of Europe’s largest fleets came together with industry players, experts in the latest fuelefficient technologies, and policy-makers, to debate on the practical and political steps to take to reduce fuel use and move toward a more sustainable future.

Control Instruments-Automotive, has launched its 2012 shocks, struts, cartridges and gas lifts catalogue, the most comprehensive Gabriel catalogue to date. The catalogue has four sub-categories: ub categories: vehicle listing, parts listing,, parts finder and technical information, which includess installation instructions. The listings category makes it easy to locate part rt numbers by vehicle make; model of vehicle; year of production; vehicle type such as a sedan, 4x4, van or coupe; engine capacity; and part number. The catalogue also provides alternate shocks that will replace competitor parts. The parts number category list part numbers in numeric order making it easy to find the primary part number. Technical information includes the shock type and details covering the upper and lower mountings, extension length, column, column length, accessory kit number and suggested Gabriel products from the Gas Ryder, Safari HDP, Safari, Technomatic, Heavy Duty and Fleet Range. The catalogue can be found at www.gabriel. co.za or is available as an A4 catalogue.

VOLKSWAGEN

The new Crafter VOLKSWAGEN COMMERCIAL Vehicles is presenting the new Crafter with a sharpened design, optimised interior, the latest generation of the fuel efficient TDI engines which significantly reduce fuel and maintenance costs. Thanks to the new four-cylinder common rail diesel engines, the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions have been significantly lowered. As a result, fuel and maintenance costs have been decreased substantially. The vehicle’s maximum payload increased by nearly three per cent on some derivatives. The 20 000 km service intervals allow for the new Crafter to be efficiently utilised for an extended period. The Crafter was first launched in South Africa in April 2007 and to date it has sold over 4 000 units, which makes it the second bestselling Medium Commercial Vehicle (MCV) Panel Van in South Africa.

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

7


HOT SEAT

ALTERNATE FUELS

Steady as she goes While SCANIA is not a ship the analogy fits. As a truck manufacturer, the company clearly knows where it wants to go and how it is going to get there. And, quite methodically, with careful navigation, it is.

G The new SCANIA R Series (BELOW the R730)

lobal warming is a hot issue. The combustion of fossil fuels, petrol and diesel in cars and trucks is a key aggravator in a worsening situation. As a truck manufacturer, SCANIA is taking the problem seriously. However, as Alec Mack, national sales director for SCANIA South Africa, explains, SCANIA has put the necessary thought behind their longterm strategies in implementing appropriate solutions. Critical of the ‘green’ movement in South Africa, Mack believes these people have not put enough thought into alternate energy sources. Rather than look at variations of fossil fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG),

compressed natural gas (CNG) or derivatives of fossil fuels such as electricity, or hybrids thereof, SCANIA has pursued alternate energy sources, biofuels which have a neutral footprint, and have developed the technology to effectively use these fuel sources. Biofuels, such as bioethanol, biodiesel and biogas, are part of the natural carbon cycle and don’t contribute to a net increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Fossil fuels release carbon from fossil deposits and increase CO2 levels. The use of biofuels will thus help reduce CO2 emissions, particularly in heavy transport, where electrification is not easy to achieve. Only three biofuels today fulfil the important requirements of sustainability, commercial availability and volume production – bioethanol, biodiesel and biogas. Other interesting biofuels will not be commercially available for quite some time.

Bioethanol Bioethanol is the most widely used biofuel in transport today. It is also the fuel that is most likely to be able to supply large sustainable volumes in the future. A major advantage is that it is a liquid and available in commercial volumes globally. It can be easily produced from a variety of raw materials, like sugar cane, beets or cellulose, and is used both as a pure fuel and in low blends. Bioethanol is recommended for city and regional transport applications with a short to medium operation range. SCANIA has a number of products available for running on bioethanol – e.g. buses, trucks and waste collectors. SCANIA engines adapted for bioethanol fuel have the same energy efficiency as a standard diesel engine and fulfil the Euro 5/ EEV emission level.

Biodiesel Biodiesel is a liquid renewable diesel fuel produced from esterified plant oil. Biodiesel can be used for all types of operation and ranges. It is easy to handle, available in commercial volumes, and can be mixed freely with regular diesel. This is the most appropriate biofuel for heavy applications, long-distance operations and haulage. Also known as FAME (fatty acid methyl ester), biodiesel can be made from various sources, like rapeseed, jatSA’s National ropha, and waste cooking

“Alternate fuel sources require careful thought” Alec Mack, SCAN A Sales Director

8

TWA | Feb Mar 2012


HOT SEAT oil, all with different qualityy aspects. In the European Union, Developing the te technology rapeseed is the largest source. ource. “Around one-third of SCANIA’s R&D “Aroun Emissions and perengineers e are continuously formance are slightly iinvolved in long-term engine affected. Provided rresearch, which includes finding that the need for speattractive solutions to running on a cial service intervals is alternative fuels for urban applicaalte observed, SCANIA pertions. SCANIA’s responsibility is not tions SCANIAmits using up to 100% % limited to modifying engines to run on limite 13D A NEW FAME fuel in some off alternative fuels according to customer alterna GENERATION OF its engines. demand. We have to ensure that the demand ENGINE.PSD Biodiesel can also be Fuel produced in a synthetic way with excellent combustion stion Diesel Ethanol Biodiesel Biogas properties, but is not available ilable DC9 24, 360 hp h DC9 E02, 270 hp DC9 24, 360 hp OC9 G04 Engine in commercial volumes as of 1 584 000 924 000 1 452 000 1,584 000 GJ Energy yet. Synthetic diesel produced duced 440 000 256 670 403 330 440 000 MWh from biomass (BTL, biomass308,000 176 000 308 000 212 160 NOx (kg) Local to-liquid) has great potential 880 5 280 880 0 HydroCarbons (kg) emissions as an alternative fuel. It pro1,760 880 1 760 1 100 PM (kg) vides excellent preconditions 118 800 20 240 66 000 22 000 CO2 (tonnes) Global for clean combustion as it is emission 0% 83% 44.4% 81.5% % CO2 reduction ideally suited to high-efficiency Note 1: All calculations are based on an emission class EEV, a lifetime mileage of 1 000 000 km and a fuel consumpdiesel engines and can be tion of 44 ℓ/km | Note 2: Energy and CO2 emissions are based on the calculation of fuel consumption. Exhaust emissions are based on measurements during the certification of each engine type. For biodiesel, the values from mixed with regular diesel. It engine certification, with diesel fuel, are used. can be produced from various raw materials including bioTABLE 1 Energy and emission mass, waste and fossil natural gas. operational and environmental performance, as well as comparisons durability, meets SCANIA’s standards,” says Mack.

Biogas Renewable biogas shows especially good emission characteristics, and can be used for fuelling heavy vehicles. Biogas is recommended for fleets and urban transport applications with short operation ranges, mainly because gaseous fuel is bulky and the tanks only allow enough fuel for a shorter distance. Gaseous fuels also require a costlier infrastructure. The most cost-efficient and sustainable method for producing biogas is to use local sewage or waste. Even when waste volumes are limited, cities can use this favourable opportunity to power parts of local city fleets and in this way secure a supply of a locally made clean biofuel. SCANIA’s Otto engine, with its lean burn technology, provides low fuel consumption and a very clean operation, fulfilling the Euro 5/EEV emission level. Biogas and natural gas are the same molecule (methane), but biogas is renewable and natural gas is fossil.

Hydrogen Hydrogen is not an alternative in the short term, but may prove viable together with fuel cells some time beyond 2020. Powertrains that comprise a fuel cell and an electric motor could be an interesting alternative – in the very long term. A hydrogen fuel cell is reasonably efficient in heavy-duty transport, but no method to transport sufficient amounts of hydrogen gas on a vehicle currently exists. Also, hydrogen must be produced from renewable raw materials, a technology which is not viable at present. SCANIA has participated in a European project to develop a concept fuel cell bus.

Something more Reducing fuel consumption, and thereby reducing the amount of emissions produced, is more than just using an alternate energy source. It involves the one of the world’s largest cities, has basics of good vehicle design become the first city in Brazil to have an ethanol-fueled bus fleet as part of and operation. This includes the country’s designing and fitting wind-tuncarbonnel tested air deflectors, proper reduction goal driver training, correctly inflated tyres, fitting efficient retarders and automatic gearboxes, and regular vehicle servicing. It does not mean painting your company name on a roof air deflector and shifting it to a more vertical position so that it can be seen – as this turns the air deflector into an air brake. It also does not mean fitting a bull bar to your truck – as the drag on this piece of unnecessary embellishment adds 1% to your fuel bill. So, reducing fuel consumption is also about education and the consistent application of knowledge.

São Paulo,

EDITOR’S COMMENT The world population has now reached 7 billion. According to the UN, it will reach at least 9.1 billion by 2050. Known oil reserves will be fully depleted by then and the sustainability of alternate fossil fuels resources, like natural gas, will be under extreme pressure (excuse the pun). Sustainability must then take on a new meaning, or perhaps its original meaning – the ability to continue, to replenish itself. Biofuels are the only sustainable fuel alternative.

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

9


Innovation, inspiration and foresight Fast moving, forward thinking in Africa

Delivering world-class and international inter-modal systems critical to the continent’s growth and competitiveness. Warehousing and distribution ë Terminal management (bulk and containers) ë Bond storage ë Inventory management ë Materials / cargo handling and palletisation ë Container stuffing / loading, securing and destuffing / unloading Groupage / Consolidation Multi-modal transportation (direct modes and/or transshipments) ë Shipping and port related services ë Rail logistics ë Road Freight forwarding & clearing / International logistics

Winner of the 2011 Mail & Guardian Greening the Future Awards ŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐĂŶĚKƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚ/ŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů^ƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ/ŵƉƌŽǀĞƵƐŝŶĞƐƐWĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ͘ AFRICA DIVISION Tel: +27 11 821 5500 E-mail: info@ilad.co.za www.imperiallogistics.co.za Africa | Transport and Warehousing | Consumer Products | Specialised Freight | Integration Services | Bulk Commodity Services


TRANSPORTER’S OPINION

LIMITATIONS

Border post barriers Border posts along the North-South Corridor, which links the Copperbelt to South Africa’s southern ports inhibit efficiencies for Logistics Service Providers (LSPs) and drive up cost for companies doing business in Africa.

O

n this corridor bad road quality is not the only problem, says Cyril Laubsher, Business Development Director of IMPERIAL Logistics Africa Division. Getting through border posts such as Beitbridge, Chirundu and Kasumbalesa fast and safely is. In reality, none of the border posts are “One Stop Posts”. As a result, regional authorities duplicate functions. “This chases cost into the system and leads to lengthy standing times for vehicles. It contributes to the high cost of logistics in southern Africa,” he says. North-South border posts contribute to inefficiencies that Laubsher says “affect productivity and inhibits us from sweating transport assets.” One stop border posts that use technology would not only speed up cross-border clearing and compliance operations, but would substantially contribute to the improvement of logistics cost and the overall state of logistics. The Kopfontein Border Post initiative is one example of this approach. General freight drivers’ standing time at Beitbridge and Chirundu could be two days at each post and Kasumbalesa crossing into the DRC, four to seven days. “On top of this, between the Copperbelt and Kasumbalesa, drivers face sections of road that are moderate to poor, forcing diversions,” explains Laubsher. He adds that basic facilities at border posts are not good. “Running water and clean

hygienic ablution facilities do not exist. In partnership with NGOs and governments, LSPs have the opportunity to improve this situation, developing communities along the routes and corridors in which they are active.” LSPs such as IMPERIAL Logistics understand documentation requirements for cross border and intra Africa trade, he says emphasising that it is important to “operate within protocols, good governance and acceptable busiCyril Laubsher, Business ness practices and principles”. Development Director of Moving goods in Africa requires MPER AL Logistics Africa LSPs to consistently improve on Division costs, quality and speed of service and response. “We need to be the experts. We need to know which routes are optimal. Routes that seamlessly integrate all modes and networks,” concludes Laubsher.

“Lengthy standing times for vehicles contribute to the high cost of logistics in southern Africa”

BELOW The new Kasumbalesa border post will hopefully eradicate the backlog and speed up processing time

ABOVE AND BELOW Typical queues at the Kasumbalesa border post between Zambia and the DRC

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

11


kld2036

This MAN backs you up

Package perfected for African conditions. Engineering the ideal truck for Africa takes time and the CLA range from MAN has undergone a three-year process of reďŹ nement to better suit local operating conditions and satisfy speciďŹ c customer requirements. Powered by the world’s best diesel technology, the next-generation MAN CLA is equipped with a host of robust features to overcome the many challenges posed by Africa’s most gruelling trucking applications. Guts, reliability and good looks, the new CLA is your MAN.

s",/%-&/.4%). s"/437!.!  s#!0%4/7. s#%.452)/.  s%!34,/.$/. s%2-%,/ s'%/2'% s*/(!..%3"52' s+)-"%2,%9  s-)$$%,"52' s.!-)")!  s.%,3025)4 s0).%4/7.  s0/,/+7!.% s0/24%,):!"%4(  s37!:),!.$  s6%2%%.)').'  For your Finance and Insurance requirements, contact us on 011 387 1940. An Authorised Financial Services and Registered Credit Provider.


