Page 1

Vol 13, No 4, November 2011

Promotin g in teg rated res ou rces man age m e nt

The road to COP 17 Exclusive

88 000 waste pickers in SA

interview with KPMG’s Neil Morris

The reclamation stream going forward

Sugar cane in tyre production

Plant and equipment Bigger is better

Sweet news indeed!


Can the waste industry adapt? P6

The official journal of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

is printed on 100% recycled paper ISSN 1680-4902 R35.00 (incl VAT)

contents ISSN 1680-4902, Volume 13, Number4, November 2011

The RéSource team stands firmly behind environmental preservation. As such, RéSource magazine is printed on 100% recycled paper and uses no dyes or varnishes. The magazine is saddlestitched to ensure that no glues are required in the binding process.


Cover story 6

Translift INTERMODAL TRANSPORT – can the waste industry adapt?

19 Solid waste

Air pollution / CDM

8 12


The future of waste pickers in SA Using shredded plastic bags for engineering applications

Recycling 19 22 24 27

The SAPRO Awards Consol’s ‘green’ plant in Nigel Nampak’s multi-million rand glass cullet National Recycling Day highlights

Landfill 28

Is there life beyond CDM?

Waste to energy 35 36

Eskom electricity price path not sustainable Sugar cane in tyre production

50 54

Q&A with KPMG’s Neil Morris on COP 17 Aurecon’s Green Star building Water and energy nexus

Wastewater management 56

Groundwater modelling: examples from Cape Town

Plant & equipment 61 62 63 65 67 68

Design, manufacture and repair specialists A 360 degree waste focus Radio network for Gautrain Road sweeper first of its kind The tyre shredding experts A well-rounded approach Environmental equipment for the professional

Medical waste



3 5

Sharps containment system scoops Green Apple Environment Award

Hazardous waste 43

Packaging best practice


President’s comment Editor’s comment

41 RéSource November 2011 – 1

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President's comment

How time flies when you're busy!


t is amazing how time flies when you are busy. It feels like only yesterday when we had WasteCon here in Kempton Park and it was actually a year ago! In this November edition, I wish to take the opportunity to wish all our members a successful conclusion to the year and a safe and happy festive period. In the previous edition in August, I reported back on the developments within the Health Care Waste Forum (HCWF) and the unsuccessful attempt at electing a committee to run forum. In view of this, the IWMSA Council have decided that, for the foreseeable future, the HCWF will be run and administered by head office with members of Council engaging with government in health care waste issues. We are currently engaging with government departments and are happy to report that the Department of Environment Affairs (DEA) have indicated that they are keen to arrange the 2012 Waste Management Officer’s Khoro (for municipalities) in Buffalo City, together with the IWMSA’s WasteCon 2012. This is indeed exciting news for the IWMSA as it means that municipal delegates can attend WasteCon immediately after the Khoro. The planning for WasteCon 2012 is therefore well underway and the first announcement will have been released by the time you read this. We have sent out proposed changes to the Constitution to all our voting members with a view to updating the constitution. I encourage all our members to review

these carefully and make sure that you vote for the amendments so that we can ensure that our Constitution remains relevant to the changing times. Any further proposals or suggestions from our members are also welcome. Please direct these to Gail Smit at head office. A number of our members, both individual and organisational, recently approached the IWMSA to report that a major metro municipality was in the process of considering an unsolicited bid for the takeover of their waste management services by an international company. The members’ concern was that these services could be provided by local South African companies and that a proper procurement process in terms of national legislation and National Treasury rules was not being followed. The IWMSA therefore, on behalf of our members, lodged an objection to this process with the relevant municipality. We await, with interest, the outcome of this process. On another note, and by the time you have read this comment, I will have been to Sardinia and attended the 13th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. This symposium has evolved over a number of years where the symposium focused mainly on landfill issues, alternative technologies, the waste management hierarchy and energy from waste. I will provide a report back on the Sardinia Symposium in the next edition of ReSource.

Stan Jewaskiewitz President IWMSA

Ciao until then!

Patron members of the IWMSA

RéSource November 2011 – 3

Editor's comment Publisher: Elizabeth Shorten Editor: Candice Landie Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600, Creative executive head: Frédérick Danton Chief sub-editor: Cindy Maulgue Sub-editor: Danielle Hugo Production manager: Antois-Leigh Botma Financial manager: Andrew Lobban Marketing: Martin Hiller Subscriptions sales: Nomsa Masina Administrator: Tonya Hebenton Distribution coordinator: Asha Pursotham Printers: United Litho Johannesburg Tel: +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales: Christine Pretorius Tel: +27 (0)11 465 8255

Publisher: MEDIA No.4, 5th Avenue Rivonia, 2191 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Share Call: 086 003 3300 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 Annual subscription: R195.00 (incl VAT) South Africa ISSN 1680-4902 The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 675 3462 E-mail:

All material herein RéSource is copyrightprotected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views and opinions expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher or editor, but those of the author or other contributors under whose name contributions may appear, unless a contributor expresses a viewpoint or opinion in his or her capacity as an elected office bearer of a company, group or association. © Copyright 2011. All rights reserved.

ReSource is endorsed by:


what’s in a word?


t’s official – this is the last edition of RéSource for 2011! And what an exciting year it’s been in the waste industry with the New Waste Act rearing its head just about everywhere – and we suddenly have local government riding the recycling gravy train in an effort to create employment for the informal waste pickers sector. Isn’t this what the private sector has been screaming for years now?! I suppose, regardless of when government decided to sit up and take notice, the good news is that they have and I personally am looking forward to more separation at source initiatives, as well as stricter penalties for those who don’t comply and continue to fill landfill sites with useful, reusable garbage. On the subject of separation at source, the IWMSA hosted a workshop on the future of waste pickers in South Africa, which saw the likes of Simon Mbata of the SA Waste Pickers Association, Leon Grobbelaar of Interwaste, Frans Dekker of Tshwane Municipality and Dr Suzan Oelofse of the CSIR voice their opinion. And, although this topic presented its fair share of pros and cons, the overall message was clear: waste pickers do not belong on landfill sites and the rule of separation at source, from a household level, needs to be enforced. RéSource chatted even further to these workshop participants and readers can find the full story in this issue. With the build up to COP 17 in Durban (December 2011), global warming and climate change have also become the topics of discussion. ion. But, as mainstream media is renowned for sensationalnsationalism, related stories es have largely focused onn the failure of Durban to pull off such a massive ve event. Luckily, RéSourcee has a more sensible editor, moi, and I thought it more appropriate to focus on the serious issues

at hand – the impact of government’s carbon policy on the local economy, the private sector’s role in reducing national carbon emissions and the financial and market mechanisms that can be applied to COP 17. So, don’t miss the Q & A session (inside) with Neil Morris, director of Climate Change and Sustainability Services KPMG, on the subjects of COP 17 and the impact of climate change for South Africa. With regard to sustainability, the trend locally seems to be shifting towards green buildings. Aurecon – the consulting engineers who were instrumental in Nedbank’s Phase II green building in Sandton – have just launched their impressive GreenStar SA rated building in Lynnwood, Pretoria. Featuring innovations such as reduced electricity and water consumption, the harvesting of rainwater and indoor environment quality control, the building encompasses all the elements of sustainability in the workplace. And from green buildings to green factories – Consol’s latest flint glass factory, which the company dubs “a sustainable investment in the future”, is currently under construction in Nigel. Recycling remains a key internal focus in order to minimise Consol’s demand for raw materials andoptimise energy efficiency. The new plant will accept as much recycled glass as it can, which will be used in the production of new glass. Accordingly, the Nigel factory includes a basic cullet processing facility to recycle all waste produced at the site. This edition of RéSource also features snaps from National Recycling Day on Nat 16 and 17 September so, if you were inv involved, be sure to look for your ph photo at the back of the magazine. magazi And, with that, I wish all our And loyal readers, advertisers lo and clients a safe festive season. Enjoy the welldeserved break – I know I will! Candice Landie, editor

RéSource November 2011 – 5

Cover story


The road transport industry in South Africa has been forewarned about the need to reduce the number of heavy vehicles on our roads but...

...can the waste industry adapt to

the growing need for intermodal J

eremy Cronin, deputy minister of transport, Abrie De Swart of IMPERIAL Logistics, and Dr Jan Havenga, head of the Supply Chain Management School at the University of Stellenbosch, among others, delivered presentations on the topic of reducing heavy vehicles on South Africa’s roads at the Transport Forum’s monthly special interest group session in Paarl on 1 September. The large group of attendees from all over the country was an indication of the interest in this topic. The message was clear, the statistics and facts supported it and Transnet has moved forward already by having launched the

first phase (RFI) of a tender process to investigate the options and technologies available for a solution to transfer containers from road to rail and vice versa.

The ACT System The Advanced Container Transport System (ACTS) is another resident concept to be found in the Translift BV stable. Introduced in 1984, it was designed specifically for road/rail interfacing and is now widely used in Europe as well as in parts of the UK, Israel and USA – providing a seamless transfer solution between road and rail for the transportation of bulk containers over long distances. The system basically consists of three elements: • ACTS turntables fitted on suitable flatbed rail wagons • ACTS slide-on frames fitted to existing or new containers • road transport vehicles fitted with Translift ‘chain-lift’ equipment. Together these form the ACT System.

ACTS slide-on frame (fitted to existing or new containers)

6 – RéSource November 2011

Cover story

Any type of container (open, closed or tank) can be transferred horizontally from rail to road or vice versa in less than 60 seconds. Once on the road vehicle, these containers can be transported to their final destinations where they can be stored on the ground or tipped, as required. The need for cranes and rubber wheel trailers to handle and store containers is eliminated. One

ABOVE ACTS turntables on a flatbed rail wagon OPPOSITE PAGE Translift ‘chain-lift’ equipment fitted to a road transporter

waste remain a challenge and the need to containerise waste will probably increase. But are transfer stations the correct way to go? Once again, nobody wants them in their back yards, simply because they attract more traffic, they smell bad, they pollute the area, etc. And they require permitting, which in itself is a long and difficult process. Compaction and re-compaction is expensive. An ideal alternative would be to compact waste once only – during the collection phase – into containers that could then be transported directly to their end destination, meaning no smelly operator/driver does all of the above without having to get out of transfer stations and no expensive re-compaction of waste. the vehicle. The Translift waste collection and transport system was designed to do exactly this. The containers with compacted waste Transfer stations can be transferred very easily to long-haul road vehicles or to rail In the waste industry, the compaction of waste into containers is wagons, while the collection vehicles stay in their collection areas nothing new. We are all aware of the not in my back yard (NIMBY) doing the work they were built for. era that led to more distant disposal facilities and longer transThe aforementioned ACT System makes the transfer of waste port distances, which in turn gave rise to waste transfer stations containers to rail a very simple operation – and a trusted one. The system has “The simplicity, speed and robustness of the system been successfully used for the long-haul are almost unbelievable!” Comment from a South African railage of waste in Europe for decades. Rail is an ideal mode of transportaclient who recently visited an ACTS facility in Europe to view tion, which reduces road congestion the system in action and carbon emissions. With the writing on the wall for long-haul road transport, intermodal transport in South Africa seems to be entering a growth where waste is offloaded and re-compacted into containers for phase. ACTS offers an ideal and very competitive solution for this, the long haul to these facilities. and for challenges within the waste industry. In the meantime, waste to energy is fast becoming a reality, with one option being to incinerate waste to create electricity. Contact Les Penny on t +27(0)12 460 1973 and/or Whether landfilled or incinerated, the transport distances for


RéSource offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a cover story and a cover picture to promote their products and services to an appropriate audience. Please call Christine Pretorius on +27 (0)11 465 6273 to secure your booking. The article does not represent the views of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa, or those of the publisher.

RéSource November 2011 – 7

Solid waste


The future of waste pickers in SA Even the South African Waste Pickers Association believes that waste pickers do not belong on landfill sites, but with no formal regulations in place to prevent otherwise, what will the answer be moving forward?


aste pickers, as they have been dubbed, are individuals who make an independent living reclaiming recyclable waste from the waste stream, predominantly from landfill sites, and selling it on to recycling companies. An estimated 88 000 South Africans currently earn a living in this way. Waste picking offers individuals a means to make a living regardless of their age, level of education or skills set. A basic understanding of what is recyclable is required, but this is gained through working experience. Waste pickers may be perceived by the uninformed as poor, dirty, uneducated and dangerous


Illegal dumping of waste in open areas

8 – RéSource November 2011

individuals, but they are hardworking, fiercely independent, self-motivated people who bring with them a wealth of knowledge about the waste management stream and recyclable products. It is imperative that they be considered and included in future waste management plans and it is encouraging that the waste management industry seems to be doing this. According to Dr Suzan Oelofse, principal researcher: Pollution and Waste at the CSIR, the reason that waste pickers are found on landfill sites is clear. She says that a huge amount of recyclables and reusable waste enters the waste stream

owing to South Africa’s current waste disposal strategies. This waste is valuable and if reclaimed can earn collectors up to R120 per day. In some cases, waste pickers have evolved into entrepreneurs by finding creative ways of reusing waste. “Even though I acknowledge the important role that waste pickers play in waste management in the country, landfills are not the place for anyone to sort waste,” continues Dr Oelofse. “Waste separation at source will reduce the amount of recyclables going to landfill and therefore the income potential of pickers at the landfill. One unintended consequence of waste separation at source is that the pickers

Solid waste

will go to where the recyclables are; they will migrate into the residential areas. It is therefore important that waste pickers are incorporated into the formal recycling system so as not to affect their livelihood. I have also seen literature reports that pickers working in residential areas typically collect less waste on a single day as they have to walk from bin to bin, whereas at the landfill the waste is delivered to them.”

(PACSA). Marthinusen accompanied Mbata on the recent fact-finding trip to Brazil. But waste pickers continue to plague landfill sites in an attempt to make a daily living. Frans Dekker, functional head of Landfill Management Operations for the City of Tshwane, says that although having waste pickers on a landfill site has its cons, it also has its pros for the site operator. “Waste pickers contribute

Pros and cons

Separation of waste at source (household level) is the way forward for the waste industry

“Waste pickers are not fighting for the right to be on landfill sites; they are fighting to be part of the waste management system,” said Simon Mbata, representative of the South African Waste Pickers Association (SAWPA) at a workshop debate hosted by the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA). Having seen first-hand how effectively waste is being managed by informal waste pickers in Brazil recently, Mbata strongly believes that separation of waste at source (household level) is the way forward for the waste industry. “This too is the solution being advocated in the recycling industry’s Waste Management Plan that is currently being developed,” reiterates Andrew Marthinusen of the Packaging Council of South Africa

towards waste reduction on the site and can be extra eyes, if trained, to look out for illegal dumping activities and criminal behaviour,” he adds.“They assist the public with offloading waste and can help out during strikes, as they did recently. However, having waste pickers on a landfill site means more people for the site operator to manage and slower turnaround time on waste processing. The personal safety of the waste pickers themselves is also an ongoing risk. Many sites feel that their public image may be tarnished by the presence of waste

pickers.” He goes on to add that despite the health and safety risks, waste pickers are always going to be on landfills and it is important for landfill sites to cooperate as far as possible. Waste pickers also need to be encouraged to manage themselves via a representative committee, a process that started in the City of Tshwane during 2002.

