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The official journal of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

Promoting integrated resources management

Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

The Recycling Issue

Circular Economy

Paper & Packaging

Climate Change

Waste tyre revolution

Balancing the waste scales

The state of our planet

I n t e r w a s t e The future is now

In the Hot Seat ISSN 1680-4902 R50.00 (incl VAT) • Vol 18, No 2, May 2016 We are looking to the future and aligning our corporate is identity with our diverse expertise, modern approach and printed on 100% recycled paper Africa’s vast potential.” Paul Olivier CEO, JG Afrika


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Recycling

Waste management

Contents

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www.3smedia.co.za ISSN 1680-4902, Volume 18, No. 2, May 2016

Recycling Waste tyres

The ReSource team stands firmly behind environmental preservation. As such, ReSource is printed on 100% recycled paper and uses no dyes or varnishes. The magazine is saddle stitched to ensure that no glues are required in the binding process.

On the Cover

Interwaste has launched South Africa’s first refuse-derived fuel plant, paving the way for a more sustainable future. P6

ReSource offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand.

18

Sustainability Hero

20

Landfills Food waste

31

Industrial Water

Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a cover story and a cover picture to promote their products and services to an appropriate audience. Please call Tazz Porter on +27 (0)11 465 5452 or +27 (0)82 318 9308 to secure your booking.

Hazardous Waste

Regulars President’s Comment Editor’s Comment Industry News

3 5 44

Chemical classification and labelling

Industrial Water

Hot Seat

Shoring against business risk

JG Afrika Engineering a new future, developing together 8

The next steps in smart data

Solid waste compaction in landfills

Sustainability Hero

38

Climate Change

18

The state of the planet

Landfills

42

Events Round-up

20

Conferences and expos

in association with infrastructure news

35

Technical Paper

Balancing the waste scales 10 The waste tyre revolution 14

Composting food waste at market

31

Energy Efficiency

Recycling

ABI Recycling gets schooled

26

infrastructure4

}

www.infrastructurene.ws

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ReSource May 2016 – 1


20720

Dispose of your used oil here...

...and you could end up here. Up to 15 years imprisonment.

So for peace of mind, contact a NORA-SA approved collector or recycler to safely dispose of your used oil. Call 0860 NORA-SA (6672 72) for a collector in your area.


President's Comment

Welcoming

our new president This year is election year, not only for local government, but also for the IWMSA – as my term as president is drawing to a close. Thankfully, we don’t have political turmoil to deal with in the IWMSA, as is the case with local government elections.

T

his is the last comment that I will write as president of the Institute of Waste Management as I will handing over the reins to Jan Palm on 1 July 2016. The nominations for branch committees and vice-president are in and the new council will be under the leadership of Jan Palm, our current vice-president. Therefore, I would like to take this opportunity to thank all our members for your support during my term of office (2013–2016). It was not always plain sailing, but we have conquered the storms and came out stronger at the other side. Being the president of the IWMSA was not always easy but with the support of a ver y capable and supporting council, who worked together as a team, and with the unconditional support of the branch managers and ladies at head office, it was a privilege and pleasure to ser ve in this position. The waste industry in South Africa is small and very diverse. Although we may have our differences, we must stand together and join hands in the interest of the sector and continue to strive towards a clean and healthy environment as stated in our vision and mission. There are many challenges but, with the correct attitude and innovative thinking, we can turn these challenges into opportunities.

The IWMSA celebrates its 40th anniversary in September 2016. What started off as a meeting by five concerned solid waste managers in September 1976, has grown over the past 40 years into an organisation with over 900 members. The foundational issues that informed the creation of the IWMSA remain core concerns, namely: • the lack of national attention to solid waste management • the inability of both private and public bodies to work in concert on the problem of waste • the dearth of either academic, or technical training for anyone interested in fields relating to waste management. You are, therefore, encouraged to visit the IWMSA website for an update on the latest training courses offered and, if you have not yet done so, to register for WasteCon 2016, which is taking place at Emperors Palace from 17–21 October 2016, where the changing face of waste management will be deliberated.

“The waste industry faces many challenges but, with the correct attitude and innovative thinking, we can turn these challenges into opportunities.”

Suzan Oelofse President: IWMSA

Patron members of the IWMSA

ReSource May 2016 – 3


Editor'sCover Comment strap Publisher Elizabeth Shorten Editor Frances Ringwood Guest editor Candice Landie Head of design Beren Bauermeister Design consultant Frédérick Danton Designer Ramon Chinian Chief sub-editor Tristan Snijders Sub-editor Morgan Carter Contributors Suzan Oelofse, Robert Relou, Stéphane Bertrand, Devan Valenti, Simon Atlas Client services & production manager Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator Jacqueline Modise Financial manager Andrew Lobban Marketing & digital manager Philip Rosenberg Distribution manager Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator Asha Pursotham Administrator Tonya Hebenton Printers United Litho Johannesburg Advertising sales Tazz Porter Tel +27 (0)11 465 5452 Cell +27 (0)82 318 3908 tazz@connect.co.za

Publisher No.9, 3rd Avenue Rivonia, 2191 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 www.3smedia.co.za Annual subscription: subs@3smedia.co.za R200.00 (incl VAT) South Africa ISSN 1680-4902 The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 675 3462 Email: iwmsa@telkomsa.net All material herein is copyright-protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views and opinions expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher, editor or The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa, but those of the author or other contributors under whose name contributions may appear, unless a contributor expresses a viewpoint or opinion in his or her capacity as an elected office bearer of a company, group or association. © Copyright 2016. All rights reserved.

ReSource is endorsed by:

Recycling

It’s the only way we know how

I

t is a privilege to be asked to fill in as editor on ReSource, even if it’s just for one issue. It’s been a little over three years since I last worked on the magazine and, while changes over such a period can be drastic, I am relieved to be working with many familiar faces in the industry. It is comforting to know that the fight for a cleaner, sustainable future perseveres. The May issue kicks off with a special focus on recycling – from the complexities of tyre recycling to the highly anticipated Paper and Packaging Industry Plan, which will ensure that households are compelled, by regulation, to separate their waste at source. The plan brings with it a refreshed approached to waste disposal, placing much of the onus into the hands of the consumer. Through the plan, government expects a significant change in the current waste management sector as separation at source from household levels will not only minimise the amount of waste going to landfill, but will also unlock the economic potential of this waste stream. Plastics|SA sheds light on its clean-up and recycling initiatives, stating that the organisation is a strong advocate of residential separation at source. On the subject of recycling, REDISA director Stacey Davidson elaborates on the difficulty involving tyre recycling and how the organisation – and the industry – is exploring various options to ensure optimal reuse of this product. ReSource discusses the use of waste tyres as modified binders used in road construction and paving materials, investing in research and development, what the tyre tax levy means for small businesses, and the use of pyrolysis to recycle waste tyres for oil. When comparing the options of converting waste to fuel, we can all take a cue from Interwaste’s recently launched refuse-derived-fuel plant, which produces a solid recovered fuel in accordance with European standard specifications. Now that’s impressive! But recycling is not the only topic covered in this issue; there is also an interesting case study on the feasibility of composting food waste at a fresh produce market. The pilot project was conducted at the Tshwane Fresh Produce Market, while industrial and waste applications specialist Stephané Bertrand compares compaction at sanitary landfills with the value of airspace. His paper highlights the advantages of solid waste compaction and solid waste placement on a landfill, unpacking the tipping area, landfill cell and thickness of waste layer, among others. The global warming article takes a holistic look at the state of our planet, and the extract is courtesy of Devan Valenti and Simon Atlas, authors of Green Is Not A Colour: Environmental Issues Every Generation Needs to Know. Barry Bredenkamp, of the South African National Energy Development Institute, offers insight into the best ways for municipalities to utilise data from smart meters. On that positive note, this is the last issue before WasteCon 2016 comes around! And with a fantastic line-up of speakers and exhibitors, why would you want to be anywhere else from 17 to 21 October? Happy reading, Candice Landie Guest editor

ReSource May 2016 – 5


Cover Story

The plant of the future…

now! E

It’s a fact: for every tonne of waste processed by a waste-to-energy plant in place of a landfill, approximately one tonne of carbon dioxide emissions is avoided. Through the launch of South Africa’s very first refuse-derived fuel plant, Interwaste is ensuring less reliance on vital and carbon-intensive resources.

arlier this year, waste management company Inter waste launched South Africa’s ver y first refuse-derived fuel (RDF) plant, which aims to reduce waste to landfill and pioneer the conversion of general, industrial and municipal waste to alternative fuels – placing less strain on South Africa’s already limited resources. Prior to the implementation of the plant, Interwaste underwent stringent environmental compliance procedures to ensure due process was followed and that the facility would operate with a valid licence and the correct environmental authority approvals, which are critical in ensuring sound business practices. “In line with global best practice, Interwaste continually invests in innovative solutions that present the most environmentally sound waste management opportunities. It’s what makes us market leaders and places us in a favourable position within the

6 – ReSource May 2016

competitive waste management industry,” says Allan Willcocks, CEO, Interwaste.

Sustainable benefits Energy from waste offers a safe, efficient and sustainable means of generating power while simultaneously disposing of waste, which would other wise end up at landfill. Considering the vast number of products we consume ever yday, a significant amount of waste is produced – not all organic, and not all recycled after use. It is estimated that, worldwide, people generate about 1.1 trillion kilograms of waste annually, and that most of this ends up at landfill, often overlooked by consumers. “Through the commissioning of such solutions, companies are able to lessen their reliance on fossil fuels, which have a high environmental impact – such as acid mine drainage and reject coal. Not only are businesses able to drastically improve their emissions profile, but they are also able

to pay back their investment within a mere five years, as the fuel is substantially more economical,” he continues. The current RDF plant, with planned expansion in the near future, which was impor ted and is located at Inter waste’s Germiston depot, is expected to see a minimum of 12 000 tonnes of waste conver ted to alternative fuel ever y year for use in the countr y’s manufacturing sector. The plant produces a solid, recovered fuel in accordance with European standard specifications and is equivalent to A-grade coal – offering a twofold solution: zero waste to landfill, and the option of selling RDF to industr y as an alternative to coal.

Protecting the environment Inter waste has also pioneered the process within the hazardous waste environment, ensuring that hazardous waste can be diver ted from landfill where such waste is not only expensive to dispose of but toxic,


Cover Story

“Interwaste continually invests in innovative solutions that present the most environmentally sound waste management opportunities.” Allan Willcocks, CEO, Interwaste if not managed properly. Hazardous waste has the ability to seep into the soil where it can enter groundwater systems and cause contamination. Combining cer tain chemicals and gases within landfill sites also poses health and environmental dangers, making the area prone to spontaneous combustion. “Locally, the playing fields have changed. The implementation of new and pending legislation is forcing companies to move

to 21st century solutions, which offer real opportunity for environmental preservation,” Willcocks reiterates. “As such, from Inter waste’s perspective, the provision of these fuels has not only opened up in excess of 100 jobs within the sector, but has created a ver y solid platform from which to protect the environment at large.” Willcocks urges corporate South Africa to view these solutions with an open mind. “We are not in this alone. In order for us to make the change we want to see, it is up to corporate companies to understand the

OPPOSITE RDF plant situated at Interwaste Germiston, Gauteng Depot ABOVE Solid recovered fuel in the form of extruded logs

benefits of such solutions to their bottom line and the environment. We are positive about the impact of such market innovation and look for ward to ver y exciting times for RDF.” The launch of the RDF plant was another market first for Inter waste and confirms the company’s commitment towards helping customers reduce their operating expenses while remaining environmentally conscious.

+27 (0)11 323 3700 • info@interwaste.co.za www.interwaste.co.za

ReSource May 2016 – 7


Hot Seat

Engineering a new future, developing together

The JG Afrika personality is perfectly portrayed through the new brand colours – blue and green. In addition to the environmental connotations of these colours, they are associated with trust, dependability, strength, peace, growth and health. These characteristics perfectly reflect the company’s culture.