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

TRUCKER’S CHOICE

It’s a MAN’s work Whether it’s a big, small or tough job, consistency and reliability are common drivers. We look at what needs to be on the trucker’s tick sheet.

D

riven by market demands for fuel efficiency, optimum power-to-weight ratios, safety and comfort, MAN’s portfolio of heavy and extraheavy trucks gained significant market share throughout the course of 2011, penetrating fleets once the stronghold of leading competitor brands. MAN TGS 26.480 6x4 BLS with MAN D26 Euro 5 engine and MAN AdBlue® - Using SCR exhaust gas after-treatment technology. The truck is less sensitive to fuel quality than its European sibling and can work with 500 ppm diesel without negatively impacting on performance. This truck tractor can run for 72 hours at full power and torque without AdBlue. MAN TGS WW 26.440 6x4 BLS with LX ‘LuxLine’ Cab and EfficientLine Package - The MAN EfficientLine Package is based on fuel-saving elements found on the MAN TGX, MAN’s European flagship. The package includes but is not limited to; aero-kits to reduce drag, an energy and air pressure management system to optimise compressor application, tyre pressure management to reduce rolling resistance, as well as fitments for truck trailers including alloy wheels, energy tyres and aero-kits including side-skirts. MAN TGS WW 27.480 6x4 BBS with LX ‘HighLine’ Cab – an on-highway 6x4 truck-tractor equipped with steel suspension, enabling flexibility to manage harsher terrain. This model is proving popular in the long-haul coal transport sector where vehicles are required to operate efficiently on the open road while occasionally enduring the tougher conditions at loading and unloading areas. MAN TGS WW 27.440 6x4 BBS with L “HighLine” Cab – Similar to the TGS 27.480 6x4 BBS, this truck-tractor is well-suited to the long-haul transporter but with a greater resilience to harsher operating conditions. MAN TGS WW 33.360 6x4 BB with M-Cab – A robust and powerful heavy-duty tipper chassis fitted with a straight 9-tonne front axle beam for greater ground clearance. Hub reduction drive axles provide optimum torque transfer for arduous mine and quarry applications whilst also enabling better ground clearance at rear. MAN TGS WW 41.440 8x4 BB with M-Cab – An 8x4 derivative for specialised applications, equipped with MAN’s powerful D26 common-rail engine. Suitable for mining, construction, forestry, waste management, fire fighting, disaster

management and crane applications, this on/off-road truck has twin steering axles for optimum manoeuvrability and versatility in off-road conditions where vehicle turning space is limited. MAN TGS WW 33.440 6x6 BB SWA with M-Cab - Fitted with single tyres and permanently engaged all-wheel drive, the truck has class-leading traction and climbing ability to haul heavy loads out of some of the toughest operating conditions. The single wheel tyres (SWA) offer enhanced tracking for safer, more efficient application in muddy as well as sandy off-road conditions. MAN TGM 18.240 4x4 BB SWA with M-Cab – A 4x4 single-wheel rigid truck chassis ideal for off-road duty such as forestry, fire-fighting, as a service/support vehicle and as a personnel carrier. The versatile chassis allows for customised body fitment and is even proving to be a popular game viewing vehicle and or as a platform for adventure undertakings. MAN CLA range – Having undergone extensive field trials in local conditions, recent upgrades have rejuvenated the range, making the CLA a refined product range and an ideal truck for rigorous applications in Africa as a freight carrier, tipper or mixer. VW Constellation – Ever since its introduction to the local truck transport market in late 2006, the Volkswagen Constellation range of heavy-duty trucks has made steady headway into leading fleets, thanks to its solid German engineering, fuel economy, drive comfort and pulling power. The range, which forms part of the MAN stable, includes both truck-tractor and rigid (freight carrier) derivatives that fill a gap in the market between budget and premium-class trucks. As part of the MAN dealer network, VW Constellation customers are supported by 24 service centres around the country.

FROM ABOVE The MAN TGS 41.440 The MAN TGS 26 series, and The Volkswagen Constellation

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

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All great drivers know that a Freightliner is one of the most affordable trucks to keep running at its best. It demands less from you so you can save more. This lady knows what she wants, but won’t put you through hell for it. ANOTHER REASON WHY IT TAKES A LOT TO STOP A FREIGHTLINER.              r  X X X  G S F J H I U M J O F S  D P  [ B

SINCE 1940

THE OLD SHANGHAI FIRECRACKER FATORY 701769

THANK GOODNESS, MY UPTOWN GIRL IS LOW MAINTENANCE


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

FREIGHTLINER

Beauty and the beast The Freightliner is no fairy tale. It is real, smart, tough and goes the distance.

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he Freightliner’s rugged looks, combined with its reputation for efficiency and dependability changed the face of trucking in South Africa. At the time of its launch in this country it was the first commercial truck to introduce electronic engines, ABS and cab air-conditioning as standard. This set the tone for its continued leadership in terms of safety, ergonomics and performance. These accolades are not just talk either. As the old saying goes, the proof of the pudding is in the eating.

United Bulk This Gauteng-based transporter of food-grade products and dangerous goods has used Freightliner as part of its extensive truck and tanker fleet since 2007. They recently increased this brand’s presence in their fleet by another 27. Owner, Patrick Pols, comments that the longer wheel base is ideal for payload optimisation using tri-axle tanker semitrailers. “When it came to adding new trucks to our fleet, we made an executive decision to go the Freightliner route due to the excellent after-sales support from the dealer network.” Commenting on the superior efficiency of the trucks, he says: “We are achieving an impressive 2.6 km/litre on some of our Columbia rigs, well below the industry benchmark.”

KEW Foundries This well-established engineering company, with a long history of manufacturing steel works for the mining industry, in their day-to-day operation, needs a fleet of trucks that can do some heavy duty lifting and Freightliner has become their ‘abnormal load’ truck of choice. As proof that Freightliner has the capacity to carry more tonnage than most of its competitors, KEW delivers the largest cast sheave wheels in Africa to their mining customers using this truck brand. These sheaves have a root diameter of 6.5 metres! “The Freightliner Argosy is the ideal vehicle to accommodate our custom built 33-tonne trailer, allowing us to transport these monolithic sheave wheels

into Africa without an escort,” says Jaime Goncalves, technical director at KEW Foundries.

So, why a Freightliner? Freightliner trucks have the flexibility to serve a wide range of industries and commercial applications due to its range of heavy and medium duty options. Whether it’s an Argosy or Columbia model, with Freightliner innovation and technology in your employ, your business can be assured of: • top performance • maximised payload • exceptional fuel economy • ease of maintenance • lower overall cost per kilometre • long-term reliability • industry-leading safety. Stretching its flexibility even further the Freightliner comes in a choice of Detroit Diesel or Cummings engines. In Detroit Diesel-powered trucks, the use of turbo compounding and common rail fuel injection allows your business to achieve unmatched engine response, superior fuel economy and outstanding emissions levels. Both Detroit Diesel and Cummings engines will give you the edge with industryleading power and performance. The touchstone of the Freightliner is the constant innovation in developing ever better components and systems. This makes the Freightliner the truck of choice for those truckers who are serious about their trucks. The Freightliner is not just a beauty - it’s a trucker’s truck.

ABOVE Freightliner Columbia BELOW Freightliner Argosy

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

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Much less of a slurper.

The future of fetch & carry is here. In spite of the fact that our new range of trucks offers you engines with more power & torque, you will find that most of them are more fuel efficient. The entire FK/FM range has also been upgraded to greener Euro 2 emissions level engines with super efficient common rail fuel injection. So your FUSO will fetch, fetch and fetch again... Another reason why FUSO should be your business’s best friend.

Mercedes-Benz South Africa (Pty) Ltd. is an authorised distributor of FUSO trucks.

THE OLD SHANGHAI FIRECRACKER FACTORY 701771

C A L L 0 8 6 1 F U S O 0 0 O R V I S I T W W W. F U S O . C O . Z A A N D C H O O S E F R O M O V E R 3 0 D E A L E R S H I P S N AT I O N W I D E


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

ALTERNATE POWERTRAIN

ABOVE The Fuso Super Great HEV heavy-duty truck concept vehicle LEFT The Fuso Hybrid that was on show at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show

Fuso’s heavy-duty hybrid truck Stepping up to the challenge of reducing operating costs, a ten percent fuel efficiency increase over conventional diesel engines was achieved in testing by the new hybrid Fuso.

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ommercial vehicle manufacturer, Fuso, a member of the Daimler group, has introduced a heavy-duty hybrid truck in Japan. The new vehicle concept premiered at the Tokyo Motor Show late last year. First tests of the Super Great HEV have demonstrated significant fuel efficiency improvements over conventional diesel-only vehicles. The hybrid heavy-duty truck development is a further milestone in the development efforts of the Global Hybrid Center (GHC) located in Kawasaki. The development centre synchronises and controls Daimler.

Heavy-duty hybrid setup The newly-developed hybrid heavy-duty truck is based on the technology of the Canter Eco Hybrid, around 1 200 units of which have been sold since it was introduced in 2006 and which has proved itself in numerous applications worldwide. The Fuso Super Great HEV now being presented features a conventional diesel engine, electric motor/generator, lithium(Li)-ion battery and related control software. It utilises a parallel hybrid system. That means power to drive the vehicle comes from the vehicle‘s electric motor, the diesel engine or both. Fuel efficiency and emission reduction are achieved by using them singly or in combination with each other, according to driving conditions. When slowing down or braking, the electric motor functions as a generator to brake the vehicle. The generator converts brake energy into electric energy and returns it to the lithium-ion battery.

First test results very encouraging The first tests performed under real-life conditions show an

impressive increase in fuel efficiency by as much as ten percent versus conventional diesel-only powered vehicles. Testing was conducted on motorways in Japan, in representative conditions. Long-haul trucks recover and store energy as they move up and down hills. In addition, they tend to run much longer distances tances than light commercials and the benefits nefits of hybrid technology therefore e accumulate. The e hybrid system of the Fuso Super Great is optimised, so it can capture energy even when the truck is going g down very slight ht grades. The pararallel hybrid system stem ensures that energy loss is minimised.. Based on the positive test results, Fuso is now moving ahead with the development of heavyduty hybrid trucks. The key challenge now is to ensure significant overall lifecycle cost benefits for the Super Great HEV. Trucks are capital goods and will therefore prevail in the market, especially when their purchase pays off for entrepreneurs. One focus of work is to minimise the weight of the hybrid system so the customer has the highest possible payload at his disposal.

The state-ofthe-art full hybrid system represents a major automotive industry milestone with its fully integrated combination of electric motors with a fixed-gear transmission

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

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6th annual event

The earlier you book the more you SAVE!

28 February – 2 March 2012 Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa

Hear from

On the move Meshack Kidenda Director General Kenya National Highways Authority

Opportunities for investment, finance and growth in Africa’s roads sector Raise capital for your next project Find out how to attract financing for road infrastructure

Realising the economic benefits of road integration Get insights into new road initiatives that are helping Africa’s economies grow

Become proactive and spend less on maintenance Explore how Africa’s roads stakeholders can meet global standards www.terrapinn.com/2012/africaroads Associate sponsors:

Reply form Yes! I am interested in Africa Roads 2012 F I would like to attend the event – please contact me F I would like to know more about this event – please contact me

Dr Anthony Mwanaumo CEO Zambia National Road Fund Agency

Produced by:

Fax: +27 (0)11 707 9960 Voucher Code: A2 601284

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BOOK NOW! online www.terrapinn.com/2012/africaroads | email brian.shabangu@terrapinn.com | phone +27 (0)11 463 6001 | fax +27 (0)11 463 6903

3108

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COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

2012 PROSPECTS

Hino upbeat “Team Hino are optimistic about growth prospects in the South African truck market in 2012.” Dr Casper Kruger, vice-president, Hino SA

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ino, like the other Japanese vehicle manufacturers, was affected by not only the tsunami and earthquake that hit Japan on March 11 2011, but also by flooding in Thailand towards the end of the year which impacted on the ability of component makers in that country to supply many of the world’s vehicle manufacturers – mainly those located in Japan. “Even though we put contingency plans in place following these natural disasters – particularly in terms of our after sales support to customers – we had significant stock shortages for much of the year,” says Hino vice-president, Dr Casper Kruger. “However, here in South Africa we still manage to stay in second place. Hino maintains its proud record as the longtime market leader in the medium truck market, with Hino 300/Toyota Dyna leading the way in this segment of the South African market for the 31st consecutive year. The 500 Series remain the second best-selling heavy truck range in the country gaining 0,3% in market share,” explains Kruger. Hino sees the short term outlook for the truck market in 2012 as positive, particularly as the stock situation improves, with Hino production running at full capacity in Japan again. The company is also going to have a big boost in March with the arrival of the impressive new range of 300 Series trucks, including some important new derivatives to the lineup. The new 300 Series was previewed at the Johannesburg Truck and Bus Show in October and attracted a great deal of attention from potential customers. South Africa will be the first semi-knocked down market in the world to get this important new range. Kruger stresses that the 2012 focus is not going to be on increasing volume at the expense of customer satisfaction. “We want to be known for offering unparalleled uptime to our customers and to this end we will be taking some actions to further improve parts availability. “One of the highlights of last year was the announcement of our HinoCare initiative that enables us to increase service intervals on all Hino models as a major contributor to improving our all-important CPK (cost per kilometre) figures. We have also made significant improvements to the warranty benefits for certain of our models. The Hino brand was given a boost internationally at the

beginning of the year with another impressive performance in the gruelling Dakar Rally. The leading Japanese truck manufacturer, continued to build on its amazing record of successes in this world famous event, this time notching up its third consecutive victory in the category for trucks with engines of less than 10 litres capacity. This year’s event started on 1 January in Mar-del-Plata in Argentina, traversed Chile and finished in Lima, Peru, on 15 January. The total route for the trucks was 8 336 km, made up of 14 competitive special stages, totalling 4 120 km, and 4 216 km of liaison sections. The highest placed four-wheel-drive Hino 500-Series truck, crewed by Teruhito Sugawara and Seiichi Suzuki, placed an excellent ninth overall in a field dominated by so-called “monster trucks” with much larger engines and many of them specially developed for this event. The second Hino, driven by Teruhito’s 70-year-old father, Yoshimasa, and co-driver Hiroyuki Sugiura, placed 24th overall and third in the 10 litre engine category. The Hino 500 Series has also won the under 10 litre engine capacity category 12 times in the 13 races this category has been contested since this class was first introduced in 1996, This year Hino continued its long association with Team Sugawara, which is headed up by Yoshimasa Sugawara, who holds the record for the most consecutive entries in the Dakar Rally at 29. He is the only Japanese to have competed in this epic race on a motorcycle and quad as well as in a car and truck. Now 70 years of age he holds the record for the most consecutive finishes in the Dakar Rally at 21. His son, Teruhito, has already established an amazing record in the Dakar Rally, with only one finish outside the top 10 in 14 years of competition. The team was backed up by a support crew which included five technicians from Hino dealerships in Japan.