Reported safety incidents However, the existence of these waste pickers and their prevalence on landfill sites has become an increasing concern for site operators as landfill sites are a dangerous environment and accidents arising on the sites can become the responsibility of the site operators. This is highlighted by Leon Grobbelaar of Interwaste, who says that a site could face serious consequences if something goes wrong. Enviro-Fill, an Interwaste subsidiary, was sued for R5 million by an informal waste picker who was accidentally injured while collecting waste informally on an EnviroFill-operated landfill site. The legal action was instituted in spite of measures being put in place by Enviro-Fill to reduce the risks to the health and safety of the waste pickers. “Recycling should be done before waste reaches the landfill site,” says Grobbelaar. “I don’t believe that a landfill

RéSource November 2011 – 9

Solid waste

site is the right place for the waste pickers to operate.” To reduce future risks, signs of illegal trespassing, as well as daily and weekly meetings with waste pickers, have been implemented at Interwaste, making

There is room for improvement in the working conditions of waste pickers reclaimers aware of the dangers present on a landfill site. “I have personally witnessed a waste reclaimer being covered in waste without the landfill compactor operator being aware of it,” notes Grobbelaar. “He would have killed her by compacting her in among the waste. I know of reclaimers being killed by refuse compactor trucks reversing over them – running them over at the working phase.” It is clear that there is room for improvement in the working conditions of waste pickers and in the way waste is currently being managed, but it is also clear that

the waste management industry is actively tackling this challenge, and while there is still a lot of work to be done and discussions to be had, the outlook is predominately positive. The IWMSA has recognised that the forum for more discussions around these issues is necessary and as such will be planning more workshops in the near future.

“Reclaimers on landfill sites should not be allowed there but this is easier said than done. They add to operating costs, cause major nuisances to the environment by burning tyres for the steel, and from a health perspective, they are exposed to condemned foodstuffs, which is detrimental to their health,” Grobbelaar concludes. RéSource November 2011 – 11

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Solid waste


Use in civil engineering projects By D Kalumba* and MA Petersen**

Millions of tonnes of waste are generated in South Africa. A considerable amount of this is in the form of plastic (polyethylene) shopping bags, most of which are destined for landfill. Can this modern waste and environmental hazard find a new application in civil engineering projects?


or over half a century, the world has become increasingly dependent on the use of plastic bags as a packaging material for nearly every product bought. Highly convenient, strong and inexpensive, plastic bags are appealing to both customers and businesses as a reliable way to deliver goods from the store to the home or office. Unfortunately, as plastic bags were first introduced in the 1950s, they have become a global scourge, littering roadsides, clogging sewers and filling landfills. The durability of these bags is one of the best advantages of their design for humans, but is also its greatest weakness as they severely pollute the

12 – RÊSource November 2011

environment. Although these types of bags have long-design lives, they are normally used once before consumers dump them in the bin. In recent years, there has been much effort put into identifying inexpensive and easily accessible reinforcement materials in the geotechnical field (Floss, 1985; Mandal, 1987; Sarsby, 2007). Waste materials are currently being recognised as a potential source of soil reinforcement. For instance, the use of old tyres to increase the bearing capacity and shearing strength of soil has been studied (Hataf and Rahimi, 2006). However, despite the large quantity of plastic bags produced,

there is hardly any reported work on turning polyethylene bags into a civil engineering resource.This project was, therefore, undertaken to investigate whether such plastic bags were capable of increasing soil strength and could consequently be incorporated into projects such as those requiring strengthening of foundations and embankments. The study was not intended to prove this type of reinforcement to be better than established methods like geosynthetic reinforcement. Those conventional methods, however, are expensive and inaccessible to the majority of developing countries. Plastic bags, in contrast, are

Solid waste

cheap and abundant as a waste material. Finding a new application for them in the civil engineering works could cut down the waste that goes into landfill sites.

Research materials and methods Plastic bag material The plastic materials used in the study were grocery shopping bags sourced from the local supermarket. The bags were medium-sized and manufactured from high-density polyethylene by a South African company based in Johannesburg. The bags were light green in colour, with black print on either side, as displayed in figure 1. The material density was measured to average 798 kg/m3, while the tensile strength, determined by using a computer controlled Zwickuniversal material testing machine, ranged between 14 and 20 MPa. The thickness of the bags was 20 μm. Selected soil material Cape Flats sand and Klipheuwel sand were specifically selected because of their availability locally. Additionally, these two sand types are clean, consistent and easily controllable, i.e. identical samples could be reproduced if prepared the same way, thereby enhancing repeatability of results. Cape Flats sand is a medium-density, light grey and clean quartz sand. Klipheuwel sand is a uniformly-graded, mediumdensity reddish brown sand. Table 1 summarises the mechanical properties of the two soils, determined according to BS 1377: 1990.

five distinct rectangular dimensions using a guillotine (figure 2). This allowed for the investigation of the optimum length, width and concentration of the plastic reinforcements required to obtain the maximum soil strength characteristics of the composite material. The five reinforcement strips dimensions used were 6 x 15 mm, 6 x 30 mm, 6 x 45 mm, 12 x 15 mm and 18 x 15 mm. The elements dimensions chosen were in the range of 0.06 – 0.45 of the shear box dimensions so as to control entanglement between the reinforcing strips. Strips entanglement would limit soil particles forming surface attachments with the reinforcement, resulting in lower shearing strengths of the composite material. For any given test, a batch of plastic strips of known dimensions and weight was added to a predetermined dry soil weight and then thoroughly and randomly

FIGURE 1 Plastic shopping bag specimen with both sides displayed mixed in a plastic bowl using a spatula to form a composite material with the required reinforcement content (figure 3). The three reinforcement concentrations used were: 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% by mass. These relatively low concentrations were chosen because, although the strips are light in weight, they occupy large volumes. Additionally, at the selected concentrations, it was easier to ensure consistency and even distribution of reinforcing elements within the soil sample without entanglement between strips. Once each specimen had been thoroughly mixed, it was poured into the

FIGURE 3 Random mixture of plastic elements in soil for different reinforcement concentration

Methodology All tests were conducted with dry soil in order to eliminate any effect of water during investigation. In each experiment, the soil specimen was first spread out over a pan and oven dried at 1050C for 24 hours. The grocery bags were cut into strips of

FIGURE 2 Guillotine used for the slicing of plastics into strips

RéSource November 2011 – 13

Solid waste

CHARACTERISTICS Specific gravity Natural moisture content Average densest dry density Average loose dry density Soil grain size range Mean grain size Coefficient of uniformity Coefficient of curvature Angle of soil friction* Residual shear strength* Apparent cohesion*

UNIT % kg/m3 kg/m3 mm mm

  kN/m2

TABLE 1 Mechanical properties of Cape Flats and Klipheuwel sand material used.

already-assembled shear box in three layers, compacting each with a square wooden tamper. The shear strength of the composite material was then determined using a 100 mm square Wykeham Farrance SB1 constant rate of strain direct shear apparatus, at normal stresses of 25, 50 and 100 kPa, and a shear speed of 1.2 mm/min until a residual state was achieved (figure 4). Test results and discussion The peak shear stress from each composite sample was recorded for the applied normal stresses of 25, 50 and 100 kPa. These values were then plotted against normal stress to determine the friction angles for each composite material tested. The relationship between the friction angle and the reinforcement parameters were plotted as shown in figures 5 to 7. Details of all the results from this study were presented by Petersen (2009). This section only gives a summary.

2.66 3.0 1720 1538 0.067-1.18 0.4 2.37 0.98 33.9 28.0 9.4

2.63 6.7 1824 1587 0.067-2.36 0.6 4.65 1.0 39.0 35.9 8.2

The inclusion of plastic strips significantly raises the peak shear strength keeping the width constant at 6 mm. A non-linear relationship was generally observed, with each sandy soil exhibiting a unique characteristic response. In the Cape Flats, the soil shear strength improved with increased strip length over specified lengths of 15 and 45 mm, dropping when strips 30 mm long were used. It is likely that this point could have been an anomaly in that test. The laboratory results also displayed that, when the fibre length was increased in the Klipheuwel sand, the soil friction angle also became better, peaking with the 15 mm long

Effect of length It is apparent from figure 5 that the addition of high-density polyethylene strips of any length enhances the peak friction angle for both Cape Flats and Klipheuwel

FIGURE 5 The friction angle versus length for Cape Flats (a) and Klipheuwel (b) composites

14 – RéSource November 2011


sands. For instance, after the inclusion of the 6 x 15 mm strips, the Cape Flats sand friction angle increased from about 34o to 41o. In terms of shearing resistance (i.e. tan phi), this was an improvement of 28.3% compared to the unreinforced soil. Klipheuwel sand experienced a shearing resistance angle increase from 39o to 44o when similar element sizes were used. This was a 19.1% enhancement in shearing strength (in tan phi). The maximum soil friction angles obtained in the composites were found to be greater in the Klipheuwel specimens. This was due to the higher initial shear strength in that better graded sand. Figures 5(a) and 5(b) illustrate the effect of lengthening the reinforcement while

*Determined using drained direct sheartests




FIGURE 4 Specimen loaded into Wykeham Farrance SB1shear apparatus strip elements (shortest strips tested). Therefore, it is likely that there are limiting plastic strip lengths in the soil composites beyond which reinforcement lengthening results in decreases in the shear strength. Effect of width Analysis of figures 6(a) and 6(b) showing the effect of reinforcement width on composite peak friction angle, demonstrating that the inclusion of plastic strips significantly raises the peak shear strength. Further testing revealed that, beyond a specific reinforcement width of 6 mm (narrowest strip tested), the strength decreased. It is possible that more testing could have revealed that the greatest strength gain occurs for strips narrower than 6 mm. These results suggest that the gains in strength decrease as the reinforcement strips widen. With the plastic material used in this study being smooth, it is likely that, when longer and wider strips are used, they overlap each other more during shearing, thereby reducing the soil/reinforcement interaction. As expected, there would be less friction generated between strips than between soil and embedded strips. It was again observed that Klipheuwel composites generally had higher peak friction angles. Effect of concentration From figure 7(a), there was an observed jump from the initial friction angle of 33.9o in the Cape Flats sand to 41.7o for the 0.1% concentration composite, after which there was an almost linear increase in the friction angle with concentration. The pattern in Klipheuwel composites was however different. In Klipheuwel, the reinforcement concentration considerably increased the peak friction angle initially. However, further testing revealed that, beyond the

Solid waste

reinforcement concentration of 0.15, the strength decreased. It can be concluded that, for various soils with different grading, independent tests would need to be conducted to determine the individual soil strength enhancement performances. The laboratory experiments also favourably suggest that inclusion of polyethylene strips in sandy soils would be an effective soil reinforcement method.



FIGURE 6 The friction angle versus width for Cape Flats (a) and Klipheuwel (b) composites

Deformation of reinforcement elements At the end of each direct shear experiment, the state of the reinforcement elements was assessed. The assessment looked for the presence of dents and any other physical deformations like ruptures in each element. It also compared the nature of the deformations with the location of the element with regards to the shearing plane. Through visual inspections it was found that approximately 70% of the elements which deformed were within or close to the shearing zone. Some strips were primarily ‘indented’ as soil particles pressed in to form surface attachments with the reinforcements (figure 8(a)). Others were stretched and compressed due to the shearing action at or near the shear plane (figure 8(b)). The stretched elements were found to be located somewhat parallel to the shearing direction and were therefore deformed accordingly. This proved that, as the embedded elements were being strained relative to the shearing direction, they improved the soil tensile strength, thereby enabling additional transfer of forces arising during the loading conditions. Furthermore, it was noted that none of the reinforcements in the composite were severely indented or ruptured during the shearing operation.