The way forward

The JG Afrika board members, standing (from left to right): Martha Makhetha, Phaks Ngqumshe, Seetella Makhetha, Jan Norris; seated: Paul Olivier (MD), Nomsa Mkaza, Harold Tiganis

South Africa remains the beloved country: a land of great opportunity – as is the continent of Africa. To express its commitment to the country, the continent and a transformed, democratic Africa, Jeffares & Green embarked on a rebranding exercise at the end of 2015.

N

ow known as JG Afrika, the company and its staff are excited about the message they are sending – a message that tells the world that Africa has a lot to offer. “Our name change speaks to our commitment to being proudly South African. We want to make a bold statement that we are locally owned and managed, and plan to remain so. The company has a rich heritage and history in Africa. We are very excited about the future and remain committed to our beloved continent,” confirms Phakamile Ngqumshe, director and branch manager: Johannesburg.

A new name with history The inclusion of JG in the company’s new name denotes its acknowledgement of, and appreciation for, its history, while Afrika indicates its independence, its love for the continent, and is a nod to the native African spelling of Africa. This is most obviously represented in our first democratic national anthem, ‘Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika’. "With this name, we will show the world that we are true to our African roots, while remaining unique and maintaining our independence,” believes Ngqumshe. The brand development started with the 8 – ReSource May 2016

selection of a new name. After much research, the selected options were presented to our staff and a vote was held. “We really enjoyed the process of evaluating the naming options and involving our staff,” says Paul Olivier, managing director, JG Afrika. The firm announced its new name to clients in February 2016, and has launched the new brand throughout Africa in April. “The brand identity was developed and designed with a purpose: to remember the company’s history, to reflect its ethos and project its future,” says Olivier. “The logo’s icon is representative of man-made, engineered, symmetrical lines. These lines are contrasted with organic shapes, which represent the environment (green) and water (blue), denoting the environmental sphere of JG Afrika’s services. The design and name incorporates the three pillars of the company’s ethos – experience, quality and integrity – while displaying fresh, innovative thinking.”

“In planning for 2016, part of our goal for the new year was to sustain the advancement and success that we have achieved are the past 94 years. Over this period, the company has progressed and evolved to keep pace with fluctuations in demand, the industry and customer requirements. To remain relevant, this must be a continuous process,” says Olivier. “As such, a strategy was meticulously devised to take JG Afrika to the next level on all fronts.” As the African proverb goes: “If you want to go quickly, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.” This is the basis of JG Afrika’s long-term plans. “Together, we will continue to grow, learn and develop, with a focus on continuous improvement. The time has come to look to the future and to align our corporate identity with our diverse expertise, our modern approach and the great future Africa has as a growing continent,” concludes Olivier. As JG Afrika looks to the future, it recognises the importance of maintaining what the industry considers best practice – especially when it comes to the company’s ownership structure. As a result, JG Afrika is moving to an employee owned model and has established 51% empowered shareholding. “This model enables us to retain the young stars that we have developed (through our Accelerated Development Programme), provide a platform for rewarding and mentoring key staff members, and moving towards achieving majority empowered ownership from within our own ranks,” confirms Olivier.

The firm announced its new name to clients in February 2016, and launched the new brand throughout Africa in April


SIKHULISA SONKE • WE DEVELOP TOGETHER

Proudly South African, JG Afrika (previously Jeffares & Green) provides civil and structural engineering and environmental consulting services throughout Africa. With a century of in-depth industry experience, a rich history, and strong African roots, JG Afrika continues to offer clients sustainable solutions of uncompromising quality and integrity.

Tel: +27 11 231 2200 info@jgafrika.com www.jgafrika.com Johannesburg - Cape Town - Durban - Maputo - Maseru - Maun - Pietermaritzburg - Port Elizabeth - Postmasburg - Pretoria


Recycling

Balancing the

waste scales

A

t the 2015 Johannesburg Waste Summit, it was estimated that landfills in the region have just seven years of capacity left. Currently, an over whelming 90% of waste ends up at landfills due to low levels of household waste recycling. Towards the end of last year, Minister of Environmental Affairs Edna Molewa announced that South Africa would soon have a Paper and Packaging Industr y Plan, which should bring about significant change in the current waste management sector. “Through this plan, we hope we can commence with separation at source at household level. This will not only minimise the amount of waste going to landfills but will also unlock the economic potential of this waste stream,” said Molewa during the official launch of the Ekurhuleni Clean City Programme on 24 October 2015. During a time when industry is constantly flanked with proposed regulations and guidelines, will we even see this plan come to fruition? Or should we explore and improve upon the solutions available at hand?

Understanding the problems Before we look at industr y best practice, it’s impor tant to understand and

10 – ReSource May 2016

According to the UN’s projections for 2015 to 2030, Johannesburg’s population will grow by 2.2 million and Cape Town’s by Start with the basics 0.7 million, leading to a massive While the mainstream version of increase in waste generation. sustainability has been around Thus, a paradigm shift towards for about three decades, the fundamental principles of sustainrecycling and household ability have existed for hundreds of separation at source years. The underlying philosophy is is essential. simple – use the resources you can today acknowledge the challenges facing the waste sector. A growing population and economy means increased waste, placing strain on the existing waste management stream. Although this is a challenge – with rapid urbanisation on the rise – ver y little can be done to curb the issue. Growing pressure on outdated waste management infrastructure, including the lack of a universal and efficient recycling programme, places South Africa on the back foot when it comes to setting laws and regulations. The minimal amount of waste treatment facilities available means that the ser vices come at a cost far higher than landfill disposal, so it’s obvious to see why the latter is chosen. On the subject of price, consumers are not fully aware of the value of recyclables and, hence, disposal comes naturally.

without compromising on the resources of future generations. The same principle applies to waste. The management of waste is not a municipal issue just because we pay taxes. It’s a socially responsible action and should be treated as such. Unless consumers adopt a wasteless mindset, the excessive generation of waste will always be a cause for concern. A key aspect outlined in the Paper and Packaging Industr y Plan includes the implementation of better separation at source methods – par ticularly in households. If the new plan comes to pass, households will be compelled, by municipal regulations, to separate their waste into recyclable and other waste streams. The rationale is twofold: • to obtain more uncontaminated waste for recycling • to ensure recyclables don’t end up at landfill.


Recycling “In order to turn the tide and facilitate waste management in accordance with the waste management hierarchy, one of the set goals is to promote waste minimisation, reuse, recycling and recovery,” said Molewa.

Waste to worth While there may be several proposals for the waste dilemma facing our countr y, the implementation of a circular economy seems to be the most obvious choice. The model not only encourages the recycling of materials but also promotes conser vation and sustainable waste management practices, while influencing the sustainable consumption and production of new products. The circular economy is achieved through balancing economic growth, infrastructure development and creating small business and job oppor tunities – all while lowering emissions and overall environmental impact. If the generation of waste is reduced, resources are reused and recycled and, most impor tantly, recycling initiatives gain monetar y attraction. REDISA’s model was used in the 2015 Institute of Race Relations case study on the benefits of the circular economy in South Africa. The objective of the study was to ascer tain what economic and environmental If consumer behaviour remains unchanged, South Africans will soon be swimming in a sea of landfill waste

benefits could be gained from turning waste into wor th. By turning waste into products of value, the repor t found that there is potential to create job oppor tunities, and also suppor t the emergence of local entrepreneurs while cleaning the environment. “Currently, 31% of waste tyres are being diver ted from landfill for reuse, recycling and recover y purposes. About 3 000 jobs and 200 SMMEs have been established through the implementation of the tyre plan to date. “Through initiatives such as the Clean City Programme in Ekurhuleni, an extensive network of home-based recyclers who can collect recyclable waste from their communities is established. It is, therefore, possible to significantly clean up poor communities and use recycling as a foundation for improving local environmental conditions and stimulating socio-economic development,” she continued.

Smart systems In recent years, a lot of noise has been made around the concept of smar t cities, which incorporate efficient waste management solutions. Smar t technologies are slowly expanding into modern urban environments, fuelled by the growth of highspeed fibre and mobile networks. By integrating tried

and tested waste management solutions with an enterprise resource planning (ERP) culture, the ambition of a real-time, end-to-end approach to reducing waste is ver y attainable. At least, that’s what the exper ts at SAP firmly believe. The enterprise application software company has par tnered with waste management company Prologa to address some of the challenges facing this industr y – from route planning, real-time equipment oversight, staff management and citizen ser vices to meeting regulator y benchmarks and for ward planning through data collection and predictive analytics. Through the SAP waste and recycling application, managers can control equipment age, track disposal bins, align pick-up schedules to refuse levels in bins, plan routes with on-the-ground feedback, comply with environmental

Waste management goals

For the purpose of the Paper and Industry Packaging Plan, government set three goals in accordance with the National Waste Management Strategy:

1 2 3

25% of all waste is to be diverted from landfill.



All metropolitan municipalities, secondary cities and large towns should initiate separation at source.



Waste reduction and recycling targets set in industry waste management plans (IndWMPs) for paper and packaging, pesticides, lighting (CFLs) and tyres are to be achieved.

ReSource May 2016 – 11


Recycling laws, facilitate recycling economies and much more.

Not all doom and gloom While the statistics show that South African consumers are not doing enough in terms of recycling, the work being under taken by industr y organisations should not go unnoticed. Organisations such as the Paper Recycling Association of South Africa, Petco, the Polystyrene Packaging Council, Collect-a-Can, the Glass Recycling Company, Packaging Council of South Africa, Plastics|SA and others are constantly reinforcing the message of recycling. Through their effor ts, recycling rates have improved from 44.5% in 2009 to 47% in 2011, including a 68% diversion of waste from landfills in 2011. “Sustainability is one of six core functions of Plastics|SA; providing leadership to the industr y on sustainability issues, we are involved in a number of clean-up and

recycling initiatives. The plastics industr y decided to work towards an aspirational vision of ‘Zero Plastics to Landfill by 2030’ in order to save natural resources and landfill space,” explains Anton Hanekom, executive director, Plastics|SA. The organisation is a strong advocate of residential separation-at-source initiatives. “Access to the solid waste stream is es-

While the plastics industr y aims to use this target to drive the maximum value of plastics, it also hopes to enhance its reputation in the eyes of key stakeholders. “One of our main objectives is to enhance plastics recycling in South Africa on all levels through an active and ongoing engagement with key stakeholders such as national, provincial and local governmental depar tments, with regard to waste management legislation, regulations and the recent development of the Paper and Packaging Industr y Waste Management Plan,” Hankom adds. On the paper front, Sappi ReFibre has developed an outsourced business model that enables the division to recycle large volumes of paper while benefiting businesses and communities in the process. The company procures board and paper for recycling from a network of agents across South Africa – sourced directly from homes, offices, retailers and even manufacturers in the informal sectors. Some agents go beyond paper

The effective implementation of the Paper and Packaging Industry Plan has the potential to improve the quality of life for many indigent communities across South Africa

Separation at source is key to effectively utilising waste that would normally end up at landfill

12 – ReSource May 2016

sential if we are to succeed in meeting our target. At the moment, most recyclables come from landfills. The material is filthy and contaminated. Separating waste at source produces clean waste, which goes directly to material recover y facilities and increases the recycling rate of plastics. Without effective, residential kerbside collections, recyclers need huge investments to set up washing bays to clean the recyclables, thus using constrained resources such as water and electricity.


Recycling and collect glass and cer tain types of plastics and metals, too. Sappi ReFibre, in turn, offers a secure market for cer tain categories of recyclable paper and assists its agents by providing equipment and business suppor t. Recovered board and paper is a valuable resource to the company as it is used to supplement virgin fibre in the paper-making process. Worlds apar t from the paper industr y, Scrap Batter y – a division of First National Batter y – is committed to recycling all scrap lead acid batteries across the countr y. According to Andrew Webb, marketing director: Automotive, First National Batter y, recycling of lead batteries is vital to sustainability, waste management and reducing the risk and impact of pollution. “More than 90% of all scrap batteries in South Africa are recycled and we are proud to be a par t of it. Our franchises are dropoff points for lead acid batteries that need

to be recycled. For large volumes of scrap batteries, we offer a free collection ser vice,” says Webb.

