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The official journal of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

Promoting integrated resources management

Solid Waste


ISSN ISSN SSN 1 1680-4902 680 80-4 0-4 R40.00 (incl VAT) • Vol 15, No 2, May 2013

eThekwini: modernised & mechanised

Swaziland’s solid waste management facelift

Cape Town


Considering urban home composting

Beverage bottle recycling grows 18%

Adaptable reliability Expert Opinion E “Our role is to prove that technologies can be rolled out and commercialised using the intellectual capacity within the university.” Mansoor Mollagee, Director of the Process Energy and Environmental Technology Station (PEETS), University of Johannesburg

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Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

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Waste management ISSN 1680-4902, Volume 15, Number 2, May 2013

The RéSource team stands firmly behind environmental preservation. As such, RéSource magazine is printed on 100% recycled paper and uses no dyes or varnishes. The magazine is saddlestitched to ensure that no glues are required in the binding process.

Cover Story Mercedes-Benz Atego Adaptable reliability


RéSource offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a cover story and a cover picture to promote their products and services to an appropriate audience. Please call Christine Pretorius on +27 (0)11 465 6273 to secure your booking. The article does not represent the views of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa, or those of the publisher.


Regulars President’s comment


Editor’s comment


Panel discussion: reviewing recycling • Mpact • Pikitup


Plastics industry has its say


Beverage bottling recycling grows 18%




Hot seat PEETS, University of Johannesburg


34 41


Medical waste


Solid waste

Introducing Knot’s Dump

Solid waste management practices in Western Africa


Cape Town: Considering composting


Ekurhuleni moves towards strategic waste management


eThekweni: Modern and mechanised waste transfer station 18

Waste to energy Incineration: a changing landscape



Air Pollution/CDM Carbon tax from 2015


Medical waste A challenging context


Hazardous waste Keeping ahead of SA’s wave of hazardous waste




Wastewater A realistic perspective of energy optimisation considerations: Part II

in association with infrastructure news




RéSource May 2013 – 1

strap President'sCover comment

Looking ahead by Deidré Nxumalo-Freeman, president, IWMSA

Thank you to all our members for participating in the recent referendum pertaining to the Quality Assurance scheme; your input is greatly appreciated. Feedback will be provided to you in due course with regards to the direction that IWMSA will pursue. We are engaging with additional stakeholders, including government authorities, to establish a clear way forward.


fter much deliberation, we have decided to postpone our Health Care Waste Forum Summit this year and integrate health-care risk waste management (HCRW) into our WasteCon 2014 programme, which will be taking place in Cape Town. The decision was not an easy one, but we believe that this alignment will yield far greater benefits and exposure to all stakeholders involved in this very important sector. If you have any queries in this regard, please do not hesitate to contact our head office. In the last issue of RéSource, I provided you with an over view of the various por tfolios and the responsible council members for these por tfolios. Your National Council is ver y busy ensuring that these por tfolios add value to you our IWMSA members. We are making great strides in the training programmes that are being offered by the IWMSA and are receiving training requests from across the countr y. Our accredited training programmes are sought after by municipalities and are an impor tant par t of our capacity building programme. We are rolling out these accredited training programmes to all our branches; you are now also able to register online for

these courses from our IWMSA website. These training courses are facilitated by members of the IWMSA. We are constantly needing trained facilitators, assessors and moderators who have the requisite waste management experience to aide us in facilitating these programmes nationally. If you have not already registered as a facilitator, assessor or moderator on our database, I would urge you to do so as your input into the training programme would be highly valued. You may contact our head office to register on the database. The Landfill Interest Group is hard at work planning a very insightful Landfill 2013 at Misty Hills, Muldersdrift, Gauteng. Similarly, the Eastern Cape branch is in the throes of preparation for its biennial Eastern Cape conference themed ’The Eastern Cape Green Revolution’, to be held in Port Elizabeth. Your involvement in both these conferences by way of paper submissions and/or conference attendance is requested. We are also pleased to advise our members that within the past quarter we have had formal engagements with the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA)

to discuss various waste-related matters that impact them. It was a very fruitful meeting and we are hoping to structure these quar terly meetings with the department, going forward. The discussions helped us gain insight into the stances adopted by DEA on the various agenda items discussed and will definitely add value in our day-to-day IWMSA business. We would like to hear from you our members on what issues you would like us to table in our forthcoming meetings with the DEA – as always your inputs are highly valued. Keep well and WASTE not the wonder ful RESOURCES we have at our DISPOSAL. Yours in waste management, Deidré Nxumalo-Freeman IWMSA president

Patron members of the IWMSA

RéSource May 2013 – 3

Editor’s comment Publisher: Elizabeth Shorten Editor: Chantelle van Schalkwyk Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Head of design: Frédérick Danton Senior designer: Hayley Mendelow Designer: Kirsty Galloway Chief sub-editor: Claire Nozaïc Sub-editor: Patience Gumbo Production manager: Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator: Jacqueline Modise Financial manager: Andrew Lobban Marketing & online manager: Martin Hiller Distribution manager: Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator: Asha Pursotham Administrator: Tonya Hebenton Printers: United Litho Johannesburg Tel: +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales: Christine Pretorius Tel: +27 (0)11 465 8255

Publisher: MEDIA No.4, 5th Avenue Rivonia, 2191 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Share Call: 086 003 3300 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 Annual subscription: R195.00 (incl VAT) South Africa ISSN 1680-4902 The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 675 3462 E-mail:

All material herein RéSource is copyright-protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views and opinions expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher or editor, but those of the author or other contributors under whose name contributions may appear, unless a contributor expresses a viewpoint or opinion in his or her capacity as an elected office bearer of a company, group or association. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

RéSource is endorsed by:

A fresh resource A

new beginning is always daunting – even more so when it is as the new editor of an already established title like RéSource. However, with the support of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA), through some intensive days of training over February this year as an attendee of the Waste Management Training Programme, I think I am finally coming to grips with an industry that is both all-encompassing and has the power to affect almost every aspect of one’s life. The training covered a number of interesting topics and challenges that are also – believe it or not – reflected in the pages of this edition of the magazine. These include the challenging context relating to compliance and enforcement with regards to medical waste, as highlighted in an interview with IWMSA past president Stan Jewaskiewitz on page 41; the significant investment in training and capacity building required to keep ahead of South Africa’s “wave of hazardous waste” as discussed by SRK Consulting’s Phillipa Emanuel on page 44; and the current waste management context in the municipal sphere, specifically through highlighting three key projects in three of the country’s metros – Cape Town on page 14, Ekurhuleni page 16 and eThekwini on page 18. In addition, the panel discussion deals with a highly topical subject at the moment that is garnering a lot of attention both in the public and private spheres – recycling. The idea of a panel discussion is also relatively new in the RéSource portfolio and, as such, the support of the panel discussion collaborators – Mpact and Pikitup – is much appreciated. We look forward to this feature continuing to grow in the magazine in coming editions. In an interview with Golder Associate’s Natalie Kohler on page 22, I also highlight that change is not only happening at the 3S Media offices as I take over as

editor of RéSource, but also in the industry at large as the focus is increasingly moving from merely discussing incineration to considering waste-to-energy as a more appropriate focus, partly because of the negative connotations associated with the word incineration and par tly because waste-to-energy is more progressive and in line with where, according to Kohler, industry is heading. It is industry opinion leaders such as these that I believe should be reflected in the pages of the magazine, along with the latest innovations, intellectual findings and technologies that have the capacity to add economic and environmental value to the current South African waste landscape, both further adding to the larger discussion on the topics and offering sustainable alternatives to current contexts. As such, collaborations and contributions are always welcome. Any suggestions, submissions or enquiries can be directed to me at As a newcomer to the industr y, I look forward to your valued input over the coming editions.

The focus is increasingly moving from merely discussing incineration to considering wasteto-energy as a more appropriate focus

Chantelle van Schalkwyk

RéSource May 2013 – 5

Cover story


Adaptable reliability Reliability, safety and environmental awareness, with excellent driving comfort, are but a few of the qualities that set the Mercedes-Benz Atego apart.


he fuel-efficient and reliable Euro 3 compliant engines in the Atego range are particularly designed for economical operation. Whatever is to be transported, each detail of the Atego is designed to cope with the demands of light-duty short-radius distribution. The Mercedes-Benz Atego is also finding huge favour in niche conversions like fire engine and emergency support, as well

as specialised equipment vehicles such as the waste collection vehicles favoured in most waste management applications. As the Atego frame was specially designed with the demands of short-radius operation ABOVE AND BELOW The Atego is designed to cope with the demands of light-duty short-radius distribution, while ensuring driver comfort

in mind, a special feature insuring this is its two-piece design. The front section comprises two downward-sloping longitudinal members with Z-profile, which enables the front part to be lowered, resulting in a lower entry level for driver and passenger convenience. The vehicle offers two cabs for a wide range of applications. The short cab is ideal for short-radius operations and the long cab with crew seat/bunk combination is best for short- to medium-radius operation.

The low-noise, lowmaintenance drive axles have a positive effect on fuel consumption Christo Kleynhans, Mercedes-Benz Trucks product manager, says: “Featuring reliable, high-torque 4- and 6-cylinder engines as well as gearshift systems, transmissions and axles aligned with each application, the Mercedes-Benz Atego delivers supreme performance. Three high-per formance, weight-optimised and perfectly configured 6-speed

6 – RÊSource May 2013

Cover story

The biggest tyre grab crane in SA Mercedes-Benz South Africa (MBSA) has handed over a fleet of three MercedesBenz Actros 4144K/51 trucks with a unique heavy-duty tyre crane to Beltread Tyres. Mounted on the Actros, it is the largest and most sophisticated tyre handler currently in operation in the countr y. The iconic tyre grab was achieved by adapting the Stellar TM16160 Tyre Manipulator to suit the HMF 6020-K1-RC truck-mounted crane. The tyre handler was designed to fit onto a Mercedes-Benz Actros 4144 (8x4) with custom wheelbase and body crafted to the last centimetre to meet the spec from Beltread Tyres. Peter Toweel, managing member of the company, says: “The Mercedes-Benz Actros 4144 is a comprehensible choice for our requirements because it is power ful and reliable. The reliability of the Mercedes-Benz brand, as well as the support from the dealership and head office, is an added bonus to us.” Craig Rogers, sales manager of Crane & Forestr y Equipment, says: “Custom-built tyre handlers have to conform to local and international mining safety standards. In the end, we had a phenomenal vehicle and are proud to have been part of this journey.” The vehicle allows for faster earthmoving machiner y, such as those necessitated on landfill and waste management sites, than the conventional method, with unsurpassable safety standards. The Stellar TM16160 Tyre Manipulator is capable of handling up to 63 inches of the largest earthmoving tyre in Africa and has as safe working load of 7 500 kg. Mounted on the truck is an SHD245 American Eagle air compressor – an industrial four-cylinder, two-stage unit that is powered by a hydraulic motor that

puts out 110 cfm at 175 psi. The crane is equipped as standard with continuous rotation, while the Danfoss PVG32 highprecision proportional valve bank offers smooth, multifunction operation. A feature that increases operator safety and efficiency of the crane operation is a Scanreco radio remote control that offers live feedback on crane speed and load percentage. The crane is equipped with multiple safety features for the protection of the staff and fitters working in and around the machine. The vehicle is remote-controlled so that the operator can work at a safe distance, away from possible harm, such as that posed by unstable landfill sites.

transmission systems (optionally Freight Carrier available with the 918/42 Telligent auto1118/48 mated gearshift) 1318/48 enable engine 1323/48 power to be trans1518/54 ferred to the road 1523/54 with minimal loss 1528/54 due to friction, Tipper adds Kleynhans. 1518K/33 The low-noise, All wheel drive low-maintenance 1118AF/39 drive axles have a 1428AF/39 positive effect on fuel consumption. Boasting a large number of different ratios, they deliver optimum drive configurations to handle virtually all applications. The Atego chassis offers optimum protection against rust as a result of the cathodic dip priming. Due to the 50 mm hole pattern, no further drilling is necessary when mounting any attachments and other units, such as tanks, exhaust systems and batteries. Bodies can therefore be pre-assembled and mounted, efficiently reducing processing time at the bodybuilder. Kleynhans adds: “The Atego is arguably the benchmark in its market segment and offers unsurpassable performance, safety and uptime among other things. Total cost of ownership along with the support from Mercedes-Benz South Africa’s value chain offerings makes a strong business case for the Mercedes-Benz Atego.”

TABLE 1 What is the product range?

Shift in focus ABOVE AND BELOW (From right to left) Peter Toweel, Beltread managing member; Pieter Theron, regional sales manager (MBSA) and Dave Croxon, (sales executive Union Motors Lowveld)

“While we believe that there will be a shift in the mode of transport as government implements the aggressive and ambitious expansion of the rail network, we also believe that the demand for more integrated transport solutions will remain and increase,” concludes Kleynhans.

RéSource May 2013 – 7

Hot seat


Resourceful innovation A newly created unit, within the broader University of Johannesburg context, is focusing on developing intellectual, technological and well-defined practical solutions for the multitude of energy and environmental challenges within the South African milieu, director of technology station Mansoor Mollagee tells Chantelle van Schalkwyk.


he core business of the Process, Energy and Environmental Technology Station (PEETS), according to Mollagee, is in the energy (focusing on renewables and energy efficiency) and environmental spheres (focusing on water, air and solid waste), with the emphasis on waste-to-energy. “Our role is to prove that technologies can be rolled out and commercialised using the intellec-

galvanise the role players towards a sustainable solution.”