Hino was boosted with another impressive performance in the grueling Dakar Rally

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

19


MSS UD EHCV 22

Professional, Passionate, Dependable 24 Hour Roadside Assist 0800 008 800 www.udtrucks.co.za

Making Light Work of

Extra Heavy Loads Product shown in photograph is for illustration purposes only, and is subject to stock availability.

With class-leading operation performance, high levels of safety and a focus on driver comfort, UD Trucks’ Quon range offers the best in extra heavy trucking. The Quon range is powered by the proven reliance and economy of UD Trucks’ quality engine series, and delivers low fuel consumption through increased combustion efficiency. A number of chassis variations are available to meet various load and road surface challenges, positioning the Quon range at the forefront of profitable transport solutions.


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

2012 PROSPECTS

Set for more growth in 2012

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he South African truck market is expected to grow by 12.3% to 29 358 units during 2012, indicating a slight decline from the 17.39% growth experienced in 2011. According to Johan Richards, CEO of UD Trucks Southern Africa, one has to keep in mind that the market came off a low base in 2010 which boosted sales in 2011, inflating last year’s growth considerably. The star performer in the local truck market was the Extra Heavy Vehicle (EHCV) segment, which increased sales on a year-on-year basis by 35.41% to 11 503 units. Sales in the Medium Commercial Vehicle (MCV) segment increased by 15.3% to 8 713 units, while a 5.69% growth was experienced by the Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) segment to reach a total of 4 664 units. Bus sales predictably declined, by 37.6%, to 971 units. “Despite several negative factors that could possibly affect the market over the medium to long term, the 2011 sales results show that the market still has a lot going for it,” says Richards. He reveals that a number of factors will impact the sale of trucks in the year ahead, including the potential implementation of the e-toll system on Gauteng’s roads and its impact on transport companies’ operating costs. “Business confidence levels hovered around the 100.4 mark at the end of 2011, and will continue to be a key indicator of the health of the truck market in 2012,” explains Richards. “External influences, like the Eurozone crisis, are continuing to have a negative impact on local growth including job creation, exports and subsequently truck sales.” Richards adds that the company is expecting some growth in the second half of 2012, as the United States’ economy is expected to regain some momentum and record some steady growth. The Road versus Rail conundrum continues, with Transnet’s recent purchase of 143 new locomotives and the announcement of a new R17 billion route through Swaziland, expected to slowly start impacting the sales of EHCV as the new projects are implemented. Fleet owners will be looking to reduce fuel consumption, maintenance and service costs. On the transport side of things, Richards is of the view that long haul vehicles will be used to maximum capacity and that the construction industry should improve considerably during 2012 after hitting quite low levels early in 2011. “We believe that the EHCV segment will start to slow down in the latter part of 2012. We expect the HCV market to perform well in 2012 after a sluggish run in 2011. Now that the market has replaced their EHCV long haul vehicles, we should see an increase on the HCV side, especially for local deliveries. The Bus market should pick up slightly, but not by much, depending on how the government implement various BRT systems countrywide during the course of the year,” explains Richards. On a year-on-year basis, UD is forecasting the MCV

segment to grow by 11.13% to 9 812 units. Sales in the HCV segment are expected to grow by 17.95 units to 5 525 units, while a total of 12 932 units are expected in the EHCV segment – a forecasted growth of 10.96%. The Bus segment is

expected to improve during 2012, by 10.45%, to 1 089 units. UD Trucks remained the country’s top truck exporter in 2011, exporting a total of 244 units into Africa. The total export market came to 861 units, a decline of 6.5% when compared to 2010’s results. “If the Europe Zone debt crisis remain stable, we foresee a very good year in the African export countries after a rather sluggish 2011,” says Richards. Richards adds that the company is continuing g to expand its dealer network across the continent, co ontinent, and believes that the quality of their dealerships p ps and the level of sustainable support they provide along the major routes in sub-Saharan Africa, are the key driving forces behind their successful sales performance over the last number of years. UD Trucks Southern Africa has dealers in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and is currently investigating a number of opportunities for expansion across the region. UD Trucks’ performance on the local front increased year-on-year sales by 27.67% to 3 234 units, retaining its third position in the

Extra heavy commercial vehicles sales have been very positive

“2011 sales results showed that the market has a lot going for it” Johan Richards, CEO, UD Trucks Southern Africa market with a 12.5% market share. The company is forecasting around 4 000 sales in 2012. During the course of the year, UD will be launching a new generation Quon EHCV range, and is in the process of planning new introductions in 2013, 2014 and beyond.

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

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Volvo Action Service 0860 11 22 12 Used Trucks Tel: 011 823 5755 Head Office Tel: 011 842 5000 Beaufort West Tel: 023 415 3962 Bloemfontein Tel: 051 435 5502 Cape Town Tel: 021 986 8200 Gauteng (Jet Park) Tel: 011 842 5300 George Adstock Traders Tel: 044 878 1333 Kimberley Tel: 053 841 0527 Middelburg Tel: 013 246 1918/9 Nelspruit Tel: 013 752 6138 Newcastle Tel: 083 322 0722 Pinetown (Durban) Tel: 031 792 4000 Polokwane Tel: 015 293 1216

COST EFFECTIVE TRUCK

Port Elizabeth Tel: 041 486 1885

FOR UP-TIME DELIVERIES

Richards Bay Tel: 035 797 4235

Transporting daily commodities and consumer goods

Botswana (Gaborone) Auto Sueco (Botswana) (Pty) Ltd Tel: +267 392 3117 Namibia (Windhoek) Auto Sueco (Namibia) (Pty) Ltd Tel: +264 61 228 520

countrywide involves a race where availability, payload capacity and costs per kilometre are winning factors. The answer is well-specified trucks that can handle fast and reliable transportation. The Volvo FH will answer that call and provide you with solutions for both local and long - haul applications. The Volvo driveline includes the D13 engine, I-shift gearbox and rear axles with various ratios that deliver immense pulling power. This is a vehicle that has excellent driveability with optional specifications such as single or hub reduction, a variety of power and torque profiles, low chassis heights and a wide range of cabs designed for driver comfort and productivity. The FH is the champion on the long routes when it comes to performance, comfort and fuel efficiency.

volvo TRUCKS. driving PROGRESS www.volvotrucks.co.za


COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

FUEL EFFICIENCY

Air resistance, a fuel thief by Tomas Hansson, Volvo Trucks

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erodynamics is more important to the transport company’s economy than many people think. This is because higher air resistance requires more power to propel the truck, which in turn leads to higher fuel consumption. It’s as simple as that. But with aerodynamic deflector panels from Volvo Trucks, a lot of expensive fuel can be saved. The prime concern with aerodynamic truck design is to get the air to press uniformly against the entire cab. However, on a vehicle with sharp corners, the air does not naturally hug the surface panels of the vehicle. Instead, it lifts off the surface and circulates and twists behind the corner in a turbulent whirlwind, known in the industry as a slipstream. “Energy is used up when the vehicle starts sucking back this air from behind, pulling it along in this type of slipstream, because it is taken from the vehicle’s own kinetic energy. If this turbulence can be eliminated, less energy is used to propel the vehicle forward,” explains Hjelm, aerodynamics expert at Volvo Trucks. When designing the truck, the aim is therefore to increase the radius of the corners and to create more rounded shapes, thus avoiding the slipstream effect. “There is a rule of thumb that says that the radius of the corner should correspond to 10 percent of the width. If we design the truck with these proportions, we will have fulfilled priority number one. Or rather, we will have avoided creating a poor aerodynamic design.” Early in the project, CAD drawings of the truck are created, allowing the engineers to carry out wind-tunnel tests in the computer to simulate the flow of air around the entire vehicle. Here it is also possible to calculate how individual components – such as the rear-view mirrors – affect air resistance. The further the project progresses, the more the engineers switch to tests in a real wind-tunnel, which provides more precise results. So particular attention is paid to the vehicle’s corners, not just with regard to giving them a sufficiently generous radius, but also in terms of any additional equipment with which the truck is fitted. The air accelerates most around the vehicle’s corners, and components added on in this area promote the most air resistance. “Auxiliary lamps, advertising signs or Michelin men fitted at these corners result in increased air resistance and increased fuel consumption,” says Hjelm and explains that the best position for such additional components is in the middle of the cab front where the air is almost at a standstill before it is pressed out towards the sides. The converse is also true – there is other equipment that significantly boosts the vehicle’s aerodynamic efficiency. “By far the most effective aid is the roof-mounted air deflector,” he adds. It ensures that the flow of air does not strike face-on to

that part of the trailer that protrudes above the tractor, and it ensures more uniform transition for the flow of air from the cab to the trailer roof. The roof-mounted deflector is adjustable so it can be tailored to suit different types of trailer and it is adjusted to suit the height of the trailer and the gap between the tractor and trailer. In order to further enhance the benefits of the roof deflector, there is even an intermediate panel that fills the gap created when its angle py is raked more steeply.

VOLVO TRUCKS Designed to minimise resistance

A Aerodynamics ■ An A air deflector system always brings benefits. Not least as “We test the roof-mounted deflector for difspeed increases. ferent trailer heights and gaps and include ■ Maximum aerodynamic effect is adjustment instructions in the driver’s manachieved if the roof-mounted air ual so the haulage operator can see how it deflector is supplemented with should be set up,” explains Hjelm. side panels, chassis side-skirts and aerodynamic wheel covers. The side-mounted air deflector is posi■ Most of the roof-mounted tioned at the rear sides of the cab and deflectors are adjustable. Be operates in the same way as the roofcareful when setting them up as mounted panel. Air deflectors do most regards the distance to the body good on high-bodied rigs that operate at or semitrailer. If it is a mere 10 cm too low, it can actually raise high average speeds (see the diagram). fuel consumption by one litre per Another important detail that can save 100 kilometres. considerable fuel is chassis side-skirts fitted between the front and rear wheels. They are available for both tractors and rigids with a fixed box body and they have a beneficial effect on both, but they do most good on trucks with a fixed box body since these vehicles have a longer wheelbase. The air deflector must be selected so it suits the vehicle. This applies both to semitrailers and rigids. Volvo’s air deflector panels have been developed through comprehensive tests in wind-tunnels and on the road to achieve the greatest possible fuel savings. Making one’s way through the air is thus all about getting to the destination with the least possible air resistance. The more aerodynamically efficient the vehicle is as it slices through the air, the less energy and fuel it uses.

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

23


MARKET INSIGHT

INTRAREGIONAL TRADE

Economic perspectives

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

ZAMBIA

All things being equal, 2012 looks set to be a better year for countries along the North South Corridor.

ZIMBABWE

SOUTH AFRICA

Democratic Republic of Congo THE ECONOMY began to recover in 2010, with estimations showing real gross domestic product (GDP) growth increasing to 6.1% from

RE-ELECTED The DRC’s, Joseph Kabila

2.8% in 2009 and largely driven by mining, which was buoyed by higher world prices. This in turn stimulated the services sector and infrastructure rehabilitation. Contributors to overall growth were mining (11.8%), construction (10.1%) and wholesale and retail trade (6.3%). The economy is expected to grow at around 6.5% over the next two years. The budget deficit, which worsened in 2009 as a result of the world economic crisis,

improved in 2010 thanks to higher government revenue, but worsened again in 2011. Partnerships with emerging countries include ties with China, India, Korea and Brazil, which are very involved in mining, construction, information and communication technology (ICT), agriculture, technology transfer and social development, with India supplying credit lines, and China grants and soft loans. Chinese enterprises dominate public-works projects and have increased their activity in mining. The country’s vast road network is still in very poor condition despite efforts to improve it, and electricity supply remains far below the country’s needs, but an aid agreement with China and resumption of ties with foreign donors have reenergised these sub-sectors.