Conclusion Apar t from the fact that landfills and littered streets are unsightly and pose a huge health risk, poor waste management

practices reduce the economic potential of the sector. It is against this context that recycling has the potential to create jobs and improve the quality of life for many of South Africa’s low- and no-income communities. It’s a potential that can be unlocked through the effective implementation of the Paper and Packaging Industr y Plan. ReSource May 2016 – 13


Recycling

The waste tyre

revolution

The way to get worth from waste is to turn it into a commodity that has value – extending the life of products beyond the consumer stage by recovering, recycling and re-introducing them into the economy. ReSource explores the use of tyre waste as modified binders for use in road construction and other applications.

A

circular economy – using the same commodity over and over again – is the only way to ensure sustainable consumption. According to the Recycling and Economic Development Initiative of South Africa (REDISA), our tyre industr y is leading the way towards developing a circular economy. Recycled tyre rubber (RTR) is being used in the manufacture of new tyres, in tyre-derived fuel, civil engineering applications, in the agricultural sector, spor ts applications and as a modifier in asphalt/bitumen.

The roads industry When it comes to the longevity of roads and pavements in South Africa, the main causes of distress can be attributed to thermal and fatigue cracking, largely due to our subtropical climate. However, the use of quality binders

ReSource May

14 – ReSource May 2016


y 2016 – 14

Recycling

has led to major improvements in the molecular structure of asphalt. Rubber-modified asphalts, for example, are becoming increasingly popular, with much success demonstrated over the last 40 years. Two types of modifiers have shown to be more popular than others: crumb rubber (CR) and polymer modifiers. CR and recycled plastics have been used as binder modifiers and have replaced a por tion of the mineral aggregates in asphalt concrete mixtures. The main source of CR is waste tyres. “Waste tyres are not easy to recycle,” explains Stacey Davidson, director, REDISA. “They are designed to be tough and will persist for decades or centuries if simply dumped at landfill. The process of turning raw rubber into what we see in the final product is, at best, only partially reversible. Tyres are constructed of many materials – different grades of rubber, textiles and steel – all intimately combined.”

Most countries, especially in Europe, have relied on landfilling to dispose of waste tyres, but the limited space and potential for reuse has led to the ban of this prac-

the development of waste tyres as raw materials for the new upstream industr y. In the downstream industr y, REDISA is working with and developing a number of SMMEs and microenterprises, like the Eagle Plant,” Davidson continues.

Tax equation During his 2016 Budget Speech, Minister of Finance Pravin Gordhan introduced, for the first time in South Africa, a tyre levy. Tyre tax is nothing new to international countries and there have been plans to introduce a local levy since 2012. The main reason for the tyre tax is the minimisation of waste and, of course, the tax will be used to finance recycling programmes, among other things. In his 2015 Budget Speech, then Minister of Finance Nhlanhla Nene said: “South Africa generates an estimated 108 million tonnes of waste each year, of which only 10% is recycled. Government proposes a tyre levy, with effect from the first quar ter of 2015, to be implemented through the Customs and Excise Act and collected by SARS.” A tyre levy of R2.30/kg will be charged on ever y new tyre sold. REDISA was established, through gazetting of the Integrated Industr y Waste Tyre Management Plan, to take responsibility for the recover y, recycling and processing of waste tyres in the countr y. “In exchange for shouldering this responsibility, we receive a waste tyre management fee of R2.30/kg from all tyre manufacturers and impor ters in South Africa. The waste tyre management fee paid by the tyre producers is how the cost of dealing with end-of-life tyres is incorporated into the manufacturing cost of

“Waste tyres are not easy to recycle. They are designed to be tough and will persist for decades – even centuries – if they are simply dumped at landfill.” Stacey Davidson, director, REDISA tice. “Interest has already been expressed by bitumen producer Tosas in the development of novel paving materials. Rubber Nano Products, a joint venture with the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), is already testing a product developed at the university in the retreading industr y. Research here will focus on improving retreaded products,” she says. A key element of the REDISA plan is investment into research and development for the establishment of new recycling processes. “R&D also forms a critical par t of the upstream and downstream development, with

ReSource May 2016 – 15


THERE’S NO END TO THE BENEFITS OF A CIRCULAR ECONOMY REDISA continually creates positive futures for businesses, people and the environment by driving a circular economy that will help redesign, reinvent and reuse the products we consume. Our first-of-its-kind plan and revolutionary systems are making meaningful contributions to our society – creating jobs, opportunities and brighter futures for all. The potential for our future? Endless.

JOIN THE JOURNEY | www.redisa.org.za |

/wasteintoworth |

@wasteintoworth | +27 87 35-REUSE (73873)


Recycling

tyres,” says Davidson. She doesn’t, however, view this as tax. “This is not a tax for a number of reasons – a key one being that the funds do not enter the fiscus and are spent in an unauditable yet accountable manner, directly by REDISA. Funds are allocated to deal with the specific problem created by waste tyres. Ultimately, we use the money to develop a new tyre recycling industr y and, in the process, create hundreds of jobs and provide suppor t for small businesses.”

Tyres for oil Several tactics have been under taken by REDISA to build the new tyre recycling industr y. This includes developing processing capabilities for waste tyres through pyrolysis, crumbing (resulting in CR) and

new technologies and processes for the recycling of tyres,” says Davidson.

Innovation In 2013, REDISA par tnered with Stellenbosch University and NMMU to fund research and the necessar y equipment to drive innovation. The focus of the research work at Stellenbosch is to create technologies for the valorisation of waste tyres, with direct potential for industrial implementation, thus creating new commercial oppor tunities beyond those offered by existing tyre recycling technologies. “We are also using NMMU’s exper tise to suppor t the creation of the Product Testing Institute (PTI), which will carr y out tyre testing according to local homologation and international standards, and we will

Did you know? • SA started introducing bitumen rubber as a binder for asphalt and seals in the early 1980s. • By implementing a circular economy, REDISA has supported the local economy through 80% investment back into industry. • Crumb rubber consists of particles ranging in size from 4.75 mm to less than 0.075 mm. • The use of RTR in asphalt pavements started over 170 years ago.

controlled burning in cement kilns. Using pyrolysis to recycle waste tyres is on the rise locally. The method involves the irreversible thermochemical decomposition of organic material at extreme temperatures without any oxygen present. It allows for the capture of process gases, enabling producers to conver t these gases into oil, similar to unrefined stage six diesel oil. “We are actively suppor ting the establishment and development of additional secondar y industries to drive demand for higher-value recyclate, but it is a process that takes time. REDISA currently invests a huge amount of time and resources in R&D, not to mention finding

be developing a new set of environmental standards,” Davidson adds. She goes on to explain, “Tyres that fare better environmentally will incur a lower waste management fee. The incentive of lower fees will encourage tyre manufacturers to produce in a manner that is fully cradle-to-grave cer tified.” REDISA encourages all companies to find innovative methods of recycling that are both eco-friendly and efficient in a bid to scrap waste tyre disposal. Alternate uses and applications for products and materials derived from used tyres offer a better environmental outcome than landfill or energy recover y. After all, isn’t our ultimate goal zero waste to landfill?

ReSource May 2016 – 17


Sustainability Hero

Winning schools recycling “To change the way society handles waste, we have to effectively change the mindset of an entire generation,” says ABI's Gaopaleloe Mothoagae. A force for change at over 400 South African schools, Mothoagae is ReSource’s Sustainability Hero this month.

B

everage giant ABI’s Schools Recycling Programme has been ongoing for many years in South Africa under The Coca-Cola Company's banner. Then, in 2010, the company realised that the nature of the competition didn’t live up to its full potential to foster long-term commitment to recycling among school children. “The kids were collecting cans and whoever collected the most would win prizes, but after the competition ended, those involved would return to their old behaviors,” explains Mothoagae. At that time, ABI was changing its own outlook on waste management and recycling as a response to the Waste Management Act, which placed the onus on everyone involved in an end product’s value-chain. “For us, this meant we had to

18 – ReSource May 2016

ensure that the maximum amount of waste being produced by the company was diverted from landfill. A once-off competition was no longer enough and we decided to use our brand’s status as a vehicle for improving education about recycling in a more lasting way,” says Mothoagae.

Partnering for change When researching which schools to partner with for the greatest impact, ABI found that children at Living Standards Measure (LSM) A schools usually already knew about recycling and recycled waste at school. Therefore, LSM B schools – which are often underprivileged or no-fees schools – where children had less access to amenities let alone education about recycling, presented

FF Ribeiro School in Mamelodi

a prime opportunity to change mindsets at community level. “As part of our corporate social investment programme, we found ourselves fielding a lot of requests from schools for items like netball uniforms, science laboratory equipment and even roofs and ceilings for sports pavilions, among others. In response to this overwhelming need, we put together a plan that encourages school children to collect recyclables including paper, plastic and cans in return for cash, which the collector pays out once every month or every two months, or the schools themselves can earn money towards infrastructure they need once recyclable tonnages have met certain preset targets. In addition to this, children


Sustainability Hero and teachers can win money that can then be used to improve their school’s infrastructure,” explains Mothoagae. Entrants also stand a chance to win a couple of grand prizes at the end of each year. “All that participants need to do to be eligible for these prizes is to collect more than other schools, involve their community and parents, innovate on the use of recycling and teach using educational material developed by ABI in the classroom. We’re not saying they need a whole subject dedicated to recycling, but we encourage teachers to incorporate this material into their other classes, whether it be life sciences, natural sciences or mathematics,” says Mothoagae. As teachers bring recycling alive for their students, ABI then offers to support this process by, for example, helping schools organise mini clean-ups and excursions in their community to view impacts of waste, i.e. dump sites.

Empowering communities “While we’re conscious of the work that lies ahead of us in terms of realising our long-term objective of changing the mindset of our next generation, the 350 000 learners (and their 11 000 teachers) already active on the programme are doing us proud in terms of taking the recycling message home and into their greater communities,” says Mothoagae. She continues: “At last year’s adjudication ceremony, we saw many parents stand up on stage and give testimony in support of their children’s schools and our programme saying that they had learned about recycling from their children. Some of these parents picked up on what their children were saying to the extent that they started their own recycling businesses. “Moreover, at the no-fee schools, some parents even started collecting waste on behalf of the schools so they could assist the schools to obtain the things they needed as a way to contribute to their children’s welfare and education.” In KwaZulu-Natal, one of the grandparents was solely responsible for raising her grandchildren so the school recommended she started collecting recyclables as a way to make ends meet. After a short time, she set up her own small subsistence business, which has increased her income and improved her and her grandchildren’s quality of life.

Creating jobs Since the inception of the Schools Recycling Programme, it’s transformed from a relatively small initiative targeted at about 30 schools,

in 2010, to become one of South Africa’s biggest school recycling programmes, incorporating more than 400 schools. “In our first year of operation, we collected around 60 tonnes of recyclables. Today, our total is just over 645 tonnes collected last year. There are some schools that have collected in excess of 30 tonnes individually,” says Mothoagae. This incredible growth has fostered the need to employ unskilled and semiskilled youth who are currently unemployed, who attend skills development training and are paid a stipend so that they can become the programme’s “hands and feet” in communities, driving the collection of recyclables and motivating schools to keep up their energy and enthusiasm for the programme.

and, now, consumers too are benefitting from this ongoing perspective. “We even design our packaging with recyclability in mind; for example, you may be familiar with our Bonaqua product. What you may not know is that we use the thinnest, lightest polyethylene terephthalate plastic for those bottles, meaning they can be twisted and squashed when thrown away, taking up less space in waste receptacles,” explains Mothoagae. Other designminded approaches towards sustainability have seen ABI doing away with lid underliners and reducing label material weights, among others. Additionally, ABI no longer uses crates for delivery but instead packs its products in more lightweight shrink wrap. The company is in the process of piloting a new compartment underneath its trucks so that shrink wrap can be returned to ABI’s factories for reuse after product delivery. “Steps such as these have also seen bottom-line improvements and, at ABI, we have experienced first-hand that doing good means doing well,” says Mothoagae.