Contextual analysis: 1. Air The focus in this context for the unit is on investigating emissions from industrial activity in the engineering and mining sectors, primarily. “There is appropriate legislation that was recently modified, e.g. the Air Quality

also lacking. “The main challenge therefore comes down to technical competence and the ability to implement lasting and sustainable solutions while bringing companies closer to compliance with the law.” On a project by project basis, the unit assesses a particular operation, specifically evaluating the extent to which the operation contributes towards harmful emissions and technological interventions to mitigate this. “In this arena, we work with all tiers of government, whether national, provincial or local, to make these interventions relevant and help realise already established targets.”

It is purely the idea of harnessing the human capital within a real time, real world context.” Mansoor Mollagee, Director of PEETS tual capacity within the university.” Essentially, says Mollagee, PEETS moves from the premise that the UJ's faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment has a 7 000-strong student base, a considerable postgraduate pipeline at master's and PhD level and approximately 200 academics at its disposal. These intellectual “resources” are in addition to the over 1 000 trainees eligible for internship in the technology and training programme that are “being churned out” every year across 10 to 12 different disciplines. “Harnessing human capacity in a contextual manner is really where a lot of the problem originates because there is traditionally a big chasm between universities and industry – and that is where we envision our role,” says Mollagee, adding that the issue is not skills but rather the relevance of those skills to the local markets and challenges. “It is purely the idea of harnessing the human capital within a real time, real world context and then focusing it on the problem at hand in order to

8 – RéSource May 2013

Act, so our idea is to iron out the kinks that prevent companies from complying with the law,” he states. Mollagee believes that the current “carrot and stick” approach is not necessarily always the most beneficial approach and is actually having a negative effect on the growth of SMMEs in the sector. In addition, the capacity to enforce this approach is

2. Water and wastewater The primary challenge in the context of drinking water is the optimal utilisation of the resource currently available to us as a country. “We are losing water at the rate of billions of litres per annum that are unaccounted for,” continues Mollagee. As such, the focus is on the capacity of the coalface of service delivery – municipal

Hot seat


ABOVE PEETS exhibition stand at the Energy Indaba, Sandton Convention Centre which was held from 19 to 21 February. OPPOSITE Qedani Mahlangu Gauteng Department of Infrastructure Development at the exhibition opening

officials. “We are looking at interventions and specifically setting up facilities that can train municipal officials in the already prevalent and apparent challenges, like leakage detection, how to do a water audit and so forth,” explains Mollagee, adding that he believes it is pivotal that this problem be addressed on a micro pilot scale, municipality by municipality. The intervention will start in Limpopo and Gauteng jointly, before being rolled out on a larger scale. PEETS has, however, taken a different approach to addressing the challenges faced in the wastewater context. “We are sitting with more than 800 water treatment plants, of which at least 400 are operating at critical levels in the last Green Drop report. We require more than R500 billion to upgrade and maintain existing infrastructure and build new treatment plants because it has gone into a state of disrepair. But blame is not the issue – we as PEETS are interested in how we are going to solve the problem sustainably,” he says. Regionally, PEETS has started by focusing its proposed interventions on KwaZulu-Natal. “We are looking at creating strategic partnerships with international investors where they will come and build the plant at no cost to the municipality, recovering their cost per kilolitre through water purchase agreements with the municipalities, over sustained periods of time,” states Mollagee. Obviously, challenges arise around governance and municipal

finance management, but these can, to a large degree, be solved through establishing sound public-private partnerships (PPPs). “I think the solution lies in forming solid PPPs driven by technically competent entities, be it us or similar role players, so that the related politics is sidelined,” he continues. A further wastewater focus – and a major driver in the unit – is the waste-to-energy aspect. The unit is engaging Johannesburg Water on a project that assesses the use of the sewage’s low-grade methane emissions to generate electricity, wastewater treatment plant by wastewater treatment plant. “These interventions are about rolling out implementable, bankable, scalable pilot projects that feed into government’s drive for increasing human capacity development, technology transfer and job creation,” says Mollagee.

These interventions are about rolling out implementable, bankable, scalable pilot projects that feed into government’s drive for increasing human capacity development

3. Solid waste

According to Mollagee, the context locally with regards to solid waste and the related legislation is good; the ideal of a zero-waste-to-landfill is fully realisable. “It is possible to move to a zero waste–to-landfill reality not only on a policy level, but on a realised implementation level; however, the issue is cascading this idea and its related implications down to a micro-level within communities and municipalities.” The technology to make this a reality, however, is proven and readily available – as is the case specifically with waste to energy, which is where the unit is specifically focusing its efforts in this sphere. “The problem with waste to energy, particularly locally, is the cost of rolling out the technology. Our approach as PEETS is going to be very

THE PRIMARY MANDATE of PEETS is to foment technology transfer and human capacity development in the energy and environment realm for the socio-economic benefit of all South Africans. “We support youth who demonstrate innovation, government entities that need refinement of their systems to achieve greater capacity to deliver or private companies that need assistance in addressing their energy needs or environmental problems,” says Mollagee. The unit’s products and services include: • testing • analysis services • manufacturing/prototyping/ up-scaling • consultation/technology audit • product and process development • project-applied engineering, design and development • project research and development • technology demonstration • training and development.

different, looking at localising the technology so that it becomes affordable within the South African context.”

Proven processes PEETS, however, is not about merely providing intellectually driven solutions – it is more than willing to practise what it preaches. A good example of this is the implementation of the abovementioned technologies on the Doornfontein Campus in Johannesburg, where the unit is based. Part of the project includes a 1 MW (generation capacity) photovoltaic installation of a few thousand solar panels on all of the campus’s rooftops to mitigate the current consumption and move off-grid. “The idea is to reduce our dependence on the city power grid, and if this proves to be successful, it will be the largest mass-scale rooftop photovoltaic installation in the country,” continues Mollagee. Once the solar installation is complete, the unit will move on to processing all waste generated on-site and piloting waste-to-energy technologies, as well as assessing the efficacy of harvesting its own water and digesting the campus’ own sewage. “I think within three to five years we will have achieved all this and it will stand as proof that similar integrated energy pilots can be implemented on a micro-scale in South Africa and become a major contributor towards job creation,” concludes Mollagee.

RéSource May 2013 – 9

Solid waste


Solid waste management practices in Western Africa In Western Africa, the rapid rate of uncontrolled and unplanned urbanisation coupled with a high density of urban settlement and changing consumption patterns, have accelerated the need for water supply, sanitation and waste management infrastructure – often resulting in no proper separation of the different health care waste as well.


his is the fourth and final instalment of a paper investigating waste management and its challenges in the west of the African continent and deals specifically with the handling of health-care waste in the region as well as the final conclusions.

Health-care waste Often, no proper separation of the different types of health-care waste takes place, resulting in it getting mixed with household waste. Very few institutions separate their waste – predominantly large hospitals in major cities. They separate sharp waste; infectious, but not sharp waste; and anatomical waste; sometimes using a colour code system. In the healthcare institutions, waste is most often not transported adequately (containers without wheels, etc). Infectious waste is sometimes treated with bleach, sterilised in autoclaves or incinerated. But most health-care facilities

10 – RéSource May 2013

do not have access to such treatment facilities and, if they exist, they are often dysfunctional (open-air incinerators) or out of operation. The most modern incinerators in Senegal are to be found in the principal hospital – the Dantec Hospital – and in the Pasteur Institute. Ash is put together with household waste and brought to the dumping sites. Anatomic waste such as placentas is often delivered to the belonging families for burial. Besides the few treatment options, most of the health-care waste transportation is subcontracted to the same companies that transport municipal solid waste (MSW). Consequently, it ends up at official or informal dumpsites together with the MSW without any prior treatment, except in Lagos where the waste is shredded and the original volume is reduced by 80%. The

shredded waste is heated at temperature of 135°C and 4 bar pressure. The final products are then disposed of with other general waste (LAWMA, 2008). Some structures, such as the University Hospital of Yopougon (Ivory Coast) have their own dumpsite for the reception of wastes of all types. A factory in Port Harcourt, River State (Nigeria), called BOSKEL Thermal Factory incinerates expired pharmaceutical products and antiretroviral drugs in a high temperature rotary kiln incineration (Iyortim et al., 2011).

Conclusions MSW is composed of recyclable materials such as organic matter, plastic, paper, cardboard, metal, glass and textiles, but also toxic materials such as car batteries, dry batteries from electronic devices, electronic components, pharmaceutical products and agrochemicals. In Ivory Coast, Ghana,

Solid waste

ABOVE Plastic waste sorting at dumpsite, Senegal Source: IAGU 2006

ABOVE RIGHT Plastic waste sorting, Ghana Source: 2012

RIGHT Infectious waste bin in a health-care facility in Lagos, Nigeria Source: Oketola et al., 2011

BOTTOM RIGHT A locally built incinerator at a healthcare facility, Ibadan, Nigeria Source: Oketola et al., 2011

Nigeria and Senegal, sorting at household level is conducted by informal waste buyers who collect valuable fractions directly from households, small businesses, etc. The rest is disposed of as mixed waste. The formal collection theoretically is well organised and includes both door-to-door collection and communal collection from central points. It is normally carried out by private waste service providers contracted by local authorities. In practice, however, the formal collection reveals some difficulties due to service providers that do not attend to their duties, inefficiency of operations, bad road and weather conditions, old vehicles, etc. Sorting and recycling of MSW fractions in significant quantities only exists in urban areas. Most of the sorting activities take place in the informal sector that is concentrated on the solid waste dumpsites or on specialised scrapyards. Formal recycling

comprises metal scrap recycling, plastic recycling, paper and cardboard recycling, as well as recycling of organic waste. The formal recyclers often receive their material from the informal sector. Although sorting and recycling activities are only driven by economic interests, they still contribute to generating secondar y resources and therefore conserve primary (natural) resources. However, not much attention is paid to negative environmental impacts during sorting and recycling processes, and information on recycling technologies, environmental impacts, etc., is rather scarce. MSW is finally disposed of mainly in official dumpsites, but also in irregular or illegal dumps. None of the RÊSource May 2013 – 11

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Solid waste

official dumpsites feature leakage water or gas control; leakage water often reaches the closest river or lake. In none of the target countries does a sanitary landfill exist where MSW could be disposed of appropriately, although in some countries such landfills are planned. Instead of dumping MSW, it is a very common practice for households to burn paper and plastic components of their waste. Also, at irregular and official dumpsites, waste is often burnt in order to reduce the volumes. Burning of waste, especially plastics, can lead to significant air pollution with dioxins and furans. Plastic waste, which accounts for around 15 to 20% of municipal waste in the four countries, is rarely sorted at source but disposed of together with the remaining waste fractions. Separate collection is carried out by informal collectors that sort, reuse and recycle plastics themselves or work together with a formal plastic recycler. Both formal and informal plastic recycling exists that include sorting, shredding, washing, drying and extruding in order to produce pellets or flakes. There is little documentation on recycling processes and its resulting environmental impacts. There are plans to intensify sorting and recycling of plastics in some cities. Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) or e-waste originates mainly from households, corporate businesses, public institutions and repair businesses. There is no formal collection of e-waste, but due to its valuable content (iron, aluminum,

12 – RéSource May 2013

copper etc.), it is often bought or collected by informal e-waste collectors who go from door to door but also sift through waste bins, visit landfills and other waste dumping grounds to search for e-waste. The quantity of e-waste is difficult to determine due to different product scope of existing studies. Ghana and Nigeria, which have received large quantities of second-hand equipment in the past years, have showed a significantly higher e-waste generation than Ivory Coast and Senegal. Obsolete electric and electronic equipment is often refurbished or repaired before it is disposed of. These activities in general do not lead to negative environmental impacts but contribute to the extension of the lifetime of equipment and therefore a reduction of WEEE generated. Recycling of e-waste mainly takes place at informal scrapyards where devices are manually dismantled and valuable substances are extracted, sorted and then sold to local smelters or exporters. Copper cables are often burnt to remove the plastic casings. ‘Non profitable’ fractions such as plastic casings are not recovered

ABOVE In Senegal, the average waste generation for municipal waste is 0.60 kg/day per inhabitant for cities with more than 100 000 inhabitants BELOW The public administration and the private sector are challenged in developing adequate waste management policies

and usually dumped and eventually burnt in order to reduce the volumes of the dumpsites. Besides valuable substances, e-waste also contains many toxic substances (lead, cadmium, mercury, plastics with brominated flame retardants) that are released during the dismantling and burning process and lead to serious environmental impacts. Final disposal of e-waste fractions often takes place on irregular or illegal dumpsites next to the scrapyards. There are no

Solid waste

appropriate disposal options for hazardous substances resulting from e-waste recycling in the target countries. Health care waste constitutes a problem in all four target countries. Most often, no proper segregation of health-care waste takes place and it is often mixed with household waste. Very few facilities segregate their waste, mostly large hospitals in major cities. But most health-care facilities do not have access to treatment facilities and, if they exist, they are often dysfunctional or out of operation. Besides the few treatment

Source: Green Advocacy Ghana 2010

bodies to these actors), but also by persistent inappropriate practices such as open-air dumping and burning of all types of waste including hazardous waste. A sustainable solution to these challenges could consist in measures for the social and economic inclusion of the informal sector (for collection, reuse, separation and recycling) and for the industrialisation of disposal practices, especially sanitary landfills and treatment plants for hazardous waste.

options, most of the health care waste ends up at official or informal dumpsites together with the municipal waste. In conclusion, solid waste management practices in Western Africa are characterised by a high participation of informal actors, remarkably frequent reuse, sorting and recycling practices (which is particularly remarkable given the absence of support from public

This is an abridged version on the project of Integrated Waste Management in Western Africa. The duration of the project, funded by the EU within the Seventh Framework Programme, was two years and the results of the research were submitted during May 2012. For information on the complete paper, including references, please contact the editor at

ABOVE LEFT E-waste refurbishing, Nigeria Source: Empa 2009

ABOVE RIGHT E-waste recycling, Ghana

RÊSource May 2013 – 13

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Solid waste


Considering composting The City of Cape Town has, as of the first quarter of this year, started rolling out Phase 2 of its home composting research project, finds Chantelle van Schalkwyk.


his is in line with ongoing investigations into waste minimisation as part of our commitment to being a caring city,” says Ernest Sonnenberg, mayoral committee member for Utility Services. The “caring city” represents one of the five pillars of the Integrated Development Plan (IDP). The IDP is a strategy that was implemented in 2012 to provide the strategic framework for building a city based on five pillars: the opportunity city, the safe city, the caring city, the inclusive city and the well-run city. These five key focus areas inform government of all of the city’s plans and policies over the next five years.