FIGURE 7 The friction angle versus concentration for Cape Flats (a) and Klipheuwel (b) composites

Summary and conclusions In this work, the improvement of soil strength using plastic grocery bags made from high-density polyethylene was studied. A comprehensive test programme was undertaken, including direct shear tests on two selected sandy soils. Plastic strips were used as reinforcement inclusions at

concentrations of up to 0.3% by weight. The effect of the dimensions of the strip was investigated by varying the length of the strips from 15 to 45 mm and the width from 6 to 18 mm. Shear strength parameters were obtained for each composite material from which analyses were done to identify the extent of the



FIGURE 8 Deformations of the reinforcing elements: (a) dented, (b) stretched and compressed RéSource November 2011 – 15

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Contaminated Land Assessment Environmental Management Plans Waste License Applications

Solid waste

soil improvement. The results showed an increase of more than 20% in angle of internal friction, which would consequently result in significant increases in shear strength and soil bearing capacity. The addition of the strips improved the shear strength but lengthening and widening the strips reduced the improvement. These results further suggest that the use of this type of reinforcement may prove beneficial with embankments and other foundation/ geotechnical works. The results are, however, specific to the particular type of plastic shopping bag used and the soil with which the reinforcement was mixed. Testing in a range of soil types with inclusion of plastics from different sources and of differing thickness and roughness is required in order to properly document behaviour. The use of plastic shopping bag wastes as a reinforcement material could provide an alternative to waste accumulation and an economic means of resource recovery. *Civil Engineering Department, University of Cape Town **Civil Engineering Department, University of Cape Town

EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF PLASTICS IN CONSTRUCTION GEOTEXTILES Kaytech Engineered Fabrics, the company that produces Bidim, converts ‘green’ PET pellets and flake into extruded fibre via a continuous-filament spun-bonding process, followed by needle-punching to give the finished geotextile its structural integrity. According to production director, Chris Els, Bidim is the only continuous-filament, spun-bonded, needle-punched geotextile on the market – and the only geotextile to use recycled plastics in its manufacture. Kaytech began incorporating recycled PET bottles into its non-woven production in the mid 80s. Bidim has been made from 100% recycled PET for the past eight years. Because Kaytech simply melts down the granulated bottles, crystallises the polymer and spins it directly into filaments, the good properties built into the raw materials are retained and the resultant filaments have the strength and durability demanded by civil engineers. Over the past decade, Kaytech has converted more than 18 million kilogrammes of polyester (rPET) into Bidim and other civils products. ROOF TILES Another ground-breaking development is the development of a polymer-and-sand roof tile by South African company, Resin-Tile. Mixed post-consumer plastic waste is blended with sand to create a tile that is not only eco-friendly, but boasts other features such as low mass, long life, easy fitment, resistance to sun, water, fungus, water and temperature extremes low thermal conductivity and excellent noise and heat insulation. TIMBER PLASTIC Don’t be fooled by a convincing faux finish – the ‘wood’ on and in your walls, doors, window frames, decorative moulding and outdoor decking and fencing might all be made with plastics-wood composites. Here’s why that’s a very good thing… More and more architects, designers, builders and property owners are replacing 100% wooden building materials with a composite material made from recycled plastic and wood wastes. An important benefit of plastic is its ability to synergistically combine with other materials like wood, metal and glass. The advantages of using plastic-wood composites go far beyond finding a creative way to recycle. For example, plastic-wood composites are lightweight, easy to install, durable, easy to maintain, resistant to weather damage and corrosion, easy to customise and incredibly strong. Timber plastic comes in two types: all-plastic and composite. The composite variety (a mixture of recycled plastic and wood) is becoming increasingly popular as a replacement for all-wood building materials. SOURCE: PLASTICS FEDERATION OF SOUTH AFRICA *INFO IN THIS TABLE NOT PART OF AUTHORS’ RESEARCH

RéSource November 2011 – 17


Recycling of Municipal and Industrial Waste Pellets or fluff as alternative fuels



AMANDUS KAHL GmbH & Co. KG Dieselstrasse 5, D-21465 Reinbek / Hamburg, Germany Phone: +49 (0)40 727 71-0, Fax: +49 (0)40 727 71-100 DOSING




Johannes Schuback & Sons (S.A.) PTY Limited, Johannesburg / RSA Phone: +27 11 7062270, Fax: +27 11 7069236 RéSource November 2011 – 17 SCREENING

pitch in Thank you Joburg

for pitching in


and cleaning up.

Join the team Make Joburg a world class African City, free from litter. Call 011 375 5555 or 011 712 5200 or visit to help in your neighbourhood. Applies to Joburg region only



Woolworths 1.5 litre bottle dominates the competition “We were thrilled with both the quality and quantity of the entries we received this year, proving that the plastics recycling industry is growing in size, sophistication and value.” Douglas Greig, chairman of SAPRO


he South African Plastics Recyclers Organisation (SAPRO), with the support of Plastics SA and various role players, announced the winners of the annual Best Recycled Product Competition at a gala awards dinner held at the Midrand Conference Centre in September. Submissions were open in three product categories: products made from 100% recyclate, products containing a certainpercentage of post-consumer recyclate and products made from a mixture of post-consumer recycled materials. This competition was one of the highlights of the local plastic industry’s Clean Up South Africa Week (12 to 17 September) and encouraged brand owners and industrial designers to consider recycled plastics as a material of choice. According to Douglas Greig, Chairman of SAPRO, a wide variety of products were entered from around South Africa. A panel of plastics experts was asked to judge products based on the following criteria: life expectancy of the product • sustainability and long-term demand for and market acceptance of the product (i.e. will it still sell in five years’ time?) • tonnage (potential tonnages) diverted from landfills and converted into a product • replacement of alternative materials • technical achievements in manufacturing excellence to overcome recycled material challenges • measures taken to ensure product consistency and customer

satisfaction despite recycled material content. After careful deliberation, the following products were selected: 100% post-consumer recyclate category: • Gundle API received a Gold Award for its three-layer co-extruded damp- and waterproofing membranes. • Firstform received a Silver Award for its plastic wood effect furniture feet. Percentage recyclate mixed with virgin category: • Polypet walked off with the Gold Award for its Woolworths 1.5 ℓ juice bottle. • Mouldings & Frames International and Supreme Mouldings both received a Silver Award for their decorative picture frame mouldings made from recycled polystyrene. Mixed recycled materials category: • Tufflex Plastic Timber Products received the Gold Award for its sleeper bench. • Ecology Plastics was awarded the Silver Award for its two-seater storage bench. Special Merit Awards were given to: • E’Yako Green Eco-friendly Corporate Gifts and Clothing, for its range of products made from recycled PVC.

Polypet was awarded the PACSA Trophy for the Best Recycled Products

RéSource November 2011 – 19

12 Tungsten Road, Isando, Gauteng, South Africa • P.O.Box 746, Isando 1600, South Africa Tel:(011) 974-5660 • Fax: (011) 974-5143 •


• Heath Nash, for its exquisite-looking Bottle Ball Light. The evening, however, clearly belonged to Polypet, which was awarded the PACSA Trophy for the Best Recycled Product of the Year for its 1.5 ℓ cool drink bottle manufactured for Woolworths, which impressed the judges with its recycled content and consumer acceptance. Recycled materials for the bottles were supplied by Extrupet, which has invested in a world-class recycling facility, enabling it to produce recycled materials fit for use in food contact applications. The company received international accreditation by the Bureau Veritas Certification (BVC) for its recycling process for flakes to rPET for use in food packaging, making this South African recycler the first in the world to have achieved this level of accreditation. This 1.5 ℓ juice bottle represents and personifies the commitment of a complete value chain to making a difference, namely: • Woolworths’ commitment to the environment • Extrupet’s commitment to a world-class recyclate • Polypet’s commitment to manufacturing aesthetically appealing packaging that meets the consumer’s expectations • PET recycling company Petco’s commitment to extended producer responsibility. “This bottle is an excellent example of how major retailers can influence an industry when they make a commitment to environmental responsibility and sustainability,” says Cheri Scholtz, chairperson of Plastics SA’s Sustainability Council and CEO of Petco. “In 2010 alone, 99 400 t of PET was used in beverage bottles.

The SAPRO team with host for the evening, Simon Gear “Through a collective effort and a united vision of reducing our impact on the environment, we were able to achieve the most sustainable use for resources, namely the ability to close the loop – recycling a bottle back into a bottle – and creating a vital new end-use market for the 3 million PET bottles currently being recycled daily in South Africa.” Woolworths embarked on its Good Business Journey a few years ago, and making use of recycled plastic in its food packaging is a major vote of confidence in the safety and quality of products manufactured in the South African recycling industry. “This year’s winner represents a significant step in the right direction with regard to the reduction of packaging waste material and providing additional economic benefits to society and the economy as a whole,” Greig concludes. RéSource November 2011 – 21



A sustainable investment in the future By D Kalumba* and MA Petersen**

Valued at approximately R19 billion, Consol Glass’ new Greenfield glass factory in Nigel sets the benchmark in terms of ultra-modern technology. And, of course, recycling remains a key internal focus in order to minimise the demand for raw materials, thereby optimising energy efficiency.


igel is about four years in the making. We were unable to expand further in any of our other plants and we are extremely excited about this development,” said INSERT NAME, Consol technical director, at a media site visit in July. “Consol is fortunate to have one of the most advanced training programmes in the industr y and we have been training people in preparation for the Nigel plant since 2010.” As the largest glass manufacturer in Africa, Consol takes a long-term approach with all its decisions and the Nigel plant is no exception. Standing tall on a 50 ha site in Pretoriusstad, south of Johannesburg, the new factor y’s production capabilities have been designed with flexibility in mind and the technology deployed will be

new glass. Accordingly, the Nigel factory includes a basic cullet processing facility to recycle all waste produced at the site. In addition, the master layout for the new plant includes provision for an external cullet processing plant as part of its future expansion programme. Initially, the plant will be supplied with externally processed cullet from the existing Consol processing facility at its Clayville factor y as this plant currently has excess capacity following a recent investment.

is that a portion of the site has been demarcated as a wetland. The long-term site planning takes this into consideration and the company is committed to preser ving this area and has provided the necessar y protection measures accordingly. In support of the wetland, the site required a comprehensive stormwater design, which included a retention pond at the far side of the property that will slowly release water from the site. As part of its commitment to the environment, Consol investigated the most appropriate energy efficient (EE) plant and design for the new plant. The largest energy consumer on site is the furnace as it is foreseen that the chosen furnace design will yield a total energy

capable of producing a complete range of products. The site is able to facilitate up to six furnaces, with the first phase focused on flint (clear) glass production for the beverage market, but this is expected to evolve with market demand. Recycling remains a key internal focus, at group level, in order to minimise Consol’s demand for raw materials and optimise energy efficiency. The plant will accept as much recycled glass as it can, which will be used in the production of

The green in Greenfield

saving of up to 20% when compared to older furnaces. Compressed air and cooling fans are the second largest electricity consumers at the plant, but the chosen forming machines consume less compressed air and cooling wind and will contribute to electricity savings on the fans, compressors and other greenfield site infrastructure. Annealing ovens, which take the internal pressure out of the glass by cooling it down and slowly removing the

22 – RéSource November 2011

The construction of the new factor y has complied with the NEMA environmental prescriptions. The initial environmental approvals were received before construction commenced. During the construction process, the external environmental practitioner monitored the project in terms of the agreed environmental management plan (EMP) and the project achieved a clean bill of health. Another sensitive environmental issue


‘stresses’, also have significant energy consumption levels and Consol have invested in the most energy-efficient gas-fired units that are available today. Gas-fired units are not only more efficient with the deliver y of energy, but also have a much lower carbon footprint as a result. As a rule, all electrical motors were specified as high-efficiency units and several hundred variable speed drives were installed throughout the plant where they can offer energy benefits. Cable installations have been reduced through strategic decision to supply higher-voltage power (22kV) to the site. This choice will show lower losses on the transformers and, even more signifi-

Consol have invested in the most energy-efficient gasfired units available today

NIGEL PLANT STAKEHOLDERS Project partners, over and above the City of Ekurhuleni and Consol staff, include: • Consol: responsible for overall project management • Meprotech: management of all site construction and technical design issues • Capex Projects: architects • BSM Baker: civil and structural engineers • Washtech: mechanical engineers • Marcus Kneen: electrical engineers • W&L Consultants: environmental consultants

cantly, will allow for the use of smaller cables, of which there will be several kilometres on site. EE design and construction considerations applied to the entire plant, as well as the administration block, include: Where possible, building design and orientation have maximised natural light in an effort to reduce artificial lighting requirements. The artificial lighting used is energy-efficient, with motion sensing applied.

offices and reduce air conditioning load and associated electrical consumption. Further to this, larger roof eaves and overhangs with slatted louvers on windowshave been incorporated to reduce air-conditioning/heating requirements. Ceiling voids have thermal blankets to limit heat entering the building in summer and limit heat losses in winter. The air conditioning systems installed are energy efficient VrV (variable refrig-

In addition to the natural light, the warehouse and main factor y building have been equipped with high-efficiency lights that automatically switch on or off as natural light levels increase or decrease. The main administration buildings have been designed with the most efficient forced ventilation equipment available. Accordingly, the design needs have catered for solar per formance glass to reduce radiant heat loads into the

erant volume) systems, with advanced inverter and heat pump technologies, providing a complete indoor environment, obviating the need for separate heating and cooling systems. To minimise peripheral electrical loads, the

domestic hot water requirement for the factor y ablutions, office, toilets, kitchens, canteen, etc., will not be provided by standard geysers. A central system has been designed to operate off natural gas and to eventually function solely on waste heat recovered from furnaces once the second furnace is installed. And lastly, water systems have been designed to make best use of circulating principles to ensure the lowest virgin consumption. Further to this, all wastewater is monitored for any contaminants as standard procedure. Site landscaping also had to be indigenous in order to reduce water consumption by relying on the natural rainfall of the area.

RéSource November 2011 – 23



A multimillion rand colour spectrum By D Kalumba* and MA Petersen**

Nampak’s new state-of-the-art glass recycling facility crushes, cleans and sorts glass according to colour, utilising equipment imported from Austria – forming part of the company’s overall commitment to increasing recycling rates across all forms of packaging.


ampak Wiegand Glass invested some R100 million into a modern recycled glass cullet at its Roodekop operation on the East Rand. This impressive recycling facility enables the company to reduce the requirement for energy and natural resources in the glassmaking process. Installed with innovative technology and equipment, the facility uses a high-resolution camera system able to recognise a wider glass and bottle colour spectrum. With this new technology, the glass cullet is able to separate waste glass remains according to colour, speeding up the recycling process compared to separating different colour glass waste

by hand. The aim is to process 10 000t/ month of glass using the new technology, which would be more than double the current 4 000t/month. Consisting of three in-feed hopper bins and associated horizontal and vertical transportation lines to a five-storey cullet plant, which consists of a concrete podium housing the compressor, the cullet can also separate the waste glass from other material, e.g. metals, as well as clean the sorted waste glass and deliver recycled material that is ready for inclusion into the manufacturing process of new glass products. Covering an area of 3 500m², the facility has a production capacity of 24 t/h, upgradable to 36 t/h.

FAST FACT Cullet is recycled container glass from bottles, jars and other similar glass vessels and forms a raw material in the glass manufacturing process. Cullet needs to be sorted by colour and magnetic waste needs to be removed along with any other plastics and paper before it can be used as a raw material. The use of glass cullet allows a reduction of virgin raw materials and reduces the amount of energy required to produce glass as it is processed at a lower temperature. A 10% increase in cullet is estimated to reduce melting energy requirements by 1.5%. It also results in reduced carbon emissions in the region of 8% for CO2, 4% for NOx and 10% for SOx.

24 – RéSource November 2011

Reduction in new materials The new facility with its new technology has increased demand for more bottles to be recycled, which is set to provide agents and informal bottle collectors with economic benefits through their supply of bottles. There is now a reduced need for new materials, which reduces Nampak’s carbon footprint. The recycling facility has created jobs within the local community to ensure bottle collections and drop-off points provide incentives to bring used bottles and glass into the collection points, and these are then transported to the plant and processed through the facility. The use of old glass leads to a significant reduction in emissions and also reduces the pollution of the environment as a result of the collection points and incentive rewards.