“350 000 learners and 11 000 teachers are doing us proud in terms of taking the recycling message home and into their greater communities.”

Leading by example On the supply-chain side, and in terms of ABI’s own commitment to cleaner production and resource efficiency, it has been imperative for Mothoagae, and ABI as a whole, that the company leads by example. “When you tr y to convince other people to clean up, you need to make sure that your own house is clean,” she explains. “There is nowhere within ABI’s operations where you won’t find a recycling bin. We have an internal recycling rate of 94% and we find our employees become extremely frustrated when they travel and find themselves in places where they can’t find recycling facilities. Recycling is a par t of how we do things, in our offices and on the production lines. We use the same colours for different recycling streams internally and in our external programmes, roadshows and events to create consistency, so it becomes second nature for our employees to know where to throw their glass, cans, paper and plastic.” The internal programme has taken two years to implement successfully but the company has made some fantastic strides

Leveraging leadership ABI’s Schools Recycling Programme is constantly growing, constantly adding new schools and territories. For example, as a system, we will now include Coca-Cola Fortune in the Eastern Cape as well a CocaCola Shanduka in Mpumalanga as part of our programme. “We’re leveraging the scale that comes from being part of the Coca-Cola system as a growth vehicle, and I feel privileged to exercise my personal passion for recycling on such a massive and productive scale,” Mothoagae concludes.

0860 112 526 • www.abi.co.za

ReSource May 2016 – 19


Cover strap Landfills

Composting food waste at market

Could a food/green waste composting plant yield cost savings and environmental benefits for the Tshwane Fresh Produce Market? Robert Relou, of GCS Environmental Engineering, shares a feasibility study based on the plant at Landfill 2015.

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arth Probiotic Industrial (EPI) operated a pilot food/green waste composting plant at the Tshwane Fresh Produce Market (TFPM) in 2014. The plant receives food waste and is able to compost cardboard from waste packaging material as well. The pilot plant uses bokashi (probiotic inoculated bran) to assist in breaking down the food/green waste and converting it to compost with a turnaround time of approximately two weeks. GCS Environmental Engineering compiled a feasibility study (economic and environmental) for this project to determine if the project will present a cost saving to the council and, at the same time, benefit the environment.

20 – ReSource May 2016

its waste management choice. The waste This could motivate the TFPM to implement from the market is mostly green waste additional plants to handle all its food/green from vegetables and fruit that could not be waste. Factors considered in the study were sold. Additionally, packaging material such direct cost for waste management and transport, and indirect costs in terms of landfill as cardboard and plastic is disposed of by airspace and CO2 reductions. the TFPM. The waste stream goes to a central waste storage area and is loaded into The capacity of the pilot plant was 28 m3 roll-on-roll of skips. When the skips 30 tonnes/month or 1 tonne/day. If the are full, they are taken to the Onderstepilot project was successful, the plan was poor t landfill for disposal. It is estimated to implement a 24 m3 plant. This would be done with the possibility of progressively that four to eight skips are taken to the implementing more plants if the TFPM landfill for disposal each month. Table 1 wished to do so. shows the waste generation Table 1 Yearly waste at the market over the last generation figures at Current disposal practices 13 years. the TFPM The TFPM currently uses For the purpose of this study, Waste waste disposal to landfill for a trend line of just under 7 000 Year quantity (tonne) 1999

8 729

2000

7 506

2001

6 063

2002

4 239

2003

4 395

2004

6 846

2005

7 242

2006

7 291

2007

7 175

2008

6 344

2009

8 135

2010

8 466

2011

7 368

2012

6 728

2013

4 407


Cover Landfills strap

8 tonnes per year was drawn through the Figure 1 Heron IVC layout 7 results to establish a representative 1 Auto bin litter and discharge unit average for the purpose of the esti2 Macerator mations done for this study. This 3 3 Automatic process controller average is taken as 7 000 6 4 4 Material feed tonnes of food 2 5 Leachate collection and treatment waste per year 5 1 6 including cardComposting box board and plas7 Mixer and material handler tic. Assuming 8 Weatherproof roof that the market operates five days a week for mechanical and forced aeration, and (b) four hours a day; therefore, a maximum of 12 months of the year, the the addition of probiotic bacteria and fungi. 100 kW per day. daily waste generation for the market The Tshwane guideline for electricThe mechanical auger functions to aerate is taken as 7 000 tonnes divided by 260 the matrix through a vertical lifting process. ity charges calculated for this category is days, which is equal to 27 tonnes per day. Figure 1 shows the different components 101 kWh – 400 kWh is 121.20c per kWh for The density of uncompacted food waste of the system and in what arrangement the the 2013/2014 year. An 8% increase was can range from 350 kg/m3 to 500 kg/m3. The density of uncompacted dr y cardboard implemented in June 2014; therefore, the system operates. is in the range of 55 kg/m3. For the purassumed rate per KWh is taken at 130.90c. Assumptions and constraints pose of this study, it is assumed that the An escalation of 7%, according to the ProThe maximum power usage for the current ducer Price Inflation (PPI) index, is assumed waste cardboard ratio is approximately 12 m2 unit is three-phase 25 kWh running for the yearly increase in electricity costs for 1:10. An average density of the uncompacted food waste (total waste stream) is for an average of two hours a day; there- the purposes of this study. fore a maximum of 50 kW per day. The estimated at 400 kg/m3. Therefore, the The worst-case scenario has been used, larger 24 m2 system will utilise approxi- i.e. the maximum electricity usage of the market disposes of an average of approximately 25 kWh running for an average of larger 24m2 composting plant of 100 kW mately 17 500 m3 of uncompacted food waste a year. The TFPM is currently paying R944.91 Table 2 Three-year waste processing quantities per tonne to dispose of its waste to landVeg waste Cumulative diverted Total cardboard Total food waste Year diverted from landfill fill. If the yearly average waste genera(tonne) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) tion is applied, the current cost for the 2015 528 52.8 528 580.8 TFPM’s waste disposal equates to approxi2016 528 52.8 1 056 1 161.6 mately R25 512.57 per day for 27 tonnes and R6 552 950.85 for the current year 2017 528 52.8 1 584 1 742.4 (260 days). For simplification purposes, the seasonal months with higher waste discharge rates (December and January) are not considered in the calculation.

Heron IVC Plant EPI utilised a plant called the Heron IVC to simulate this natural process of composting in a fraction of the time. The Heron IVC incorporates the following processes: (a) Table 3 Waste disposal to landfill Year

Rand/tonne

Max waste/day (tonne)

Max waste/month (22 days) (tonne)

Tonnes/annum

Disposal to landfill cost (ZAR)

Avg producer price inflation

2015

944.91

2.2

48.4

581

548 803.73

7%

2016

1 011.05

2.2

48.4

581

587 219.99

7%

2017

1 081.83

2.2

48.4

581

628 325.39

7%

1 742

1 264 349.11

ReSource May 2016 – 21


Cover Landfills strap per day is assumed for the purposes of Table 4 Final cost Waste disposal to landfill (ZAR) this study. comparison: composting Cost over three years 1 764 349.11 It is assumed that the larger 24 m2 system vs landfilling Total 1 764 349.11 will be operated for three years, whereby it EPI composting larger IVC will be evaluated again and EPI will be al- Although the leachate Cost over three years 1 652 913.78 lowed to renegotiate its rate for the system. would be organic in naThe EPI has completed the pilot phase and ture, as it is produced Electricity cost over three years 109 415.91 no comparison for alternative systems has during the decompoTotal 1 762 329.69 been allowed for in this study. This study sition process of the Difference: composting versus landfilling 2 019.42 will compare the probiotic system versus green waste, no information is available on the current system of disposal to landfill. The larger system will have to be evaluated the chemical makeup of the leachate and the beneficial for use as a compost tea. Compost with regard to the financial, social and en- quantity being produced, as the pilot project is produced at a ratio of 1 m3 to 3 tonnes of vironmental advantages and disadvantages did not allow for this testing. For the purpose waste. Two compost samples are being testto the end user (client). of this study, it is assumed that the leachate ed at the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria (ARC). Live testing An average density of the The compost produced can be donated to the has taken place where the uncompacted food waste output has been (a) (total waste stream) is escommunity, used in the city for the maintenance of compost timated at 400 kg/m3. applied in gardening and (b) An average density of the city parks, or sold at a reduced rate to farmers used as a feed in vermicomposting (using composting compacted food waste earthworms of the Eisenia Fetida  species). (total waste stream) is estimated at is safe for disposal into the sewer system. 1 000 kg/m3. The larger system will have a leachate man- Anecdotal evidence indicates that the maThe system produces a leachate, which agement system in place and testing will be trix has satisfactory performance in gardenis being discharged into the sewer system. part of the process. The leachate might be ing and no adverse reactions have been ReSource May 2016 – 23

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Cover strap Landfills found. In vermicomposting, the matrix is rapidly processed by composting earthworms – indications are that this matrix has significant promise as a feedstock for commercial vermicomposting operations.

Larger composting plant feasibility The larger IVC is capable of processing upwards of 2.2 tonnes of fruit/veg and cardboard waste per day, thus delivering the scale necessary for the market to reduce waste disposal costs.

Waste quantities The 24 m3 unit that is being proposed can process up to 2.2 tonnes of wet waste per day. It would be operated on the basis of a 22 working days per month. Therefore, in a year, it would be able to process or 580.8 tonnes of green waste. Over the Figure 2 CO2 Reduction during pilot project

proposed three-year period, the waste processing quantities are shown in Table 2.

cost will be considered in addition to the above calculation.

Disposal cost to landfill

Cost comparison

The disposal cost (landfilling) over a threeyear period is represented in Table 3. The comparative cost for the same amount of waste for the current waste disposal practice (landfilling) is R1 764 349 over a three-year period. It must be noted that, when we look at inflation, we can argue that the figures are conservative estimates, as the expectation of waste disposal costs would increase by an estimated minimum of 15%. However, the exact inflation amount cannot be substantiated at this time. The real cost to the Tshwane Municipality could be much higher than estimated in Table 3. The same calculation is now used to determine the cost of the larger IVC composting system. However, other factors like electricity usage and labour

The total cost to the market for implementing the system would be R1 754 270. The EPI larger IVC would be R2 019.42 cheaper than the current system over a three-year period. This would constitute a direct saving to the TFPM over this period, as shown in Table 4.

450

2 500

400

400

350

350

300

300

250

250

200

200

150

150

100

100

50

50

tonnes

m

3

2015

2016

2017

Indirect savings The TFPM and the Tshwane Municipality are different branches of the same legal entity. We, therefore, have to consider the saving in airspace at the Onderstepoort landfill site for the larger IVC system. Additionally, we have to consider the operational cost saving in reduced transport to and from the site with regard to waste removal. These savings will represent indirect savings to the TFPM. The Tshwane Municipality’s charge for bulk removal of waste is R62.30 per m3. This figure can be used as the potential saving to the Tshwane Municipality for the reduction in waste transport and disposal at the landfill (opex). We further assume that the cost for landfill airspace is calculated into this rate (capex). Therefore, the tariff = (OPEX + CAPEX)/m3 The total volume of uncompacted waste diverted from the landfill over the three-year period is 4 356 m3. Therefore, the total saving to the Tshwane Municipality, which is an indirect saving to the TFPM, was R271 378 over the project timeframe.

Compost generation and potential revenue EPI estimates that compost is being produced at a ratio of 1 m3 per 3 tonnes of waste. It is estimated that the potential revenue generation for the compost is R300/m3. This would be valid as a point of sale or, if used by the Tshwane Council, it would present an indirect saving. The total compost generation over the threeyear lifespan of the project is estimated at 580 m3. If the compost is donated to assist the community of small subsistence farmers, it would present no potential revenue generation. However, it would add to the TFPM’s measurable social responsibility goals. For the purposes of this study, it will be taken as a potential revenue stream.

24 – ReSource May 2016


Cover Landfills strap The total potential revenue generation for the pilot project is, therefore, R174 240.00 over the three-year period.