Critical impact If residents in the City of Cape Town compost their organic waste, this will effectively minimise garden and kitchen organic waste directed to the city’s landfills for disposal, subsequently reducing green-

of their organic compost in their gardens will enrich the garden soils, thereby stimulating plants grown. The City of Cape Town has invested a lot of time and effort into this project and similar alternatives because, as Sonnenberg states, the city currently has less than 10 years of landfill airspace remaining, compared with the international standard of 15 years, and has been in the process of obtaining a licence for a new regional landfill site for over 10 years.

“Participants also diverted an average of 1.8 kg of soft garden waste (such as grass clippings and leaves) per container per month into their home composting containers.” “These results are promising, and Phase 2 of the research project (the feasibility study) has been commissioned to test the results of Phase 1 on a significantly larger scale, with approximately 700 participants from four different representative residential areas in Cape Town. In addition, households in the city are generally being encouraged to begin composting their garden and kitchen organic Phase 1: pre-feasibility waste in an appropriate manner,” states Phase 1 of the project (the pre-feasibility Sonnenberg, adding that the City of Cape study) was undertaken during 2012, where Town hopes to record similar diversion rates 19 participants trialled the use of home com- to that of Phase 1, which could be reason to posting containers for their kitchen organic motivate for further roll-out of home compostand a portion of their garden waste, over a ing in the city in an appropriate manner. period of nine months. The city then anaThe impact of Phase 1 has already delivlysed the data submitted by participants ered measurable results. “During the and, according to Sonnenberg, found that Phase 1 reporting period, over 1 000 kg of participants diverted between 2.5 and 40 kg kitchen organic waste and 250 kg of garden waste was recorded as being composted by participants who submitted comprehensive data,” explains Sonnenberg. Although additional participants did not record data for all the months they participated, ” Cllr Ernest Sonnenberg, City of Cape Town all 19 participants used their of kitchen organic waste (originating from containers for composting, indicating that fruit and vegetables) per container per month this figure is an underestimate of the actual into their home composting containers, with kilogrammes composted to date. the majority of them diverting between 11 to Furthermore, the participants have contin22 kg per container per month. ued to use their composting containers after

These results are promising, and Phase 2 of the research project has been commissioned to test the results of Phase 1 on a significantly larger scale house gases, such as methane, which these waste streams currently generate in the landfill, says Sonnenberg. He adds that for the individual residents the use

14 – RéSource May 2013

Solid waste

the project reporting period, therefore continuing to divert organic waste from landfills.

Education essential Sonnenberg explains that in the city’s recruitment process, consultants went door to door in the project areas to invite willing participants. This engagement process included information sharing about the project and its expectations. On receiving their composting container, each participant received an information leaflet that explained every aspect of the composting project. “Following this period, residents have been e-mailing and SMSing questions specific to their individual challenges to the project team. Responding to these queries has given the project manager an opportunity to share additional knowledge with all participants,” says Sonnenberg.

Practical priorities: containers With regard to the system to be utilised by the homeowners, Sonnenberg indicates that the City of Cape Town advertised a request for quotations for home composting containers for the purposes of this project, which was won by the Green Genie 150 ℓ compost container supplier. “However, generally for home composting, this is not the only technology which the city

supports, and it is essentially the residents’ choice in terms of the technology they wish to use. For residents who generate higher volumes of organic waste, building a compost heap or carrying out trench composting is advised, and for those without gardens, a worm composting system is suggested,” says Sonnenberg. He adds that the use of bokashi effective microbes can also assist in the preservation of organic waste prior to composting.

Challenging circumstances Phase 2 of the project is currently being undertaken to identify some of the potential challenges and potential solutions. “In any city, there would always be certain residents who would either be disinterested or unable, due to age or frailty, to participate in home composting. For those unable to participate in home composting, the city is hoping to investigate alternatives, such as communitybased composting programmes, which could receive organic waste from these residents,” says Sonnenberg. However, challenges such as some participants being unable to read the city’s communications and composting instructions have already surfaced and the city is finding ways of dealing with them. “The city encourages such participants to get a family member to

assist and keep in telephone contact, where possible,” advices Sonnenberg. In addition, there were participants who did not read the instructions sufficiently, and sent the project team the information in the incorrect format. This was resolved by further e-mail, SMS or phone communication to rectify and explain these mistakes. “Some confusion was also caused by the fact that the container was originally sold with an insect repellent cap, which was later found by the supplier to be counter-productive. As such, the participants enquired about an insect repellent that could kill insects in the containers, such as fruit flies, and the project team needed to explain that these insects are not harmful, whereas an insect repellent could potentially negatively impact on other living organisms within the delicate composting process,” explains Sonnenberg. According to Sonnenberg, residents were eager to participate in this project. “It must be noted that certain participants underestimated the effort and commitment required by the project, so their enthusiasm waned slightly after participating for a while, but it is hoped that when they experience the benefits of utilising the compost, their enthusiasm will once again increase,” concludes Sonnenberg.

RéSource May 2013 – 15

Solid waste


Move towards strategic management of waste The provision of efficient refuse removal services in Ekurhuleni is top priority for the head of the Department for Waste Management Services at the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, Qaphile Gcwensa.


he metro has been criticised for inconsistent service standards, lack of expertise to drive innovation, and a difficult to understand and unreliable refuse collection system. Gcwensa, who has been at the helm of the department for a year now, has been working hard at a business reengineering process set to transform the department’s operations, systems, models and legislative compliance. “One of the key areas of this process is our operations,” she highlights. “We are looking into the way in which we render our services, the balancing of our routes, the number of shifts, the distribution and utilisation of equipment and vehicles, and also considering the effectiveness of our move-on system of refuse collection versus the fixed system.” Residents of Germiston and Bedfordview have already begun to experience the

effects of this focus on streamlining operations. In January, the Bedfordview waste management depot started rendering comprehensive services to the areas of Primrose, Elandsfontein, Klopperpark, Malvern East and Wychwood instead of only litter picking. These areas were previously serviced by the Germiston depot, based on an informal agreement, and this led to an unreliable service. The re-engineering process is putting a spotlight into such matters, which were previously overlooked and in turn had a negative effect on service delivery.

Bins and trucks Another element is the phased roll-out of 240-litre bins to all households in the metro. These bins are currently being used in the

LEFT Qaphile Gcwensa, head of Department for Waste Management Services, is focusing on getting the wheels running right to improve service delivery BELOW Waste collection in Ekurhuleni is set to be quicker and more efficient once 240 ℓ bins are rolled out throughout the metro

Edenvale, Bedfordview, Alberton, Tembisa, Nigel and Duduza customer care areas and the metro aims to extend these services. To complement this move, R69 million is budgeted in this financial year for the procurement of refuse removal vehicles to ensure consistent and reliable waste collection services. “We are currently replacing our old trucks, but from next year we will be buying to augment our fleet. We should, however, bear in mind that although we have budgeted for the procurement of new vehicles this financial year, the business re-engineering process will inform the distribution of said vehicles to improve operational efficiencies.”

Waste removal calendar Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality currently operates on a “move-on” system for refuse collection whereby a refuse removal schedule is distributed to households annually. This colour-coded schedule indicates which day refuse will be collected in a given week. Consultation with residents has shown that many people do not fully understand the system, especially when collection days change due to public holidays. It can happen that some areas are not serviced for up to two weeks in a month where there are a lot of public holidays. The metro is thus in the process of converting into a fixed system to avoid such occurrences and reduce the amount of illegal dumping caused by the misinterpretation of the calendar.

Waste removal cooperatives In September last year, executive mayor Mondli Gungubele announced the introduction of cooperatives to render removal services in informal settlements that currently do not receive these services. The department is at the final stages of phase one of this process.

16 – RéSource May 2013

Solid waste

OPPORTUNITIES FOR INFORMAL RECYCLERS The Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality is forging ahead with its mission to achieve a ‘Cleaner and Greener Ekurhuleni’ by kickstarting a recycling initiative in the communities of Wattville and Actonville in Benoni. THE METRO RECENTLY commenced with a R4 million pilot project, which includes two recycling drop off/ collection centres in those areas built by NETSAFRICA, an organisation formed from the twinning of Tuscan and South African local governments. The project involved capacitating 45 informal waste collectors who have now formed the Nkoza Environment and Cleaning Primary Cooperative. The organisation will be responsible for collecting waste in areas of Wattville and Actonville where the municipality is not already rendering this service. The waste will be sorted and sold for recycling purposes. Over the past 18 months, partners have been setting the foundation for the pilot by conducting research and training, and constructing the necessary facilities. Now the project is to fully roll-out its operations to the community to test the effectiveness of the model that involves communitybased organisations in waste collection and recycle efforts. According to a member of the Mayoral Committee for Economic Development and City Planning, Bennett Nikani, the objectives of the project are twofold. The Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality has developed a comprehensive job creation programme that seeks to activate social entrepreneurship through the implementation of community-driven work programmes,” he said. “Hence the partnership with NETSAFRICA, which has enabled us to spearhead and provide thought leadership in the area of waste management through the use of alternative service delivery methods. It is in this regard that the lessons that have been generated from the programme will be instrumental in shaping our thinking and approach towards community-based empowerment.” The collection of recycling waste involves placing bins in areas where there is illegal dumping and door-to-door collection with refuse bags at households. This system seeks to allow for contact with individual residents in order to encourage them to enlist in the culture of recycling. The cooperative will make use of a truck and tricycles with a front mesh cage for the collection of recyclable waste, which they will deliver to the drop-off centres for sorting and storage until it is sold.

LANDFILL GAS WELLS EXTENSION TO IMPROVE AIR QUALITY “Due to its status as Africa’s industrial hub, the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM) is one of the country’s priority areas to improve its air quality. One of the measures that the metro is taking is the implementation of a gas extraction project at its landfill sites,” says acting media relations unit manager and EMM spokesperson, Sam Modiba. THE METRO IS INSTALLING gas wells at selected waste landfill sites as an extension of its gas extraction Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project, which aims to drastically reduce odour and improve air quality in areas surrounding these facilities. The project commenced in 2006 and has to date implemented the system at four of its five landfills. Positive results reflecting a large drop in gas emissions from the landfills has prompted the municipality to continue with the project and extend its wellfield at the Rooikraal (Boksburg) and Weltevreden (Brakpan) sites.

A cleaner Ekurhuleni Waste minimisation and recycling are key components of an integrated waste management system. The Waste Management Services department is due to present this plan, which will be a key part of a broader Integrated Waste Management Plan, before the end of this financial year. This plan offers, among others things, the removal of recyclables from the waste stream in order to reduce waste volumes to landfill sites, which are running out of airspace. According to Gcwensa, the metro is moving towards ensuring compliance with all legislative requirements, including

Modiba has appealed to residents and business owners in close proximity to the two sites to be understanding for the next three months as the process of installation of the wells will result in odour release in the area. “This process involves digging and trenching into waste, which is already in place at the landfill and, as a result, the release of a stench. Odour control will, however, be used and will be applied directly to the waste as well as in the form of an ambient spray curtain,” he said. The CDM project is expected to destroy approximately 1 Mt of carbon dioxide equivalent gases during a five-year period. Emission reduction is achieved by the combustion of recovered methane contained in landfill gas that would be otherwise emitted to the atmosphere. To recover landfill gas, EMM is using vertical gas extraction wells and horizontal gas collection systems. At this stage, the landfill gas collected through this system is being used for environmental purposes. The metro’s long-term goal is, however, to have it converted into electricity and has rekindled this process. BELOW The gas flare station at the Simmer and Jack landfill site in Germisten into which the wells ultimately feed

measures and mechanisms aimed at minimising waste. The revision of the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality’s waste management by-laws and introduction of norms and standards have also been prioritised. The picture of actual service delivery, however, is promising as the department reports that 91% of refuse removal rounds were collected as per schedule in the last quarter. Litter picking services are rendered on a daily basis to ensure cleanliness on main entrances, main routes, central business districts, industrial areas, around shopping malls and at other strategic areas.

RéSource May 2013 – 17

Solid waste


Modern and mechanised waste transfer station

The construction of the 1 200 t/d Electron Road Waste Transfer Station by eThekwini Municipality to serve the Durban area is almost 70% complete, Marc Wright of Durban Solid Waste (DSW) tells Chantelle van Schalkwyk.


his new waste management facility is set to provide the region with a modern and mechanised means of transferring municipal general solid wastes as efficiently and cost-effectively as possible to the landfill sites,” says Wright. “Although currently the project is all about the construction stages as it hasn’t been commissioned yet,” he adds. Wright states that the challenges faced to date have therefore been construction related, but adds that these have been few and far between and easily remedied, such as the use of tilt-up panel wall system. Instead of conventional brickwork laid layer by layer, the system is erected fully formed on-site having been precast in proprietary moulds. “However, it will still have the same face brick finish,” he explains. “Other construction frustrations causing some delays have been early September rains and high seasonal rainfall and material supply delays, specifically steel for

18 – RéSource May 2013

the steel structure.” Construction on this R140 million project started on 12 March 2012 and is set to continue for 78 weeks. “Currently, the project is approximately 70% complete with commissioning projected to take place in September 2013,” says Wright.