South Africa REAL GDP grew year-on-year by 2.8% in 2010, recovering from the low base of a 1.7% contraction in 2009. GDP growth was primarily driven by steady recovery in consumer

spending. Real GDP growth reached 3.1% in 2011, still held back by sluggish domestic investment and tighter fiscal spending. In 2012, real GDP growth is expected to increase to 3.6%. The main risk to the outlook for 2011 and 2012 is the outlook for the global economy. The mining sector’s real value-added recovered in 2010, registering a 4.2% increase. However, output recovery was uneven across sectors owing to diminishing gold reserves, infrastructure constraints and an uneven recovery in global demand. Furthermore, strikes by the National Union of Metalworkers and mine workers in September 2010 affected production in coal and platinum mines. Overall, high commodity prices drove growth in mining revenues in 2010, in spite of revenues being negatively affected by an appreciation of the Rand. The mining and quarrying secGETTING tor expanded TOUGH by 17% during SA’s Jacob Zuma the fourth

TABLE 1 Key country data Category

DRC

South Africa

Zambia

Size ( km2)

2 345 410

1 219 090

752 618

390 757

Population

66 020 000

50 110 000

13 257 000

12 644 000

GDP (PPP) (2011 est.) ($’ billion)

21.3

554.6

21.9

5.9

GDP Per Capita (PPP) (2011 Est.) ($’)

300

11 000

1 600

500 8.2

Growth Rate (%)

2010

6.1

2.8

6.6

2011

6.7

3.1

6.5

7.8

2012

6.4

3.6

6.7

5.4

Paved

26

147

8

19

Unpaved

172

431

86

197

Condensate (km)

0

11

0

0

Gas (km)

37

37

0

0

Airports

Pipelines -

Oil (km)

39

980

771

0

Refined (km)

756

1 382

0

270

Railways (narrow gauge)(km) Roads Merchant Marine

3 882

20 192

2 157

3 427

Paved (km)

2 794

73 506

20 117

18 481

Unpaved (km)

150 703

288 593

71 323

71 323

Container

0

1

0

0

Petroleum Tanker

1

3

0

0

Banana, Boma, Matadi

Richards Bay, Durban, East London, Coega, Port Elizabeth, Cape Town, Saldanha Bay

None Nearest port: Dar es Salaam, Beira, Maputo, Walvis Bay, Luanda

None Nearest port: Beira, Maputo, Richards Bay, Durban

Ports and terminals

24

Zimbabwe

TWA | Feb Mar 2012


MARKET INSIGHT quarter of 2010 contributing significantly to the improvement in GDP growth. Real value added grew by 5.1% in the manufacturing sector in 2010, recovering from a 10.4% contraction in 2009. This was due to recovering industry confidence and strong demand for iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, machinery, and electrical equipment – much of it driven by the FIFA World Cup. However, the recovery was not as strong as expected due in part to liquidations and to the prolonged industrial action in the automotive industry. Export-oriented manufacturing was negatively affected by the Rand’s appreciation against major currencies. The 2011 outlook for growth in manufacturing output remains modest because of structural constraints. The agricultural sector rebounded and increased by 0.9% in real value added in 2010 primarily as a result of a bumper harvest in maize. The maize harvest, the biggest in nearly three decades, was due to unexpectedly good rains, an increase in maize plantings, and greater use of genetically modified seed. This reduced food price inflation to 1.2% in 2010.

Zambia THE 6.6% growth in Zambia’s GDP in 2010 went up from 6.4% in 2009. Agriculture, tourism, construction, manuBIBLE PUNCHER facturing and mining Zambia’s new President, are driving growth Michael Sata which is expected to expand by 6.5% and 6.7% in 2011 and 2012 respectively. Overall, primary industries performed well in 2010 with agriculture growing by 7.6%. In 2011 and 2012 agriculture growth is projected at 3.2% and 4.6%, respectively. The largest contribution to 2010 growth came from maize production. The harvest reached

2.8 million tonnes compared to 1.9 million in the previous season. Zambia is Africa’s biggest copper producer and the mining sector’s big recovery was due to improved global copper prices. The sector is estimated to have grown by 7.4% in 2010. Manufacturing, which historically has contributed about 10% of GDP, grew by 2.5% in 2010. The government has made substantial progress in infrastructure construction and has invested in manufacturing through the establishment of Multi Facility Economic Zones. Tourism, which was hard hit by the financial crisis, is expected to rebound strongly with estimated growth of 25% in 2010. Construction was expected to expand by 10% in 2010 and maintain a double-digit growth in the next few years. Zambia has turned around its image from a country performing considerably below its potential, to a country with good economic management and several years of strong economic growth. Strong macro-economic performance, coupled with fast pace growth in mining, construction, telecommunications and tourism, helped spur GDP growth of 5.6% on average in 2001-2010, which peaked at 7.6% in 2010. A number of policy reforms such as acceleration of the budget preparation process, increase of electricity tariffs and privatisation of remnant parastatals have been put in place to enhance economic growth.

The establishment of a Government of National Unity (GNU) in February 2009 and the adoption of macroeconomic stabilisation poli-

TIRING Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe

cies including the multicurrency regime resulted in early signs of economic recovery. GDP growth was estimated at 8.2% in 2010 and 7.8% in 2011, driven by rapid expansion of mining output and exports, and agriculture. Mining output has risen spectacularly – 8.5% in 2009 and a record level of 47% in 2010 largely due to increased mining investment. Agricultural output rose by 15% in 2009 and 34% in 2010, largely from a doubling of tobacco production. Manufacturing growth, however, slowed down to less than 3% in 2010 compared to 10% in 2009. Exports are estimated to have increased by 35% in 2010 to $US2.1 billion (R16.5 billion) while imports increased by 13.5% to $US3.6 billion leaving a trade deficit of $US1.5 billion. The overall balance of payments improved from a deficit of $US1.77 billion in 2009 to $US460 million in 2010.

Note The lower the score, the better the ranking, Red = Worsening situation

Zimbabwe

Acknowledgement The collection of data and in-

THE ZIMBABWE economy is rebounding

formation above was sourced from and is published

after a decade of economic decline during which time real GDP fell by more than a third and per capita income fell by 40%, combined with prolonged or chronic inflation and hyperinflation.

here with kind permission of the CIA, the World Bank, Transparency International and the African Economic Outlook organisation (AfDB, OECD, UNDP, UNECA). Respective copyright © remains vested in these organisations.

TABLE 2 Besides the corruption, doing business in... Topic Rankings Starting a business Dealing with construction permits Getting electricity Registering property Getting credit Protecting investors Paying taxes Trading across borders Enforcing contracts Resolving insolvency Overall rankings Corruption Perceptions Index (10 = Extreme, 0=Non-existent)

DRC 2011

2012

145 77 147 113 170 153 163 167 170 165 176

148 77 145 121 174 155 165 167 170 166 178 8.0

South Africa 2011 2012

2011

44 31 124 76 1 10 44 144 81 77 35

58 144 110 84 8 74 44 153 86 103 80

74 31 122 90 1 10 18 146 85 79 36 5.9

Zambia 2012 69 148 118 96 8 79 47 153 85 96 84 6.8

Zimbabwe 2011 2012 142 163 167 81 116 120 132 172 112 166 168

144 166 167 85 126 122 127 172 112 153 171 7.8

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

25


Strategic Infrastructure Development Summit Developing successful strategies for development, investment and procurement in transport, energy and water supply infrastructure 27, 28, 29 & 30 March 2012, Crowne Plaza Johannesburg – The Rosebank Keynote Address: Jeremy Cronin, Deputy Minister of Transport, Department of Transport

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REGIONAL FOCUS

NORTH-SOUTH CORRIDOR

The road from Durban to Kolwezi

Beyond South Africa, the roads and traffic management constituting the North-South Corridor desperately need to be improved. These roads negatively impact the productivity and profitability of truckers.

T

heoretically, the 6 000 km round trip from the Port of Durban in South Africa to Kolwezi in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and back again, takes a gruelling 16 days, perhaps a little less but most likely more. And, it’s not a trip without its obstacles and challenges. Road conditions, weather, traffic behaviour, disparate weighbridges, toll gates, corrupt police and border officials, driver fatigue and their wellbeing, and truck roadworthiness, all add to the mix. To some, it could be described as a journey to hell and back again. And, for some it is.

Corruption Let it be said that there are many good, hardworking and honest police men and women, some of whom have sacrificed their lives in the course of duty, but one of the biggest challenges facing truckers is having to deal with crime and corruption as a result of cronyism deceit, fraud, intrigue, maladministration, nepotism, obfuscation and politicisation of police and border officials. Transparency international, in releasing their 2011 Corruption Perception Index rank the North-South Corridor countries as seen in table 1. South Africa has rampant corruption in its police force, as has become a familiar tale with Selebi and Cele. The writer also witnessed, first-hand, and photographed, South Africa Police Service members taking a bribe from a Zimbabwean bus driver in Polokwane. The incident was reported to the very police station where these policemen were based and, 18 months later, nothing has been heard. A survey by Transparency International says police in Zimbabwe top the list of the most corrupt institutions. And according to the Inspector-General of Police, Martin Malama, the Zambian traffic police are widely regarded as the most corrupt element in the Zambian police force. The DRC is not without its problems and reflects a similar picture.

South Africa ABOVE The The standard of driving in South Africa varies greatly. On Gilloolys highways, overtaking can occur in any lane including, occainterchange on sionally, the hard shoulder. This is typical of minibus taxis the N3 highway that frequently are poorly maintained, overloaded and have passing through Johannesburg no insurance of any kind. On single-lane roads the hard shoulder is also used by trucks and slower vehicles to allow faster vehicles to overtake – Rank Country Score it is regarded as a courtesy 64 South Africa 5.9 to acknowledge this, usually 91 Zambia 6.8 with a brief flash of hazard 100 Tanzania 7.0 154 Zimbabwe 7.8 warning lights. Four-wayDemocratic Republic of the stops are commonly found 168 8.0 Congo at the quieter intersections – Note: Nonexistent=1, Endemic proportions=10 the first vehicle to arrive has TABLE 1: priority. On roundabouts, Transparency give way to the right, although this rule is often ignored. International Road standards are mostly very good, but some roads in Corruption remote areas are less well maintained and potholes may Perception Index be encountered. One should drive cautiously at all times, obey speed limits and avoid unfamiliar rural areas at night. Thieves have been known to employ various methods to The Great North make a vehicle stop, enabling them to rob the occupants. Be Road through aware that one such method Zimbabwe is the placing of large stones in the middle of the road. Toll plazas can be found along the N3 from Durban to Johannesburg and then along the N1 from Johannesburg to the Beitbridge Border Post. For truckers this is not a cheap trip – see table 2.

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

27


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REGIONAL FOCUS

Toll Plaza (N1)

The Chinhoyi Toll Gate, Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Driving in Zimbabwe is extremely hazardous, particularly at night. Many Zimbabweans drive over the speed limit. Although the main roads throughout Zimbabwe are generally in fair but deteriorating condition, most lack passing lanes, shoulders, breakdown lanes, lighting, reflectors, and similar safety features. Driving under the influence enforcement does not generally exist so this results in high rates of impaired drivers, especially at night. Avoid driving at night. Pedestrians (in dark clothing) and animals are often walking along and on the roads, and the majority of roads in Zimbabwe are poorly lit. Motor vehicles often have no headlights or taillights and are difficult to see at night. Passing lanes are not always clearly marked, and road visibility at times can be restricted. In urban areas, lane markers are often faded and many street and traffic lights are broken. Potholes are numerous on many of the roads. Service stations often lack fuel or spare parts. Inter-city commuter bus travel, except by “luxury coaches,” is dangerous due to overcrowding, inadequate maintenance, and unsafe drivers. Public bus drivers are often fatigued, fail to adhere to local speed limits, and often fail to obey traffic rules or regulations. Trying to find information on and the location of weighbridges and toll gates in Zimbabwe is impossible. The Zimbabwe national roads authority does not have a web site and the Department of Transport’s web site offers little information of value. While Zimbabwe does have one or two fixed point toll gates, it is understood that, by and large, toll gates spring up wherever a policeman decides to set one up. This is acknowledged as being a huge problem.