Economic findings and recommendations The total financial benefit to the TFPM for the larger IVC is estimated at R447 638.22, inclusive of direct savings, indirect savings and potential revenue. This benefit is an estimate and is subject to change upon changing the operating criteria of the compost distribution and labour situation at the TFPM. These calculations can be calibrated as and when required for changing conditions. It is strongly recommended that, due to the potential revenue generation of the compost, a full-time site clerk or manager be assigned at the compost management area.

Environmental factors For the larger IVC plant, we will consider the reduction in CO2 generation for the waste that is being composted (not ending up in landfill). We will also estimate the reduction in transport to the landfill and comment on

the less measurable environmental benefits of the system. The TFPM does not compact its waste before sending it to landfill; therefore, the uncompacted waste volume is used for this estimate. For the larger IVC plant, the estimated total reduction in waste quantities that are going to landfill is approximately 4 356 m3. The TFPM utilises 28 m3 roll-on-roll-off skips for storage and transport to the landfill. Assuming that the skips are 90% full when they are transported to the Onderstepoort landfill, the TFPM will save a total of 173 trips to the landfill site. The distance from the Onderstepoort landfill and the TFPM is approximately 15 km – i.e. 30 km roundtrips. This translates into a total of 5 190 km that is saved. This would have a reduction in pollution for a longer-term project, as well as a reduction in the use of landfill equipment. This could have a measurable reduction in the use of fuel and carbon emissions and a less measurable reduction in the pollution from the maintenance of these vehicles i.e. hydrocarbons like oil and grease. A diesel

truck emanates approximately 24 kg or CO2 per 100 km. The total CO2 saving for the reduced transport is 1.25 tonnes over the three-year period. The total landfill airspace saved by the Tshwane Municipality is calculated by the same amount of waste in its compacted state and a 1:6 cover material ratio. The estimated total amount of airspace saved at the Onderstepoort landfill over the threeyear period would be 2 032 m3, which is equivalent to about seventy-three 28 m3 rollon-roll-off skips. Figure 2 shows the reduction in CO2 for the project (composting) versus landfilling to be approximately 409 464 kg, which is substantial. The compost produced during the project can be donated to the community, used in the city for the maintenance of the city parks, or sold at a reduced rate to support farmers. Any of these actions would contribute to the social benefits of the project. Acknowledgements: EPI – Gavin Heron (operations manager) and Rob Bourdillon (director)

ReSource05+1115-Tyres-Kahl_ReSource-Tyres 05.01.15 10:17 Seite 1

ReSource May 2016 – 25

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Hazardous Waste

Chemical classification and labelling hazards to protect people. It now falls under the UN Committee of Experts for Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG). It has, since then, evolved under the GHS Sub-Committee of Experts with the 6th revision published in 2015.

South African businesses that don’t adopt the new hazardous chemical warning symbols may lose international trade opportunities due to noncompliance with global packaging and labelling regulations, warns the Responsible Packaging Management Association of South Africa (RPMASA).

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he RPMASA has noted, with concern, that many industry and retail businesses are not aware of the new global system of classification and warning symbols for hazardous chemicals that must be displayed on their products and packaging. The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a new global system under the UN Economic and Social Council for the classification and compilation of hazard communication methods to inform workers and consumers of the potential hazards of these products, so as to handle, store, use and transport them safely.

Ga se su nd er

Where does the GHS come from? ha za rd

The idea came from the 1992 UN Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro, together with other global agreements to build capacity and improve communication of chemical

What is different about GHS classification compared to the well-known transport classification?

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He alt h

The UN Transport Model Regulations address physical safety hazards and the UN Committee of

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Irr 26 – ReSource May 2016

The purpose is to: provide a single, global chemical hazard communication system of classification; compile safety data sheets (SDS); design new hazard pictograms for product labels; and confirm that the packaging is not only compliant with the transport packaging regulations, but also suitable to safely contain the health hazards of the product to protect people in operations and the consumers. The purpose of this new single system is to replace the multiplicity of national systems that previously existed so that it is understood anywhere in the world, and reduces confusion or ignorance caused by the many different symbols and labels. The old orange European Union symbols used to communicate various hazard-related information were square in shape with an orange background, various countries also had their own national hazard symbols. “The new GHS pictograms create a single, universally recognisable hazard warning system that anyone in any country will understand immediately,” says Liz Anderson, executive director, RPMASA.

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What is the purpose of the UN GHS?


Hazardous Waste Experts for TDG remains as the lead agent for this in the GHS. The GHS adds the need to classify 10 different types of health hazard from irritations to skin or eyes through to more severe health hazards, and carcinogens, as well as the degree of severity. It also adds classification of environmental hazards. Classification of health and environmental hazards introduces new concepts and is highly technical, thus training is essential for anyone attempting to classify their products of waste. Companies also have a legal obligation to train their employees about the hazards of products that they work with.

Where is the GHS currently legislated and legally binding? The first countries to bring in legislation were Japan and New Zealand, closely followed by the EU, with REACH and CLP. The latter have been phased in from 2009, starting with single substances and progressing to mixtures, which are more complex to classify yet comprise most performance products such as aerosols, paint, solvents, cleaning agents, pest- and rodenticides, and fuels. Full compliance was required on 1 June 2015. Many other countries followed the EU’s lead and timelines with their GHS legislation; thus, China, Australia, Brazil, Canada, the USA, Korea, Malaysia and many more countries’ legislation brought the GHS into reality in June 2015. Today, it is a requirement for trade with many countries. Failure to implement and comply will be a barrier to trade with all the countries that have GHS in their national legislation. Note that most countries will not allow imports unless the products’ SDS are GHS compliant, as well as the product labels.

with the hazards to alert the consumer. A recent Gauteng court ruling on an accident broadened the scope of the CPA beyond purely the past understanding of the purchaser/consumer. RPMASA is especially concerned about small businesses that do not have the capacity for a packaging, labelling and SDS compliance expert. Many small businesses are not aware of, and do not comply with, the transport packaging and labelling requirements for sale in South Africa, let alone the new GHS requirements. “Small exporters are vulnerable to loss of business if their products are labelled incorrectly. Use of outdated warning symbols and SDS should not become a barrier to trade and these challenges can be resolved easily if businesses are informed,” says Anderson. Products such as pool chemicals, aerosols, personal products, paints and household cleaning materials are some of the items that contain chemical components that need to be classified according to one of the nine transport classes as well as the new GHS categories. “The amount of work required to be up to date with global packaging and labelling regulations is often underestimated by managers in both retail and industry, but their business profitability is at stake,” she warns. Chemically hazardous products must be accompanied by an SDS containing the contact number of a designated full-time helpline to provide information to those who have been involved in hazardous chemical accidents or incidents. “Use of a company contact number limited to office hours is not acceptable because a chemical accident can happen at any time, with disastrous consequences if not handled appropriately,” Anderson reiterates. A business may be held financially responsible for any chemical accident, should its products not comply with both the

SADC The Southern African Development Community (SADC) signed a policy in November 2012 for all SADC countries to put processes in place to fully phase in GHS compliance legislation and implementation by January 2020, thus removing technical barriers to trade in SADC. Zambia and several other countries have legislation in place and are phasing in implementation.

Status of GHS in South African legislation The first legislation in South Africa to incorporate the GHS was the Department of Environmental Affairs’ National Environmental Management Waste Act, where regulations require classification of waste to the GHS, and GHS-compliant SDS, to accompany waste from the producers’ sites to the disposal site so as to communicate hazards to workers and reduce accidents and pollution. The Department of Labour is the lead agent for GHS, through the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and its regulations for Hazardous Chemicals Management for hazard communication through SDS and new product labels. The Department of Health is revising its Hazardous Chemicals Act to incorporate GHS classification for Group 1 and Group 2 chemicals requiring evaluation for licencing to manufacture, import, store and transport. The Department of Agriculture is requiring new GHS-compliant labels and SDS to be submitted for approval under the Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies Act (No. 36 of 1947). The Consumer Protection Act, although not specifically aimed at chemical products, in sections 58 to 61, requires that any product on the consumer market that may be dangerous be clearly marked

ReSource May 2016 – 27

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Hazardous Waste Transport and GHS systems, and not display the new warning symbols.

pack. However, the transport warning diamonds will be supplemented by the GHS red diamond pictograms where health haz-

symbols inside the pictogram borders are the same, it is essential for businesses to be certain that they comply with the new

Contact information RPMASA has set up a full-time call centre hosted by TrenStar, and a toll-free number that companies can refer to on their product SDS, packaging, labelling and transport vehicles. This is available to members and non-members, to reduce the financial and human resource burden for companies. The SDS for each product is uploaded and updated seamlessly onto the cloud-based Reach Delivery UK system, which is accessed by the call centre, and provides upto-date product and transport information. The Reach Delivery system produces a receipt for the uploaded SDS, which is then used as proof of compliance. The new warning pictograms, which will replace all previous retail ones, have a red diamond border with a white background and black symbol (p 26). Note that there are major changes for retail, as the transport diamonds will not change for larger packaging that does not require an outer

Benefits for SA companies implementing the GHS

The GHS is a global system of hazard communication, which is fast being regulated in most countries around the world, failure to comply will be a barrier to trade and export. Compliance will ensure no barriers to trade. Benefits to better communication of hazards, and especially health hazards, to workers and consumers in a single consistent way will simplify, provide better information, and remove confusion as to what the various pictograms or symbols mean, as well as reduce accidents and incidents, while reducing worker absence and healthcare costs. Benefits to consumers and communities include simpler, consistent information to help them make informed choices in purchases and to learn how to store and use products safely. A single system of SDS and labelling will reduce cost of labels, as there will be no need for different labels for different countries, and remove the need to relabel any imported products.

About RPMASA

RPMASA is an industry association providing a focal point for organisations involved in the chemicals, chemical products and hazardous articles supply chains, which are regulated. Contact RPMASA for GHS training and consulting on GHS SDS, labels and packaging info@rpmasa.org.za and see www.rpmasa.org.za

ards apply – i.e. harmful/irritant/toxic and carcinogens. “Even though these changes may seem rather small, and most of the

standards and GHS red diamonds to protect themselves from potential liability and financial loss,” concludes Anderson. ReSource May 2016 – 29

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n 25 NovemDTI and NCPCber last year, SA would like to When creating more efficient industries in South the National share some of Africa, it’s important to take a holistic approach that Cleaner Producthe successes incorporates energy, water, materials and waste. tion Centre of South Africa of our industrial If companies don’t get green fast, they won’t be (NCPC-SA) held a special partners over the session ahead of the Inlast 12 years. achieving much in the face of persistent resource dustrial Policy Action Plan These successes shortages and constraints. (IPAP) launch to engage include millions with stakeholders in indusof tonnes in cartry and government on how to achieve na- to these problems but it is essential that bon emissions being reduced, cost savings tional goals for greener production, reflect- we start working towards solutions now,” to companies due to energy efficiency and ing on what’s been achieved so far. many South Africans being trained to audit said Fourie. While some government, such as the Green companies they work for and with to ensure Government’s goals Scorpions, organs are in place to police com- greater overall efficiencies,” Fourie added. Gerhard Fourie, chief director: Green Indus- panies that pollute, there are many more govThe DTI’s two objectives in the green tries at the Department of Trade and Industry ernment initiatives that promote a more sup- industries are, first, to improve the envi(DTI), was on hand to discuss government’s portive approach, particularly when it comes ronmental performance of industries and, role in the NCPC-SA and how the centre is be- to South Africa’s industrial sector – wherein second, to create green industries. To that ing used to drive more sustainable business many are struggling due to stresses in the end, the NCPC-SA is focused on environpractices in the local market. “We asked the commodities sector and the “rand freefall” mental performance improvements. These NCPC-SA to host this event because cleaner phenomenon. For example, the Department ultimately inform environmental policymaking production and reduced carbon emissions of Environmental Affairs (DEA) is setting car- to contribute to growth in the economy while bon budgets for big industry and plans to cut improving employment. have never been more relevant. “A shocking fact is that industry contrib- emissions through a new, long-term strategy. utes about 30% of global emissions. This “From the DTI’s side, our view has always Case studies for breakfast figure rises as high as 60%, if industrial been to incentivise companies to change The NCPC-SA presentation took the form of energy usage is taken into account. This their behaviour to reduce their emissions a breakfast, where many of the foods, beveris a real problem and something we have and waste to become much more environ- ages and condiments furnishing attendees’ to address. In South Africa, a legacy of mentally responsible and environmentally breakfast tables were produced sustainably, low electricity prices further exacerbates friendly. The NCPC-SA was set up to report as an example of how the NCPC-SA works the problem, as does our over-reliance to the DTI while it is hosted at the CSIR. In with partner companies to foster cleaner proon coal. There is no short-term solution preparation for the IPAP launch next year, the duction and improve efficiencies.