Distinct design Jeffares & Green, the firm of engineering and environmental consultants responsible for designing the facility, was appointed to design a modern and mechanised waste transfer station (WTS) at Electron Road in Springfield Park, an industrial and commercial area north of Durban. The main structure, which includes a refuse transfer station and compaction hall among other facilities, will be built on a site roughly 4 ha in size where waste will be offloaded, compacted and containerised for bulk transportation. The Electron Road Waste Transfer Station (WTS) will comprise

a main four-storey DSW office building and some 4 290 m² in plan, in which waste will be offloaded into compaction units, compacted into purpose-made containers for bulk transportation and then transported to the new Buffelsdraai landfill site. As Wright explains, the aim of constructing the facility in Springfield (Durban) is to somewhat reduce the transport expenses of transferring solid waste to landfills, as landfills are increasingly sited further and further from the point of waste generation (households, business, commercial, industrial, etc.). At present, most of the waste in Durban City is disposed of at the Bisasar Road landfill site in Springfield Park, but this site is reaching capacity. When this capacity is reached, waste collection vehicles will have to travel to the Buffelsdraai landfill site approximately 33 km away – more than double the 15 km distance that is considered an economic travelling cost for

Solid waste

waste collection vehicles. These prohibitive transport costs have made the provision of a WTS financially prudent, particularly since the Electron Road site is less than 1 km from the Bisasar Road site. The reduced transportation will also reduce fuel consumption, congestion as well as wear and tear on road systems, with an overall reduction of carbon emissions. Upgrading of Electron Road roadway will provide dedicated access to the site, access roads to the various handling areas within the site, a security building, weighbridge kiosks for the monitoring and recording of waste mass, wash bays for the waste fleet and containers, a car park and covered waiting area at the entrance to the facility. The contract involves the construction of the structures, civil works and infrastructure, and building-related mechanical, electrical, electronic works, together with the mechanical plant for the operation of the facility. The works comprise, but is not limited to: the refuse transfer station, a compaction hall, container-handling operations, offices, weighbridge infrastructure, mechanical equipment and plant. It also contains wash bays, security facilities, entrance building and weighbridges.

Unique technology

means of litter traps, silt traps and oil traps. Specific stormwater treatment processes were designed to control pollution and allow discharge of an acceptable effluent from the site. One item in the stormwater treatment portfolio that has been carefully designed is the bioswale, which is a carefully landscaped and shaped open stormwater system (channel) to enhance the removal of solids, metals and the like. Another element is the stormwater inlets designed to effectively remove litter and sediment before these reach other systems. A unique waste management feature – highlighted by both Jeffares & Green and by Wright – is the compaction process that will be used for the first time in South Africa. The system – the Husmann compaction system – was accepted as an alternative design proposed by the successful bidder, Aveng-Grinaker LTA Construction. Imported from Germany, the system is patented to use side rams, explains Wright. In this case, dual side rams are utilised to compact the waste and then move it into the hopper, therefore eliminating the sometimes “messy” use of conveyors. “This process is a lot cleaner, quicker, simpler and hopefully more effective, and is definitely new and innovative in the landfill and waste management industry,” says Wright. 

The design also includes the maximisation of use of natural lighting and ventilation, stormwater treatment, pollution control by

ALL PHOTOGRAPHS Aerial photographs of the site progress as of 5 April 2013

A unique waste management feature is the compaction process that will be used for the first time in South Africa

RéSource May 2013 – 19

Solid waste

Sustainable approach Mariannhill Landfill Conser vancy Site, just outside Durban, is considered a bestpractice ecosystem restoration project and DSW will apply the same awardwinning environmental approach at Electron Road. The successful process is driven by PRUNIT (Plant Rescue and Relocation Unit), headed up by Richard Winn, a horticulturalist and rehabilitation specialist. This unit applied the philosophy of moving plant species once only and uses a rehabilitation nursery as a backup when direct relocation is not possible. The basic principles are: • tr y and relocate species to their original aspect • import no foreign soils • relocate grasslands with original topsoil • relocate original watercourse species to wetland nurseries for future utilisation • create a similar habitat to what originally occurred

20 – RéSource May 2013

• only relocate species within 50 km as per international biodiversity protocol, preferably closer. This ecosystem restoration project has created a large holding nursery for storage of indigenous vegetation that has been ‘hardened-off’ to withstand rigorous conditions with little or no maintenance. For example, a nursery of wetland plants has been grown for the future establishment of ‘leachate through wetland’ processes of water back into the environment and these plants have been specifically hardened off for contaminants found in the waste industry.

Ver y little plant material could be salvaged from the Electron Road site and DSW, PRUNIT and Jef fares & Green worked closely together to develop a design of what could be provided by the holding nursery. The engineered stormwater swales, rainwater har vesting and stormwater ponds have been designed to interlink and are to be planted with indigenous vegetation selected to help provide functional solutions to issues identified on-site.

Wait and see Wright is understandably excited about the project as the construction stages near completion and commissioning draws closer. Cold commissioning of the facility is scheduled to take place in approximately June 2013. “Everything is cleaner, simpler and hopefully a lot more effective; however, the proof of this will really be evidenced when the facility is up and running,” concludes Wright.



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Waste to energy


A changing landscape Should the focus rather be on waste to energy than incineration?


lthough incineration is not synonymous with waste-to-energy, of late it has become more appropriate to replace the word incineration with waste-to-energy, in part because

of a prevalent negative connotation associated with the word, but also because wasteto-energy is more progressive and more in line with where the industr y is heading, finds Chantelle van Schalkwyk as she speaks to Golder Associates Waste Management consultant, Natalie Kohler. In essence, our

current legislation requires a waste management and air emissions licence by an EIA in order to undertake an incineration of waste activity. “These are the main regulations applying to a waste-to-energy facility; however, ever y facility is different depending on the environmental landscape and, as such, would be required to be assessed on a specific basis in terms of what activities are triggered and authorisations required� says Kohler. In South Africa, medical waste � Natalie Kohler, incinerators are the most common type of incinerators, but there are Waste Management consultant at Golder Associates

More support from funders and authorities to back such technologies for a greener future will also help us.

22 – RÊSource May 2013


3. Smartphones

2. PC and tablets


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Waste to energy

also some industrial waste incinerators for hazardous wastes. There are currently ver y few incinerators for household waste in South Africa. “However, the landscape for household waste incinerators is changing in South Africa due to the changes in how waste is managed so as to provide more sustainable solutions to dealing with waste, par ticularly in terms of social (health, job creation) and environmental (air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, leachate control) advantages of incinerators compared to landfills,” she explains.

The basics According to Kohler, incineration is one of many tools in waste management. Established waste treatment technologies include composting, landfill, recycling, windrow composting and incineration, while alternative waste treatment technologies include anaerobic digestion (AD), gasification, pyrolysis, gasplasma, plasma-arc, in-vessel composting, tunnel composing, mechanical biological treatment, mechanical heat treatment, sewage treatment and autoclaving. Currently, the biggest challenges for waste-toenergy mass burn incineration in South Africa lie in the

high capital and operating costs, and air emission control requirements, warns Kohler. The lack of general environmental and waste education of the public to dispel myths and the negative connotations of incineration also ser ve as a challenge for us to overcome. However, public awareness about the advantages of wasteto-energy technologies and the benefits of more sustainable alternative waste treatment technologies over the traditional waste treatment methods like landfilling is an easier challenge to overcome. According to Kohler, this can be achieved through education about sustainable and alternative waste treatment methods. “More suppor t from funders and authorities to back such technologies for a greener future will also help us overcome these challenges,” adds Kohler.

The biggest challenges for waste-to-energy mass burn incineration in South Africa lie in the high capital and operating costs, and air emission control requirements

Putting in to practice

Golder Associates has an international team of exper ts in

A current challenge for waste-to-energy mass burn incineration in South Africa is air emission control requirement

alternative waste treatment technologies, having worked on mixed solid waste process technologies for the City of Toronto, Canada; waste studies for a waste-to-energy plant for the Ministr y for the Environment, Roads and Utilities in Gibraltar; bio-digester studies for Energy Allied Egypt and the US Trade Development Agency in Egypt, and many others. Kohler’s most recent waste-to-energy projects in South Africa RéSource May 2013 – 23


6 JUNE 2013

CSIR International Convention Centre




in South Africa



t t t t t

Senior decision-makers in all government spheres, especially municipalities, in mining, oil and gas, energy, manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries, agriculture, forestry and alike.


on latest trends in: SA waste legislation Contaminated land Beneficial downstream use of waste residues Waste-to-energy initiatives Waste management strategies in the mining, oil & gas industries Integrated waste management plans


For more information, contact Lucinda Scholtz at +27 11 313 1151; Or visit

RéSource May 2013 – 23

Waste to energy

INCINERATION DEFINED ACCORDING TO THE NEMWA (Waste Act of 2008): “Incineration means any method, technique or process to convert waste to flue gases and residues by means of oxidation.” There are different names for different types of incinerators such as: plasma arc, waste-to-energy, cement kilns, and rotary kilns.

include: a cellulosic ethanol bio-refiner y prefeasibility and feasibility study funded by the National Empowerment Fund; a study for assessing the municipal wastes in of Gauteng and the potential for recycling and waste-to-energy conversion for the Gauteng Growth Development Agency; and a due diligence study for landfill gas resource assessments, environmental authorisations and technical commission and per formance testing of nine landfills in South Africa for landfill gas to energy conversion for EnerG Systems. According to Kohler, the studies on waste-to-energy projects in South Africa to date focus on the principles of sustainable

development. From a social perspective, the advantages of waste-to-energy projects are as follows: • direct and indirect employment oppor tunities, as well as benefit for local residents • human health benefits in terms of controlled emissions from waste-to-energy facilities • health and safety risks, and health hazards at waste-to-energy facilities are far more controlled and manageable and hence safer for humans than uncontrolled pickers that frequent landfills. “From an environmental perspective, a waste-to-energy facility has a positive environmental impact saving when compared to a landfill, which is a burden on the environment in terms of water pollution and methane gas emissions. The impact of polluted water entering the environment from landfills is diverse, including human health issues such as cholera and gastro enteritis, and environmental impacts, relating to the reduced availability of oxygen in the water for aquatic species as a result of the natural oxidation

24 – RéSource May 2013

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of the polluted water entering the environment,” she says. Golder’s waste and resource assessment tool for the environment (WRATE model), which is a leading life cycle analysis specifically designed to evaluate impacts of waste management systems, demonstrates the six environmental benefits of waste-to-energy facilities over landfills. WRATE can calculate the emission savings of carbon dioxide equivalents for a waste-to-energy facility compared to the same sized landfill, which emits methane gas, agreenhouse gas (GHG). The carbon dioxide equivalents from WRATE can be used to calculate the carbon emission reduction credits under the Cean Development Mechanism. As a result of these substantial advantages, the waste-to-energy landscape of tomorrow looks optimistic, according to Kohler. “It looks very positive if we can only overcome our hurdles through financial support and public awareness for a greener, more sustainable waste management future in South Africa,” she concludes.

Panel discussion


Reviewing recycling The process of collecting and processing materials that would otherwise be thrown away as waste – landing up on space constrained landfills – and turning them into new products is not a new concept, but more now than ever the drive to recycle is gaining momentum both in the personal and public spheres.


his is in part because of a greater focus on “green” or “sustainability” in light of recent initiatives like COP17 and a general greater awareness of the possible negative impact continuing to stock pile all waste in landfills could have on the environment. The benefits of recycling on the other hand are well documented; for example less energy is used when recycled materials are included in the manufacturing process and less waste creates more landfill space. In addition, it benefits the South African economy

as it decreases the necessity to import raw materials and provides a number of opportunities for income generation and alleviation of poverty through job creation, as well as simply preventing litter and contributing to a cleaner, greener and healthier South Africa. Cardboard and paper are excellent materials for recycling. For every tonne of paper recycled, 17 trees are saved, 40% less energy and 30% less water is needed to make paper. A number of other products can also be recycled, including plastics, tins and

metals. Much has been said about the environmental benefits of advocating reduce, reuse, recycle and rethink – but who would you turn to if you were considering recycling and are there best practice examples in the South African waste management sector? The panel in this edition of RéSource serves to highlight the organisations that are getting it right in the local context, to great gain for not only themselves, but also the environment and the population at large. RéSource May 2013 – 25

Pelleting of Municipal and Industrial Sewage Sludge


Possible design of a plant for pelleting of sewage sludge

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Pelleting press

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Let’s not waste our earth’s scarce resources. When you recycle with Mpact Recycling, your waste paper is used to make paper and other products, saving many of these resources and contributing to a sustainable future not only for you but for the next generation. Not only is Mpact Recycling the largest collector of paper for recycling in South Africa, Mpact is the largest producer of paper made from recycled materials in the country. Mpact is involved in the entire process from collecting discarded paper all the way through to making the paper from it and converting it into boxes. What’s more, by recycling, you are helping to employ over 30,000 people involved in the industry. Having empowered over 170 small businesses to facilitate their own recycling collections, Mpact is also actively leading change in the industry through smarter, sustainable thinking.

Panel discussion

John Hunt, MD

MPACT RECYCLING (MPACT GROUP) Why is recycling key to sustainable, green working environments? Recycling plays a vital role in ensuring offices throughout South Africa are able to contribute to sustainable development in South Africa.

What role does Mpact play in the recycling arena? Mpact Recycling, formerly Mondi Recycling, is South Africa’s largest paper recycler, with seven of its own operations in major

and don’ts” to remember when separating office recycling products, to facilitate Mpact Recycling’s processes and to contribute effectively to a sustainable office environment: DO separate the following to be collected for paper recycling in your office: • old memos/letters • computer paper • used photocopy paper • windowless envelopes • old books

Mpact Recycling is by far the biggest paper recycler in South Africa and we recover approximately 457 000 t of paper each year nationally centres around the country and 42 buy-back centres. It also supports 90 independent dealers throughout the country. Mpact Recycling is by far the biggest paper recycler in South Africa and we recover approximately 457 000 t of paper each year nationally. While largest of the portion of the paper we collect is from industrial and commercial operations, recycling that comes directly from office buildings is important and a growing source of raw material for paper mills.