Zambia Driving on Zambian roads can be hazardous. Most roads do not have shoulders or sidewalks, forcing pedestrians and livestock to use the roadways both day and night. It is a traffic violation to splash a pedestrian when driving through water. While the main roads in Lusaka as well as the principal highways linking Lusaka with the major provincial capitals are generally maintained, many secondary roads are in poor repair. During the rainy season (end of October to midMarch), travelers who do not have a four-wheel drive vehicle will encounter problems driving on rural roads. Even in daylight, passing another vehicle can be particularly dangerous given the general condition of roads. Driving at night can be hazardous and is discouraged. Even in Lusaka there are few streetlights, and pedestrians on the edge of the road are difficult to see. When breakdowns occur, local drivers place a few branches behind the car to indicate trouble, but they are hardly visible at night. As a result, many

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4

Beitbridge Boabab 29.00 80.00 110.00 132.00 Capricorn 30.00 83.00 97.00 122.00 Nyl 38.00 71.00 86.00 115.00 Kranskop 29.00 74.00 98.00 122.00 Carousel 36.00 96.00 106.00 123.00 Pumulani 7.80 19.50 22.50 27.00 Pretoria SUB TOTAL 169.80 423.50 519.50 641.00 Johannesburg De Hoek 32.00 50.00 76.00 109.00 Wilge 44.00 76.00 102.00 144.00 Tugela 47.00 78.00 123.00 170.00 Mooi River 33.00 81.00 113.00 154.00 Marian Hill 8.00 14.00 18.00 27.00 Durban SUB TOTAL 164.00 299.00 432.00 604.00 TOTAL 333.80 722.50 951.50 1 245.00 Note: Four tariff groups are defined: Class 1: Light Vehicles, Class 2: Heavy Vehicles with 2 axles, Class 3: Heavy Vehicles with 3 or 4 axles, Class 4: Heavy Vehicles with 5 or more axles

TABLE 2 (above) Toll gates along the South African section of the North-South Corridor LEFT A convoy of trucks approaching Chirundu on the ZimbabweZambia border drivers use their high beams at night to detect stopped vehicles and pedestrians. However, many drivers fail to dim their high beams when approaching other cars, and many cars have a non-functioning headlight. Zambia isn’t much different to Zimbabwe when it comes to finding information on weighbridges and toll gates.

The DRC Roads throughout the DRC are generally in poor condition, and often impassable in the rainy season. When driving in cities, keep windows up and doors locked. Crime is rampant and gangs are common, especially gangs of children who are equally vicious. At roadblocks or checkpoints, documents should be shown through closed windows. In the event of an automobile accident involving bodily injury to a third party or pedestrian, do not stop to offer assistance under any circumstances. Attempts to provide assistance may further aggravate the incident, resulting in some southern African states has in a hostile mob reaction such as stonreached alarming levels. Pictured ing or beating. Proceed directly to the here are some DRC police officers undergoing anti-corruption training. nearest police station or gendarmerie to report the incident. Use of cell phones while driving is prohibited in the DRC. As with other traffic regulations, enforcement of this law is inconsistent. Distracted drivers pose a threat in larger towns and cities. Public transportation is unregulated, generally unsafe, and unreliable. Taxis,

Police corruption

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

29


REGIONAL FOCUS The Trucker’s Forum Johannesburg Mar 14 - 15 2012 will adress: 1. Border procedures, documentation, smuggling and infrastructure • There is no integrated border management, with resultant lack of cross-border cooperation between authorities. There are cumbersome procedures and duplication of procedures on both sides of the borders. • Smuggling causes customs to increase controls (and therefore delays) at borders. • Some border posts have inadequate infrastructure to cope with current traffic flows.

2. Weighbridges and load limits • Weighbridges at different locations give different readings due to poor or inadequate calibration, below-standard equipment or poor operation. Load limits and tolerances are not harmonised between countries.

3. Charges and taxes • Countries arbitrarily introduce unjustified and/or high charges. There is a lack of transparency when agreeing on infrastructure upgrades. The charges include road user, carbon tax, customs licences, municipal levies, customs fees, hazardous substances levies, toll fees. • Corruption is rife at road blocks, weighbridge problems and border delays.

4. Road safety • The accident rate is high because of poor and/or insufficient driver training and inadequate driver discipline and/or management. • Drivers’ health and well-being is not taken seriously enough. • Some right-hand drive countries are moving towards banning the importation of left-hand drive trucks. • There are too many unroadworthy vehicles on our roads. • Not enough safe parking places to protect against theft and hijacking. Truck stops. • Inadequate management of dangerous goods vehicles and their loads.

5. Self regulation and accreditation • The working relationship between road transporters and enforcement authorities is generally not good. Rogue transporters damage infrastructure, blatantly ignore regulations and compromise the transport rate structure.

mini-buses, and trains are in poor mechanical condition and are often filled beyond capacity. And, as to information on weighbridges and toll gates, the DRC is equally a hopeless case. It would do well for Zimbabwe, Zambia and the DRC to follow

30

Downtown South Africa’s lead and make this Lubumbashi in the important information available on Democratic Republic the worldwide web. of the Congo Nonetheless, the good news is that the ‘penny has finally dropped’ and our political leaders realise that these problems must be addressed. A good beginning but much work still needs to be done. The key driver behind current initiatives is intraregional trade. To succeed, it needs everyone to pitch in and, in every small way, help achieve this goal. In so doing, the sum effect over time would translate into increased productivity and profits, better overall economic performance, the eradication of poverty, and a better life for all.

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

    

  

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LEGAL & TAX MATTERS

CARBON TAX

Who will pay the price? Over and above assessing the direct cost of carbon tax in South Africa once the verdict is published by National Treasury in February 2012, the country must count the indirect cost of the tax on the competitiveness of its logistics and supply-chain sector, and the impact that it will have on consumers and end-users. Submitted by Imperial Logistics

S

outh Africa’s consistently high cost of logistics, which came in at 13.5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2009 according to the 7th Annual State of Logistics survey, will be negatively impacted by the proposed taxation levels. According to Marius Swanepoel, Imperial Logistics CEO, the proposed carbon tax will need to be “counteracted with greener, more efficient supply chains”. Dr Jan Havenga, head of the Centre for Supply Chain Management at Stellenbosch University, projects the total cost of logistics to be approximately 15% of GDP for 2010. He says that in 2009, the transport and communication sector paid around R12 billion in company taxes. “A carbon tax could increase the effective tax rate of the industry by at least 14.5%,” Havenga says. “This would in all likelihood make South African logistics costs much higher, and would mean that the competitiveness of the country would be under further threat.” When assessed by the industry, calculations indicate that, including the carbon tax, the transport industry bill would increase by between R1.8 and R6 billion per year for the emission tax of transport only. In essence, an increase of between 1.16% and 3.86% on the transport bill is forecast, depending on the final tax implemented. Sharmini Naidoo, CEO of the Road Freight Association, believes that this increase is a cost the road freight industry can ill afford. “Transport operators are already faced with numerous rising costs, and the proposed carbon tax would have a serious impact on the cost of logistics, rendering road transport uneconomical,” she says. Over 80% of freight is currently moved by road. “Ironically, it is the SMMEs who would be most severely impacted by the tax – the very sector government aims to support. Not only this, but the tax will also impede economic growth and job creation.”

Swanepoel adds: “The industry is moving forward in greening supply chains through innovative thinking and investment. Examples include South Africa’s first Euro 5 specification fleets on our roads, cutting carbon emissions and increasing efficiencies through ‘extra distance’ studies and network redesign, as well as the application of renewable-energy sources.” Governments globally have tended to introduce carbon taxation first, followed by emissions trading as a secondary means to curb carbon emissions. Swanepoel says many countries, including Finland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, have tended to offset the increase in carbon taxes with decreases in other taxes or the use of revenue for climate mitigation programmes. of carbon have In South Africa, there is curbeen emitted into the rently no middle road planned. atmosphere Some, such as climate-change due to human economist and World Bank adviactivities since the Industrial sor, Michael Toman, view the Revolution. country’s serious examination of carbon tax to be “commendable, particularly given that the step is ’unique’ among emerging-market economies”. Others view the anticipated tax as a further burden to be borne by business. Swanepoel concludes:“Even at the lower rate of R72 per tonne, the estimated R100 billion likely to be generated from the carbon tax equates to between 12% and 13% of Treasury’s total tax take. This revenue must be channelled into our country’s pursuit for finding sustainable, innovative solutions for cleaner energy that is accessible to all.”

0.5 trillion tonnes

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

33


HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

TOXIC GASES

flames In a motor-vehicle, train or aircraft fire, flames are not the only danger. We look at 10 of the more common toxic gases associated with such fires.

W

Material

TABLE 1 Typical tyre composition of a passenger tyre

34

%

Styrene butadiene

46.78%

Carbon black

45.49%

Aromatic oil

1.74%

Zinc oxide

1.40%

Stearic acid

0.94%

Antioxidant 6C

1.40%

Wax

0.23%

Sulphur

1.17%

Accelerator CZ

0.75%

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

hen someone rescues a driver and/or passengers from a burning vehicle, risking their own safety in the process, we must truly acknowledge that person’s selfless act of courage, not just in the face of danger from the flames, but also from the toxic gases created by the fire. Carbon monoxide (CO): Carbon monoxide is the main toxic gas produced from the combustion of polyethylene and other organic materials that are made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. It is produced as a result of incomplete combustion of materials containing carbon, and is present in large quantities at most fires. Carbon monoxide that is inhaled causes asphyxiation by combining with haemoglobin in a reversible reaction to form arboxyhaemoglobin. Its formation at the expense of oxyhaemoglobin reduces the availability of oxygen for the cellular systems of the body. Anoxaemia induced by carbon monoxide Toxic gases from fires does not, as with The major lethal factors in uncontrolled fires simple asphyxiare toxic gases, heat, and oxygen deficiency. The ants, cease as predominant toxic gas is carbon monoxide, which is soon as fresh air readily generated from the combustion of wood and is inhaled. After other cellulosic materials. Increasing use of a varieven moderate ety of synthetic polymers has stimulated interest in degrees of gasscreening tests to evaluate the toxicity of polymeric sing, only about materials when thermally decomposed. As yet, this country lacks a standardised fire toxicity test proto50% of the carcol. JB Terrill, RR Montgomery and CF Reinhardt bon monoxide is eliminated in the first hour under ordinary circumstances; complete elimination under the action of fresh air is not effected for many hours. The highest concentration of carbon monoxide to which man may be exposed day after day without adverse effect is 50 ppm. Above this level, symptoms such as headache, fatigue and dizziness appear in healthy individuals. Carbon dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide is produced in quantity at most building fires. Inhalation of carbon dioxide stimulates respiration, and this in turn increases inhalation of both oxygen and possible toxic gases and vapours produced by fires. Stimulation is pronounced at 5% (50 000 ppm) concentration, and 30-minute exposure produces signs of intoxication. Above 70 000 ppm, unconsciousness results in a few minutes. The threshold limit for CO2, that is


HAZARDOUS MATERIALS the concentration that can be tolerated by workers day after day without adverse effect, is 5 000 ppm. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN): Hydrogen cyanide is produced when materials that contain nitrogen in their structure, eg orlon, nylon, wool, polyurethane, urea-formaldehyde and ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene), are involved in fire. Hydrogen cyanide and other cyanogen compounds arrest the activity of all forms of living matter, and they exert an inhibiting action on the use of oxygen by the living cells of the body tissues. Hydrochloric acid (HCl): Hydrogen chloride is produced by the thermal breakdown of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or vinyl chloride. HCI is more toxic than CO and may be produced in greater quantity than CO when PVC is burned. If inhaled, HCl will damage the upper respiratory tract and lead to asphyxiation or death. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and N2O4): There are three common oxides of nitrogen: nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and the two forms of the dioxide (NO2 and N2O4). Nitrogen dioxide, which is very toxic, can be produced from the combustion of cellulose nitrate (a compound used as a film base for photographic purposes). Nitric oxide does not exist in atmospheric air, because it is converted into dioxide in the presence of oxygen. These compounds are strong irritants, particularly to mucous membranes, and thus, when inhaled, will damage tissues in the respiratory tract by reacting with moisture to produce nitrous and nitric acids. Styrene (C8H8/ C6H5CH=CH2): Styrene is widely used in a variety of products, including synthetic rubber, paint and plastics. It is also used to make polystyrene, a polymer used to make materials such as egg cartons, plastic CD and jewel cases, and computer covers. When polystyrene is decomposed by heat, the major products are carbon monoxide and styrene, the compound from which it was produced. Styrene is broken down into smaller molecules that react with oxygen to form the usual combustion products. However, styrene will be present in smaller quantities. Phosgene (COCl2): Phosgene is a highly reactive colourless gas at room temperature and ambient pressure, and has a suffocating odour similar to mouldy hay. The odour may be detected between 1.6 and 6 mg/m3. Phosgene is produced by the thermal degradation of some chlorinated solvents and chlorinated polymers such as PVC. However, a significant source of phosgene is the photochemical oxidation of chloroethylenes such a triethylene and tetraethylene. Isocyanates: Isocyanates are the raw materials from which all polyurethane products are made. Common materials produced from isocyanates include polyurethane foam, insulation materials, surface coatings, car seats, furniture, foam mattresses, under-carpet padding, packaging materials, shoes, laminated fabrics, polyurethane rubber, adhesives, and other polyurethane products. Two important isocyanates that are commonly used are toluene diisocyante (TDI) or methylene bis-phenylisocyanate (MDI). TDI is used to make soft, flexible foams for padding or insulation, while MDI is used mainly to make hard, rigid foams for insulation in buildings, vehicles, refrigeration equipment and industrial equipment. TDI is especially hazardous because it can evaporate quickly, and its vapours are heavier than air. TDI thermally decomposes into toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and carbon dioxide, and nitrogen

oxides are produced during combustion. Isocyanates chemically react to form a solid polyurethane foam or a plastic coating. The finished product is almost non-toxic, unless it is burned or caused to generate a dust. Any polyurethane material will give off isocyanates and other highly toxic substances if it is burned or welded. Perfluoroisobutylene (C4F8): Perfluoroisobutylene is a colourless gas that is produced during the thermal degradation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), better known by the trade name Teflon. PTFE is used to make non-stick cooking pans, and anything else that needs to be slippery or nonstick. PTFE is also used to treat carpets and fabrics to make them stain-resistant. What’s more, it’s also very useful in medical applications. Because human bodies rarely reject it, it can be used for making artificial body parts. Acetaldehyde (C2H4O/CH3CHO): The substance may polymerise under the influence of acids, alkaline materials such as sodium hydroxide, in the presence of trace metals (iron) with fire or explosion hazard.