ReSource May 2016 – 31


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H.E. Hon Horace Gatien Minister of Energy and Hydrocarbons Madagascar

H.E. Hon Tina Joematt-Pettersson Minister of Energy South Africa

Kescel Kaehaizi Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources Malawi

John Kandalu Chief Executive Officer ESCOM Malawi

Shamshir Mukoon Production Manager Central Electricity Board, Mauritius

Karen Breytenbach Head of IPP Office, Department of Energy South Africa

Eric Mbala Director General Société Nationale d’Electricité, DRC

Antonio Saide Chief Executive Officer FUNAE, Fundo de Energia

Ntoi Paul Rapapa Chief Executive Lesotho Electricity and Water Authority

Pascoal Bacela National Director of Energy, Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy Mozambique Dr Ester Mpandi Khosa Board Chairperson Zimbabwe Energy Regulatory Authority

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Industrial Water Julie Wells, marketing and communications manager, NCPC-SA-SA, drew attention to these products, providing explanations of how the NCPC-SA had worked with various companies and what had been achieved. “On the glass water bottles on your tables you’ll see a small bottle hang outlining the energy savings that have been realised at two Consol Glass manufacturing plants in Gauteng over the last 18 months. After implementing one of the NCPCSA’s Energy System Optimisation assessments, Consol undertook a fan system optimisation project that led to savings of 2 117 650 kWh per year – translating to R1 800 000 on the company’s energy bill. So successful was this initiative that the company has since started upgrading its pump system at the Wadeville plant and is in the middle of an energy management system implementation at its Nigel facility. “On your tables there are some side plates piled with small Rhodes Food jams. If you decide to have cereal at today’s breakfast, you will be using Ayreshire milk, which is available at Woolworths. Both of these products are manufactured by the Rhodes Food Group in Franschoek, Western Cape. They are in the process of implementing an energy management system along with systems optimisation plans,” Wells added.

Future focus Ndivhuho Raphulu, director, NCPC-SA, was on hand at the event to set out the vision of the centre, and discussed the increasingly important role that water will play in maintaining sustainability in industry. “The NCPC-SA sets out to encourage industry to become more efficient and competitive. The idea is that, thereby, you get to save the environment and

more and more South African companies, particularly those situated in drought-stricken KwaZulu-Natal, are approaching the NCPC-SA to find out how they can manage risk and stay productive even in times when water may not be available for a range of necessities related to production, and staff health and hygiene.

Serious about water “By 1 April 2016, we will start with a project that looks at industrial water efficiency modelled on our energy-efficiency principles,” announced Raphulu. “Where we have dealt with energy, 30% of the challenges were because facilities’ own water treatment plants were not managed properly,” he added. The NCPC-SA’s new, more concerted focus on water will see the start of a new programme, focusing on four critical areas: • Creating a policy environment conducive to industrial water efficiency: this will entail looking at the NCPC-SA’s past water successes as well as other successful watersaving initiatives, such as SABMiller’s water footprinting initiative, to improve efficiencies. The NCPC-SA is already working with fleet giant Eqstra Holdings to improve water use and the bottom line. • Promoting and encouraging companies to adopt water-efficiency standards: Raphulu explained that it has been championed locally through some companies, such as Woolworths’ “Good Business Journey” campaign. • Supporting implementation: through building case studies and models, the NCPC-SA strives to become a major supportive force in the local business environment. • Raising awareness: this is essential so that companies become aware of how much they could be saving as well as assisting the local economy by being more focused in their water-saving strategies.

After implementing one of the NCPC-SA’s Energy System Optimisation assessments, Consol Glass undertook a fan system optimisation project that led to savings of 2 117 650 kWh per year – translating to R1 800 000 on the company’s energy bill

Mondelez example In the centre of attendees’ tables were toffees from the Cadbury plant owned by Mondelez, formerly Kraft Foods. Through one of their energy specialists attending the NCPCSA’s expert-level training, they were able to save over R1 million worth of energy in just one month. “That was achievable because their energy management expert decided to take his holiday close to the factory over the festive season. And, every single day, he went into the factory and would ensure all systems were optimised for that time of year, and that they were turned off when not in use. It was these small actions that turned out to have a huge impact,” explained Wells.

money, as well as jobs. That’s the key to what we do and we achieve those aims by implementing resource efficiency and cleaner production methodologies,” he explained. He went on to explain that the NCPC-SA carries programmes and projects concentrating on four key areas: • energy • water • materials • waste. “Before company owners go all out changing lightbulbs, optimising compressors or refrigeration units, it’s important to first stop and look at how efficient a facility is in these four core areas,” said Raphulu. He added that

Conclusion Several government departments are backing the good work achieved by the NCPC-SA, including the DEA and DTI; and, soon, the Department of Water and Sanitation will add its name to the ever-growing list. Opportunities for South African companies to save money through greater resource efficiency abound and these systems and methods will no longer be “nice to haves” but “must haves” for achieving business success and sustainability in the near future.

ReSource May 2016 – 33


EnergyCover Efficiency strap

Smart data

The next steps Smart meters put consumers in control of their energy use, allowing them to adopt energy-efficient measures. This is great news for an industry that is opposed to high energy consumption. However, gaps still exist in how this data is presented to customers and decision-makers.

D

epending on where in the world you live, smar t meters can be as sophisticated as sending communications directly to your municipality, eliminating the need for someone to visit your home to read your meter. Unlike home energy monitors, smar t meters can gather data for remote repor ting. According to the South African National Energy Development Institute (Sanedi), data generated by smar t meters and other smar t field devices has proven to be ver y beneficial to municipalities in how various customer segments are managed through the process of data analytics. The current business model for progressive utilities is customer-centric by nature, and energy data provides greater insight into the energy usage pattern of customers – providing them the oppor tunities to adjust energy usage and become more energy efficient, while reducing the revenue generated by municipalities. “Municipalities can use this data to reduce maintenance and operation costs, thereby becoming more efficient and

sustainable in the long run,” reiterates Barr y Bredenkamp, senior manager: Energy Efficiency and Corporate Communications, Sanedi.

The big picture Research from Andreas Zahner, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Par tnership (REEEP), and Nikhil Kolsepatil, ICLEI (Local Govern-

the community to ensure integrated planning and the optimum deliver y of ser vices across key smar t sectors. The adoption and integration of smar t energy systems will play a central role in accelerating this transition.” In the absence of proper strategic visions, some municipalities are rolling out the installation of these smar t meters. But Sanedi says that smar t meters are not the silver bullet to the challenges, but only one item within a suite of technologies that can be leveraged when addressing the issues at hand. It’s imperative that municipalities fully understand the implications of their current business models and the dynamics of the South African energy climate.

“Municipalities can use this data to reduce maintenance and operation costs, thereby becoming more efficient and sustainable.” ments for Sustainability), co-authors of the paper ‘Energy-Smar t Cities’, which was presented at the 2015 South African International Renewable Energy Conference shows that “smar t cities of the future will use digital technologies to enhance performance and well-being, reduce costs and resource consumption, improve resilience, and engage with citizens. Local government will utilise effectively smar t technology and infrastructure, engaging

Client-customer gap The GDS 2040 is a transformational journey that the City of Joburg is embarking

ReSource May 2016 – 35


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Energy Efficiency Landfills

on to create a smar t city in which all citizens and businesses can sustainably live, work and interact. One of the city’s focal areas is what it terms “Environment: Resource Constraints Demand Efficiency”, as 66.7% of Joburg’s greenhouse gases come from electricity consumption. Phase 3 of the three-par t roll-out includes managing grid reliability, managing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and managing renewable resources integration. There are gaps in how data is presented to customers and decision-makers. Data analytics with the goal of addressing the needs of all par ties along the value chain of energy is key. In order to ensure sustainability, the gaps between municipalities and customers must be closed. “We should be looking into advanced metering infrastructure, which is

defined as an integrated system of smar t meters, communications network and data management systems. This enables two-way communication between utilities and customers,” says Bredenkamp.

Sanedi’s approach Two programmes within Sanedi are designed around addressing the numer-

an electricity supply industr y association to provide a common vision for the development and promotion of the South African Smar t Grid Initiative (SASGI). Applied research projects are currently being implemented within nine municipalities to determine proof of concept and provide input to national policy and regulation. “Smar t technology is a big par t of the solution to our sustainability issues,” Bredenkamp adds. “Technology can be an enabler to positive change, but people and processes must change from the ‘business as usual’ approach and make a genuine effor t to embrace change and customise their business models, in order to address the challenges they face and benefit the customers they ser ve,” he concludes.

“Technology can be an enabler to positive change, but people and processes must change alongside it.” ous challenges we face in terms of the energy crisis: the Energy Efficiency Programme, managed by Bredenkamp, and the Smar t Grids Programme, managed by Dr Minnesh Bipath (also of Sanedi). The Smar t Grids Programme has developed

ReSource May 2016 – 37

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Technical Paper

Solid waste compaction in landfills The new generation of sanitary landfills has to comply with a certain level of standards and regulations in order to make sure the environment and groundwater are fully protected from the contamination generated by the storage of solid waste. by Stéphane Bertrand

T

he construction of a landfill is a lengthy, complex and costly process. Considering the level of investment, it is critical for its operator to insure the longest possible life of each cell in the landfill. The only thing a landfill has to “sell” is airspace. Simply said, airspace = density = compaction. There has never been more pressure on landfill equipment to produce more controlled compaction and capacity to efficiently manage the continuous flow of municipal solid waste (MSW). There are three ways to improve compaction: 1. Compression 2. Shredding 3. Moisture.

38 – ReSource May 2016

Making these goals possible requires the utilisation of dedicated pieces of equipment combined with disciplined processes and personnel training. When it comes to mobile equipment operation in sanitar y landfills, there are multiple choices in terms of machine types, sizes and options. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to landfill site managers in these critical choices by explaining how they can influence the final density of solid waste and lifetime of the landfill site. This will be achieved not only when selecting the fleet, but also by applying different machine operation techniques.

Introduction The proper technique of solid waste compaction consists of shredding it in small pieces, pushing waste to mix it and place it to fill the voids, and finally compact it in order to maximise the tonnage of waste using a minimum amount of space in the landfill.

Advantages of solid waste compaction Minimise fires: Oxygen is essential to combustion. If you control the presence of air in contact with combustible waste at the sur face of the landfill, you reduce risks of fire. In the absence of compaction, waste is more in contact with air. In the case of a fire, wind will increase combustion. Once a fire has star ted on a landfill, it is extremely difficult to stop combustion entirely. Smoke may contain toxic gases. Digging out the combusting material and covering it with dir t is best to control fires within the waste. Minimise leachate generation: The more compaction, the less infiltration of rainwater inside the cell. Water will remain close to the sur face and a higher percentage will evaporate instead of percolating through the landfill. This, in turn, reduces the amount of leachate generated, reduces the risk of ground pollution and lowers the cost of leachate treatment.

Solid waste placement on a landfill So, how do we get from a pile of waste dumped from the collection truck to a well-compacted waste layer? Most landfill cell dimensions should be kept to approximately 30 m to 60 m wide, by 20 m to 25 m long on slopes around 5 (H) to 1 (V) (lift height would be approximately


Technical Paper Table 1 Correlation between compactor weight and waste layer thickness

Compactor weight 25 tonnes 42 tonnes 55 tonnes

4 m to 5 m) during working hours and brought in to 4(H):1(V) or 3(H):1(V) by end of day for use of less cover soil. A daily slope of 5:1 gives faster cycles, less fuel, and less maintenance. By moving the slope into a 4:1 or 3:1 by day’s end, you reduce exposure of rainwater to the waste and machine operators can work in a manageable area of compaction.