• • • • •

cigarette ends tissues and paper towels plastic wrapping carbon paper post-it notes (these are not recyclable because of the glues used to make them) • staples, plastic or steel paperclips • waxed cartons (such as frozen fish boxes). Office collection points are per fect sources of recycled paper for our business because large groups of employees can contribute to the process and we are able to recover a lot of paper from central collection points, which is ideal.

• pale coloured paper (invoices, etc.) • newspapers • magazines • cardboard (flattened). DON’T include these items in your recycling bins at work: • polystyrene or paper cups and plates

Where to from here for recycling in general and Mpact specifically? Mpact,

• • • •

recycling, having been in the business since 1975. Recycling is integral to our business model because the raw materials for Mpact’s paper packaging

which Mpact Recycling is part of, demerged from the Mondi Group and listed separately on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange in July last year. We have a long heritage of

business originate from the nation’s recycled paper. Not only does recycling have long-term implications for the environment by reducing the impact on landfill sites as well as decreasing the need to import raw materials, it also creates jobs in the industry. Sustainability is key to our business; this includes contributing to the economy of the country through job BELOW LEFT Recovered paper is shredded before being baled for use as raw material at paper mills BELOW RIGHT Recovered paper is sorted into grades before use

Why is recycling a necessity for corporate South Africa? Recycling paper is a simple process that everyone can help with by collecting unused items such as cardboard, old newspapers, magazines or used printer paper. I would encourage companies to get involved in a recycling programme and employees to support such initiatives as a way to prevent recyclable materials – particularly paper – ending up in landfill sites.

How can recycling in offices most easily be implemented? Here are some useful “dos

yoghurt cartons sweet/chip wrappers blueprint paper organic material (such as old food and vegetables)

creation. Through a social entrepreneurship empowerment model, we partner with local entrepreneurs to help collect recycled paper for us.

RéSource May 2013 – 27

Panel discussion

Amanda Nair, MD


How important do you think recycling initiatives are? Recycling is key to the goals of minimising the waste going to landfills and extracting maximum value from the waste stream. Separating recyclable materials – glass, paper, metals and certain plastics – out of the waste stream reduces the bulk of waste going to landfills, eases the strain on our natural resources and helps to create employment in informal and formalised waste reclamation sectors. In the City of Johannesburg, however, recycling has not historically been a routine followed by residents. Both because of a lack of supporting and accessible infrastructure that enables residents to separate waste, and due to a lack of knowledge of how to recycle. Acknowledging this and responding with the Separation at Source programme has been the critical first step for the city in establishing a recycling economy for Johannesburg. Our goals are as follows: • establishing a recycling economy in the City of Johannesburg – behavioural change • separation of recyclable waste at source • focus on domestic customers (households) • use of new receptacle systems

ABOVE Pikitup provides recycling bags to the residents in the targeted areas

• no one-size-fits-all • enforcing separation at source (Waste Management By-laws) • involve reclaimers and/or waste pickers in solutions.

What recycling initiatives is Pikitup involved in? We are currently involved in a project called Separation at Source. This initiative is operational in the Waterval, Zondi, Diepsloot and Orange Farm areas. The idea is to get residents to

as cooperatives, with community members as stakeholders. The programme piloted in the Waterval area in September 2012, with a roll-out to the Zondi, Diepsloot and Orange Farm areas in October 2012, November 2012 and February 2013, respectively. The change in waste management behaviour and an uptake of related small business development has seen the Mayor of Johannesburg prioritise Separation at Source as a key city programme. The initiative has been well received by the communities and we continue to see an increase monthly on tonnages at the various buy-back centres. Over a 160 jobs have been created since the beginning of the campaign.

What lessons have been learnt to date? It has started the ball rolling in the establishment of a recycling economy for the city through setting up Separation

[The programme] has started the ball rolling in the establishment of a recycling economy for the city start turning trash to treasure, thereby evoking a change in mindset where value can still be extracted from what was previously viewed as useless. Essentially, it requires residents to use separate receptacles to collect their waste – a black bin for non-recyclable household waste, a clear durable plastic bag for glass, cans, plastics, etc., and a reusable white bag for all paper materials. The recyclables that are collected are taken to local buy-back centres for further sorting and sale to the end buyers, e.g. Nampak. These buy-back centres operate

at Source points within these communities and, critically, it has taught residents how to reduce, reuse, recycle and rethink when it comes to waste management. The city’s commitment to transforming Johannesburg into a recycling economy is a viable goal.

How much of a role does communication and education play? It plays a very integral role in ensuring that proper training is facilitated and residents are taught to recycle the correct way. The success of this initiative was

through impactful communication and education awareness, which got the community interested in partaking in this project. Pikitup embarked on a door-todoor education drive. In Soweto, 81 community education field workers made up the door-todoor education team, with 30 being recruited from Wards 95, 96 and 113 in the Diepsloot area. These teams engaged with residents, explaining what Separation at Source is and the benefits that this way of living could have for them. To support the door-to-door campaign, mall activations were held at Maponya Mall, Jabulani Mall, Diepsloot Mall as well as at Cresta. Pikitup works closely with its depots across the city to identify new areas and communities to include in the four-year roll-out programme. Our education team gathers valuable information on the recycling climate in each area, to ensure a targeted approach.

What is the organisation’s recycling focus for the future? Pikitup has massive targets to reach that can only be attained if residents lead the change. It aims to reduce waste to landfill 20% by 2016 through waste minimisation and recycling. Its four-year target is for 950 000 households to separate at source the 160 000 t of recyclable waste that is generated in the city per annum.

RéSource May 2013 – 29



Recycling triggers demand “There is a definite need for odour and emission control systems, especially to improve sorters’ working conditions,” says OdorCure’s Johan de Bruyn.


e provide a comprehensive materials recycling facility or trash room odour solution that combines advanced technologies and proven all-natural odour neutralisers, making it possible to eliminate odours at their source,” says De Bruyn, adding that the two-step system uses a combined approach, neutralising airborne odours from accumulated waste using OdorCure’s Advanced Misting Systems with powerful all-natural reactants, and eliminating odour sources in, around and under trash bins using

BioStreme Micronutrients to promote beneficial bacterial processes. OdorCure has been providing effective odour elimination solutions in Gauteng and the Eastern Cape since 1999 and is representative of HLS Ecolo in Southern Africa. What sets Ecolo apart is its unique odour eliminating formulations of essential oils called AirSolution. Ecolo AirSolutions are formulated from custom-blended essential oils and plant extracts to neutralise specific odours. “Each installation is customised

to meet the unique needs of each space – requiring no modifications to base-building structures or mechanical equipment,” says De Bruyn, adding that a self-sufficient pump/controller unit and stand-alone Misting Odour Neutraliser reservoir delivers years of trouble-free operation. “We make it simple to maintain odour-free conditions. We not only install your system, but we design a complete, easy-to-live-with odour control programme, requiring minimal maintenance for maximum results.”

30 – RéSource May 2013

Odour Control Specialists for Today’s Environment Welcome to the most extensive array of odour control systems and solutions for Commercial, Municipal and Industrial applications. At OdorCure we strive to provide products and quality services that meet the individual needs of our customers. • Systems • Misting/Fogging Systems • Automated Dosing Systems • Bio-ſltration Systems • BioGas Scrubbers • Photo Ionisation • Dry Scrubbers • Solutions • Odour Neutralizers • Hydrogen Sulphide Removal • Complete VOC Removal • Microbial Treatments - Water and Wastewater • Aeration Systems - Water and Wastewater • Various other specialised solutions

• Garbage/Recycling Rooms • Restaurants, Hotels & Shopping Centers • Public Washrooms • Hospitals • Compactor Sites • Manufacturing Facilities • Wastewater Treatment Works • Landſll Sites • Waste Transfer Stations

Tel: +27 (0)860 666 367 | Fax: +27 (0)860 367 287



Plastics industry has its say Role players and decision-makers in the South African plastics industry made use of the opportunity to air their views on matters relating to the growth of the industry, sustainability and recycling during the first ever industry-specific conference, which was held at the Nasrec Expo Centre in Johannesburg on 22 March 2013.


he one-day conference, entitled ‘Plastics: The Future for Growth’, was hosted by Plastics|SA, the umbrella body for the local plastics industry, and attracted more than 300 delegates.

Audience representation According to Plastics|SA’s executive director, Anton Hanekom, the event drew participants from various sectors of the local plastics industry (see Figure 1). “Although the majority of the audience were involved in the supply of raw materials (36%), we had good representation from plastics converters (22%), recyclers (10%), machine suppliers (2%) and other interested sectors such as government, the media and the general public who were eager to learn more and participate in the discussions,” Hanekom said.

Learning from international best practice Dr Wilfried Haensel, executive director of Plastics Europe, delivered the keynote address. His speech, ‘Plastics and the world we live in: lessons learnt’, focused on the plastics industry from a European perspective, although he pointed out that “plastics is a global affair and there are sure to be similarities in the different regions”.

32 – RéSource May 2013

Debating the issues at hand The rest of the day’s discussions were focused around three topical debates, which were moderated by celebrity investigative journalists Freek Robinson, Jeremy Maggs and Ruda Landman. “These journalists excelled in guiding the discussions and ensuring that everybody’s point of view was heard.” According to Hanekom, the panellists who were invited to participate in the debates were considered experts in their respective fields and didn’t necessarily share the same point of view on topics relating to

exports and imports, marketing the industry, sustainability and recycling, training and skills development. Hanekom stated: “We tried to take a brutal look at the issues that mostly affect our industry and the direction we are heading in by encouraging audience members to comment and vote in real time on the issues that were being debated by the panel members on stage.

Debate 1: Growing the South African plastics industry The audience was quick to rise to the occasion and did not hold back when asked to send in their views or suggestions. When asked what they felt would most grow the local plastics industry, 38% felt that innovation, developing

ABOVE Annabe Pretorius (SAPRO), Suzanne Dittke (Envirosense); Prof Walter Focke (University of Pretoria); Casper Durandt (Coca Cola), Chandru Wadhani (Extrupet) FIGURE 1 BELOW Plastics sectors represented at the Plastics: The Future for Growth Conference FIGURE 2 BELOW RIGHT Response to: In which sector do you see the highest potential for growth?

1. Packaging 45%

2. Engineering, Building and Construction 24%

1. Raw Material Suppliers 36%

2. Converters

3. Agriculture 2%

4. Transport and Automotive



3. Importers

5. Houseware, Toys, Leisure and Sport



4. Machine Suppliers

6. Clothing and Footwear



5. Recyclers

7. Furniture



6. Other 28%

8. Medical and Health 11%


FIGURE 5 BELOW Response to: Do you think bioplastics are an option? FIGURE 6 BOTTOM Response to: Where should we look for an answer to better plastic disposal?

1. Yes 22%

2. No 78%

1. Better waste management 61%

2. More recycling 36%

3. Replace with other products like paper 1%

4. Bio-plastics 2%

new products and technology would offer the most opportunities. Natural gas utilisation and becoming competitive followed closely, along with the local industry and government supporting a culture of exports. The areas that the audience felt offered the most growth potential in the local plastics industry (see figures 2 and 3) was packaging (45%), followed by engineering, building and construction (24%) and transport and automotive (11%). “The audience members agreed that the South African plastics industry as a whole needs to become more original and innovative. There are a host of small companies making the same product. Industry should be thinking about how it can diversify and enter a more niche market with an original product. This will decrease competition and increase innovation,” Hanekom stated.

audience members felt they had a responsibility to design the packaging with effective recycling in mind, 32% felt the brand owner also had a responsibility to educate consumers about the recyclability and recycled content of its products (see Figure 4). “It is clear that there is a great need to raise the profile of the plastics industry and the work that is being done by brand owners and converters to ensure that plastics are manufactured in a way that is sustainable and environmentally responsible,” Hanekom said. Another hot topic that was discussed by the panel was the issue of bioplastics and whether or not it had a real role to play as an alternative in the plastics packaging industry (see Figure 5). The vast majority of the audience members felt that bioplastics are not an option due to the high costs and the negative impact that bioplastics have on the recycling stream.

Debate 3: Are plastics sustainable? The third and final debate of the day took an in-depth look at the issue of plastics

Recognising industry stars The day’s discussions ended with a cocktail function during which Plastics|SA awarded three awards for local players for their exceptional contribution to the industry. The Chairman’s Award was given to Bernard Mahl, commercial director of Safripol, for the critical role he has and continues to play at Plastics|SA. He has been on the Plastics|SA board and the executive committee for many years serving as chairperson and deputy chairperson. Mahl played a momentous role in the new vision and direction of Plastics|SA. The Sustainability Award was given to Jeremy Mackintosh, managing director of the Polyoak Packaging Group. Mackintosh has played a crucial role in the promotion and expansion of the recycling initiatives of the then Plastics Federation since 2000. He was also instrumental in the establishment of the Sustainability Council and redirecting the strategy from being more recycling focused to a more inclusive sustainability drive. The Training Award was given to REHAU Polymers. REHAU identified the need for training and development of its staff and also recognised the eagerness and enthusiasm of the learners to be part of the learnerships. It has shown commitment, dedication and enthusiasm throughout the programme and made it possible for its staff members to develop.