BELOW Tanker train explosion BOTTOM Burning bakkie Photo Credit Terry’s World

Vehicle tyres Tyres are a mixture of vulcanised or cross-linked polymers, carbon black, dispersing oil, sulphur, synthetic fibres, pigments, processing chemicals, and steel or fibreglass. Tyre manufacturers use a variety of formulation recipes when producing tyres. Nonetheless, Table 1 lists the typical tyre composition of a standard passenger car tyre. A car tyre weighs

Phosgene, a highly reactive gas produced in a fire, has a suffocating odour similar to mouldy hay about 9 kg, with a diameter ranging from 45-75 cm. In addition to rubber, a tyre contains some steel in the bead and some rayon or steel in the belt. An average tyre is produced from about 11.25 litres of petroleum, making it a good source of heat energy. Shredded or chipped tyres, without their steel belts, have an energy content ranging from 30 000 to 33 000 Btu per kg. Coal has an energy content of 17 000 to 26 000 Btu per kg. References Sax, N.I., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1984). Kaplan, H. L., et al, Combustion Gases in Postcrash Aircraft Fires (DOT/FAA/CT-84/16), Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City (1984).

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

TOXIC GASES

It’s a gas Timely logistics is crucial to meeting project deadlines.

ABOVE: SAFETY FIRST Extreme care must be taken in the transporting of any gas used in welding

36

A

n excellent case study in the importance of logistics, across a wide range of products and services, was the two-year run-up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup™. This internationally acclaimed event was preceded by a huge drive to develop the necessary infrastructure, on time and to a set of fixed dates. Given the deadlines, demand over this period surged. Afrox, a supplier of welding gases, argon and oxygen, realised that it

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

would need to increase its distribution capacity in the short term. However, this would have needed a capital investment that could not be justified in the longer term. The alternative was to identify and use a distribution partner capable of handling the surge in demand, and with the ability to do so safely. At the time, Cargo Carriers was awarded 50% of Afrox’s outsourced distribution contract. The company was able to cope with the increased distribution volumes while consistently meeting the highest safety, health, environment and quality (SHEQ) standards. Advanced logistics software and in-depth training for drivers contributed to its success. Since then, the value of the contract has risen by 35%, with the addition of six vehicles to the fleet. “We took the decision to raise our SHEQ standards over 10 years ago,” says André van Vuuren, marketing director of Cargo Carriers. “It’s no exaggeration that today our ability to compete in the gas industry depends not only on the competitive rates and high service levels which we’ve delivered on for the last year, but also on operating at the absolute highest levels of SHEQ we can achieve.” “An important factor in our relationship is Cargo Carriers’ ability to communicate seamlessly with the Afrox scheduling centre,” adds André Steenkamp, national distribution manager for Afrox. “This high level of communication is critical to our ability to maintain our high service levels with our clients.”


TRANSPORT ENGINEERING

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

funded by the Lesotho government, began in April 2009 and was completed late last year. The Mohlapiso Bridge, which is 150 meters long with three piers reaching a height of 15 meters, was designed by Aurecon Lesotho. ‘’This development does not only facilitate movement across the Senqu River, but has also reduced travelling time to the Qacha’s Nek town,� Dr Pakalitha Mosisili, Lesotho’s prime minister, says, adding that it has also opened opportunities for other forms of economic activities for communities. He adds that it is the government’s intention to build as many bridges and roads as possible to alleviate rural communities’ plight, however noting that the topography poses a challenge as such constructions become costly hence appealed to all to protect developments made in their areas.

Road to the future

LEFT The Mohlapiso Bridge is yet one more stepping stone in opening up Lesotho’s remote areas

Without infrastructure development there can be no economic development.

T

he official opening of the new Mohlapiso Bridge, complimented by a new five kilometre stretch of road, ushered in a whole new future with all sorts of possibilities, for the people living along the Senqu River in Lesotho. Construction of the R120 million project, which was

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

37

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Expertise: Airports Freight, logistics & infrastructure Rural transport Urban transport


TRANSPORT ENGINEERING

COMMON RAIL FUEL INJECTION

Key technology for clean and economical was the first manufacturer of large diesel engines to introduce common rail fuel injection as a standard feature.

Pioneer of the common rail fuel injection system The emissions regulations for diesel engines in applications such as ships, trains and heavy-duty off-road vehicles and gensets worldwide are becoming more stringent, and make extensive modifications to the power units necessary. At the same time, customers are constantly calling for more economical engines. Exhaust after treatment systems such as SCR catalytic converters (selective catalytic reduction) or diesel particulate filters are one way of lowering emissions, but also have a greater space requirement and potentially increase the engine’s maintenance needs. For these reasons, MTU primarily pursues a policy of reducing emissions by internal engine enhancements. By Dr Johannes Kech, Dr Michael Willmann, Dr Philippe Gorse and Dr Manuel Boog, MTU Fuel combustion inside the engine is improved so that, if at all possible, emissions are not produced in the ith common rail fuel injection, the combusfirst place. If necessary, MTU introduces a second phase tion process can be optimised to achieve of emission control, whereby remaining harmful emissions low pollutant levels, combined with lower are removed by exhaust after treatment systems. fuel consumption. Fuel is injected into the As part of the internal engine enhancements, one of the combustion chamber from a common rail under high presmajor means of control for obtaining clean fuel combussure. The electronic control system ensures that the start tion, besides exhaust gas recirculation, is the fuel injection of injection, the quantity and time are independent of the system. It is designed to inject the fuel at high pressure at engine speed. In 1996, with the Series 4000 engine, MTU precisely the right moment, while also accurately metering

The emissions regulations for diesel engines in applications such as ships, trains and heavy-duty off-road vehicles and gensets worldwide are becoming more stringent.

W

FIGURE 2 Fuel flow and injection sequence for multiphase injection

FIGURE 1 Common rail system for Series 4000

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TRANSPORT ENGINEERING

combustion the quantity of fuel injected in order to create the conditions required for low-emission combustion inside the cylinder. With precise control of fuel volume delivery at high pressure, fuel consumption can also be dramatically reduced. This is the reason why MTU implemented a technology change from the conventional mechanical injection system to the flexible, electronically controlled common rail system at a very early stage — at the time, mainly with a view to producing more economical engines. In 1996, MTU equipped the Series 4000, the first large diesel engine, with a common rail system as a standard feature. A common fuel pipeline — the so-called rail that gives the system its name — supplies all of the engine’s fuel injectors with fuel. When fuel is to be injected into a cylinder, the system opens the nozzle of the relevant injector and the fuel flows from the rail into the combustion chamber. It is atomised by the high pressure in the process, and mixes with the air. The common rail system components have to be extremely precisely and flexibly controlled. For this purpose, MTU uses its ECU (Engine Control Unit, see Figure 1), a proprietary engine-management system that was developed in-house. Due to the increasingly stringent emissions standards for engines of all power classes and all types of application, MTU in future will be fitting all newly developed engines with common rail fuel injection.

Lower emissions due to combination with other key technologies With combustion optimisation by internal engine design features, there is a three-way interaction between nitrogen-oxide formation, the production of soot particulates and fuel consumption: the more intensive the combustion and thus the energy conversion, the lower the particulate emissions and consumption, and the higher the nitrogen-oxide emissions.

Conversely, retarded combustion leads to lower nitrogenoxide formation, but also to higher fuel consumption and particulate emission levels. The job of the engine developers is to find a compromise between these extremes for every point on the engine performance map. When doing so, they must harmonise the effect of the fuel-injection system with that of other internal engine measures, such as exhaust gas recirculation, which primarily reduces nitrogen-oxide emissions, and external exhaust after treatment systems. As a pioneer in this field, MTU can draw from many years of experience with fuel-injection systems produced by Tognum’s subsidiary company, L’Orange, and other suppliers. The company has acquired comprehensive expertise in the integration of the common rail fuel injection system into the engine. This has enabled it to fully utilise the potential of the fuel-injection system, in combination with other key technologies, for refining the combustion process. The two key parameters in fuel injection that affect fuel consumption and emissions are injection rate and injection pressure. Injection rate: pre-injection, main injection and post-injection. The injection rate determines when and how much fuel is injected into the cylinder. In order to reduce emissions and fuel consumption, the present evolution stage of the injection system for MTU engines divides the fuel-injection sequence into as many as three separate phases (see Figure 2). The timing of the start of injection, the duration and amplitude are user-defined in accordance with the engine performance map. The main injection phase supplies the fuel for generating the engine’s power output. A pre-injection phase initiates advance combustion to provide controlled combustion of the fuel in the main injection phase. This reduces nitrogen-oxide emissions, because the abrupt combustion prevents high peak temperatures. A post-injection phase shortly after the main injection phase reduces particulate emissions. It improves the

Customers are constantly calling for more economical engines

FIGURE 3 Change in injection pressures since 1996 for Series 4000 engines

FIGURE 4 Injector with integrated fuel reservoir

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TRANSPORT ENGINEERING mixing of fuel and air during a late phase of combustion to increase temperatures in the combustion chamber, which promotes soot oxidation. Depending on the engine’s operating point, the main injection phase can be supplemented as required by including pre-injection and/or post-injection phases. Injection pressure: peak pressures of up to 2 200 bar. Injection pressure has a significant influence on particulate emission levels. The higher the injection pressure, the better the fuel atomises during injection and mixes with the oxygen in the cylinder. This results in a virtually complete combustion of the fuel with high-energy conversion, during which only minimal amounts of particulates are formed. For this reason, MTU has continually raised the maximum injection pressure of its common rail systems from 1 400 bar in the case of the Series 4000 engine in 1996 to the present 2 200 bar for the Series 1600, 2000 and 4000 engines (see Figure 3). In the case of the Series 8000 engine, it is 1 800 bar. For future engine generations, MTU is planning injection pressures of up to 2 500 bar. MTU has also improved the system’s durability and ease of maintenance. A filter concept designed to meet the requirements has further improved the injection system’s ability to cope with particle contamination in the fuel. In future, injector servicing intervals will be extended with the aid of electronic diagnostics. Solo system: injectors with their own fuel reservoir. Because of its performance capabilities, the common rail injection system has established itself as standard equipment on car diesel engines over the last few years. The version of the system as described is also well suited to use in small-capacity industrial engines. In the case of engines with larger cylinder capacities, however, the conventional common rail system is now revealing its limitations, since it requires a relatively large quantity of fuel to be injected into the cylinder for each ignition stroke. This produces pressure pulsations in the common rail system’s fuel reservoir that can interfere with the subsequent injection sequences. Since 2000, MTU has used an advanced version of the common rail system for the Series 4000 and 8000 engines, and since 2004 for the Series 2000 as well, in which the fuel injectors have an integrated fuel reservoir (see Figure 4). This permits the fuel lines between the injectors and the common rail to have a relatively small cross-section. During an injection sequence, all that happens is that the pressure in the injector’s own fuel reservoir drops slightly. This prevents pressure fluctuations in the common rail system and, therefore, a momentary undersupply or oversupply of fuel to the injectors.

Tailored solutions for flexible use of fuel With the higher technical performance levels of the injection systems, the demands placed on the fuel in terms of purity and quality also rise. Thus the fuel must comply with predefined values for viscosity and lubricity, as components of the high-pressure pumps and injectors are lubricated by the fuel. It must also be free of any contamination that would lead to abrasive damage at the high pressures employed. To

ensure that the engine operates correctly, therefore, only diesel fuel that is approved for the application in question and meets the applicable standard may be used. At the customer’s request, MTU carries out analyses for specific application-related approval of other fuels, in close cooperation with the Tognum subsidiary, L’Orange, or alternative suppliers. With some applications, for example, a lack of lubricating properties on the part of the fuel can be compensated for by special coatings on the injection system. In addition, MTU assists customers in designing the onsite

Comparison of injector sizes Comparison of injector sizes for engines with different cylinder capacities, including injectors for the current MTU Series 1600, 2000, 4000 and 8000 engines. (light grey: non-MTU engines)

tank and fuel system. This is of great interest for mining vehicles, for instance, that are subjected to high levels of dust exposure.