Layer thickness 30 cm 40 cm 60 cm

Control of tipping area The active face of a landfill is busy with the daily traffic of collection trucks and transfer trucks. Control of the collection truck traffic is impor tant – i.e. the landfill site spotter must ensure that collection truck drivers dump in designated areas. In this way, you keep the landfill cell to the above dimensions, reduce time to push waste from the dumping spot to the cell and improve safety on the site by restricting truck drivers to dedicated access roads.

Assessing the current situation This set of questions helps you assess where your landfill site stands in term of compaction capability. • What is the current waste compaction equipment fleet and how many machines are readily available for a compaction task? • How many tonnes do you currently treat per day? As a first estimate, calculate how many tonnes of waste need to be landfilled per day. There may be variations in the week or seasonality in the year. Within a day, there will also be

• • • •

variations of tonnage. Make sure you know the peak tonnage in order to size your fleet accordingly. W  hat type of waste does the landfill accommodate? Different types of waste carr y different densities. W  hat is the expected operational lifespan of the equipment? W  hat are the slope, width and length dimensions? W  hat is the height of the layered material before compaction? W  hat cover material will be used and

how will it be handled? •W  hat types of deliver y vehicles will be used. This may impact, for instance, the size of a dozer pushing waste from the tipping area to the cell. • How do you conduct machine maintenance and repair to optimise uptime?

Pushing waste to the landfill cell Once waste has been dumped, it needs to be pushed to the landfill cell. As municipal and industrial solid waste comes in various shapes and sizes, and ReSource May 2016 – 39

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Technical Landfills Paper is often enclosed in plastic bags, it should be shredded, compressed and chopped during landfilling. When waste is compressed, reduced in size, and shredded properly, it is more easily stored, thereby reducing voids. Good compaction promotes mixing and blending of materials, creating a more even surface. On modern landfills, you tend to use dedicated equipment for each task required. Although mobile equipment is often designed to increase versatility, it is impor tant to take a closer look at each machine configuration. In order to effectively chop and shred waste, it is recommended to use track-type tractors (dozers) or track loaders to spread waste. These machines are fitted with steel tracks. Track grousers will act as blades to chop and shred material. A track-type tractor is ideal to spread waste on a slope. Its ability to push a load while precisely controlling the position of the blade ensures consistent layer thickness better than any other machine. Landfill compactors are equipped with a largecapacity blade, enabling the machine to push large quantities of waste. However, when it comes to pushing and spreading waste, it is important to consider that a track-type tractor will have a better traction force, thanks to its track design, providing a better grip on the loose refuse. Also note that the more time spent pushing and spreading with a compactor, the less time there will be for compacting.

Thickness of the waste layer

Compression

Proper layering consists of pushing and spreading the waste in thin layers. Thin layers bind, compress, and shred more easily than thicker layers. Machines use less fuel, gain higher densities, and have less maintenance issues with thinner layers. Thicker layers take away all of the above gains and only allow for compacting of the top of the layer, leaving a spongy, non-

Once the waste has been laid on the cell, it is ready to be compacted. Mobile equipment will apply a ver tical force on the waste, which will compress waste and reduce voids. This force is linked to the pressure applied by the equipment. pressure = weight/contact surface A dozer has a large surface of contact with waste (4 m2 to 6 m2 for a 240 hp dozer). Therefore, by default, its compaction capability is far less than a landfill compactor equipped with steel wheels. It is not easy to evaluate the contact sur face of a machine equipped with wheels working on a loose sur face; however, a good estimate is the linear pressure, where instead of using the contact sur face, you take into account the width of each wheel. By fur ther reducing the wheel width, you increase pressure and compaction on waste. It is, therefore, not recommended to utilise mobile equipment equipped with two drums instead of four wheels, as this increases the contact sur face with the ground and decreases pressure when it comes to compaction. Caterpillar has carefully chosen the steel wheel size, as reducing wheel size increases pressure but not necessarily compaction. For example, narrow wheels break free and spin more easily. The sheer force of that wheel might be higher than the compacted waste causing wheel spin.

Dedicating landfill compactors to compaction and dozers to pushing and spreading increases fleet productivity compacted area beneath it that increases rolling resistance during compaction runs. The layer thickness will depend on the weight of the equipment used for compaction. See Table 1 for layer thickness recommendations. If the layer gets thicker than these recommended values, the lower par t of the layer will not receive enough pressure to reduce voids in the waste. The layer will act like a spring, and once the compactor has made a pass over the layer, it would return to its initial volume. Dozers equipped with large-capacity blades increase site productivity. The tracks provide good balance and flotation on loose waste, and will facilitate an efficient spread. Alternatively, sites not equipped with dozers can use landfill compactors. Small sites can use track loaders equipped with large-capacity buckets.

The influence of number of passes on solid waste compaction Each pass increases final compaction. Experience shows that the economical balance between number of passes and operating cost of a landfill compactor is to make four passes on the layer, for typical household waste. For industrial waste, more passes are required due to the different nature of the material. Industrial waste is generally dr yer, and items have a larger size, requiring more shredding before compaction. diagram 1 Advanced components allow dozer operators to have full situational awareness on-site

40 – ReSource May 2016


Technical Paper A pass is a travel in one direction of the compactor across the active cell. According to the tests, once you have done four passes on solid waste, the gain in density is minimal compared to the time and fuel spent. The compactor operator will make one pass for ward and a second pass in the same track in reverse. He then moves over one wheel’s width, makes two more passes (for ward/reverse in same tracks). Moving over one more wheel’s width while making for ward/reverse passes will gain him four passes as he logically moves in this pattern across the waste. The machine operator needs to make sure that: • the machine travels straight on the face to keep waste in place and to compact for ward and reverse in the same tracks • both axles, front and rear, will compact waste on the active cell • he completes the passes for wards and in reverse till the wheel or wheels are completely off of the waste, insuring

that the layer is completely compressed and shredded •h  e follows a pattern to ensure the whole face is uniformly compacted. Without a pattern, the machine tends to roam on the face and works inefficiently. A uniform compaction helps to save fuel on the fleet operation, as it reduces rolling resistance on the surface. Once four passes have been done on the working face, it is recommended that you perform a final pass 45 degrees from your pattern direction.

Conclusions As technology evolves, there are more and more tools to improve compaction. However, it is impor tant to first establish the current situation in terms of compaction capacity, and determine your compaction objectives.

The author

New guiding systems There ments

are such

and number of passes that can bring compaction enhancements. In terms of compaction equipment, make sure you select the right size of equipment for the peak time production requirement of your landfill. By dedicating landfill compactors to compaction, and dozers to pushing and spreading, you will also increase the overall production of the fleet. The fleet organisation, as a team of machines, landfill compactors and track-type tractors, will also bring a more complete involvement of the fleet personnel, including spotters. Even if the site has a large reser ve of airspace, improving density of solid waste will improve safety on-site and for the neighbourhood by reducing the risk of fires, odours and rodents.

operational improveas layer thicknesses

Stephane Bertrand is a specialist: Industrial and Waste Applications, Caterpillar Europe, Africa and the Middle East. ReSource May 2016 – 41

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Climate Change

The state of the planet Today, humans are the greatest force of power and influence on the planet. We dam rivers, pollute the oceans and cause deforestation and desertification on frightening levels, which massively and irreversibly impact the planet. The planet is in a state of sheer and ongoing crisis. By Devan Valenti & Simon Atlas

T

he existing relationship between mankind and the planet is paradoxical and disconnected. While a larger majority of humans are living more prosperous lives than ever before, the health of the natural environment is at an all-time low. Over the past 200 years, man has accelerated his impact on the environment as a result of overconsumption and industrialisation. The most devastating impacts have been experienced through biodiversity and topsoil loss, deforestation and desertification, atmospheric pollution, and the depletion of our oceans. One of the greatest concerns, for which we are directly responsible, is the rapidly increasing levels of carbon in the atmosphere. A potent greenhouse gas that plays a vital role in regulating Earth’s temperature through the greenhouse effect, the concentrations of carbon in the atmosphere have increased significantly over the past 200 years.

Carbon boom Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide levels have increased from 280 ppm to 400 ppm. The increases are said to be the consequences of our unsustainable consumption of fossil fuels, among other human activities, such as deforestation. To make matters worse, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are currently rising at a rate of approximately 2 ppm every year, and accelerating. Carbon in the atmosphere is widely acknowledged as the direct cause of climate change and global warming, both of which will have catastrophic impacts on the natural world and humanity. The increases in atmospheric carbon are leading to the gradual warming of the planet. Nine of the ten hottest years ever recorded have been in the last 16 years. 2014 marked the 38th consecutive year where temperatures

42 – ReSource May 2016

were above average since first recorded, over 100 years ago. Perhaps the most devastating consequence of rising global temperatures is the ongoing melting of Earth’s polar ice caps. These sheets of ice contain around 70% of all fresh water found on the planet. Only about 0.036% of the Earth’s total water supply is found in lakes and rivers. From 1979 to 2006, melting of the ice caps over the summer season increased by 30%, reaching a new record in 2007.

Surging sea levels If the polar ice caps completely melted, our sea level could rise by as much as 75 m. We would also lose an overwhelming amount of valuable freshwater supplies as well as countless low-lying areas of land. It is expected that we will lose approximately 30% to 40% of our global freshwater supplies by the year 2050. Many low-lying communities and even entire nations may need to relocate as a result of rising sea levels. It is predicted that around 77% of the entire land surface of the Maldives will be completely underwater by the end of the 21st century. On average, most of the islands that make up the Maldives are only 1.5 m above sea level. As the sea level is predicted to rise between 0.8 m and 2 m, the Maldives will become the first state in recorded history to be completely consumed by the ocean. Many of the world’s largest and most important cities such as New York, Guangzhou, Miami and Mumbai are also in danger of rising sea levels. As such cities are located along the coast and barely above sea level, they will inevitably face heavy flooding, which will have damaging effects on their infrastructure and citizens. The future of these cities and their importance as both living environments for millions of

people and as centres of production, trade and commerce will suffer greatly.

Fading forests The forests of the world, most notably the tropical rainforests that form a belt around the equator in regions such as Brazil, Central Africa and South East Asia, host some of the planet’s most diverse ecosystems and provide vital oxygen to the world. The Amazon rainforest alone provides approximately 20% of the world’s oxygen. Although these tropical forests cover less than 7% of Earth’s surface, they are home to approximately 50% of all living things on the planet. Unfortunately, the growing demands for farmland, timber products and urban living space are the driving forces behind rapid rates of deforestation that continue to shrink these vital ecosystems. It is estimated that, globally, we are losing as much as 18 million acres of forest every year – equal to the entire area of Switzerland. We have already lost half the world’s forests, and are losing an estimated 36 football fields’ worth of trees every minute. Tropical deforestation is now responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. A single tree can absorb as much as 21 kg of carbon dioxide per year, while providing a supply of oxygen for two people. A large tree can also lift up to 380 litres of water out of the ground and discharge it into the air. Adding to this, deforestation also severely impacts biodiversity, soil quality and the hydrological cycle – all of which are vital for life.

Depleting topsoil resources Another prevailing issue we face heading into the future deals with our topsoil resources. Topsoil is one of the most important natural resources we find on Earth. It provides the necessary nutrients for plants


Climate Change to grow. Due to our unsustainable farming techniques, and along with the rapid rates of deforestation, it is estimated that we have about 60 years of fertile topsoil remaining on our planet. Adding to this, approximately 40% of the soil used for agriculture is severely degraded. On average, we are using up soil at rates between 10 to 40 times faster than the environment can naturally replenish itself. Topsoil has traditionally fallen within the renewable resource bracket. However, due to our unsustainable overuse of topsoil, it has since moved into the non-renewable bracket.