We tried to take a brutal look at the issues that mostly affect our industry and the direction we are heading in”

Debate 2: What impacts plastics packaging? The second debate of the day took a closer look at the issue of food packaging and what impacts it in the South African context. Hanekom explained: “Packaging has come to symbolise the issue of waste in our modern day society. Looking at the issue of plastic packaging specifically, we know that it ensures hygiene and reduces the risk of product wastage due to contamination, providing a physical barrier between a product and the external environment. Unfortunately, such convenience has come at an environmental price and the rise in environmental consciousness in recent decades has brought the issue of packaging firmly under the spotlight. When asked what role brand owners should play in plastic packaging, 51% of the

and sustainability (see Figure 6). “Meeting the needs of tomorrow is the foundation of the concept of sustainable development,” Hanekom explained. “Plastics represent one of the fastest growing categories of materials used and disposed of in our society. They play a major role in delivering and sustaining the quality, comfort and safety of modern lifestyles. The impressive ratio of cost to performance also means that people of all income groups can enjoy these benefits. However, meeting the needs of society is not just about ‘‘today’. Future generations also have the right to material and other benefits.” Discussing the problems surrounding the issue of plastic waste disposal, 61% of the audience members responded that they felt the answer should lie with improved waste management and 36% felt Douw Steyn (Plastics|SA) that there should handing Sustainability Award to Jeremy Mackintosh be more recy(Polyoak) acknowledging cling initiatives his contribution to the by local municiSustainability Division of palities. Plastics|SA

Conclusion “We feel that the first industry conference was a success,” Hanekom stated. “The delegates and panellists attending made it clear that it was a timely and much-needed event. They appreciated being given the opportunity to participate in the discussions and voting on topics that directly affect them.”

RéSource May 2013 – 33



Beverage bottle recycling grows 18% 2012 marked a period of continued achievement for the PET Plastic Recycling Company (PETCO) and its 28 signatories, contributing to the increased recovery and recycling of PET plastic beverage bottles and the diversion of material from landfill.


he organisation recently announced that post-consumer plastic beverage bottle recycling volumes in South Africa grew by 18% year on year in 2012. The recycling rate rose from 42% in 2011 to 45% in 2012, while the local market consumption of PET grew from 145 000 to 166 000 t. “By recycling 45% of post-consumer beverage PET, we achieved a full 1% more than what was targeted for 2012,” says Cheri Scholtz, CEO of PETCO. Recycling volumes increased from 42 562 t in 2011 to 50 280 t of post-consumer PET bottles in 2012 – a 7 718 t increase.

Simply speaking With approximately 39 bottles in a kilogramme, this means that PETCO facilitated the recycling of over 1.9 billion PET plastic beverage bottles in 2012 – that’s 5.3 million bottles every day. Additionally, close to R193 million was paid for sorted baled bottles delivered to recyclers and approximately R422 million was injected into the local economy through the sale of recycled PET for downstream products. According to a statement released by PETCO, from an environmental perspective, recycling 50 280 t of PET plastic beverage

34 – RéSource May 2013

bottles, saves 75 420 t of carbon was saved. “This is the equivalent of the amount of carbon sequestered in a year by cultivating 17 957 ha of spekboom. By recycling this amount and reducing the volume of postconsumer PET plastic in the waste stream, 311 736 m3 of landfill space was saved – the same volume of just under 125 Olympicsized swimming pools.” According to Scholtz, the 2012 results serve as an affirmation of the efforts of the PETCO members and as a benchmark for improvement in 2013. “There is still much work to do to capture the remaining percentage of bottles that were not collected and with the post-consumer PET recycling targets set to rise to 58% in 2017 and a growing market size, increasing the volume of bottles collected for recycling is thought to be the best method of achieving this,” says Scholtz. PETCO sets recycling targets for five-year window periods, knowing what they are looking to achieve, growing the industry by

an additional 5 000 to 6 000 t per annum. With PET recycling targets set at 50%, which is half of all post-consumer beverage PET in the market, 2015 will be a milestone year. “A step change is required to meet our targets in years to come,” continues Scholtz. “As the Bottle 2 Fibre market is reaching saturation, additional investment is required in Bottle 2 Bottle capacity, which involves the specialised recycling of clean bottles to produce recycled PET pellets that can be used in the manufacture of new bottles. We would need to up collection rates to get feedstock for this new end use and that’s where the challenge lies for PETCO; this would involve seeking opportunities to improve collaboration across the supply chain as well as with municipalities, collectors, industry and consumers.”

By recycling 45% of post-consumer beverage PET, we achieved a full 1% more than what was targeted for 2012”

Sustainable solutions According to the statement, PETCO is of the opinion that creative South African solutions are required and opportunities lie in various arenas and growth needs to be economically


feasible and at an affordable cost to consumers. “There is a need for more visible, accessible infrastructure in the form of dropoff facilities, buy-back centres and materials recovery facilities. This enabled increased investment in the recycling sector, making it a bankable sector. Modern thinking is needed around efficient, integrated collection systems that work. Overseas studies have shown that providing a smaller container for general waste, a larger container for recyclables, decreased frequency of collection (i.e. fortnightly instead of weekly), door-to-door

collection, kerbside collection and separation at source, promotion of higher quality service and incentives such as charging for the quantity of residual waste left out, improves participation.” Additionally, the organisation emphasises that increased awareness and education of consumers around reduction, reuse and recycling is also key, as well as a number of other critical issues such as training and mentorship, and partnership with industry stakeholders. Lastly, there is a need for constant innovation in the field of design (for recycling),

ensuring that bottles produced are, in fact, recyclable; for an improvement in labelling, enhancing consumer awareness, resulting in recyclable bottles being recycled; as well a pioneering in the identification of new end use markets for recycled PET, which ultimately will draw material through the system – as plastic bottles are not trash but a valuable technical nutrient in many new products. “We look forward to innovation in this arena, the establishment of new markets and products that translate to new Category A project applications for PETCO,” concludes Scholtz.


SA retailer first to adopt Food Lovers Market in Noordhoek, Cape Town, is the first retailer in South Africa to invest in a zero-waste solution composting method that breaks down cooked food waste, helping to minimise the strain on landfills.


usband and wife team Christo and Suzette Viljoen have set high waste management standards at their Food Lovers Market by aiming for zero waste output. As cooked and raw food forms 50% of waste in landfills, the Viljoens were eager to adopt a composting method that would reduce the store’s contribution to landfill waste, making it the first retailer in South Africa to install the Green Genie JK 5100 industrial composting machine. Green Genie’s JK 5100 is the first industrial composter of its kind in South Africa that allows cooked food (as well as raw food) to be processed into compost, eliminating strong odours left by traditional composting

methods. Organic pellets are added to the food waste to break it down and the process is aerobic, so no harmful gases are released, making the system far more environmentally friendly. During composting, food waste heats up to 70°C, killing harmful bacteria including E. coli and salmonella. The two-chamber system works on a four-week cycle and can hold up to 2.5 t of waste, producing up to 400 kg of compost every two weeks. Viljoen comments: “A great company starts at the back door, and we intend to maintain the high standards of cleanliness in a wastefree environment. We are training our staff to be more environmentally conscious and have

TOP Joraform industrial composter ABOVE (from left) Stuart Lindley, Green Genie’s MD, and Christo and Suzette Viljoen from Food Lovers Market, Noordhoek, admiring the first compost produce from their new Joraform industrial composter from Green Genie

implemented waste management techniques to reduce our carbon footprint. The Green Genie industrial composter was a must-have to achieve our environmental objectives and we are thrilled with the results.”

RéSource May 2013 – 35



Swaziland’s solid waste management facelift Solid waste disposal in countries across Africa poses a huge prroblem. Unfortunately, environmental damage from solid waste is increaasing at an alarming rate.


o address this issue in its own small landlocked country, Swaziland created The National Solid Waste Management Strategy, which has developed a longterm plan up to 2015. Swaziland, a distinctly tropical area in Southern Africa, is characterised by long hot summers with low, but variable rainfall. It is precisely these conditions that caused the inhabitants of larger cities like Manzini and Mangwaneni to complain about the malodorous dumpsites in their surrounding areas. A proposal was made to relocate these landfill sites to the outskirts of remote rural towns, like Bhunya, whose closest border post to South Africa is Sandlane via the town of Amsterdam. It was at Bhunya that Kaytech’s geosynthetic clay liners and bidim geotextiles played important roles. Golder Associates, which provides comprehensive civil, geotechnical and environmental consulting services worldwide, was asked to advise on this project, which commenced in July 2012. When natural clay in the area was found to be substandard, Stefanutti and Bressan, the main contractor on the project, proposed the use of Kaytech’s EnviroFix Thermal Lock Geosynthetic Clay

36 – RéSource May 2013

Liners (GCLs) to line the base of the new landfill site, which was to be known as Knot’s Dump.

Technology unpacked EnviroFix is produced by distributing a uniform core of natural sodium bentonite clay between two durable geotextile outer layers to form a hydraulic barrier when hydrated. Fibres from the upper nonwoven geotextile are then needle punched through the layer of bentonite and incorporated into the lower woven or nonwoven/woven composite carrier geotextile, thereby forming a strong mechanical bond between the fabrics. The thermal lock heat-treating process, used to more permanently lock the needlepunched fibres into place, results in the product’s unique properties, which include increased internal shear resistance and long-term creep resistance. The sodium bentonite swells as water enters its clay

platelets and, when hydrated under confinement, forms a low permeability clay liner with the equivalent hydraulic protection of approximately one metre of compacted clay. The intensive EnviroFix quality control programme, which ensures consistent hydraulic and physical properties through the latest EN-ISO and ASTM procedures, minimises the expensive and time-consuming onsite testing that is required for compacted clay liners. EnviroFix can completely replace – as in this project – or significantly reduce the required thickness of the compacted clay layer. This results in less excavation and compaction and, importantly, increases containment volume, which in a landfill means increased revenues. Used alone or in conjunction with a geomembrane, EnviroFix is resistant to the deleterious effects of differential settlement and with adequate soil cover, desiccation and seasonal temperature fluctuations are minimised. This outstanding product can

EnviroFix can completely replace or significantly reduce the required thickness of the compacted clay layer


also be used for liquid containment and canals as well as secondary containment. With its extensive experience in installation of geomembranes and dam linings, Aquatan was awarded the contract to install Kaytech’s EnviroFix and bidim layers. The company was advised on Kaytech’s bidim A0 as the drainage separator between the filtration system and bidim A8 for the protection layer. Since 1978, Kaytech has been manufacturing its range of nonwoven, 100% polyester, continuous filament bidim geotextiles that provide significant advantages including better modulus of deformation, better creep stability, higher breaking strength, better resistance to high temperatures and less sensitivity to UV degradation – important factors in this particular application. Heavy grade bidim not only provides excellent protection to liner systems, but also significantly extends the life of the lining system.

Its resistance to abrasion and piercing while still retaining a high tensile strength makes bidim the ideal cushioning protection whether installed above or below the liner system. Ease and speed of installation compared to sand protection layers is a great advantage and the in-plane drainage characteristic dissipates pore water pressure build-up beneath the liner.

Project outline In total, 5 000 m2 of EnviroFix X800, the only suitable product for this region, and 73 000 m2 each of bidim A0 and bidim A8 were installed. The bidim A0 and A8 quantities equate to 155 462 and1 013 888 recycled PET cold drink bottles, respectively. “Kaytech continues to provide innovative, engineering solutions using recycled PET (rPET) in its products. By doing so it supports the recycling sector through the collection and recycling of PET bottles, and

assuring an end use market for rPET in South Africa,” says Cheri Scholtz, CEO of PETCO, the industry body for recycling of PET plastic in South Africa. Stefanutti and Bressan’s expertise in constructing new landfill cells as well as the closure of existing landfill sites makes it a leader in Swaziland. The company also operates in line with international environmental policies by establishing landfills that allow effective waste disposal while preventing the ingress of waste contaminants into subterranean water systems. To date, Stefanutti and Bressan has been involved in the installation of thousands of square metres of Kaytech’s EnviroFix and has complete trust in the efficacy of this product. The combination of contractors’ expertise and the cost-effective, top performance of Kaytech’s products resulted in Swaziland’s Knot’s Dump being another highly successful project.

ALL IMAGES Kaytech’s EnviroFix Thermal Lock Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLS) being used to line the base of the new landfill site, known as Knot’s Dump

RéSource May 2013 – 37

Air pollution


Carbon tax from 2015 Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan announced in Parliament during the tabling of his Budget Speech: “Government proposed to price carbon by way of a carbon tax, at the rate of R120 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent, from 1 January 2015.”


ddressing the National Assembly, he said the impact of the planned carbon tax would be lessened by a taxfree exemption threshold of 60%, “with additional allowances for emissions intensive and trade-exposed industries”. An updated carbon tax policy paper is to be published at the end of April 2013. According to the 2013 Budget Review, the basic tax-free threshold of 60% will apply during the first phase of the implementation of carbon tax – from 2015 to 2020. The review also highlighted that a gradual phasing out of the electricity levy is under

consideration, to occur as the carbon tax is phased in. Further environmental taxes highlighted in the 2013 Budget include fuel levies, which are set to increase by 23 cents a litre from 3 April 2013. The date will also see the general fuel levy rise by 15 cents a litre to R2.13, while the Road Accident Fund levy – not strictly an environmental tax – will increase by eight cents a litre to 96 cents a litre of petrol. Additionally, the levy on plastic shopping bags will rise from four cents to six cents a bag from 1 April and the levy on incandescent light bulbs, which was introduced in 2009, will

increase from R3.00 to R4.00 a bulb from the same date. The tax on motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions – aimed at encouraging the purchase of vehicles with lower emissions standards – is also set to rise from 1 April with the emissions tax on passenger cars rising from R75 to R90 for every gramme of emissions per kilometre above 120 g CO2/ km. Double-cab vehicles will experience an increase from R100 to R125. Gordhan further noted that rules on tax incentives that encourage biodiversity management are to be modified. RéSource May 2013 – 39

Medical waste


A challenging context Compliance and enforcement are the biggest challenges facing the medical waste/ health-care risk waste industry, Stan Jewaskiewitz, past president of IWMSA, tells Chantelle van Schalkwyk.


undamentally, the medical waste (health-care risk waste – HCRW) market can be split into two sectors: public (provincial hospitals, clinics, etc.) and private (private hospitals and clinics, including doctors’ surgeries, etc.). “The removal, transport and treatment including disposal of HCRW is normally carried out by private sector service providers (contractors). All HCRW in the government sector is normally removed or handled via tenders that are put out by the relevant institutions or provincial health departments. The private sector HCRW is also handled via tenders or quotes requested by the relevant institution (hospital, clinic, etc.),” explains Jewaskiewitz. Additionally, there are a number of laws and by-laws that apply, such as the provincial legislation and regulations that govern the handling of HCRW and the industry standard – SANS 10248. The Department of Environment Affairs (DEA) has been and still is in the process of developing norms and standards in accordance with the National Environment Management: Waste Act No.59 of 2008. Draft Health Care Risk Waste Management Regulations, in terms

of the Waste Act, were also gazetted by DEA in June 2012. “It is estimated that there is about 45 000 t of HCRW generated annually in South Africa. There is a perception that there is insufficient capacity to treat the amount of HCRW produced and this results in illegal storage and dumping,” states Jewaskiewitz, adding that a number of cases of illegal dumping have been reported in the media over the past five years or so. “There are still some major cases of illegal dumping being prosecuted by the authorities going back some four to five years. Tender irregularities and fraud are also regularly being cited as the cause for many of the problems and challenges facing the HCRW industry.”