Summary MTU continually develops its engines to ensure that they will meet the tough future emissions standards, while at the same time consuming as little fuel as possible. To this end, MTU optimises fuel combustion in the cylinder by means of its electronically controlled common rail fuel injection system, in combination with other technologies such as exhaust gas recirculation. By achieving clean and efficient combustion, the expense of exhaust after treatment systems can be minimised and, in some cases, eliminated altogether. MTU has used common rail systems successfully since 1996, and has continually advanced the technology in collaboration with L’Orange and other suppliers. Due to its extensive expertise in common rail injection systems, the company is able to optimally exploit the potential of the technology in order to make engines extremely economical and clean.

The fuel must comply with predefined values for viscosity and lubricity

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Mobile money Late last year the eThekwini Municipality unveiled the “Muvo” smartcard for cashless transit payments. TWA takes a look at this innovative commuter payment system.

W Durban’s mayor, the Honourable James Nxumalo

A People Mover Bus

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ith the introduction of a large-scale cashless transit tariff system, the City of Durban has stepped into the future. The “Muvo” card, a reloadable prepaid smartcard, is set to redefine the way commuters pay for their bus fares, and, in the near future, their train fares. Perhaps even their taxi fares. Launched by Durban’s mayor, James Nxumalo, at the Moses Mabhida stadium, the Muvo card is currently being rolled out to the city’s bus commuters. This is the first phase of eThekwini’s journey towards implementing its Integrated Rapid Public Transport Network (IRPTN), as legislated by the national Department of Transport (NDoT), and is intended to make eThekwini Africa’s most liveable and caring city by the year 2020. The Muvo card was developed in partnership with the NDoT, transport IT specialist Almex and Standard Bank’s payment innovation unit Beyond Payments. Beyond Payments developed and supplied the “TAP & GO™” smartcards and ensured they comply with MasterCard certification standards. Almex provided the ticket machines and scanning devices aboard the buses and at the self-service kiosks where credit can be loaded onto the smartcards. In addition to using the Muvo card,

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which functions as an ‘electronic wallet’, on public buses, commuters will also be able to use the smartcard at retail outlets to buy groceries and other goods and services.

Pilot project The Muvo card will be piloted on the People Mover buses for six weeks starting in April this year. During this time, the 23 People Mover buses will be kitted out with electronic ticketing devices and the “tap and go” cards will be issued to commuters. It will be possible to buy the cards and load them with money at ticket-selling kiosks along Durban’s inner city bus route. Once cash has been loaded onto the Muvo card, the commuter will pay for their bus trip by tapping their card against the electronic ticketing device installed on the bus. Following the pilot phase on People Mover, the Muvo card will be rolled out to all other Durban Transport buses from around April 2012, reaching commuters in


PUBLIC TRANSPORT

TAP & GO™ Next generation payment technology To use your Muvo smartcard, just tap the card on the reader at check in or check out. When you see the green light and hear the beep, your payment has been accepted. That’s it! You’re ready to go! How it works A tiny microchip and radio antenna embedded in your TAP & GO™ enabled Muvo smartcard trans mits your payment details wire lessly to a high-speed reader at check in or check out. The reader verifies your transaction, almost instantaneously, with your bank through MasterCard’s communications network to obtain approval confirmation. Multiple security safeguards The latest in encryption technology and MasterCard’s “zero liability” protection on your prepaid Muvo smartcard make using the Muvo card easy, safe and convenient. And, Muvo has built-in safeguards to help prevent unwanted purchases: • it never leaves your hand at checkout • it must be extremely close to the reader to work • it on only bills you once – even if you tap twice by mistake. mist Encryption is just one of Encr any security technologies m s MasterCard uses to help Mast prevent preve and detect fraud. Muvo is peace of mind.

Durban’s People Mover Bus route Umlazi, Ntuzuma, Kwamashu and Rossburgh. The eThekwini Transport Authority’s (ETA) will embark on an extensive publicity campaign, by engaging with passengers at bus terminals, ticket offices, shopping centres and other public areas to educate commuters about how the the Muvo card works. Muvo brand ambassadors will be at these areas handing out pamphlets and teaching commuters how and where to buy, load and use their cards. The brand name, identity and design of the new smartcard, reflects the ETA dynamic vision as well as the energyy and excitement of a vibrant city on the move. ETA engaged with passengers on the buses to get theirr views with regards to the brand name and the Muvo name e received a very favourable response. With convenience a defining feature of the Muvo card, the e ETA will be adding to existing ticket offices and increasing the e number of mobile ticket selling vehicles to make it easier for commuters to buy their Muvo cards. Passengers will also be able to buy and top up their Muvo cards at Sizakala centres around the city and, in future this facility will also be available from selected retailers. Pensioners, people with disabilities and scholars will also be catered for with the new system through a

concession card programme that will follow a simple and convenient application process. Commenting on the implementation of the card, Thami Manyathi, head of the ETA, said: “Durban joins a number of other cities around the world that are using automatic fare payment systems, such as Curitiba, Singapore and Bogota. We are proud to see our city ranking among major cities around the world in this initiative.”

“ nnovating the future is a critical success factor for every business” Herman Singh, CEO, Beyond Payments

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TAP AND GO! Forget the frustration of fumbling for fare.

Now your customers can Tap and Go in 3 easy steps!

1 Get the card & load it with money.

2 Tap the machine to pay.

A new ticketing system from Almex and Beyond Payments, a division of Standard Bank, allows commuters to pay for their bus, taxi or train tickets by simply tapping their EMV smartcard on a scanner– no cash needed! EMV smartcards are sold at self-service kiosks and can also be used at shops to pay for goods and services. Super fast, safe and secure, you can get on with keeping your passengers happy while we take care of payments. For more about our turnkey ticketing payment solution, call Mike Hughes on +27 11 489 3300

3 Be on your way.


RAIL FREIGHT

TRANSNET

Does Transnet really want to run a railway? An efficiently run railway system is an asset, contributing to the economy and the reduction of climate-changing emissions. Given this perspective, John Batwell looks at Transnet.

A

s a state freight logistics company, does Transnet’s rail division, Transnet Freight Rail (TFR), really want to run a railway system? On the surface, it enjoys having all of its money-making eggs in the basket of bulk coal and iron-ore movement, which is its core business, but that comprises a mere 1 400 km of railway, and these export products have to move by rail economically! What has happened to the general freight business, which is overtly riding South Africa’s national road system into the ground instead of riding on the rails? It is not even a question of road versus rail as much as what ideally should be on rail, and how infrastructure systems could be designed to make the best use of each – developing ”a package-deal” mentality. Running an effective railway system is a lot more than the “bells and whistles” of bringing in new technology. Late last year, Transnet CEO, Brian Molefe was quoted in the media as saying that the company had brought forward into the next two years capital expenditure (capex) worth R6.1 billion that was previously earmarked for the tail end of its five-year rolling budget, in a bid to improve not only its rail, but also port efficiencies. The accelerated portion included R3.6 billion in the procurement of 95 electric locomotives and 43 diesel units. During the current financial year which ends on 31 March, Transnet Freight Rail expects to take delivery of 86 new locomotives and 1 509 new wagons.

Planned expenditure A total of 196 locomotives would be introduced in 2013 and 106 in 2014. But will new technology and “catch-up” in this area alone be enough? There has to be a will to run a railway – that does not come from a textbook or a computer model. There is a need to win the hearts and minds of people, and to capitalise on the latent goodwill for railways that exists not only within the organisation’s own people, but among the general public. The human spirit can be a powerful force for good in revitalising the railway, but obviously the revival cannot be based only on emotional factors. There is a need for sound economic analysis, although social factors, which are usually difficult to quantify, need to be given more emphasis than before. Unfortunately, there tends to be too much thumbsucking and fudging, and a gung-ho disposition at present. The government says that increased employment is at the forefront of its growth plan. That being so, government should focus on spending in areas that catalyse other business growth and attract funding to promote job creation. The railway has the opportunity to help achieve such an objective. Dr Vaughan Mostert of the University of Johannesburg’s Transport & Supply Chain Management Faculty wishes that government would seek university intervention, and ask intellectuals and academics their thoughts. Academics could certainly provide some useful leadership. Mostert has his thoughts on a model for building up rail

FORGOTTEN Assets going to waste

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RAIL FREIGHT traffic volumes. He believes that the transport of fuel should be mandatory, as it facilitates a daily or very regular service on the rail lines. The costing of fuel movements could then be used to subsidise other traffic potential, such as maize and containers.

Getting the basics right Trains could be run as a mixed complement, whereby the conveyance of passengers could lead to a complementary taxi service at different stations. But for symbiotic intermodal relationships to be effective, the train service must be reliable, run to time and be constantly efficient. Such train services could lead, in small steps, to picking up the bullets of other business en route. Transnet would need to start with a network of guaranteed trains, and develop both a human and technical-cumeconomic ”culture” of ensuring these trains happen. There needs to be government input on this ”culture”, and private

Concessioning has its limitations. Taking over lines voetstoets carries huge overheads

companies should be brought in to help launch it – the likes of DHL, Imperial, Grindrod and Sheltam, for instance. Mostert goes on to say that unless this small, cooperative start is made, it will remain cheap banter. There is financial outlay to get things back on rail, owing to lost business, a negative customer mind-set, and vandalism of track and station buildings, but the country needs to protect and maintain the presence of a railway. Over a distance greater than 500 km, rail transport becomes more economical than road for general freight, and as a huge percentage of the local rail system is electrified, increased movement of traffic by rail would reduce the economy’s reliance on liquid fuels and oil imports.

Combating climate change In terms of COP17, railways must be revived. Increased use of rail will contribute to cutting emissions, help the state meet its environmental goals, and qualify such infrastructure projects

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TWA | Feb Mar 2012

for foreign funding established to offset global emissions. The current imbalance in modes of transport is alarming – 87% of the country’s freight is reportedly conveyed by the road freight sector. But a rail renaissance could be supported by an increase in the fuel levy pushed in the railways’ direction. Mini-containers also need to be revived, with daily services to container depots, which were once a busy hub on Gauteng’s lines. It is gratifying to know that TFR is looking to raise the proportion of new automobiles transported by rail from 30% at the moment to 45% within three years. Stations need to be resurrected and become user-friendly business hubs. The French system, SNCF, has seen the light in this context. In the quest to redefine the modal interface and make rail a more accessible option, French National Railways is reinventing its stations as multimodal hubs, while also ensuring that they are living spaces integrated into the communities they serve. The transformation of major stations that were often little more than down-at-heel, uninviting points of arrival and departure into profit centres has been one of the defining railway trends of the last 20 years. Today many of these stations are destinations in themselves, and attractive spaces in which to linger. But there is much more to this renaissance than simply refurbishing neglected stations and expanding retail space. In a survey of 5 000 people by French National Railways’ Stations & Connections subsidiary, respondents stated that they regarded stations as public spaces, mixed-use sites where retail must be balanced with other services – an interesting thought on the home front, where stations have now been abandoned and become derelict.

Branch-line concessions Transnet’s objective of introducing private-sector participation by offering secondary and branch lines – 3 928 km of the latter are still operational – for concessioning has its limitations. To begin with, the concessionaire is landed with taking over lines “voetstoets”, with the huge overheads of trying to put things back in place from an infrastructural standpoint before even starting to run any sort of attractive service. The other problem is that many a customer will not want his consignment to be stuck for days at the junction with a Transnet Freight Rail line, awaiting clearance, but rather conveyed by the concessionaire in a seamless point-A-toB movement. It is unlikely that Transnet will entertain other operators on its system – an open-access modus operandi (as has occurred in Europe, for example) to ensure such seamless, uninterrupted delivery. The concessioning concept is going to require considerable think-tanking and planning if it is to attempt to improve rail usage and efficacy in South Africa. The concept does not have a good track record, with the Department of Transport’s (DoT) pioneering endeavour in the Eastern Cape, the resuscitation of a rail service to and from Mthatha. Money ran out


RAIL FREIGHT on the Kei Rail initiative, and the service has since hiccupped and coughed its way along, not only adversely affecting the customer base, but also the supporting entrepreneurial business that grew up around this resurrected service. The Alfred County Railway (ACR) in KwaZulu-Natal was an early endeavour at operating a private railway in this country, but with no government support and legislation in place to ensure it secured relevant market share, the road transporters buried it. In retrospect, a great idea of moving timber by narrow-gauge rail was perhaps just too “before the time” in terms of government’s desire to embrace private-sector partnership schemes. Looking back 24 years at a few of the branch routes in 1988, the Port Elizabeth-Avontuur section conveyed 542 608 tonnes of cargo, Pietermaritzburg-Kokstad 513 788, AmabeleMthatha 492 888, Pietermaritzburg-Kranskop 467 318 and Kaapmuiden-Barberton 435 066. Clearly, cargo was moved by rail back then, and could be done so again.

Last but not least Pierre Heistein, who teaches economics at the University of Cape Town, sums it up well: there is no doubt that an efficient and reliable, interconnected system can meet the need for speed, reliability and punctuality at a lower economic, environmental and social cost. However, South Africa’s rail

industry needs to secure the skills, address the crime as it impacts on rail routes, upgrade its signalling and associated technologies, and develop a committed heart and mind disposition towards wanting to make the railways work effectively and symbiotically smart, in line with other modes of transport.

RUSTY This line hasn’t been used in a while

Motivated, determined and capable South Africa, as a business, needs to earn foreign currency. The private and public sectors need to work together. Fortunately we have a good example.

