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The official journal of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

Promoting integrated resources management

Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa


Bayside’s super waste savings

Hazardous Waste

The trials of toxic transport

Oil Recycling

Don’t be crude, keep up!





O t t o Wa st e S y st ems new name | same quality

is printed on 100% recycled paper

ISSN 1680-4902 R50.00 (incl VAT) • Vol. 18, No. 1, February 2016

CONTENTS www.3smedia.co.za ISSN 1680-4902, Volume 18, No.1, February 2016 The official journal of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

Promoting integrated resources management

Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa


Bayside’s super waste savings

The ReSource team stands firmly behind environmental preservation. As such, ReSource is printed on 100% recycled paper and uses no dyes or varnishes. The magazine is saddle stitched to ensure that no glues are required in the binding process.

Hazardous Waste

The trials of toxic transport

Oil Recycling

Don’t be crude, keep up!

On the Cover





O T T O WA S T E S Y S T E MS new name | same quality

is printed on 100% recycled paper

ISSN 1680-4902 R50.00 (incl VAT) • Vol. 18, No. 1, February 2016


Hazardous Waste


Plastic Recycling


Tyre Recycling


Green Waste

South African waste container company Otto Waste Systems will soon undergo a name and branding change to better reflect the company’s proud African heritage. P6

ReSource offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a cover story and a cover picture to promote their products and services to an appropriate audience. Please call Tazz Porter on +27 (0)11 465 5452 or +27 (0)82 318 9308 to secure your booking.


3 5

President’s Comment Editor’s Comment

Hazardous Waste

Preventing toxic road hazards


Taking plastic back to basics


Don’t be crude, keep up!


Tyre Recycling Beyond the burn

Sustainability Hero

Enviroserv: A continued commitment to the environment

Oil Recycling


Sustainability Round-up

Green Waste Getting into nature’s groove



Future forward

Recycling Roadmap

The road ahead Honouring waste management

Plastic Recycling

Ocean plastic’s race against time Dutiful design

Landfills 15 17

18 21

Super waste savings



Events watch Conferences and expos

in association with

infrastructure news





ReSource February 2016 – 1

Funded by: RFRESDDO2015

President's Comment

Growing confidence

into 2016

The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) held its quarterly council meeting on 18 November 2015. I am pleased to report back on key developments within the organisation.


his council meeting was preceded by a membership strategy session, during which IWMSA’s public relations partner, Reputation Matters, provided feedback on the membership survey that was conducted to drive the strategy development. Thank you to everyone who participated in the survey – your inputs and suggestions are greatly appreciated. Some general findings from the survey are: • A total of 219 responses were received, resulting in the survey results being at a 95% confidence level with ±6.19% accuracy. The research can, therefore, be regarded as statistically sound. • More than 84% of all respondents (across all membership classes) are satisfied with the strategic intent and 82% with the corporate governance of IWMSA. This confirms that we are doing what we have set out to achieve in terms of our vision, mission, policies and leadership quality. • Overall, our members are a lot more satisfied with IWMSA now than in 2011, when the previous survey was conducted. The two main issues identified during the 2011 research were the lack of training and communication, both of which have been improved significantly. Since we strive to improve our relationships and value offerings to our members, we will

make concerted efforts to build stronger relationships with our patron members and will be looking at improving and expanding our member benefits. Membership of municipalities remains low and it was decided that each branch will attempt to recruit 30% of the municipalities in their regions as members. Additionally, IWMSA’s website is currently being redeveloped. The new website will be easy to view on smartphones and will have a modern look and feel in line with the latest website trends.

Branch feedback Members are referred to the IWMSA website (www.iwmsa.co.za) and the Wastevine newsletter for reports on past events and planned future events in each branch. An online training module is also available on the website, for free, and members are encouraged to peruse this and provide feedback to their branches.

Prof Suzan Oelofse, president, IWMSA

Education and training Two IWMSA training courses were cancelled this year due to a lack of interest. New courses will be scheduled for 2016. A call for facilitators of the IWMSA training courses will also be sent out to members who are interested in assisting. IWMSA will identify what training is required by members through surveys. The focus of these surveys will be to provide members with what they need.

WasteCon 2016 •O  nline registration is live on the WasteCon website. •C  all for abstracts is out – deadline for submission is 1 February 2016.