Current challenges According to Jewaskiewitz, there are a number of challenges facing the industr y, with the biggest including training, segregation of wastes, transpor t, disposal and treatment and storage. When referring to training, Jewaskiewitz indicates that this

ABOVE Stan Jewaskiewitz, past president, IWMSA

is specifically for waste generators (hospitals, clinics and doctors), transpor ters and disposal/ treatment. “This includes training on the lack of proper procedures, compliance issues, as well as verification of qualified and experienced ser vice providers.” When it comes to segregation of waste, Jewaskiewitz says approximately 5 to 10% is actually hazardous or infectious – approximately 45 000 tpa is generated of which only 2 500 to 4 500 t is hazardous. The separation at source of general waste and HCRW is therefore critical as the mixing of wastes in hospitals and clinics give rise to larger volumes of waste requiring treatment. “Once mixed, all the waste is treated as hazardous, including general waste.” This has a knock-on effect when dealing with

RéSource May 2013 – 41

Buhle Waste (Pty) Ltd. is a 100% Black owned company that was established in 1997, by Dr P. D. Sekete, to focus on integrated waste management. Combining the medical expertise of the founding Doctor, with his passion for public and environmental cleanliness and safety, Buhle Waste has come to specialise in the management of Health Care Risk Waste (HCRW). Since its inception Buhle Waste has become an industry leader in the management of HCRW.

Vision Buhle Waste is striving to become the leading waste management company in Africa offering excellent and efficient services to its clients.

Services: Health Care Risk Waste HCRW Training General/Domestic Waste Hazardous Waste

Mission Statement

Industrial/Commercial waste

Buhle Waste’s mission is to provide high quality and reliable waste management services in a flexible and cost effective manner to its clients.

Disposal/Treatment Facilities Industrial Cleaning Hygiene & Sanitation Emergency Spill Response

People and the Environment Our strategy is to educate our people about the importance of a healthier and cleaner environment. Through education people will come to understand the role they play in the environment, and in particular their role within the context of waste management. Buhle Waste has also set out to research and developof more innovative ways to treat and dispose of waste through investing in non-burn technology that contributes to the reduction in carbon emissions. By reducing the carbon emissions when treating and disposing of waste, Buhle Waste (Pty) Ltd. will take a step towards a greener and cleaner South Africa.

Tel: +27 (0) 11 866-2316 Fax: +27(0)11 866-2316 Email:

Medical waste

the disposal and/or treatment of HCRW. “There is still significant overloading of existing facilities due to the “mixing” of wastes,” warns Jewaskiewitz. In addition, when investigating the storage of HCRW, challenges include the use of inadequate facilities that are not compliant with current regulations. “Storage periods are also a problem, especially for small quantities and rural locations.” The challenge with regards to transport is quite simple: appropriate, purposebuilt vehicles with the necessary licences are required. According to Jewaskiewitz, this has resulted in the industry being fuelled with speculation and allegations of impropriety relating to, among others: • tender abuse – • “tenderpreneurs” manipulating tenders • tender adjudication irregularities • fraud and corruption • compliance issues – license/ permit conditions • court cases – between service providers and with government departments.

Compliance takes centre stage Jewaskiewitz says the Green Scorpions are currently dealing with many reported cases of directives/prosecutions. “There are very few reports, if any, on the outcomes of these actions. These need to be published as a deterrent to others, also to ‘name and shame’ the transgressors,” says Jewaskiewitz. In addition, he highlights the Welkom medical waste case that came to light towards the end of 2009, which, according to him, still appears to be in limbo. “The fact

that this has not been resolved would indicate to some that the authorities are not capable of successfully prosecuting cases such as these, indicating that it is perhaps easier to hit the smaller private companies,” states Jewaskiewitz. He believes cases such as these allow individuals to continue operating with impunity and in some cases, as directors of companies who have licences to operate waste management facilities.

Changing the face of HCRW There is, however, much being done to combat this. Some private health-care facilities are trying to improve on their HCRW handling practices as they realise that proper management of HCRW leads to lower cost of disposal, says Jewaskiewitz, adding that they also tend to take more care in selecting suitable service providers. Additionally, he adds that some of the service providers are endeavouring to improve the training of their staff and to implement quality management systems in order to achieve ISO accreditation (9001 or 14001). “This should stand them in good stead once the legislation and various regulations are enforced.” This is also in light of a rapidly changing environment. “In terms of practices, there has been a significant move away from incineration to non-burn technologies for the treatment of HCRW,” continues Jewaskiewitz. Fundamentally, HCRW can be separated into two fractions, i.e. infectious wastes (swabs, bandages, needles, etc.) and pathological wastes (limbs, placentas, etc.). Infectious wastes can be treated using nonburn technologies rendering the wastes as sterile, which can then be disposed of in a landfill. Pathological wastes are better suited to treatment by thermal means and here the technology must be capable of meeting strict emission standards. Jewaskiewitz explains that in terms of legislation, the Waste Act and various regulations and standards have already been put in place. “However, there is still a lot of legislation evolving and it may still take some time to put it all in place.” Some of the legislation in place are: • National Environmental Management: Waste Act No.59 of 2008

• Norms and Standards for Storage of Wastes (draft) • Western Cape – draft regulations 2011 (Health Care Waste Management Act, 2007) • Gauteng (GDARD) regulations • KwaZulu-Natal HCRW Policy • Department of Environment Affairs (DEA) – draft regulations 1/06/2012 • SANS 10248-1: 2008 Management of HCW Ed.1 • SANS 10248-2: 2009 Management of HCW Ed.1 (rural and remote settings).

Facing forward The changes in treatment technology, especially as regards improved emission standards, can only be beneficial to the environment, says Jewaskiewitz, adding that once legislation, regulations and standards are put in place and enforced, a level playing field will be created and much of the frustrations experienced by service providers will be eliminated. “So, one can safely assume that proper training, adequate treatment capacity and enforcement will lead to a better controlled industry and a minimised impact on the environment.” The IWMSA is playing a pivotal role in this as it endeavours to promote the science and practice of good waste management. In order to achieve this, the IWMSA has set education and training as one of its main objectives. “In this regard, we have an ongoing development programme of developing appropriate training courses and facilitating the presentation of these courses, both non-accredited and accredited,” says Jewaskiewitz. In addition, the IWMSA originally set up an interest group, under its auspices, to identify the needs of the industry and to look at ways of improving standards, including having input in the development of legislation and standards. “This interest group ultimately evolved into the Health Care Waste Forum as we now know it,” concludes Jewaskiewitz.

RéSource May 2013 – 43

Hazardous waste


Keeping ahead of SA’s wave of hazardous waste Bringing South Africa in line with global standards to manage hazardous waste from industry, mining and other sources will require significant training and capacity building, not to mention substantial financial commitment. report information as required in Annexure 2 within 90 days of registration,” she continues. “This includes categories and quantities of waste and the source of the waste. “This is a great stride as it makes it a legal requirement to provide information. This information will help government to police illegal disposal, monitor compliance and make more informed decisions.”

One of the main challenges in planning for hazardous waste management is the lack of quantifiable data on how much of this waste the country is generating.” Philippa Emanuel, Senior environmental scientist in KwaZulu-Natal at SRK Consulting


azardous waste has, by definition, the potential to damage the environment and undermine human health – even at low concentrations – due to its inherent toxicological, chemical and physical characteristics. Managing hazardous waste is a growing priority as South Africa’s economy consumes and discards at an ever-increasing rate, according to the senior environmental scientist in the KwaZulu-Natal office of SRK Consulting, Philippa Emanuel. The good news, though, is that laws and regulations are starting to kick in to meet the challenge, and the country is gathering more data on its hazardous waste while rolling out plans to reduce the amount headed for landfill sites. In line with the requirement of the National Environmental Management: Waste Act 59 of 2008, the National Waste Management Strategy has been developed. This strategy sets out goals, targets and actions to address a number of the gaps in both general and hazardous waste management.

Weighing up the problem Part of addressing the problem of hazardous waste is the need to fully understand its extent. “One of the main challenges in planning for hazardous waste management is the lack of quantifiable data on how much of this waste the country is generating,” says Emanuel.

44 – RéSource May 2013

“This information is currently captured in terms of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS). Submission of information to SAWIS is currently voluntary, but the National Waste Information Regulations, promulgated in August last year became effective on 1 January 2013 and requires all waste treatment and disposal facilities to supply quantitative information. This is a really big step.” Within 90 days from 1 January, any person conducting an activity listed in Annexure 1 of these regulations is required to register on the SAWIS. Subject to the threshold amounts listed in the annexure, this will cover: • generators of hazardous waste • anyone recycling or recovering waste • anyone treating waste • anyone disposing of waste. “In addition, all registered waste facilities (excluding generators) are required, in terms of the regulations, to

Regulating for better control There are other important elements of the national framework that are being finalised, which together will help government to better regulate both the generation and disposal phases of this sector. The Draft National Standard for Disposal of Waste to Landfill (GN 615 of 2012) will change the way landfills are classified, and the Draft Standard for Assessment of Waste for Landfill Disposal (GN 613 of 2012) will align the type of waste to a suitable disposal facility, depending on its environmental risk. Also in the pipeline is the Draft Waste Classification and Management Regulations (GN 614 of 2012), which will change how waste streams are classified. “Some wastes previously classified as hazardous may no longer fall into this categor y but, at the same time, wastes previously classified as general waste may now be classified as hazardous,” she explains. “The regulations are based on the SANS 10234 Globally

Hazardous waste

Harmonised System for the classification and labelling of hazardous substances and mixtures, including waste.” The approval process for hazardous waste management facilities is time consuming, but necessarily so. “The monitoring and approval requirements are in place to protect the environment and the South African public, especially as the risks associated with the storage, transport, disposal and treatment of hazardous waste are so high,” says Emanuel. “The costs of establishing hazardous waste management facilities are equally high, not just in the establishment and operating costs but also in the ongoing monitoring – even beyond the life of the facility. Again, however, this expenditure is necessary to protect the South African public.”

Pulling together While the new framework is moving in the right direction, the regulations also need to be dynamic – as technology and waste management processes evolve so quickly

that policy and legislation sometimes struggle to keep up. “For instance, the legal environment is being modified to allow for the utilisation of hazardous waste as a raw material,” she points out. The regulations are applicable nationally, but various spheres of government are actively involved in hazardous waste management at different levels. “While not specifically the mandate of provincial government, we see provinces taking the initiative in this field,” Emanuel continues. “The KwaZuluNatal Depar tment of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, for instance, identified hazardous waste management as a critical issue that the province needs to address. “The depar tment appointed SRK Consulting to prepare a Hazardous Waste

Management Plan for the province, to consolidate information and develop an integrated plan that included hazardous waste minimisation and reduction, recycling, reuse, treatment and disposal capacity.” Local authorities are also key players in this sector and in cities like eThekwini, the municipality actively encourages industry to become more efficient and to look for opportunities for reuse within their processes.

RéSource May 2013 – 45


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Wastewater management


A realistic perspective of energy optimisation considerations: Part II by Rudi Scheepers*, Marlene vd Merwe-Botha**

This study seeks to contextualise and illustrate current application and trends in the South African municipal wastewater industry as pertaining to treatment technologies, plant capacity, electricity consumption trends and good practices applied in electricity supply and demand management.


he paper also intends to raise discussion and awareness among the sector players regarding the following: • viewing and planning for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as energy producers and cost conservers as opposed to a facility to ‘treat sewage’ without any further benefit • initiating opportunities to have the first full-scale self-sufficient WWTP in Africa in the near future • municipal wastewater practitioners, process controllers and scientists are scarce professions and critical enablers in realising any opportunity associated with energy optimisation, cost recovery and sustainable management and compliance.

Methodology The methodology followed in the study is presented via specific subject areas as follows:

Situation analysis of existing technology types The Green Drop 2009 and 2011 assessments were used to evaluate the various technologies (treatment processes) applied by municipalities across the nine provinces

in South Africa (DWA 2009, DWA 2011). A framework was developed to categorise the various technologies, consisting of 16 technology types. Further simplification of the technology types was done by reducing the various types into three generic groups: i) activated sludge processes and variations thereof ii) trickling biofilters iii) pond and lagoon systems. The approach was followed to use updated (2010/11) information where available and only revert to 2009 information where data was lacking. Where a plant comprises of two or more technology types, each type would count for one technology. Only municipal plants with a verification track record were processed.