Technology and operations The plant is equipped with the very latest in international technology and Nampak is very proud of its high operating efficiencies, which are in line with the best figures


benchmarked worldwide – providing customers with an extremely diverse range of award-winning glass products. The flexibility of the range has been further extended as a result of its rebuilt and enlarged furnace. The company operates a state-of-the-art, in-house design and testing operation, where it assists customers with bottle inception, technical drawing and design requirements, as well as trial mould testing, which are vital phases of the design process. It supplies a diverse range of returnable and non-returnable glass bottles to the beverage and food industry, offering a range of standard as well as customer-specific

designs, ranging in size from 100 mℓ to 1.5 ℓ.The full range of glass bottles is available in a variety of colours and closure finishing options, suitable for wine, carbonated soft drinks, flavoured alcoholic beverages, spirits, beer and the processed foods market. Further design options include embossing, etching and ACL screen-printing in up to five colours. The recycling plant is a significant contributor to Nampak’s environmental drive as it promotes glass recycling in communities and meets energy-efficiency requirements, showing commitment to glass recycling in South Africa. In terms of conserving the environment,

gas-fired drying systems and the recycling of rubbish represent two of the four legs of the company’s approach to reducing greenhouse emissions, which include energy reduction, water usage reduction, waste material efficiency and biodiversity and habitat. In order to provide a safe and healthy environment for the workers, the plant’s automation requires minimal human intervention, so reducing the risk of human injuries as a result of accidents. The new cullet plant is equipped with the very latest international technology and is SANS 1840, ISO 22000, OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001 accredited. RéSource November 2011 – 25

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Live up to recycling Although everyone should adopt recycling as part of their lifestyle, millions are still hesitant to make the change.


he month of September is dedicated to recycling. In South Africa, 16 September is officially marked National Recycling Day, followed by International Coastal Cleanup on 17 September. In respect of the three Rs – reduce, reuse, recycle – recycling is considered one of the easiest things people can do to help preser ve the environment and ecosystems, yet we are nowhere near our full potential in South Africa. This year saw associations, waste and recycling collection companies and private sponsors coming together to make Recycling Day a huge success. The selected venue was Centurion – an open spot opposite Kerksondermure at the corner of Hippo Avenue and Hendrik Ver woerd Drive. A drop-off and collection site was set up and the public was invited to bring in their recyclables, where they were sorted according to material type and weighed. The site was open on 16 and 17 September, and more than 2 t of recyclables were brought in from the public. “The response on day one was fantastic,” said Douw Steyn, director of sustainability at the Plastics Federation of South Africa and chairman of the NRF. “We did hope that the public’s response would have been even better but at least they know, and next year’s event will be even bigger.” The recyclables collected over the two days will go towards supporting a community project identified by Kerksondermure. The aim is to make this initiative an ongoing sustainable

Highlights from National Recycling Day held on 16 to17 September project in Centurion. Sponsors for this year’s event were: • Plastics SA • Eco-Bin • Waste Plan • Red Design • Luan de Beer • RA Print • Kerksondermure • MyWaste • Antalis.

RéSource November 2011 – 27



Life beyond CDM? By C Lee*, J Bogner** and L Van Hook***

LFG projects continue to hold their place in the carbon markets, comprising 17% of CDM projects, but waste managers need to consider post-Kyoto strategies for new projects.


n 2009, the carbon market reached US$144 billion dollars, up from US$118 billion dollars in 2008 (Kossoy and Ambrosi 2010). Primar y Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market volume dropped 59% in 2009, but the EU Emissions Trading Scheme markets expanded (Kossoy and Ambrosi 2010). Despite the disappointing outcome from Copenhagen, a non-binding accord was reached. It provides a structure to facilitate emission reduction commitments needed to limit global temperature rise to 2°C. The US Congress shows no sign of getting a climate bill passed before 2011, leaving global carbon markets muddied and uncertain. However, landfill gas (LFG) projects still have the potential

28 – RéSource November 2011

to sell into the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) market beyond 2012, to sell into the expanding voluntar y market and to participate in the eventual US market.

Market overview Ever expanding footprint The main drivers of the current carbon market remain the Kyoto Protocol, the EU ETS and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) in the USA. Despite a drop in the primar y CDM market, the lower 2009 selling prices for primar y and secondar y CERs, 6 to 8 and 9 to 11 respectively, seem to be recovering in the second half of 2010, with current prices for primar y and

secondar y CERs, based on a recent review of Emission Reduction Purchase Agreements (ERPAs), increasing to 8 to 10 and 12 respectively (Carbon Positive 2010). As the Kyoto Protocol nears the end of its first (and ver y likely only) phase in December 2012, there is rampant speculation about the future of the carbon markets, climate change regulation worldwide and the CDM most especially. The lack of a legally binding, global, successor agreement to the Kyoto Protocol out of the Copenhagen COP has increased uncertainty across carbon markets, although the Copenhagen Accord may provide some structure and opportunities to access climate finance

Landfill FIGURE 1 Primary CDM annual volumes transacted by sector as negotiations towards a new agreement continue to move for ward. It is fair to say that, at this point in time, the future of the carbon market is not clearly defined. There are strong indications that the market is firmly established and that market mechanisms will continue to play a role in any global agreement to address climate change in the future and there is widespread agreement that the CDM will continue in some manner, at least in some countries, although it is expected to be more limited in scope. The EU ETS continues to accept CDM credits for compliance through 2012 and, since it has been extended by the EU through 2020, it is conceivable that offset project opportunities through the EU ETS may continue post 2012. The CDM is still making tracks There are now more than 4 200 CDM projects in the pipeline, with 2 303 registered in 55 countries around the world, including more than 17% waste handling and disposal projects. China and India continue to dominate as host countries. In 2009 and throughout the beginning of 2010, the primar y CDM market saw an overall decline in volume and price per tonne, but Africa doubled its market share. Africa’s contribution to the market rose to 7%, equivalent to 15 million tonnes (Kossoy and Ambrosi 2010), but South Africa still has only 17 registered projects out of the 2 303 registered worldwide. Four of these registered CDM projects are landfill gas CDM projects (eThekwini's two, registered in 2006 and 2009, EnviroSer v’s Chloorkop project, registered in 2007, and the Alton landfill registered in 2009), with a 5th awaiting registration any day (Ekurhuleni 2010). Waste sector CDM projects worldwide are second only to energy industr y projects, which include renewable energy projects (UNFCCC CDM home 2010). To date, there are 474 waste sector projects registered (UNFCCC CDM home 2010) and the number continues to rise, as does the number of emission reductions traded from these types of projects. However, the volume of CERs traded from waste sector projects is less, approximately 11%, within the primar y CDM market (figure 1: Kossoy and Ambrosi 2010). This discrepancy

could be owing to the lengthy process of having CERs issued. The lag time, up to 607 days on average, could be influencing the volume of CERs available for trade from the waste sector (Kossoy and Ambrosi 2010). While often an economic driver for CDM waste projects, the CDM financial contribution cannot solve all financial barriers for new landfill gas projects. At the moment, LFG projects are seeing a 1.04 return on investment based on ERPAs in the World Bank Portfolio. The price per tonne has the largest impact on the IRR of any project and so a price increase from US$10/t to US$20/t more than doubles the IRR for a project.

The EU ETS continues to accept CDM credits for compliance through 2012 Also, for ward sales of CERs (to be generated in the future) can improve the IRR in the short term; however, future generation of CERs is not guaranteed and so buyers generally apply a hefty discount on the price (Kossoy and Ambrosi 2010). Commitments to purchase future CERs that have been verified have been more successful in attracting higher prices. Overall, CDM financing – while still an option in some cases – has not been a panacea for getting new projects off the ground. Moving for ward, this trend will continue and projects may need to piece together additional financing options. It is also important for waste managers particularly to be clear about why to consider doing a CDM landfill gas project. Revenue from the sale of CERs is always a good thing but we submit that this is a secondar y benefit to municipalities. We often advise municipalities that the CDM is an excellent opportunity to secure

an important gas management tool (gas extraction and recover y) and have someone else pay for some or perhaps most of the cost. While South Africa does not require landfill gas extraction and destruction at this time, at some point in the future it can be expected to do so. Waste managers should seize the opportunity to develop landfill gas CDM projects before such a requirement is imposed. Once a law or regulation is passed requiring gas extraction and destruction, there will no longer be the possibility to prove ‘additionality’, meaning that the CDM project would not have happened in the absence of carbon finance. Whether projects are developed under the CDM or using other avenues (see discussion of Voluntar y market and REFIT below), there is still time.

Voluntary market Separate from the CDM, there is still a small but growing, worldwide voluntar y carbon market, which will continue independently of the compliance market. The voluntar y market has favoured landfill gas projects with per tonne prices somewhat above the average as compared to a multitude of other types of carbon reduction projects. This voluntar y market can offer potentially significant opportunities for South African landfill gas projects while the international picture gets sorted (or not) by the world’s largest emitters. A recent report on the voluntar y market (Hamilton et al. 2009) states that there has been a ‘flight to standards’ in the voluntar y carbon world that can confirm the quality of voluntar y carbon offsets. These standards, an important factor in the market value of carbon credits in the voluntar y market, are intended to ensure that any voluntar y carbon credit purchased is real, verifiable, permanent,

RéSource November 2011 – 29


additional and enforceable. While there are more than a dozen voluntar y carbon standards that compete for projects, four carbon standards have emerged as widely recognised standards and are the basis for most of the volume of offsets available: the Voluntar y Carbon Standard (35%), the Climate Action Reser ve (31%), the Chicago Climate Exchange (12%) and the Gold Standard (7%) (Hamilton et al. 2010). The Voluntar y Carbon Standard (VCS) has become the preferred carbon standard and has been used for the majority of voluntar y projects. VCS involves a stringent procedure that allows developers to create new methodologies but accepts them only after they have been fully validated by two independent third party validators (VCS Association 2010). All four of these standards are rigorous, cover multiple sectors and require third party verification. The Climate Action Reser ve (CAR), based in the state of California in the USA, has developed or is developing sector-wide protocols for landfill gas, forestr y, coal bed methane, livestock and other project types, all intended for use across the USA, Mexico and Canada. The CAR offsets are viewed

30 – RéSource November 2011

in the USA in particular as desirable because the protocols have broad-based applicability and are viewed as likely ‘pre-compliance offsets’ that may be grandfathered into a national compliance programme in the USA. Similar to the compliance market, the volume of the voluntar y market declined in 2009 by 26% and continued its decline in early 2010. This is in contrast to an increase in value and volume throughout 2006, 2007 and 2008. However, the volume traded in 2009 still

LFG offsets are considered high quality, dependable and desirable exceeded the volume traded in 2007, thus indicating a certain stability and establishment of the market. Despite the decline in the size of the voluntar y market, LFG projects remain in good standing in this market. Overall, LFG and other methane destruction projects dominated the voluntar y market and accounted for 41% of the traded volume in the USA (Hamilton et. al 2010). Specifically, LFG projects comprised 31% of the market (figure 2: Hamilton et al. 2010).

LFG offsets are still fetching higher than average prices at $9.60/t, compared with the average US$6.50/t. The USA produced and purchased the highest volume of offsets within the voluntar y market, indicating a strong movement towards preparing for an eventual compliance programme in the countr y. The year2009 was the first year that the USA surpassed Asia in volume traded (Hamilton et. al 2010). The expansion in trading of LFG credits indicates acceptance of LFG projects in this voluntar y market place. This trend, in conjunction with the push toward pre-compliance quality offsets, indicates that LFG offsets are considered high quality, dependable and desirable, as long as they are developed in accordance with stringent rules. As the voluntar y market continues to expand worldwide, it is a viable option for projects that can no longer expect to be up and running before 2012. With 2012 approaching, and no clear postKyoto plan, the voluntar y market is a viable alternative to the CDM for emission reductions from LFG. It is not too late to begin new LFG projects for this market, which is not only in the USA, but

FIGURE 2 Transaction volume by project type in Europe and Japan too, and showing signs of life in developing countries.

REFIT footprint Beyond the voluntar y carbon market there are alternative environmental markets, including in South Africa. Government’s recent actions have the potential to stimulate the LFG to renewable energy market in South Africa. In March 2009, the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (NERSA) announced and approved the landmark Renewable Energy Feed-in-Tariff (“REFIT”) guidelines (Cameron). These guidelines call for a premium to be paid for energy from renewable energy projects, including specifically LFG to energy. This reflects a growing internal trend and a policy decision to tr y to incentivise alternatives to coal-based energy. The REFIT, once implemented, will surely offer life to LFG projects independent of the CDM. The promise of the REFIT has already stimulated this new market and led to new businesses in the countr y. It has also attracted new international players to South Africa, with many more watching the scene unfold, and some already looking for new domestic partners.

waste-to-energy projects have appeared primarily in the public sector, but as interest grows, the private sector is also starting to develop projects (Globe-net 2010). Within South Africa, the wasteto-energy market may have potential, and some even predict will grow 10.5% through 2014 (Frost and Sullivan 2009). “Waste-to-energy generation can play a pivotal role in alleviating the pressure on landfills and the disposal of any waste material that is not recyclable in South Africa,” says Frost & Sullivan research analyst, Derrick Chikanga (Frost and Sullivan 2009). However, the authors caution waste managers and officials to approach the waste-to-energy advocates with a healthy dose of scepticism. South African waste managers must

The REFIT will surely offer life to LFG projects independent of the CDM take a good, hard look at costs in the South African context. Landfills remain a viable disposal option and, in our view, carbon LFG projects are likely to remain more viable and reliable than waste-toenergy as potential revenue generators for the foreseeable future.

Conclusion The international waste-to-energy market The European Union is currently dominating the US$28 billion waste-to-energy market, but other countries are joining that market as pressure mounts, especially in Europe for alternatives to landfills (Globe-net 2010). To date,

Although there is less project origination in the market due to post-2012 uncertainty, there is still a need for pre-2013 projects. In general, buyers in both the compliance and voluntar y markets are still looking for more projects; good projects. The market will favour projects

RéSource November 2011 – 31


For more information, call us on Johannesburg 011 922 3300 East London 043 727 1057 Cape Town 021 531 8110 Durban 031 717 2300 Or contact us on-line at

32 – RéSource August 2011

octarine 3157



that: 1) can scale up, 2) maintain steady generation of emission reductions over time, 3) have a low risk of emission reduction failure and 4) allow for multiple financing mechanisms to work together (Kossoy and Ambrosi 2010). LFG projects can fit that bill. There is less confidence in prices overall and this is not likely to change

A low-carbon economy can create green jobs and renewable energy makes environmental and economic sense overnight. It is interesting to note that a carbon price of at least 40 euros per tonne is likely to be needed to prevent an increase in global temperatures of more than 2°C. Unfortunately, price expectations in 2020 are much below that and there is still a risk that entities will pull back from the market if there is no significant progress in international policy by 2012 (Gleddhill 2010).