F

or decades South Africa has mined and exported its natural resources to the United States of America, Europe and the Far East, countries which had the foresight to develop their manufacturing industries and grow their economies – while South Africa was relegated to buying back products produced from its own natural resources, struggling on as a developing nation. Fortunately, the voices of the last 25-odd years, crying out to beneficiate our natural resources, are finally being heard. There is a growing realisation that, if we wish to eradicate poverty, we need to develop our manufacturing industry so we can produce products for the international market, instead of the other way around. And as probability will have it, there will always be islands of excellence, such as the few South African companies that develop their abilities and demonstrate their capabilities by producing world-class products. One such company is DCD-Dorbyl which, along with contributions from its subcontractors Macsteel, DLM, Scaw Metals, Swasap and Tank Clinic, has designed, manufactured, tested and commissioned a number of specialised pressurised rail tank cars, part of an order of 95 new units placed by Sasol Solvents, another South African company that produces fuel and a range of chemicals – from coal.

In this instance, the rail tank cars will be used to transport Sasol’s α-olefins compounds 1-hexene, 1-pentene and 1-octene to Richards Bay for export. These chemicals are used as comonomers in the production of linear lowdensity polyethylene (LLDPE), a widely used plastic with many end-uses and benefits. Changing technologies in the manufacture of polyethylene have yielded a new generation of catalysts and processes, boosting demand for highpurity α-olefins comonomers. Also for export is Safol 23, a chemical used in the manufacture of detergents/cleaners, personal-care products, industrial acids and lubricants. Executive director, Carl Rehder, says he is proud of his team, which tackled this challenging fast-track project with immense commitment, enthusiasm and professionalism.

The first of 95 rail cars off the assembly line

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

47


SEA FREIGHT

SUPPORT SERVICES

Ship repair and refitting The increase in maritime traffic around the southern tip of Africa has increased the demand for ship repairs and refitting. TWA looks at South Africa’s capability. By Tony Stone

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outh African ports are strategically placed along one of the world’s most important shipping routes. And out of necessity, the ports are ever changing to accommodate the growing needs of containerised and break bulk shipping. With a ship’s trading costs ranging between R160 000 and R800 000 per day, dependent on size, the priority of the ship’s owners is to transport cargo from the port of origin to the port of destination without any delays or breakdowns. Any unplanned port entry for repairs and/or refitting, due to any unfortunate incident, hits the bottom line. ships pass the Cape of Good Hope every year. Because of this and the high daily That’s one every two hours. operating costs, safety permitting, ship captains tend to delay repairs and/or refitting to the next planned port of call. South Africa thus needs to have adequate capabilities and facilities to accommodate such emergencies and effect repairs or refitting in as short a time frame as possible. This means that all major ports need to be in a position to accommodate these needs.

4000 +

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TWA | Feb Mar 2012

Capabilities South Africa fortunately does not have a shortage of marine engineers. According to the South African Institute of Marine Engineers & Naval Architects, despite many local marine engineers serving offshore in various parts of the world, overall membership is healthy. The main shipbuilding, repair and refitting companies are Associated Marine Engineers, DCD-Dorbyl Marine, Dormac, Elgin Brown & Hamer and SA Shipyards. Unlike other international shipyards, South Africa does not build large ships. Given that it is a major iron and steel producer, it should look at beneficiation and the possibility of doing so. The South African Navy is certainly behind the idea.

Facilities The only commercial dry docks along South Africa’s coastline capable of taking largish ships are found in Durban and Cape Town. Even so, by international standards, these dry docks are regarded as ‘small’. The largest and oldest dry dock of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere, the Sturrock Dry dock, is located in the Port of Cape Town. It has an overall docking length of 360 m, a bottom length (dock floor) of 350.4 m, a width at the entrance top of 45.1 m, a width at bottom (dock floor)


SEA FREIGHT of a maximum 38.4 m and a depth over the entrance sill (HWOST) of 13.7 m. A docking length of 369.6 m can be obtained by placing the caisson in the emergency stop at the entrance. The dock can be divided into two compartments of either 132.5 m and 216.1 m or 205.7 m and 142.9 m respectively. The second dry dock, the Robinson Graving Dock, has an overall docking length of 161.2 m, a bottom length of 152 m, a width at entrance of 20.7 m and a depth over the entrance sill (HWOST) of 7.9 m. Two cranes provided. A repair quay, with its 475 m length and allowable draft of 12 m is equipped with two cranes, one of 15 t and the other of 4 t. A synchrolift is also available. It has a lifting capacity of 1 778 t, a maximum vessel length of 61 m and a maximum vessel width of 15 m. Durban is South Africa’s busiest port. The Prince Edward Graving Dock can be separated into two separate compartments, one of 206.9 m and the other 138.7 m. The dock can be emptied in four hours and has five electric cranes ranging from 10 t to 50 t. The width at entrance top is 33.52 m and the width at coping is 42.21 m. The depth at entrance (mean high water springs (MHWS)) is 12.56 m and the depth on the inner sill (MHWS) is 13.17 m. The floating dock has an overall length of 100 m and its length on keel blocks is 95 m. It has an overall width of 21.6 m and a width at entrance of 22 m. The height on keel blocks is 1.4 m and the draft on keel blocks at MHWS is 6 m. The floating dock has a lifting capacity of 4 500 t. It has two five tonne electric cranes capable of traversing the dock’s full length on the port and starboard sides. South Africa’s commercial dry dock facilities are owned and managed by Transnet National Ports Authority (TNPA). There is a third dry dock. However, it is located in Simon’s Town’s naval base. It has a maximum length capacity of 220 m with a maximum width of 28.9 m. Its syncrolift has a lifting capacity of 1 880 t.

land lease agreements, which have now been resolved. Sadly, the stop/go/stop approval process for the planned R3.5-billion ship repair facility in Richards Bay is set to continue. Ronnie Bevan of Sturrock Shipping in Richards Bay, advises that a decision has been taken by the TNPA to put the project on hold as expansion plans to accom-

South Africa has some of the roughest seas. Weather damage and collisions occur, either underway or at anchor

Looking to the future The port of Durban is constrained for space. With container traffic growing at 22% per annum, discussions have suggested moving ship repair activities to Richards Bay. However, there have been many obstacles including

modate increased coal exports at Richards Bay must take precedence. This decision, in some quarters, is regarded as an error of judgement. As Chris Sparg, MD of Dormac, explains, “Ships require scheduled dry-docking and need to be fully offloaded to dry-dock. As it is ideal to dry-dock in a port where the ship is fully offloaded, Durban is opportune for container ships, but so are other ports on the route. Ship owners should not be inconveniently bound to one port but rather have options open to them. This is critical as we compete internationally.” South Africa has some of the roughest seas. Weather damage and collisions occur, either underway or at anchor.

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT Africa Mercy in Durban’s dry dock (top left, top right) The Robinson dry dock, Cape Town The Sturrock dry dock, Cape Town Simonstown’s dry dock

TWA | Feb Mar 2012

49


AIR FREIGHT

IATA

What goes down goes up again Following on from the crash of 2009, last year was a particularly frustrating year financially. But it’s not how you fall, but how you get up again, that matters. By IATA Economics

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n its closing report for 2011, IATA showed a year-onyear contraction of 0.8% across the board in international freight for December 2011. However, it also reported an increase of 1.5% over the previous month. The major airfreight region, Asia/Pacific, had the strongest growth, at 2.2% month-on-month. The Middle East market continues to experience strong demand, and North America, despite contracting over the year, managed to expand 6.5% in December compared to November. Africa, on the other hand, continued to decline, with a negative growth of 1.8%. Nonetheless, freight markets have shown an overall growth for two consecutive months. Business confidence, which serves as a leading indicator for changes in cargo markets, entered expansion territory in December. Business confidence indicators for China, France and Germany also show positive signs for manufacturing activity. Furthermore, indicators of export orders showed strong growth in December. In total, these could all be signs of the freight downturn bottoming out, with potential for growth in the coming months. Nevertheless, risks from European financial and economic downturn do remain a possibility, and they could suppress any potential upward momentum in cargo traffic.

Growing Africa

For Africa, particularly, where passenger load factors managed to hold up to levels of the previous year, 2011 saw freight load factors decline. For freight, it has been difficult maintaining load factors, despite measures to reduce the cargo fleet, as traffic has fallen away considerably, and additional capacity has entered through the passenger aircraft fleet – so losses, due to low load factors, have been the result.

GRAPH 1 International Freight Market. Source IATA

E

mirates has announced that it has extended its reach into Africa with the launch of a new linked service to Lusaka and Harare, which means Zambia and Zimbabwe are now linked to key markets across Europe, the Far East, Australasia and the Indian subcontinent. The Dubai-Lusaka-Harare service operates every Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday using an A330-200 aircraft in a three-class configuration. “Zambia and Zimbabwe are both important emerging business and industrial centres, with economies that are projected to grow by over 5% annually during the coming years,” says Nabil Sultan, divisional senior vice-president for Revenue Optimisation & Distribution. “Emirates’ new service will play a significant role in supporting this growth by connecting Lusaka and Harare to our worldwide network, opening new conduits for trade, investment and tourism.”

TWA | Feb Ma Marr 2012 20 12

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TAIL END

ED’S OPINION

The scourge of SA’s roads Tony Stone

Flagrant law-breaking by minibus taxi drivers will thrust the community back into a state of anarchy. Can we afford this?

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ike many South African road users I am not too fond of minibus taxi drivers, especially since one, in flagrant disobedience of our road traffic laws, drove into my rear end. Of course he was not insured, which is the case with as many as 60% of registered vehicles in South Africa. Paying the R4 000 excess on my insurance, without any hope of recovering that money, was a bitter pill to swallow. Until this happened I was relatively tolerant of minibus taxi drivers who drive in the emergency

I was gob smacked. Having no reason to doubt the officer concerned, my disgust deepened. Talk about a conflict of interest! No wonder these miscreant taxi drivers get away with breaking the law as they do. In civilised democracies this would never be tolerated. Even in China it is not allowed. But where does this come from? And why is it allowed to continue? Well, we can blame it on two things - greed and apartheid. But let me be quick to say that the latter should not be used as an excuse. The culture of civil disobedience, which became entrenched while the fight against apartheid was on, has never been adjusted, or should I say, reproMinibus taxi fatalities equate to 23.8 deaths per 10 000 vehicles. grammed by anyone Car accidents equate to 12.3 deaths since 1994. Its continuper 10 000 vehicles, half the rate for ance is simply a clear minibus taxis. failure of leadership at the political level. As to greed, a typical Alexander township taxi fleet owner demands R1 000 per day from each of his taxis. Thereafter the driver is at liberty to earn what he likes from the free (excluding petrol) use of the taxi. This explains why the taxi drivers are always in an all-fired rush, which result lane and push in up front, or push in by driving between the in them breaking the law. solid white line and the island. But when it hit my back pocket Loading 30 people into a long-distance taxi is criminal and I was deeply angered, especially when the taxi driver, thinking should be treated as such. One taxi was involved in a horthat I did not understand what he was saying, hurled racist rific accident that claimed 30 lives, including ten children, in abuse at me when I took him to task. So, I decided to do Harrismith on 11 December 2011. Having lost control of the something about it. overloaded taxi, he ploughed head on into a truck. This inciThe first thing was to become more aware of the taxi drivdent is just one of a number of fatal accidents involving taxis. ers’ transgressions, in terms of commonly understood South Taxi drivers who break the law and as a consequence cause African road traffic laws. As I started to count the infringethe death of any person in an accident should be prosecuted ments I became increasingly horrified and disgusted. The for murder – as has happened in Cape Town. Furthermore, if extent of their civil disobedience and constant law breaking, they are not insured, the taxi drivers should be tried in a court almost borders on crass lawlessness, if not anarchy, is simply of law and jailed if they cannot pay for the damages. not acceptable. South African National Taxi Council (Santaco’s) secretary The second step, motivated by a particular incident that general, Philip Taaibosch, in visiting the Harrismith accident I witnessed, was to go and talk to the Johannesburg scene, said, “If anyone is found to have broken the law, we as Metropolitan Police Department (JMPD). This I did and ended Santaco and the taxi industry as a whole, will not be able to up speaking to an officer in the internal complaints directoprotect that person. We will not allow that kind of lawlessness rate (ICD). I was informed that there was very little that I could within the industry.” Sadly, they do allow it. Herein is the rub. do as “a number of senior traffic officers owned taxi fleets.” As a supposedly controlling body, Santaco is incompetent.

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23.8 deaths

Index to advertisers African Roads 2012 Aurecon Beyond Payments Cargo Carriers Cargo Services South Africa Concargo Emirates Skycargo Hino

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TWA | Feb Mar 2012

18 37 44 36 30 32 50 IFC

Imperial Logistics MAN Trucks & Bus Mercedes-Benz Freightliner Mercedes-Benz Fuso Mercedes-Benz SA MTU South Africa NC2 Trucks Southern Africa SAPICS

10 & 11 12 14 16 OFC 40 OBC IBC

Scania

8&9

SDV South Africa

28

Strategic Infrastructure Development

26

Truckers Forum 2012

31

UD Trucks Southern Africa

20

Volvo Southern Africa

22


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Transport World Africa Feb/Mar 2012