Trend analysis in technology applications A total of 18 plants was selected (DWA licensing database, 2010) to determine

TABLE 1 Trend analysis in technology applications Assessment criteria Legislative requirements Environment landscape Technology levels employed (existing and new) Municipal environment and technology impact

46 – RéSource May 2013

Reference framework Water use licence, general authorisation, previous exemptions (general/special standards) Present ecological state and condition (PESC) Low-, medium- and high-end technologies as available in market place CoGTA spatial analysis framework (municipal size, socialeconomic vulnerability, National Treasury classification, audit outcomes and the extent to which the municipality is undertaking all of its possible local government functions (as a precentage))

the best spread of plants across the nine provinces for technology trends assessment against the assessment framework shown in Table 1. The data results were processed

to determine the movement in technology trends from recent/current processes employed to current/future processes planned or employed, in terms of the three broad technology types investigated. This study was conducted in cooperation with the Water Research Commission and SALGA (Bhagwan et al., 2011).

Energy consumption per technology type and capacity The data in the Green Drop report (DWA 2011) was used to confirm the plant capacity and actual flow received at plants. These design capacities were used to determine the number of plants in micro, small, medium, large and macro size categories. The energy usage per unit process was derived from work done by the US’s Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) energy audits

Wastewater management

(1994) and used to evaluate the energy consumption (kWh/d) on two levels: • plant capacity (size) category • activated sludge and biofilters technology groupings as per Table 1. The energy consumption (kWh) per volume was evaluated according to the treatment processes of the plant. Only medium-size plants (2 to 10 Mℓ/d) to macro-size plants were evaluated from published energy consumption data.

Energy as a running cost in municipalities Financial ring-fencing of water ser vices provision is a legal requirement (Water Services Act of 1997) where it is stated that: “When performing the functions of a water services provider, a water services authority must manage and account for those functions separately” (Sect 20.(1)). The above, however, leads to two problem statements; which are: • Definitive information as to the extent of ring fencing is not readily available, although the Green Drop initiative is focusing more attention on this compliance parameter. Energy is a real and comprehensive element of the cost of the wastewater treatment service and should be recovered via responsible tariff setting, offsetting, etc.

48 – RéSource May 2013

• Section 10 of same Act need to be complied with when formulating tariffs. This would require financial sustainability (adequate budget for O&M), recovery of cost reasonable associated with providing the service, the need for return on capital investment for the provision of the service, etc (Moshidi et al., 2011) As a first step to ensure cost reflective recovery of services cost as part of municipal financial sustainability, it is necessary to establish broad comparative and costing comparisons as pertaining to different treatment technologies in the municipal sector. To present such first order material as part of this study, linkage is made to studies undertaken with the Department of Water Affairs’ Water Services Regulation in extracting actual figures from treatment plants that reported ring-fenced costs for the respective treatment plants during the 2011 Green Drop assessments. The baseline costing reported in Municipal Wastewater Treatment: First Order Costing of Capital and Additional Operations and Maintenance Funding Requirements Based on Risk-Based Indices (DWA, 2009) were used to expand and escalate on the cost configurations, which were based on actual tender prices in 2008 to provide for a 2011 baseline estimate.

Improved application: Energy efficiency Opportunities for improved efficiency are various, and an attempt was made to comment on practical ways of optimising energy efficiencies as applicable to the technology types under discussion, in the following context: • Improved energy efficiency through demand side management: Integrate first order analysis data from the energy utilisation by typical types of WWTPs in the country. • Improved energy efficiency through supply side management and energy generation: Projections of first order analysis to various energy generation potentials mainly to large (10 to 25 Mℓ/d) and macro WWTPs (>25 Mℓ/d). * Arcus GIBB, PO Box 3965, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa E-mail: **WaterGroup, South Africa

The above questions are raised as part of a full length submission, which will be featured over subsequent editions as part of a series. In the next edition are the results and discussions raised from the study. For more information regarding the paper, please contact

Plant & equipment


Ready to roll Internationally recognised truck manufacturer Autocar is confident of expanding its geographical footprint after officially launching its range of Xpeditor waste disposal and refuse collection vehicles to the South African market in October 2012.


S-based Autocar designed its first African product at its design centre and South African headquarters in Cape Town after identifying a gap in the local market, notes Autocar's vice president for international business development, Ryan Billet. “We have employed more than 40 South African engineers in order to ensure that we are able to custom build the Xpeditor to handle unique local operating conditions, without compromising on the traditional strength and reliability of the range,” he explains. The Autocar Xpeditor range of severe duty trucks for South Africa is exclusively powered by ISM model diesel engines that are manufactured by Cummins – a global leader in the manufacture, sales and servicing of diesel engines and related technology. “The Cummins ISM has one of the highest power-to-weight ratios of any engine of comparable displacement. This, combined with an advanced fuel-injection system and the patented variable geometry turbo (VGT), results in superior performance over South Africa’s unique terrain and weather conditions,” says Janean Davies, Cummins SA Heavy-Duty OEM relationship manager. Davies highlights the fact that the VGT constantly adjusts airflow based on engine load, fuel quality, ambient pressure and temperature conditions, thereby ensuring reduced turbo lag, improved transient response and increased vehicle performance. “The ISM also offers several engine features to help improve fuel efficiency, including load-based speed control, gear-down protection and idle management that deliver up to 100 lb-ft of extra torque in the top two gears,” she adds. According to Billet, the vast amount of ‘sticky dust’ is a challenge that is unique to South Africa. “This was noted and addressed during the design phase, as the dust has the potential to cause engine damage, which

ultimately results in more vehicle downtime and related costs. To overcome this challenge, we installed the highest quality air filtration systems and moved the air intake up to the top of the vehicle, where the dust is less dense.” Billet points out that manual labour is another factor that Autocar SA has to take into consideration when modifying the Xpeditor for the local waste collection vehi-

unique configurations for each application and truck body to ensure that each truck has the correct weight distribution.” In order to cater to the unique local demands, the Xpeditor range is available with vertical and horizontal exhaust positions, flexible component placement and sizing, medium- or heavy-duty Allison automatic transmissions, rear axle ratings from 10.4 to 32.7 t and a variety of options to ensure that the vehicle is custom-suited to its application. Davies points out that all Autocar Xpeditor trucks come standard with a 2-year/402 338 km (whichever comes first) warranty from Cummins SA. Billet notes that the Autocar Xpeditor range has been well received by the local market to date. “A number of orders have already been placed, particularly in the Gauteng region, and currently we are in the process of working with municipalities and private contractors to develop purpose-built solutions, based upon their unique needs, to improve the performance of their fleets.”

A number of orders have already been placed, particularly in the Gauteng region cle market. “In some countries, only one person mans the truck, while all other functions are carried out via automated arms. In South Africa, however, there are as many as six people on the truck at any given time, which results in the centre of gravity being shifted back to allow for the crew cabs that are prevalent on many South African waste collection vehicles. As a result, we have

RéSource May 2013 – 51




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Plant & equipment



Maximising composting capacity

Horizontal Grinder



Tire Shredder


Landfill Consulting has carved a profitable niche for itself in the beneficiation of green waste into compost for the City of Cape Town.


ames Kamau of Mfangano, dedicated distributors of the Rayco range of products, discusses how just one initial machine has been instrumental in turning Landfill Consulting’s fate around. According to Kamau, the biggest challenge facing contractors of green waste is to maximise profit and streamline operations while reducing costs. He says: “Landfill Consulting initially ran a 500 hp machine, which resulted in very high fuel costs and a stagnant output of appr oximately 80 m3/h. We knew that we could supply a 240 hp Rayco grinder that would halve the fuel cost and still process the same amount of material.” Since the first machine was commissioned in October last year, Mfangano has delivered a second, which means that Landfill Consultants has now doubled its capacity at the same running cost. Kamau continues: “Another aspect that we took into

consideration is the very wet working conditions of not only the material but Cape Town itself. To offset this problem, we modified the grinding teeth. This is another key service: we can modify a machine to clients’ particular needs. “The Rayco RH1754-240 boasts a powerful 240 hp Cummins 6.7-litre diesel engine, a longer discharge conveyor and other enhancements to maximise throughput while keeping operating costs at a ” minimum. The discharge conveyer is over 12-feet high, which facilitates loading onto open-top trailers or chip piles, while screens can be changed in minutes, allowing the operator to size product to exact specifications. Variable speed control on both in-feed and discharge conveyors can be tailored to virtually any grinding applications and the machine is competitively priced and ideal for South African conditions,” concludes Kamau.

We knew that we could supply a 240 hp Rayco grinder that would halve the fuel cost

RéSource May 2013 – 53

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Plant & equipment


New waste management market player

Until now, the only machine that was able to execute the full range of daily workface operations required on a small modern landfill site was a tractor loader backhoe (TLB).


anitou South Africa, a subsidiary of the Manitou Group in France, has recently introduced the new Waste Handler as an innovative alternative to the TLB, especially on the smaller sites that make up around 70% of the approximately 1 000 landfills in South Africa. Its introduction follows intensive product development in cooperation with Interwaste, a leading South African waste management and environmental services company. The Manitou Waste Handler is a versatile, holistic waste management system that can efficiently tow, push, load, compact and effect on-site dust control measures. Only one man is needed to operate the machine, making it an economically attractive option. It can load its own cover material from the site stockpile, can be used to collect waste materials and is ideally suited to handle the problem of illegal dumping. During recent site trials, the Manitou Waste Handler exceeded minimum requirements as it processed and compacted over 50 t of waste per hour averaged over a nine-hour shift. Compaction densities of 450 kg/m3 (without cover) and 550 kg/m3 (including cover material) were achieved. This represents an impressive 3:1 compaction ratio (loose general waste has an average density of 150 kg/m3. The Waste Handler is based on a standard Manitou Telescopic, adapted with protective guards and Belly plates to suit harsh landfill

site conditions. It also features solid tyres, which remove the threat of punctures that standard TLBs are particularly prone to. The Manitou Waste Handler is supported nationwide by an expert technical team that can offer operational training on the machine as well as guidance on the implementation of its landfill applications and general waste management training Along with the Waste Handler, the Manitou Group also supplies the waste management industry with the Gehl skid-steer loader, which, when fitted with the Turbo Saw attachment, can be used to clear, remove and process large green waste materials for composting.

whether operating a single machine or a large fleet. Warranties and maintenance contracts are also among a comprehensive range of ALL IMAGES During recent site trials the Manitou Waste Handler processed and compacted over 50 t of waste per hour averaged over a nine-hour shift

The company Manitou South Africa distributes and supports a wide range of material handling equipment to the construction, agricultural, mining, defence and environmental sectors. High-performance levels and safety standards as well as lower operating costs enable Manitou to deliver improved operational profitability. The company operates an advanced nationwide aftermarket and support service offering 95% parts availability 24 hours a day throughout the year on all Manitou equipment. The company offers specially tailored service and finance packages structured to meet individual business requirements,

personalised services available with the purchase of every Manitou machine. Manitou South Africa is based in Spartan, Johannesburg, and is represented by dealers throughout South Africa as well as in the Southern African region.

RÊSource May 2013 – 55

Industry news


SA’s drinking water world class Water is essential to all life on earth and, in solidarity with the focus on World Water this past month, the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) applauds South Africa’s municipalities for their continued monitoring of, and attention to, the quality of our drinking water.


outh Africa has the distinction of being one of only 12 countries in the world where it is safe to drink tap water. As of 2012, the good news is that the quality of South African tap water was ranked as third best overall. South African municipalities have wholehear tedly embraced the international Blue Drop cer tification programme, which is an incentive-based initiative that is used to regulate water services bodies worldwide in order to improve and maintain the quality of tap drinking water. Blue Drop cer tification covers a multitude of aspects of water management. Deidré Nxumalo-Freeman, president of the IWMSA, says: “In South Africa, our constitution dictates that access to safe drinking water is a basic human right. The Department of Water Affairs instituted the Blue Drop programme in 2008 and

since then, we have largely seen continuous improvement in the rankings of our municipalities in respect of drinking water quality. “One source of our water is groundwater, water that collects underground from runoff; we consider it essential that people are aware of how easily our water tables can become contaminated through bad waste management practices. We also need to be vigilant when it comes to maintaining and upgrading the infrastructure that allows us to have a high quality of drinking water. “The IWMSA is strongly focused on education and training, and has worked effectively with a number of municipal bodies in order to better equip them with an understanding of the importance of effective waste management from the ground up. As such, we believe in the efficacy of getting a message across, particularly to those working

at grass-roots level, in order to engender a greater appreciation of the importance of their various functions. Nxumalo-Freeman concludes: “While our local and district municipalities are responsible for ensuring that we have access to safe drinking water, the quality of which must be regularly monitored and measured to see whether it matches up to national drinking water standards; we must all assist in the process and we believe that the IWMSA has an important role to play in creating awareness along with empowerment through information.” The IWMSA is a non-profit organisation comprising a body of dedicated professionals in their respective fields who give freely and voluntarily of their time and expertise in order to effectively educate, promote and further the science and practice of waste management. For more information, visit: Noteworthy The Department of Water Affairs provides detailed information about the quality of area-specific drinking water as well as a comprehensive overview of the Blue Drop programme.




Amandus Kahl



Barloworld Equipment


Jan Palm Consulting Engineers


Buhle Waste


Manitou SA







Mfangano Solutions


Envitech Solutions


Mills & Otten



26 30

Ethekwini Municipality: Durban Solid Waste



Golder Associates



56 – RéSource May 2013

24 OBC


4, 31 & 38

Otto Waste Systems




Pilot Crushtec




Rose Foundation


University of Johannesburg/PEETS 8 & 9 Watertec Africa/Pumps Vales & Pipes Africa 2013

39 & LI




Waste Classification Research and Development




Waste Minimisation RESOURCE RECOVERY Recycling Metals Recovery


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Resource May 2013  

Resource May 2013 edition

Resource May 2013  

Resource May 2013 edition