With the ‘discover y’ that a low-carbon economy can create green jobs, that renewable energy makes environmental and economic sense, and the realisation that, despite the growth of wasteto-energy, landfills and the voluntar y carbon market are here to stay, there is

most definitely a visible footprint and life after the CDM. *Lee International, Westbrook, Maine USA **Landfills +, Inc., Wheaton, Illinois USA and University of Illinois Chicago ***Augusta Maine USA


RéSource November 2011 – 33





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If only everyone was half as clever Creating Eco cement, readymix and premix products with a carbon footprint that is just 50% of the world average isn’t just impressive, it towers above ordinary expectations. Yet it’s all in a day’s work for the people at AfriSam. 0860 141 141


Waste to energy


Electricity price path not sustainable, say biggest users The EIUG has raised concerns that the price path for electricity in SA may place consumers and businesses under even greater pressure in the next few years.


his is following the first round of tariff hikes in 2010. Eskom’s results for 2011, released in June, show an expected rise in total revenue by 28.6% on the back of the 24.8% electricity tariff increases last year. But a spokesperson for the Energy Intensive Users Group (EIUG) said it was of concern that primary energy costs have increased by 19.8%.The EIUG says this is a significant increase over and above the 17% increase in primary energy seen last year and expects NERSA to conduct an audit to determine the root causes. In real terms the average Eskom price this year will be approximately 50c/kWh. Taking into account that new generation costs about 75c/kWh and adding 30% for transmission and distribution, the electricity price could end up close to a whopping 100c/kWh. Municipal customers will pay more, while Eskom transmission customers will pay less, as NERSA has recommended that municipalities charge an extra 15% for 2010/11 and then 16% for each of the next two years. Taking into account the blending of old and new assets, it would be expected that customers should not pay more, and should preferably pay less, than 100c/ kWh. Unfortunately, Eskom has been allowed to revalue its assets, so the price advantage of blending has been lost. The EIUG expects the average tariff to settle at around 75c to 80c/kWh by 2016, which means that customers can expect another 50 to 60% increase over the next three years. The group, which represents the biggest business energy users in the country, says it should be a priority to hold increases as low as possible, so as to ensure Eskom’s financial

sustainability, while ensuring affordability and competitiveness. The next tariff increases will have adverse effects and far-reaching implications for all South Africans. These price increments add additional pressure to

South Africa has already seen the effect of rising electricity prices on key business sectors industrial customers simply to maintain current production levels and further price increases will result in production

halts and job losses, which South Africa can ill afford. Furthermore, this demand destruction has a further negative impact on price increases, leading to further business failures. South Africa has already seen the effect of rising electricity prices on key business sectors; for example, beneficiation, which is one of the pillars of the government’s New Growth Path Plan. The EIUG is undertaking an industry-wide impact assessment of the electricity price path and is urging all companies currently concerned about the effect of electricity prices to go to to register to participate.

RéSource November 2011 – 35

Waste to energy


Sweet news indeed! by Maya Fowler*

“If we could switch the tyres on the world’s cars overnight to the best materials that are currently available, this alone would save up to 20 billion litres of fuel annually, reducing CO2 emissions by 50 million metric tonnes a year.” Dr Axel Heitman, LANXESS chairman, at the company’s recent media day in Düsseldorf, Germany


t its recent media day in Düsseldorf, chemical specialist LANXESS announced a world first: the manufacture of bio-based EPDM rubber for tyres. Other victories for the environment include continued success in lowering rolling resistance in tyres and new rubber additives that eliminate, for instance, the need for the heavy metal zinc. And when Dr Heitman says “the best materials currently available”, he knows what he’s talking about – thanks to groundbreaking research and development, his company is ensuring a greener future. The focus is on using sustainable raw materials (sugar cane, in a move away from fossil fuels), as well as on lowering the rolling resistance of tyres. In his introduction, he stressed the importance of ‘green’ tyres. Whereas today around 800 million cars and trucks are to be found on the roads of the world, this figure is set to increase to 3 billion by 2035. The message at the media day was clear: increasing mobility is a reality and it is up to manufacturers to ensure this growth takes place in a sustainable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable manner.

enormous effort into developing a synthetic rubber that offers lower rolling resistance simultaneous with good grip and longevity. The concept of reducing rolling resistance comes down to the flexibility of the rubber: if the rubber is too flexible, it creates more movement in the tyre, which equals friction, and of course friction makes for heat. So energy, in the form of heat, is lost through the tyres, instead of being used for forward propulsion. In fact, in regular, inefficient tyres, rolling resistance accounts for 20 to 30% of fuel use, which is an enormous waste – waste of an ever-scarcer resource, waste of money and waste of the environment, which is subjected to more carbon emissions than it would have been with more efficient tyres. The experts have been hard at work in the field of rolling resistance for years,

The three Rs

Patrick Gruber, CEO of Gevo, explains the innovative method of his company for producing bio-based raw materials to use for rubber

Prompted by environmental concerns and new EU regulations, LANXESS has put

36 – RéSource November 2011

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP RIGHT Burkhard Wies, vice-president: Tire Line Development Worldwide of Continental, spoke about challenges for the tyre and tyre supplier industry, driven by regulation and market trends LANXESS CEO Axel C Heitmann, during his opening speech at Rubber Day 2011

and LANXESSis confident it is ready for the November 2012 launch of tyre labelling. The colour-coded labelling will alert customers to the eco-friendliness of their tyres at a glance. Though these higher-performance tyres will be more expensive, what we should be asking ourselves, according to head of technical rubber products Dr GüntherWeymans, is not what the price of these tyres is, but what the value is of protecting our planet. At the same time, Dr Patrick Gruber of US renewable chemicals and advanced biofuels company Gevo (a partner of LANXESS), pointed out that the isobutanolthe company produces from maize is cheaper than using fossil fuels.

Riding the sugar wave Certainly the biggest announcement of the day was the imminent production of

Waste to energy

ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) from sugar cane-based ethylene – a world first! Production is set to be underway in Brazil by the end of this year. The big breakthrough here is that EPDM has, of course, always been extracted from petroleum-based raw materials ethylene and propylene, but here, for the first time, it is being made out of an entirely renewable resource. Maize, grain and sugar beet can all be used to this end, but sugar cane is far superior when it comes to reducing emissions. “At the same time, the decision in favour of sugar cane does not represent an excessive burden on Brazilian agriculture: less than 1% of the country’s total area and 1.5% of the area under cultivation is used to grow sugar cane,” says Dr Weymans. The process involves dehydrating the ethanol that is derived from Brazilian sugar cane. Braskem SA, a Brazilian company, will supply the bio-based ethylene via pipeline to LANXESS’s plant in Triunfo, Brazil. The eventual product will be known as Keltan Eco and its uses will go beyond the

Panel discussion about tyre labelling with: Professor Horst Wildemann, TU Munich; Axel Stepken, CEO of TÜV Süd; Rainier van Roessel, member of Board of Management of LANXESS; Joachim Grub, head of the LANXESS business unit Performance Butadiene Rubber; Dieter Freitag, director of Michelin Germany, Austria and Switzerland tyre industry. Tests have shown Keltan Eco to be absolutely on par with conventional ethylene and, perhaps most importantly of all, this takes us a step closer to becoming independent of oil.

Sustainability acknowledged With LANXESS, the word sustainability crops up regularly. And now, with the stamp of approval from the Dow Jones Sustainability Index World, it is clear that

this company has put its money where its mouth is. All in all, synthetic rubber has come a long way since its discovery in Germany 102 years ago, from a more cost-effective alternative to natural rubber to an environmentally friendly, high-performance product based on natural raw materials. *Writing/editing/proofreading/translation RéSource November 2011 – 37

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Medical waste

Validated decontamination The UK’s Hospital Bulletin Magazine recently reported that it is ‘celebration time’ at The Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust. The environmental benefits created by the trust’s implementation of a new reusable sharps containment system have been recognised with a prestigious Green Apple Environment Award, which is to be presented at a glittering ceremony in the House of Commons and highlighted as a best practice example across Europe.


ramatic CO2 savings, a reduction in cost, safer sharps disposal and international recognition followed The Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust’s implementation of the Sharpsmart reusable sharps containment system. The system is delivering measurable benefits for clinical areas, wards, facilities and estates, while reducing costs and making a dramatic impact on the trust’s carbon reduction programme. The trust-wide enthusiasm for the system was evident when Catherine Jacques, Waste and Environmental Services officer, and key colleagues involved in both the trial and implementation programme explained: “Sharpsmart has a multi-function within the organisation. It assists with sharps disposal at point of use for staff and patient safety. In turn, we can confirm the introduction of these containers has resulted in no reported injuries pertaining to the disposal of sharps. It also assists our sustainability protocol by reducing our CO2 impact on the environment.” With a brief to reduce waste and cut the trust’s environmental impact, Jacques liaised with the members of the Environmental Management Group and Sharps Safety Group and Facilities Management to undertake a trial of the Sharpsmart system in seven wards across the trust. “We kept all staff abreast of upcoming changes at least a month

before the change-over of the sharps container system. We communicated with them on a weekly basis to allow ward staff to run down their current bin stocks. Sharpsmart were very upfront and informed us of problems that we could expect to face throughout the implementation process in other hospitals. And those problems certainly did arise but, within the space of a few weeks, we had overcome them,” she explains.

overfilled, reducing the risk of injury.” A member of the Sharps Safety Group, Andrew Jackson: IV consultant nurse, said that one of his priorities is combining safe sharps disposal with clinical procedure completion, and he did not want to use Sharpsmart from a purely safety perspective. “It also supports our aseptic technique in terms of protecting patients as the sharps container and procedure tray are combined,” he adds.

Individual needs

Best practice

According to Jacques, each service area has a different, specific need. “We don’t operate a one-size-fits-all policy. We liaise with the service areas to ensure the sharps disposal best suits their needs.” Ann Kerrane, matron: Infection Prevention and Control, explains: “I needed to have confidence in the decontamination process and be able to give the necessary assurances to the staff who use the system. The safety tray system means that sharps containers cannot be

So, how is the system being accepted in practice? Bev Nichols, matron: Critical

The Trust team: (L-R) Lindsay Ollivant (sister: Critical Care), Bev Nicholas (matron: Critical Care and Central Treatment Room), Anne Kerrane (matron: Infection Prevention and Control), Donna Jones (facilities manager), Catherine Jacques (environmental services officer) and Andrew Jackson (consultant nurse: vascular access intravenous therapy and care)

RéSource November 2011 – 39

Medical waste Sharp thinking: The style of container used for the disposal of sharps in public access areas has a safety tray mechanism which prevents access to the deposited sharps and indicates when full (as shown). The window aligns with the fill level Care and Central Treatment Room ICU/ HDU, says: “We use a lot of sharps and it’s a far safer clinical system. I think they’re great.” The sharps containers are delivered fully assembled. Those in public access areas have a flip-top safety mechanism which limits access. The mechanism will not allow extra sharps to be added once the fill level is reached. “Introducing Sharpsmart has brought all aspects of point-of-use, sharps safety and sustainability together,” says Donna Jones, the trust’s facilities manager. “As part of the Carbon Commitment Programme, the trust as a whole, and facilities, are always looking at ways of improving practice and saving

Once the needle is in the container, it is tamper-proof and fully leak-proof money, and there’s a financial benefit with this system.” Graham Royle, the trust’s health and safety coordinator for Estates, is equally excited, particularly about the sharps unit being completely sealed – once the needle is in the container, it is tamper-proof and fully leak-proof.

Apple Environmental Award at the House of Commons in November. The tough, high-quality ABS plastic containers are collected and replenished on a weekly basis. On arrival at the processing facility, the sharps waste is automatically decanted and segregated into the appropriate waste streams. The containers are designed to withstand up to 500 treatment cycles and each container is

individually bar coded to facilitate traceabilty of cleaning. The robotic opening and waste decanting is followed by a validated cycle which is proven to achieve a 6 log reduction in microorganisms. The cleaning cycle consists of a prewash, wash (using water and Ecolab detergent), two hot water washes and a final scald-rinse before being subjected to a thorough QA acceptance programme.

Carbon efficiency Following the introduction of Sharpsmart, The Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust anticipated it would reduce its carbon footprint by 110 t of CO2 in the first year, with a total of 1 184 t of CO2 saved by the end of year 10. This will result in a 91% total carbon reduction compared with the previous process of disposing of the trust’s sharps bins by means of incineration. The trust is also reducing 13 t of plastic and the consumption of 1.3 t of cardboard each year. “Those figures and our anticipated financial savings are proving to be correct,” says Jacques who, along with other members of the trust and Sharpsmart, will be receiving the Green

Dedicated: Terry Sayles (porter) is responsible for the delivery and collection of the Sharpsmart bins

RéSource November 2011 – 41

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Hazardous waste

Packaging best practice Industrial packaging is designed and manufactured to specifications for the different risk classes of industrial products, and collection, reprocess and reuse is global best practice. The RPMASA sheds some light on the subject. footprint.


any people are not aware of the carbon benefits of collection and the reprocessing of industrial packaging. The Responsible Packaging Management Association of South Africa (RPMASA) has a seat on the UN Committee of Experts for the Transport of Dangerous Goods and GHS, and networks with the international packaging and reprocessing associations to bring best practice to South Africa.

Performance testing All packaging to be used for dangerous substances or products, i.e. with UN numbers, must be per formance tested by the national competent body as per the UN Model Regulations and be permanently marked with the manufacturer’s

specific certification markings, confirming specification, date and factor y of manufacture. Similarly, reprocessed packaging should be the correct specification for use, be tested and bear in addition the reprocessor’s registration mark. The SANS 10406 audit and registration scheme for packaging reprocessors is about to start in South Africa to uplift local reprocessors and bring the countr y in line with international and national legislation and best practice, namely, SANS 10229 and 10406. Use of the correct specifications is vital to reduce risks to people and the environment during the handling, storage and transport of products, as well as to contribute to the sustainable use of resources and a reduced carbon

 For Legal reͲuse or disposal


Raw Material Imports

Industrial packaging provides great benefits to the environment, not only in ensuring pollution prevention, but also through correct specification and strength for product type – enabling the repeated reuse of steel, plastic and composite packaging. Although not widely known to the general public, there exists a worldwide network of specialist companies that recover used industrial packaging from their national customer base – the end users of the packaging. The international organisation for such companies is the International Confederation of Container Reconditioners (ICCR). Manufacturers and

FIGURE 1 Packaging life cycle


Raw Material  Manufacturers Drum & Container Steel & Manufacturer  Polymer

Environmental benefits

Recondition   & ReͲuse  Scrap & ReͲuse Steel Landfill

Fillers  Users Emptiers  Traders & Agents

 UN Specification for chemical Chemical use & reͲuse

Last Resort

  Collection &   Final Disposal Sorting

Landfill Plastic Scrap Chip for Alternate use

Last Resort Plastic Products e.g. Dustbins & Garden Furniture

 CH Vill Road Traffic Act Legal Specification for NEMA SANS 10229Use Duty of Care RTA  SANS 10223 EPR Duty of Care Collection & Recycle Condition    EPR     Sorting Wash & ReͲuse   RPMASA S21COMPANY Refill    & NPO    Green Levy orCoͲordination of Collection UN, IMDG & RT ActͲSANS 10406, 10229 &10233  Advanced Purchase / Management feeTraining, Audit & Registration of Service ProvidersCorrect specifications for legal reͲuse Contribution toFor Legal reͲuse, recycle or DisposalNEMA Duty of Care, Waste Act, EPR, CP Act    March 2011

RéSource November 2011 – 43

carbon footprint, to the detriment of the environment.