Our sickly oceans Among the most devastating effects of mankind on the natural world is the severe depletion and pollution of our oceans and marine ecosystems. Due to the vast amounts of pollution that we have discarded into the planet’s ocean over the last two centuries, the health of this environment is dropping rapidly. Coupled with

this, our fishing methods have become so unsustainable that we are predicted to run out of all commercial fisheries by the year 2048. Around 85% of global fish stocks are over-exploited, depleted, fully exploited or in recovery from exploitation. Unfortunately, less than 1% of the oceans are protected, and so these trends are likely to continue in the foreseeable future. The deterioration of our oceans shows a direct result of our inability to steward the planet. The sad reality is that, once we have caused drastic damage to the ocean, it will be extremely difficult, maybe even impossible, to get the oceans back to the healthy levels at which they once were. The facts show that we have caused immense damage to our planet across all spheres of the environment – from our atmosphere to our forests, oceans and soils. If we are to give the planet the chance it needs to heal itself and overcome the damage we have inflicted upon it, we need to find ways of reducing our overconsumption and wastage of natural resources, bring

an end to our overbearing cycle of pollution, and protect our environment from further damage. If we are to bring an end to this ongoing destruction of the natural environment, we must look for more sustainable ways of living. Extract from Green Is Not A Colour: Environmental Issues Every Generation Needs to Know, co-authored by Devan Valenti and Simon Atlas.

the authors Devan Valenti is an environmental manager by qualification, consultant by profession and environmental activist at heart. His passion for the environment fuels his ongoing commitment to see sustainable practices become the industry standard across all disciplines. Simon Atlas works in the fields of architecture, brand communication and building project management. He has a fervent belief in sustainable design and the pivotal role it will play in providing effective solutions to the many social, economic and environmental challenges we face today. ReSource May 2016 – 43

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Industry News

Turning waste into water

S

Greening the supply chain

B

arloworld Logistics has acquired environmental solutions company re-, who recently under went a brand makeover and was renamed Smar tMatta. According to Steve Ford, CEO at Barloworld Logistics, the company’s vision has always been to provide clients with sustainable supply chain solutions. “The demand for specialised, environmentally friendly ser vices is on the rise,” he says. Smar tMatta assists companies in reducing waste to landfill, as well as lowering resource consumption and harmful emissions. As environmental awareness, sustainability and the associated legislation continue to become more prominent features of the local business ecosystem, for ward-thinking solutions are imperative. Smar tMatta has already been integrated into the solutions sets available to Barloworld Logistics clients.

Expanding the valve market

T

ectra Automation now stocks and distributes OMAL Automation’s entire range of oil and gas industry-certified valves and actuators throughout South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. “When OMAL

44 – ReSource May 2016

outh Africa’s abattoirs are under pressure to conser ve their water usage while maintaining clean facilities that comply with industr y regulations. Dr Gerhard Neethling, spokesman for the Red Meat Abattoir Association, said that more effective use of water and the reuse of grey-water have become priorities for the industr y. A new waste treatment offering from Rhino Water, in par tnership with Blue Planet South Africa, offers relief in the form of packaged, cer tified organic waste treatment plants, geared specifically to the red meat and poultr y industr y. “Our organic solution consists of a packaged plant to treat blood, organic waste and grey- and black-water to municipal discharge and irrigation standards. A by-product of this process is wash-water,” explains Sarel Bam, MD at Rhino Water. The product contains a broad spectrum of 29 bacterium species, which break down organic and some inorganic matter, and are essential for the purification of water.

began the process of withdrawing its South African office, we took the opportunity to enter into an agreement with the Italian head office,” says Malan Bosman, product manager: Pneumatics at Tectra Automation. “Its product range quality is in line with our quality offering, and the

addition of this range enhances our overall solution offering.” The process industry valves and actuators comprise pneumatic scotch yoke actuators, electrical actuators, co-axial valves, angle seat valves, butterfly valves and ball valves.


Industry News

Waste management legislation at WasteCon 2016

W

ith the recent waste management policy and legislative changes in South Africa, the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa’s (IWMSA) flagship biennial conference, WasteCon, will set the stage for healthy debate and knowledge sharing. Waste-wise organisations cannot afford to miss a spot at this year’s event, taking place from 17 to 21 October at Emperors Palace, Johannesburg. The theme for the 23rd biennial conference is ‘The Changing Face of Waste Management’. Prof Suzan Oelofse, president of the IWMSA, says, “We encourage people and organisations operating in the environmental and waste management industr y to register for this exclusive conference where best practices will be shared from all over the globe.”

Early-bird registrations are open and interested par ties can benefit from the reduced fee before 31 May. The keynote speaker for the event is Torben Kristiansen, vice-president: Waste and Contaminated Sites at COWI A/S, based in Denmark. With his extensive experience in waste management, Kristiansen will delve into the current status of the waste management industry, legislation and practice in Europe. Kristiansen will also focus on the South African waste landscape, the recent policy and legislative changes and whether a European-modelled policy will be viable in South Africa.

Other thought-provoking topics to be discussed at the conference include: e-waste, waste-to-energy, the role of industrial symbiosis in South Africa, the future of employees in the waste industr y, leachate treatment, and the potential for new recycling industries from underutilised waste streams. Another key attraction of the conference is the wide range of exhibitors that will showcase their diverse waste management products and ser vices. “A number of high-quality exhibitors have already registered for WasteCon 2016,” says Oelofse. “We are expecting this year to be greater than ever before. Players in the waste management industr y should not miss this fantastic oppor tunity to network, benchmark and gain invaluable industr y knowledge.” For information and to book your early bird ticket, please visit www.wastecon.co.za.

Keynote speaker Torben Kristiansen

ReSource May 2016 – 45

HO W I M P ORTA N T I S G E N DE R E M P O W E R M E N T I N Y O U R O R G A N I S AT I O N ? T E L L S O U T H A F R I C A Y O U R S U C C E S S S T O R Y.

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Industry News

E Raising the

waste game

As an integrated waste management solutions provider, EnviroServ supports calls to look for viable waste management alternatives to traditional waste disposal. The company’s waste management strategy includes diverting waste from landfill with a number of initiatives, which ensure the reuse, recycling and reduction of waste.

ENVIROSERV’S OFFERING AT EVENTS

BENEFITS

•W  aste assessment and a detailed waste plan • Strategic placement of appropriate waste collection containers – e.g. wheelie-bins – throughout, and bulk storage bins or compactors at centralised points • Marked bins for easy identification, allowing for waste separation and recycling • On-site supervision • Training and employment of local community members • 24-hour cleaning and emptying for the duration of the event • Clean-up of the area post-event • Record keeping and reporting

•A  clean and healthy environment during the event • Peace of mind through on-site management ser vices, with a well-trained and friendly team • Flexible operations to manage changing demands • Employment and empowerment of local community members • Reduction of waste sent to landfill through recycling • Responsible disposal to a compliant landfill site • Accurate records and repor ting

46 – ReSource May 2016

nviroServ provides resources to ensure that the bulk of waste generated at customers’ events is recycled – leaving the customer assured that the venue will always look spotless. “Our events cleaning service is based on the same principle as our on-site waste management offering, where a detailed waste plan is drawn up to ensure that the bulk of waste generated is recycled, ensuring peace of mind for the customer,” explains Dean Thompson, group chief executive officer at EnviroServ. The waste plan considers the following: • Strategic placement of collection containers throughout the area and concentrated placements around high-generation areas, for example, food stalls. • Staff and logistics to empty full containers or assemble full containers at bulk transfer areas. • Accessibility and routing for mobile compactor vehicles. • Separation of recyclables. • Availability of a reputable and compliant landfill for disposal of non-recyclable waste streams. From the Nedbank golf challenge and the Comrades marathon, to the JP Morgan race, Duzi Canoe marathon and South African Schools Rowing Championships, EnviroServ has offered its integrated waste minimisation  programme. The company appreciates the fact that most customers and event organisers realise the importance of cost-effective, reliable and integrated waste management at their events. There were an estimated 5 000 people per day over the three days at the South African Rowing Championships. We took the initiative of educating participants and everyone who was present at the event about the importance of recycling,” Thompson continues. “We handed out two colour-coded bags with a flyer explaining the importance of separating recyclable and non-recyclable waste.” The company further placed colour-coded wheelie bin stations throughout the venue and assigned a few well-trained sorters who assisted with taking the waste to the central sorting area and segregating it accordingly. The event generated over 3 000 kg of waste, with hardly any of it going to landfill. An impressive 78% of the waste was recycled.

top LEFT EnviroServ's waste plan considers many factors, including separation of recyclables at source ABOVE left Thanks to EnviroServ's events cleaning service, customers can rest assured that the venue will always look spotless


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START recycling

RECYCLING SERVICES Join the race to a greener, cleaner environment

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Recycling reduces waste into landfill & saves natural resources

FINISH Help minimise waste to landfill and change people's attitude as part of your event experience.

CUSTOMER CARE - 0800 192 783 clientservices@enviroserv.co.za www.enviroserv.co.za

EnviroServ. Raising the Waste Game


Events Round-up What’s on

Take advantage of the insight offered by industry experts at events across the continent

Energy and Infrastructure Summit

A frican Utility Week and Clean Power Africa

Energy projects arising from the SADC region will be presented and discussed at the upcoming Southern Africa Energy and Infrastructure Summit (SAEIS). The summit will celebrate regional cooperation and promote energy and infrastructure projects that require both private and public sector support. Additionally, the summit will explore some of Southern Africa’s success stories and how these can be replicated, not forgetting insight from key stakeholders participating in the Moatize/Nacala Railway Project.

Venue Polana Serena, Maputo,

This year’s much anticipated African Utility Week will see 20 SMMEs, startups and young entrepreneurs given the rare opportunity to showcase their new development or invention for the power and water industry at the event’s Innovation Hub. The Innovation Hub will gather the brightest minds and ideas, and partner them with the right people to take their projects to the next level. An impressive 250 technology and service providers to the energy and water sector will showcase their solutions at this year’s conference and expo.

Date 4–6 May

Venue CTICC, Cape Town Date 17–19 May

www.southern-africa-summit.com

www.african-utility-week.com

Mozambique

S upply Chain Safety & Compliance

DRC Mining Week

Hosted by the Responsible Packaging Management Association of Southern Africa (RPMASA), Raising the Bar in Supply Chain Safety & Compliance will see industry experts discuss topics such as the IMO/ILO/UNECE Code of Practice for container packaging, IMO regulation under SOLAS, dangerous goods supply chain issues and insurance issues.

Venue Durban Country Club Date 26 May info@rpmasa.org.za

Two longstanding mining events, iPAD DRC and Katanga Mining, will merge into one expo and conference – DRC Mining Week. The event will take place in Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 8 and 9 June. According to Emmanuelle Nicoholls, portfolio director, DRC Mining Week, an all-encompassing event in the heart of the DRC’s mining hub is exactly what the industry has been asking for. The event offers delegates the opportunity to interact with key operators and exploration companies, and will strive to provide a complete platform for networking.

Venue Grand Karavia Hotel, Lubumbashi, DRC

Date 8–9 June www.drcminingweek.com

Index to Advertisers 13th Annual Top Women Awards 2nd Annual Vision Summit 2030 ABI African Utility Week Amandus Kahl Hamburg A-Thermal Retort Technologies Barloworld Equipment

48 – ReSource May 2016

45 43 18 47 25 30 23

EnviroServ IBC Envitech Solutions 17 GW Minerals 27 Interwaste OFC Jan Palm Consulting Engineers 29 JG Afrika 8 Maccaferri Southern Africa 41

Mills & Otten National Cleaner Production Centre SA OTTO Waste Plastics|SA REDISA Re-Energise Africa Resource Sustainability Projects

39 22 4 13 16 48 IFC

Rose Foundation Rose Foundation NORA SA Energy & Infrastructure Summit SmartMatta Sustainable Water Resource Week WasteCon

OBC 2 32 34 37 28

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Resource May 2016  

ReSource promotes integrated resources management, with a special focus on waste management and cleaner production and waste to energy initi...

Resource May 2016  

ReSource promotes integrated resources management, with a special focus on waste management and cleaner production and waste to energy initi...

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