Where do used chemical and industrial drums go?

reprocessors/reconditioners now work together in most parts of the world to ensure that industrial packaging is made and reprocessed to work safely and efficiently, with the highest environmental care. This working together is progressed in Europe through the work of the joint European Industrial Packaging Association (EIPA) at various international standards and regulatory meetings. This international network of organisations recovers used industrial packaging from a ver y wide base of end users, including the food, pharmaceuticals, oils and specialty chemicals industries. The packagings are individually inspected to check the packaging type and residual content before segregation, cleaning and multi-option recycling processes. The cleaned packaging can then be checked to determine the most environmentally (and economically) efficient route, i.e. reprocessing, reconditioning, refurbishing for reuse as a complete maintained package by a third party recycling of materials following cleaning and destruction of the package recover y of the calorific energy from the packaging materials.

* * * *


Ship.indd 1

The packagings are individually inspected to check the packaging type and residual content before segregation

The above options ensure that the ver y highest environmental efficiency is maintained through the collection of used packaging by the professional reprocessing community. The reprocessing or reconditioning process will ensure that used packaging can have multiple ‘lives’ through repeated cycles of reuse, with typically in excess of five trips being possible for individual packaging, depending on design and product type. Each cycle results in considerable savings of resources and energy over the manufacture of new packaging. Care taken to purchase the correct specification package results in savings of natural resources, energy, fuel, emissions and transport costs, as well as reduced risk and liability. The biggest threat to the reprocessing market in South Africa is the purchase of incorrect specification packaging, leading to unnecessar y waste, and the direct scrap for the recycle of perfectly good, reuseable drums and Occupational Health, Safety, Environmental intermediConsultants, Risk Assessors and Training Specialists ate bulk Major Hazard Installation Risk Assessments containers S.H.I.P. Occupational Health, Hygiene, Approved Inspection Authority Environmental and Safety Training (IBCs), Department of Labour: Motor Vehicle emissions Accreditation Number Cl 033 OH which is assessments (Diesel) Occupational Health, Hygiene * Occupational Health and Safety wasteful Evaluations & Workplace Stressors Legal Compliance Audits and increasAudits and Assessments (OHSAS 18001) Food Safety Management * Stack Emissions (Isokinetic Sampling) es resource Audits - HACCP * Risk Management and energy Tel +27 12 654 3090 Fax +27 86 632 0835 use and

44 – RéSource November 2011

2010/07/05 01:51:08 PM

A recent RPMASA sur vey highlighted that less than 10% of the approximate 10 million 20 and 25 ℓ plastic drums manufactured annually, and only 10.4 % of the approximately one million larger ones, are collected for reuse or recycling. Steel is slightly better, with less than 1% of the one million small drums but 46% of the two million larger ones being collected. However, if one notes that each steel drum can be safely reused up to five times when reprocessed using the International Responsible Packaging Management (RPM) Guidelines, Checklists and Codes of Practice, this reduces to less than 10% of potential reuse. Plastic is worse as most can be safely reused up to 10 times if handled in accordance with the RPM Guidelines, Checklists and Codes, so reducing the 10% recover y rate to less than 1%. But what happens to the rest? Where do they go? Many are sold for domestic use, posing serious risks to our poor from the residues that remain and impregnate the plastic. Others are dumped and end up causing pollution or being used by the unsuspecting poor. The 1 000 ℓ IBCs are also finding their way more and more into rural areas for water storage – and who knows the previous contents and risks? The RPMASA, as part of the International Responsible Packaging Management Initiative, provides members with guidelines and management checklists for packaging, environmental and transport compliance and codes of practice for the safe reprocessing of steel and plastic drums and IBCs. It also has a comprehensive audit protocol to assist members with QHS&E compliance and to improve their operations – see How can you help to replace these dangerous water containers? You can start by supporting the eThekwini City Health and RPMASA initiative for safe drums, to develop and empower street traders to trade in new safe, pink ‘happy drums’ with a special logo, which is readily identifiable and confirms that the drums are new. For more information, contact the RPMASA (



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30 years

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Air pollution/CDM


Paved with good intentions In many respects, SA is still seen as the gateway into Africa and since the country's induction into the BRICS economies, there is mounting pressure to demonstrate its commitment to sustainable growth.


s part of this sustainable growth, we need to acknowledge that South Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change owing to our carbon-intense/resource-stricken economy. Renewable energy therefore needs to

remain a key focus area when assessing infrastructure development plans for the country, and knowing that initial investments in renewable energies will be expensive, projects should be elected based not on financial feasibility, but on ‘bankability’

to help promote better sustainability and reduced carbon emissions. We chat to Neil Morris, director of Climate Change and Sustainability Services, KPMG, on the subjects of COP 17 and the effects of climate change for South Africa.

Q: What are the implications of the government’s carbon policy objectives for the South African economy? A: If the government implements a carbon tax, it will increase the costs of doing business in the form of a cost for greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted directly or consumed indirectly through the use of GHG-intensive goods and services, such as electricity. There are also great opportunities for business, as achieving GHG emissions reductions by investing in clean technology or process optimisation is often correlated with lower energy consumption. This translates into lower costs and less concern over security of supply, in addition to enhanced productivity. Financial incentives also exist for energy efficiencies achieved through schemes such as Energy Efficiency and Demand Side Management (EEDSM), providing the potential to mitigate the carbon tax costs. Carbon policy also creates the opportunity to pursue new revenue streams and diversify business by entering into the electricity market as a

low carbon energy provider or pursuing new ventures in the low carbon economy.

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. Specifically, it has made a voluntary commitment in international climate negotiations to reduce national emissions to 34% below business as usual by 2020, and 42% by 2025, depending on finance, technology and capacity-building support from industrialised countries. One policy mechanism to incentivise low carbon growth is through attaching a

48 – RéSource November 2011

How should more alignment be achieved between business and government objectives? Business can align itself with government more effectively by developing a solid fact base to inform climate change policy. Another great way to contribute is through sharing best practices in mitigation or adaptation. What is the proposed government carbon policy, including the anticipated introduction of a carbon tax? The Department of Environmental Affairs’ overarching National Climate Change Response Paper sets out the framework for South Africa’s mitigation and adaptation policy response. The South African government has signalled a commitment to move towards a low carbon economy through implementing a set of

The JSE Top 100 companies’ disclosed direct emissions accounted for 21% of national emissions price to GHG emissions. In this respect, the Department of Environmental Affairs has released a carbon tax position paper. There is the potential for a tax on carbon to be introduced in the short-medium term, although the level and the exact design of the tax are still to be finalised. What is the private sector’s role in enabling South Africa to achieve its national emissions reduction target? The private sector has a very important role to play. Private sector direct emissions and emissions from electricity consumption account for a large portion of national emissions. According to South Africa’s 2010 Carbon Disclosure Project, the JSE Top 100 companies’ disclosed direct emissions accounted for

Air pollution/CDM Air pollution

21% of national emissions and through their electricity usage these companies contributed to 36% of emissions from electricity. Private sector companies should be incorporating climate change considerations as a central element of their business strategy and setting and pursuing realistic targets to achieve reductions in direct and indirect GHG emissions. In the short term, as South Africa’s electricity mix is still very carbon intensive, a key lever for reducing emissions from the private sector is through energyefficiency initiatives. Companies should also be looking for opportunities arising from a low carbon economy, diversifying their business into new profit-generating, low-carbon business initiatives and prioritising low carbon growth areas. A final but very important way for the private sector to contribute is through the development and diffusion of technology. COP 16, which took place in Cancun, Mexico in 2010 set the agenda for COP 17 for more definitive financial and market-based mechanisms to be identified and agreed on. What is needed here? What could these financial and market mechanisms be and how might they work? COP17 needs to make progress on various elements of a financial and market mechanism. Firstly, clarity is required on the nature and form of multilateral carbon markets (currently in the form of the CDM mechanism). Secondly, further details must be finalised in terms of the governance of the Green Climate Fund. The COP17 Transitional Committee, which Minister Trevor Manuel has been appointed to, will be presenting the design of the Green Climate Fund during the COP17 process. Lastly, in the forestry sector, the details of the design of the REDD+ mechanism must be finalised. What does the future hold for the Kyoto protocol? Is it likely to be extended? If

not, are we likely to see another agreement come out of COP 17? What should be included here? There is uncertainty as to whether the Kyoto protocol will be extended for a future commitment period or whether an entirely new agreement will be negotiated. During COP17, there is potential for parties to reach agreement on some of the building blocks of a future agreement, such as the nature of financial mechanisms. Is South Africa’s carbon emission target of 34% below business as usual by 2020 a realistic and achievable target? It is important to note that South Africa’s commitment of 34% below business as usual is a voluntary commitment. It is conditional on receiving finance, technology and capacity-building support from industrialised countries. To date, these elements have not been finalised through the international climate negotiations process, although it is

hoped that COP17 will make progress. In addition, South Africa has not quantified the baseline ‘business as usual’ trajectory against which the commitment is made. This should be quantified to enable the assessment of the emissions trajectory required up to 2020. Setting the target is only the first step. What is needed to drive carbon emission reduction? Clear, transparent and predictable climate change policy is required for the private sector to be able to respond adequately. Further analysis and policy design should take place before it is possible to assess the achievability of the commitment. In particular, attention should be given to developing sector-specific strategies.

RéSource November 2011 – 49

Air pollution/CDM


Green-minded design and construction “It’s good to see how the SA property industry can move to a more sustainable way of operating. The green features will improve the energy and environmental performance of the building, and will also ‘lock in’ superior long-term performance.” Executive mayor of Tshwane, Councillor Kgosientso Ramokgopa Wetland


ngineering, management and specialist technical services group Aurecon has a new home. Its Lynnwood Bridge Office Park building, situated just off of the N1 highway, houses approximately 1 000 of its Tshwane staff and is a celebration of green-minded design and construction. These offices have been registered with the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) for a Green Star SA Office Design v1 rating, with the aim of achieving a 4-star Green Star SA rating. The engineering company is a silver founding member of the GBCSA, an organisation that promotes, encourages and facilitates green building in the South African property and construction industries. Its sponsorship of the council’s efforts confirms its support of transformation in the industry and affirms a commitment to playing a leading role in promoting environmentally sustainable development. Apart from the company’s affiliation with the GBCSA, Aurecon’s CEO, Gustav Rohde, says that ‘going green’ has its operational benefits, too, including a more productive workforce and reduced running costs in terms of electricity and water use, among others.

50 – RéSource November 2011

As the developer and co-owner of the building, Atterbury Property was responsible for the project management on the entire project, which forms part of its new 73 000 m² Lynnwood Bridge precinct. Aurecon was responsible for all the engineering design disciplines on the project. Having gained vast experience on similar projects, including Phase II of Nedbank’s head office in Sandton, which was certified as South Africa’s first Green Star SA building, the group was certainly ready for the challenge. “From the onset, we knew it wouldn’t be an easy task,” comments Aurecon’s national green building expert, Martin Smith. Conventionally, green buildings aren’t allowed to be built within 100 m of a wetland, yet the site allocated to Aurecon fell within 100 m of the Moreleta Spruit, which is classified as a wetland. “There are good reasons for this rule,” explains Smith. “Potentially harmful water run-off from buildings can negatively affect the surrounding flora and fauna.” This led the project team to explore ways of ensuring storm water run-off from the building wouldn’t in any way harm the nearby spruit. The solution, consisting of various species of plants affixed to the building’s northern car park façade, forming a natural filtration system, is a first for South Africa and caused the GBCSA to reconsider its ruling. Because a Green Star SA rating involves so many different elements of sustainability, it was crucial that the company have a GreenStar SA accredited professional on its team. Smith, who fulfilled the role of this accredited professional, says: “A thorough understanding of each one of the Green Star SA criteria, and how these interact with each other, doesn’t guarantee a successful rating, but it improves your chances of success because it enables you to unify the many sustainability concepts required on a single project.”

Green building initiatives A number of innovative green building initiatives have been applied at the new building, especially in the areas of reducing the consumption of electricity and water, as well as improving the indoor environment quality for staff, reducing the effect of materials on the environment, improving building design and management and encouraging alternate forms of transport.

Reducing the consumption of electricity The building was designed with an energy-efficient façade, consisting of high-performance glazing, extensive external shading,

Air pollution/CDM

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT Wall of fame Reception area within a department Water-saving plants were chosen to help reduce overall consumption insulated wall panels and an insulated roof. Energy-efficient light fittings with motion sensors have been used throughout, ensuring that lights are only turned on when a particular zone is occupied, and are predicted to save the company thousands of rand in their overall electricity bill. In order to reduce the amount of lighting required even further, the building design ensures that a maximum amount of natural daylight is brought into the space, reducing the need for artificial lighting during the day. A main element of this design includes a central atrium with a reflective high-level ceiling. This ceiling was designed to reflect daylight into the windows on

The building design ensures that a maximum amount of natural daylight is brought into the space the southern façade of the building, simultaneously maximising natural light and ensuring minimal solar heat gain, as windows on this side of the building do not receive direct sunlight. Another significant energy saver is the building’s heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, which is extremely efficient and includes carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors to ensure that enough fresh air is supplied into the building. Its full economy cycle ensures free cooling is possible when outside conditions are favourable. In addition, a central chilled water plant circulates chilled water throughout the building. Importantly, all HVAC refrigerants and gaseous fire suppression systems used have an ozone depletion potential (OPD) of zero. All HVAC systems containing refrigerants are contained in a moderately airtight enclosure and a refrigerant leak detection system has been installed to cover highrisk parts of the plant.

Importantly, sub-metering has been installed for all major energy uses. This will enable the building owner and/or facilities manager to verify that equipment and systems are operating as per their design specifications and to identify areas where potential energy savings can be achieved.

Reducing the consumption of water The amount of potable (fresh, drinking) water supplied to and consumed by the building has been reduced through a number of measures, including: • Water-efficient plumbing fixtures have been fitted onto taps and shower heads in all bathroom and shower areas to reduce the output volume of water supplied. • All taps throughout the building have been fitted with flow restrictors so that no water is wasted through unnecessary usage. • The potable water consumption for landscape irrigation has been reduced by more than 90% by making use of plants that require no water (xeriscaping) and indigenous plants that need a minimal amount of irrigation. The small portion of landscaping consisting of grass and flowerbeds will only be irrigated at night and will make use of soil moisture sensors so that only the necessary amount of water is used. • A rainwater harvesting system will collect, store, treat and use large quantities of rain from the roof of the building and surrounding hard surfaces such as paving. This treated water will then be used in applications where potable water is conventionally (and unnecessarily) used, e.g. for flushing toilets. Potable or municipal water will be used in the remainder of applications within the building, e.g. bathroom and kitchen taps, change-room showers and tea bays. Only a portion of the storm water collected will be reused for

RéSource November 2011 – 51

Air pollution/CDM

flushing; the remainder will be stored and slowly released through the innovative vertical filtering system. • A water treatment system for the air conditioning condenser water has been installed to help maintain the efficiency of equipment by reducing the amount of scaling and algae growth in piping systems. • Water meters were installed for all major water uses in the project, as well as an automated effective mechanism for monitoring water consumption data. This building management system will mean that water leaks can be identified and attended to straight away. • Each floor is fitted with a sprinkler system that has isolation valves or shut-off points for floor-by-floor testing (using recycled water). These measures ensure that large quantities of water are not wasted through routine fire system testing.

Reducing the impact of materials on the environment Building materials were selected to minimise possible negative impacts on the environment. This included: • replacing 83% of the total cost of PVC content with alternative materials • sourcing timber products used in the building and construction works from a Forest Stewardship Council-certified forest • ensuring 20% of the total contract value is represented by construction materials or products that have been sourced from within 400 km of the site, minimising excessive transportation emissions.

• The building includes a dedicated tenant’s exhaust riser system which eliminates harmful pollutants from the printing areas. • High performance glass will limit the noise from the adjacent highway and ensure maximum thermal comfort.

Improving building design and management The building owner will implement the tuning of all building systems. Monthly monitoring will be undertaken and the outcomes will be reported to the building owner quarterly to allow corrective action to be taken. Full re-commissioning will be undertaken 12 months after practical completion. These initiatives will ensure that the building systems perform optimally, in the manner in which they were designed.

Encouraging alternate forms of transport In order to encourage alternate forms of transport, 43 of the 844 parking spaces are dedicated solely for the use of carpool vehicles, car share vehicles, hybrid or other alternative fuel vehicles. In addition, 76 secure bicycle storage racks have been provided, along with showers, changing facilities and secure lockers. Visitors’ bicycle parking has also been provided. “It’s important to realise that a green building is a long-term commitment,” comments Rohde. “What we set out to achieve is the creation of an office which doesn’t harm the natural landscape which surrounds it, and benefits the people who use it. I believe we’ve succeeded in achieving this vision.”

Improving indoor environment quality Staff flourish when they are placed in a comfortable and stimulating environment. The building offers the following: • During modelling of the design, a high thermal comfort rating was achieved. Essentially, this means that, 98% of the time, 90% of the building’s occupants will feel comfortable and satisfied with the internal building temperature. • Efforts have been made to ensure that a maximum amount of daylight enters the building. The unwanted effects of daylight glare have been minimised through control measures such as fixed shading devices and blinds on the windows, which may be adjusted to shade the working plane from direct sun at desk height. • Statutory ventilation requirements have been exceeded by 150%. • The CO2 levels are carefully monitored and controlled to optimise the indoor air quality. • The HVAC systems will operate on full fresh air when outside conditions are favourable. • High frequency ballasts were installed in over 95% of the office useable area (UA) to eradicate the flickering effects of fluorescent lighting, which often causes headaches. This will also serve to improve the efficiency of the lighting. • To limit the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air, interior finishings such as carpets, paints, adhesives and sealants with low VOC emissions were used. • Within the general office space, internal noise resulting from the building services and ambient sound levels has been reduced by using materials with a sufficient sound insulation level. • All composite wood products have low formaldehyde emissions.

Reception area at two main entrances

RéSource November 2011 – 53

Air pollution/CDM


The nexus between water, energy and food By Kim Adonis*

Global water, energy and food resources are under enormous pressure. Over the next few decades, increases in population and consumption, as well as rapid urbanisation, will exacerbate this pressure.


istorically, South Africa’s economic wealth and success can largely be attributed to the mineral wealth of the country, combined with under-priced natural resources. Over the past 100 years, the growth of the South African economy has been energy and resource intensive and based on the extraction of relatively cheap and accessible coal as the primary source of energy. However, the cost of the environmental damage has not been factored into the equation. Today, the threat of climate change is real and the effects can already be felt. Climate change will have a direct impact on the availability of water resources globally. As it stands, 10 of the 19 Water Management Areas (WMAs) have negative water balances, which essentially means that water consumption in these areas exceeds the ecological reserve amount that is required to maintain the functionality of the existing ecosystem. In line with this, KPMG has conducted research into what can be dubbed ‘The Energy-Climate-Water Nexus’, providing further insights into what the implications of water scarcity and water quality due to climate change influences for Southern Africa will be – particularly as addressing climate change becomes increasingly important globally.

Natural resources Water, energy and food security are inextricably linked and will be fundamentally altered by the increasing effects of climate change, as shown in figure 1 opposite. There is no substitute for water. Water security is at the heart of the relationship between energy generation, economic growth, development and food security. It plays a crucial role in any economy, serving as an input to production and

54 – RéSource November 2011

the basis for sustaining life. However, the price of water does not reflect the underlying value that we derive from the resource. Climate change will have a direct impact on the availability of water resources globally. As a water-scarce country with relatively low average rainfall and high evaporation rates, this is of particular importance for South Africa. Only 8% of South Africa’s rainfall converts into river runoff, i.e. water that is accessible for consumptive use. Increased temperatures could result in increased evaporation, reducing the quantity of water available for consumption. A recent Africa Earth Observation Network (AEON) report predicts that climate change implications for southern Africa could include: • 70% reduction in runoff • 50% increase in the frequency of drought occurrence • 40% reduction in maize crop yields. Food security is highly dependent on the availability of water resources and certainty in its supply. Global volatility in food prices over the past few years is indicative of the future that awaits us as uncertainty over water supply increases. Increased demand for food leads to increased demand for water to produce food, as does the uncertainty of supply in relation to climate change and increasing global temperatures. Figure 2 illustrates the dependence of both the agriculture and energy sectors on water resources, with irrigated agriculture accounting for 62% of total water demand in South Africa. Increased variability in water supply would have a large impact on the agriculture sector and thus on domestic food security. Small-scale farmers who rely on rainfall for irrigation would be particularly vulnerable to variability. The energy sector is also a big consumer of water resources, accounting for 2% of water demand in 2000.

Air pollution/CDM


FIGURE 1 Demand forecasts for water, energy and food

FIGURE 2 Water demand composition, 2000

South Africa’s dependence on coal-based energy also has significant implications. Power generation and mining use about 10% of water available in the country. As such, the consequences for water resources are twofold. Firstly, more reliance on coal-fired power stations increases our carbon emissions and overall water use. Secondly, continued coal mining will increase water pollution and the degradation of existing water resources and related ecosystems.

In an attempt to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, South Africa will have to embark on a fundamental restructuring of its economy. This will require a transition from

Water balances

a reliance on ‘sunset’ industries (such as mining and other primary sector activities) towards a reliance on ‘sunrise’ industries (some of which include renewable energy and the services sector), which will not only protect the environment, but could potentially enhance the country’s productivity through technological innovation. The challenges and opportunities emerging from energy, climate change and water conservation are inseparable but, at the same time, poorly understood. Internationally, the focus has been on reducing carbon emissions. Little attention is paid to the link between a country’s approach to generating energy and the resultant carbon emissions levels. These in turn influence climate change and the consequent availability of water resources for industrial and consumer use. Holistic and integrated mitigation strategies aimed at managing climate change and water resources will be fundamental to addressing the socio-economic and developmental constraints that we currently face.

Currently, 10 of South Africa’s 19 WMAs have negative water balances. This essentially means that water consumption in these areas exceeds the ecological reserve amount required to maintain the functionality of the existing ecosystem. Over and above water scarcity, reduced water quality warrants consideration as it, too, could have significant social and economic implications. The AEON report highlights that the acid mine drainage derived from both coal and gold mining could be a major driver of a reduction in water quality over the next 15 years. More than half of the water deficit in South Africa predicted for 2025 could be the result of pollution generated from acid mine drainage. The report estimates that addressing the problem will cost about R360 billion (15%) of South Africa’s current GDP. This will be undertaken through the construction of water treatment and desalination plants to deal with both quality and quantity constraints.

*Manager for financial risk management at KPMG SA

Over and above water scarcity, reduced water quality warrants consideration as it, too, could have significant implications

RéSource November 2011 – 55

Wastewater management


Numerical modelling and the uncertainty By H Seyler* and ER Hay*

Groundwater practitioners are often challenged with questions: How sure are you of the sustainable yield? What will be the impact of future changing rainfall patterns? How sure are you that my borehole will not be impacted?

FIGURE 1 (TOP) Modelled fluxes of the Breede River alluvial aquifer when subjected to 80% recharge, for the time since largescale abstraction commenced. (Fluxes into the aquifer are positive; discharges are negative. A negative balance shows that more water leaves the aquifer than enters in that year) FIGURE 2 Modelled water levels for of the Langebaan Road and Elandsfontein Aquifer System under a natural system and with a hypothetical wellfield added (DWAF, 2008b)

56 – RéSource November 2011

Case studies Quantifying the unexploited available groundwater resources was one aim of the Berg Water Availability Assessment Project, and one area of groundwater interest was the Breede River Basin alluvial aquifer. A numerical model was used to provide support over the uncertainty of the volume of water available for abstraction and the impact this may have on the hydraulically linked surface water system.

A multi-layered 3D regional model was set up in MODFLOW. Scenario testing showed that when abstracting 80% recharge, the system stabilises to a new steady-state water balance within a time scale of around 10 years (see figure 1). As time passes under the new recharge regime, influx to the alluvial aquifer from the surrounding mountain springs increases (‘Constant head’ in figure 1), and discharge from the aquifer to the


Natural System UAU Wellfield UAU Natural System LAU

50 Modelled Water Level (mamsl)


ften, there is not enough certainty of the numbers or the groundwater system for a licence to be awarded, or for interested and affected parties to give their buy-in, or for the landowner to allow you to drill a municipal production hole on their land. The various sources of uncertainty are: • the conceptual model • recharge numbers and patterns • the hydraulic parameters • the fracture networkers • the possible impact of abstraction on other users and on the environment. In each of these situations and for each of these possible sources of uncertainty, numerical modelling is a powerful tool to address these questions and deal with uncertainties, both in the data and the key parameters and in the conceptual understanding of the data. Various modelling examples from the Western Cape are presented below, following the order of the typical life cycle of a water resource project, from the prefeasibility stage to full-scale implementation and wellfield management. At each stage in this cycle, numerical models can be used to address several of the uncertainties listed above.

Wellfield LAU





0 0



15 Distance (km)




Wastewater management


Breede River decreases. The largest changes in these fluxes occur in the first five years and by 10 years the system has largely re-stabilised; this is illustrated by the imbalance in figure 1 coming close to zero (DWAF, 2008a). Concern and uncertainty over potential environmental impact is often a ‘showstopper’ in the early stages of a project, or it can be a time-consuming and costly hurdle to overcome. Numerical modelling adds important information to the debate, providing a quantitative response to questions over the degree of impact. Figure 2 shows the long-term change in water level for a hypothetical wellfield 10 km from an ecologically sensitive environment (the Langebaan Lagoon). The wellfield is located at the 10 km position on the graph and the lagoon at 20 km. The difference between the ‘natural system’ and the ‘wellfield’ water levels at 10 km shows that the wellfield would impact regional water tables by a few metres. The water levels at 20 km are, however, not impacted (DWAF, 2008b). In the preliminary stages of a water resource development project, uncertainty in the hydrogeological system is effectively handled with a regional model, constructed to test various conceptual models. The impact of various uncertainties on the system can be estimated, so the addressing of these uncertainties (which can require costly data collection) can be prioritised. Figure 3 below shows the conceptual model for the Peninsula aquifer at the Gateway Wellfield in Hermanus. This is

translated into a multi-layered 3D regional model in MODFLOW, to test various conceptual models for recharge pathways. Some key results are: • Recharge volume has a significant impact on water levels, so accurate determination of recharge is a key requirement for implementation of the Gateway Wellfield. • The recharge pathway (focussed along the fault, or dispersed across the north-eastern aquifer boundary) has negligible impact on the water levels, meaning that detailed geological mapping to address the uncertainties in the deep Peninsula structure is less of a priority (Umvoto, 2009). For complex aquifer systems where analytical solutions are not possible, questions such as how the wellfield will respond to an alternate pumping scenario, or to increased abstraction in drought periods, can often only be accurately addressed with numerical modelling. The model is then a useful tool to support decision-making over operating rules. Operation of the Gateway Wellfield is

FIGURE 3 Regional model development for the Peninsula aquifer, Gateway Wellfield, Hermanus (Umvoto, 2009) supported with a wellfield model, which builds on the regional model. The model is constructed in the finite element modelling package FEFLOW. Table 1 below shows calibration statistics of the wellfield model for the steady-state water levels. The difference between modelled and observed water levels ranges from 0.0 m to a maximum of 0.61 m. Confidence in a model is built through testing it against data that has not as yet been used in the calibration process: ‘validation and verification’ (i.e. comparison without further calibration to these new conditions). Figure 4 shows how the Gateway Wellfield model matches water levels for an operational pumping data set. Although there are some discrepancies, for example, the difference in water levels over longer time recovery, the magnitude of the drawdown is well matched. This result has been effective in building confidence in the ability of the model to





























TABLE 1 Wellfield model calibration statistics for the Gateway Wellfield (Umvoto, 2011)

Absolute residual mean = RMS/quadratic mean = Sum of residuals =

0.21 0.09 1.03

RéSource November 2011 – 57

Wastewater management FIGURE 4 Comparison of modelled and observed water levels for a validation data set, Gateway Wellfield Model (Umvoto, 2011) predict responses to conditions that are as yet not tested. Figure 5 shows the model fluxes for the same model run. Positive fluxes are flows into the model, while negative ones are outflows. The ‘GHB’ is the natural discharge to the ocean, and the ‘Imbalance’ shows the sum of all fluxes. The imbalance is negative during the first 200 days of pumping when recharge is low, indicating that more water is taken from the aquifer than enters and water is taken from aquifer storage. During this time, the natural discharge to the ocean gradually decreases. The appropriate question in terms of impact is whether this reduction in flux is environmentally acceptable. Before abstraction ceases around day 250, the imbalance is positive as the volume of recharge is greater than the abstraction. Owing to its proximity to the coast, one of the key sources of uncertainty over the sustainability of long-term use at the Gateway Wellfield is the risk of saline intrusion. The wellfield model was extended to a multi-density flow model (again using FEFLOW) to explore the various controlling factors on saline intrusion, test the impact of the geological structures on saline intrusion and test the salinity response to over-abstraction (Von Scherenberg, 2010). Figure 6 shows the salt concentration (above background) and water level for pumping since zero time. The pumping causes a background minor rise in concentrations and the model prediction suggested that the salinity would rise from Class 0 to Class 1 only over very long timelines. A drought situation is reflected at around 3 600 days, where twice the recharge volume was abstracted for one year. The concentration shows that a runaway rise in salinities does not happen and the concentration returns to the background rise once over-pumping ceases (Von Scherenberg, 2010).

and modelling during the management phase takes you from acting retroactively based on monitoring data into a practice of modelling to predict future scenarios, predictions informing management decisions and monitoring to see how closely the model predicted events, as well as fine-tuning a model. Of course, the examples presented here do not address the possible uncertainty within the numerical modelling, and there is a large amount of literature and research focussing on mathematical methods to quantify the uncertainty of the model result. Few of these, however, are able to

FIGURE 5 Comparison of modelled and observed water levels for a validation data set, Gateway Wellfield Model (Umvoto, 2011) consider the uncertainty in the hydrogeological structure and there is a danger of getting bogged down in numbers. However, the simple examples given here show that through relying on a combination of good conceptual analysis and sound modelling techniques, models can go a long way towards providing quantitative answers to key management questions. *Umvoto Africa

Summary The case studies described above illustrate that modelling at the early stage of a project can effectively move a project from the uncertainty realm into action,

FIGURE 6 Model salt concentration and water level response to an over-pumping scenario (Von Scherenberg, 2010)

RéSource November 2011 – 59

Plant & equipment

Design, manufacture and repair specialists


uncanmec manufactures a wide variety of waste handling equipment, including roll-on units, front- and rear-end compactors, skip units and extendable arm skip units. Universal front-end loader: The company supplies the 30 m³ Universal front-end loader, which is produced under licence from Universal in Canada, offering a lightweight body that allows increased legal payload and patented inflatable tailgate seals to ensure the retention of liquids. Rolon units: This was the first South African-designed unit available on the market and today the new series of units are still carefully designed to match the latest overseas technology, adapted to local conditions. The Rolon System allows for a conventional truck chassis to be converted

into a versatile multifaceted vehicle, where efficiency, versatility and profitability are exponentially increased. Product variety is a big advantage of the system, allowing for the same truck to transport different products by merely changing the type of container. Skip units: Manufactured from high tensile, impact-resistant steel, these units are based on latest overseas developments and technology. The lifting arms are connected at the base by a torsion shaft, eliminating the need for a top arm crossbeam, which in turn allows

the stacking of bins to the maximum legal height. Lift cylinders are mounted outboard of the load deck for ease of maintenance and maximum protection from swinging bins. All shafts and pivot pins are fitted with replaceable vesconite bearings that require minimum lubrication and perform well even in the dirtiest conditions. Extendable arm skips: The extending arms of the skip are a telescopic version of the standard Duncanmec arm. In the retracted mode the arm has exactly the same dimensional geometry and lift capacity. In the extended mode the arm length increases by 800 mm. Although this reduces the lift capacity by 21%, the operator has many other advantages, such as the ability to place and collect bins at a far higher position. Full specs are available on www.

Extendable arm skip units

A 360 degree waste focus


he company 600SA’s cleansing and waste division focuses on the supply of global leading brands to the local waste market. Products in this division include: Bucher Schörling street sweepers: Compact sweepers: The 1 m-wide efficient CitySpider is an efficient sweeper and the uniquely articulated CityCat 2020 is able to access and clean all corners. Truck-mounted sweepers: The CityFant 60 offers high per formance with easy maintenance, while the 7 m³ Optifant 70 demonstrates outstanding cleaning capabilities. Beam specialist sweepers: Beam is a global manufacturer of specialist sweepers and high-pressure washing equipment (pictured), and has in excess of 1 500 machines in ser vice with airports and contractors worldwide, for rubber removal, stand cleaning, high-speed runway sweeping, road construction, tram track cleaning, tunnel washing and porous asphalt cleaning.

Rear-end-loading compactors: The range comprises: The 12 m³ Sierra, 19.1 m³ Delta Standard, 19.1 m³ Brutus Heavy Duty and the 19.1 m³ Angra Recycling Compactor. In addition, 600SA manufactures a range of skip loaders for the waste and scrap

markets. Skiploaders of 4, 8, 12 and 16 t capacity are manufactured at the Spartan factor y, and the units are ideal for municipalities, scrap metal, waste removal and building industries. Full specs are available on

RéSource November 2011 – 61

Plant & equipment

Seamless radio network for Gautrain


eamless communication between the Gautrain control centre, train operators and the various support services is provided by Fleetcall – South Africa’s trunked radio network. The Gautrain trunked radio system is based on an MPT-1327 trunking network system, which facilitates seamless transfer of voice and data between the central control operators, security, depot and maintenance personnel and train and bus operators, irrespective of their location in the coverage area on the surface or underground. Following a stringent selection process as the successful tenderer, Becker Electronics and partner Fleetcall built a dedicated trunked network to serve Gautrain’s communication needs. The network provides communication with the trains above and below ground as the control centre needs to be in

immediate and continuous contact with the trains along the entire route, including underground tunnels and stations. The trunked radio network provider specialises in providing mobile communication solutions for the transport industry, local government, utility services (such as water and waste) and forestry and provides the communication coverage for fleet management services. Its network was first established in 1993 and today it provides blanket coverage for most of the

economically active areas of South Africa. The JSE-listed company was also awarded a consolidated level 3 BBBEE verification status by an accredited verification agency in 2010. The company achieved a 110% procurement recognition level, 28.6% black ownership and 13.2% black female ownership, scoring maximum points in these areas. In addition to this, the company was also rated 7th Most Empowered Company in the ICT sector by the Financial Mail Empowerdex Top Empowered Companies in South Africa survey earlier this year. The shortage of ICT skills in South Africa is a problem that the company has tackled head-on with the establishment of the Altech Academy in 2007. The programme has ensured that over 160 of its employees have graduated over the past two years with qualifications ranging from diplomas to PhDs.

62 – RéSource November 2011

Is the cost of communicating getting you down?

Can you afford not to be in touch? Get unlimited voice communication on Altech Fleetcall’s national network for less than R399* per month.

Call 0860 123 341 *Terms and Conditions apply

Plant & equipment

Locally assembled road sweeper is first of its kind


oscor Cleaning Equipment (GCE) produced its first locally assembled road sweeper. Historically, these machines were imported as ‘complete’ units. The advantage of locally assembling these sweepers is that the chassis can be locally selected and supported by the selling dealer. Local warranties also apply. “We currently have the option of TATA, Hino and Iveco and are working on making other local brands available,” says MD of GCE, Ricky Bodmer. Imported chassis from the USA are left-hand drive, so dual steer is not an option and results in additional costs. On right-hand drive chassis, using a camera system allows easy visual control for sweeping on the left at a greatly reduced cost. Imported chassis also pose a problem with regard to local support as they tend to be very sophisticated owing to the enforced advanced emission controls imposed by European and American countries. These

imported chassis generally pose their own set of challenges for local dealers. The sweeper body is still supplied by Elgin Sweeper Company and is shipped locally

in skid form. Assembly is carried out at GCE’s own workshop facilities. After-sales support for the chassis and sweeper body is offered locally.

RéSource November 2011 – 63

Sweeping is Simply not n Enough How effective is your Road Maintenance Ma Programme?

Proper Road Maintenance requires regular sweeping in conjunction with continuous storm water system maintenance in order to prevent flooding and ultimately road surface deterioration.

Goscor Cleaning Equipment offers a wide range of street sweepers and drain cleaners from world-leading brands to ensure the effective implementation and maintenance of your Road Maintenance Programme.

Sale and Rental options available Offices in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban & Port Elizabeth. Tel: 0861 GOSCOR (467 267) • A proud member of the Goscor Group of Companies

Plant & equipment

The tyre shredding experts


shredder or as a standalone shredder itlee is the African dealer and with the addition of a classifer to distributor for CM Tyre Recycling produce clean-cut chips from primar y Equipment Solutions – the ideal shred or larger chips. equipment for producing tyre-derived fuel – and offers the following: ng: Primary tyre shredder: r: Shreds whole passenger, truck, superr single, AG and light OTR tyres into clean-cut an-cut primar y shreds or chips. Single-speed tyre shredder: edder: A turnkey whole tyre-to-chip ip solution that shreds whole steel-belted ed radial passenger and SUV UV tyres into specifically sized chips. Dual-speed tyre shredder: A turnkey tyreeto-chip two-speed solution on that shreds whole steel-belted radial al passenger, SUV, and heavy truck tyres yres into specifically sized chips in one process. Chip shredder: A secondar ondar y tyre shredder that works with th another Zero-minimu waste4 processing system

Classifier: A patented screening system that classifies scrap tyre shreds into specifically sized chips. CM2R liberator: Liberates the wire from the tyre into the purest and cleanest form possible. CM4R liberator: Liberates the wire from the tyre into the purest and cleanest form possible.

RéSource November 2011 – 65

NEED SOLUTIONS What’s your next major business decision? • Expand your business or market share? BIO MASS, BIO FUEL. Reduce cost? • Increase pro¿ts? • Enhance Safety? Whatever your challenges, Ritlee can help analyze your current Situation and reach your goals.

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Plant & equipment

A well-rounded approach

Mike Tomsett is the company’s new group CEO


manufacture, supply and support of specialist truck bodies, primarily for the transport, construction, forestry, waste and environmental, and cargo body transport industries. They also manufacture ambulances, armoured vehicles, including cash-in-transit vehicles, components for the automotive and engineering industries, fuel tanks and trailers of all sizes, as well as carrying out alterations to truck chassis and supply and fitment of hydraulic kits. The product range even extends to motorcycle and sidecar ambulance combinations for use in remote rural areas in Africa under the eRanger name. A recent and very exciting extension of its product offering is the Road Rail Vehicles (RRV), which TFM has recently introduced with GALT Systems (Pty) Ltd.

FM was first incorporated 45 years ago and was split into three separate groupings in 1998 following management buyouts. This split over a decade ago has now been reversed and the various business entities of the original TFM Group, as well as several other strategic businesses, have been consolidated into one controlling entity. A total of 10 entities have been merged into a single company, with a central management board. However, each business division/subsidiary will still continue to operate with a large amount of independence. The new board took control on 1 July 2011 and has Johan van der Merwe (currently MD of TFM Industries (Pty) Ltd) and Brian Harmse (currently MD of Fabkomp (Pty) Ltd) as joint executive chairmen, with Mike Tomsett as the company’s new group CEO. Following on from the merger, the group is proud to announce that its BBBEE partner, Disabled Empowerment Concerns (DEC) Trust, has increased

its equity stake in the company. DEC Trust will now have a shareholding in excess of 25% of the issued share capital, fulfilling the ownership portion of the group’s BBBEE requirements. The proceeds of the transaction will be utilised to fund future acquisitions that the group is currently investigating. The group will now have a national footprint, with operational facilities strategically placed throughout South Africa, offering experienced and effective sales, service, and manufacturing teams nationwide. As such, TFM Holdings (Pty) Ltd has acquired 100% of the issued share capital of Customising Centre in KZN. This move solidifies the company’s intentions of being in a position to service its customers in an area where the company has traditionally not been a market leader. The company will now be known as TFM Customising Centre (Pty) Ltd. Today, the various companies now being grouped together specialise in the import,

RéSource November 2011 – 67

Plant & equipment

Environmental equipment for the professional


ermeer is recognised as a leader in, among others, the environmental sector, where its rugged and dependable products and accessories are preferred by tree-care contractors, grinding experts and landscaping professionals. Tree spades: The company revolutionised the industry when it introduced ‘instant shade’ with the tree spades,


                         

designed to dig, lift and transport growing trees in no time. Stump cutters: The cutters offer enhancing features, such as the patented AutoSweep, patented Gear-Drive Cutter-Wheel System and patented Cutter-Wheel Guard. The equipment has proven reliability in the field on almost every type of hardwood stump. Brush chippers: These incorporate the patented AutoFeed II and the patented SmartFeed system, designed to increase productivity. By automatically monitoring and regulating chipper feed rates so that the machine operates at peak engine horsepower, these systems

also free the operator from manual feed control, offering years of rugged, dependable service. Grinders: Tub grinders and horizontal grinders feature the patented Duplex Drum Rotor System, which increases productivity and reduces service downtime over ‘conventional’ pin-and-plate rotor assemblies. The horizontal grinders are available in various configurations, also to suit large land clearing and brush/wood waste processing operations. Trailer-mounted units can be towed behind dump trucks, while the self-propelled track grinders are easy to manoeuvre and can work on rough and uneven job sites.

TG400A grinding material from a local land clearing operation

Full specs are available on

            

            


















68 – RéSource November 2011

LANDFILL COMPACTORS (FOR SALE) from R395,000 - R995,000 Machines available in stock ex Durban (23 – 30 tons) Regular imports of (23 – 45 tons)


Machines repaired & serviced at our workshop

Hanomag parts agent


CELL 083 226 6156


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Resource Nov 2011  

ReSource promotes integrated resource management, with a special interest in waste management and cleaner production.