Patron members of the IWMSA

ReSource February 2016 – 3

Cover strap

Engineering a Greener Future

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Editor'sCover Comment strap Publisher: Elizabeth Shorten Associate publisher: Nicholas McDiarmid Editor: Frances Ringwood Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Head of design: Beren Bauermeister Designer: Ramon Chinian Chief sub-editor: Tristan Snijders Sub-editor: Morgan Carter Contributors: Suzan Oelofse, Michael Vice, Richard Emery, Chris Wise & Linda Godfrey Client services & production manager: Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator: Jacqueline Modise Financial manager: Andrew Lobban Marketing & digital manager: Philip Rosenberg Distribution manager: Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator: Asha Pursotham Administrator: Tonya Hebenton Printers: United Litho Johannesburg Tel: +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales: Tazz Porter Tel: +27 (0)11 465 5452 Cell: +27 (0)82 318 3908 tazz@connect.co.za

Publisher: No.9, 3rd Avenue Rivonia, 2191 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 www.3smedia.co.za Annual subscription: subs@3smedia.co.za R200.00 (incl VAT) South Africa ISSN 1680-4902 The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 675 3462 Email: iwmsa@telkomsa.net All material herein is copyright-protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views and opinions expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher, editor or The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa, but those of the author or other contributors under whose name contributions may appear, unless a contributor expresses a viewpoint or opinion in his or her capacity as an elected office bearer of a company, group or association. © Copyright 2016. All rights reserved.

Celebrating organic waste


rganic waste is derived from anything once living – from food waste and green, woody waste to biodegradable carbons and timbers. What’s fantastic about these waste streams is that they break down into completely natural nitrogenous byproducts, useful in fertilisers for growing healthy, new life, as well as foodstuffs rich in nutrients and minerals. But, organic waste is not always disposed of in the most responsible way. According to the most recent statistics from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as much as a quarter of landfills is made up of lawn clippings and food waste. This doesn’t even account for wastes from industrial forestry and paper milling industries. Clearly, there are massive advantages to keeping these kinds of volumes out of South Africa’s landfills and ensuring they are reused efficiently so that the benefits of organic waste are maximally optimised to create the greatest value and the highest possible number of green jobs. This issue of ReSource explores how businesses can be greener, with a particular focus on organic waste, for a targeted intervention, which can yield measurable financial and environmental rewards.

Green waste For readers in the municipal, forestry, milling, landscaping, agriculture and golf-course fields, there are a number of cuttingedge machines used specifically for turning green waste into compost and many other useful products, including sawdust for animal bedding and green furniture made from recycled materials. What’s really eye-opening about ReSource’s green waste feature, is just how much additional operational efficiency can be gained (and money saved) through choosing the right machine and maintenance service providers. Many such partners will even train operators and provide comprehensive service plans.

Biogas Another popular method for reusing green waste is to turn it into biogas, which can be used as vehicle fuel or other forms of energy. For example, at the recent COP 21 talks in Paris, table scraps from the 40 000 delegates in attendance were collected by a local contractor and converted to energy at a plant 30 km away from the venue. Closer to home, the Bayside Mall in Cape Town is currently achieving a staggering yearly reduction of 710 t in carbon emissions. An additional 200 000 t of organic waste is being diverted from landfill each year. These environmental gains were made possible through the construction of the shopping centre’s own, small waste-to-energy plant.


ReSource is endorsed by:

By way of comparison, this issue also features a story on microplastics, which has become a massive problem due to the fact that plastics are not biodegradeable by nature. This leaves invisible polymer and monomer chains of plastic molecules accumulating in the world’s oceans, wreaking environmental havoc on fish populations and the human communities they support. Apart from insights relating to organic waste, we feature the latest sustainability technologies and recycling, energy and water management initiatives – read on to learn more about how South African industry is adapting to an increasingly resource-constrained world.

Frances Ringwood

ReSource February 2016 – 5

Cover Story

New name, same quality service South African waste container company Otto Container Management will soon undergo a name and branding change to better reflect the company’s proud African heritage. CEO Tumi Sithole reveals some of the company’s exciting future plans.




hile the letters above the door may change, OTTO’s commitment to high-quality products and services remains constant. Sithole explains, “There are changes happening at OTTO aligned with our strategy for greater localisation and commitment to developing South Africa’s container management market. “In spite of changes, our commitment to our customers remains the same: to provide high-quality, cost-competitive containers serving municipal, industrial and commercial markets,” he adds. While the new name itself cannot yet be revealed, the company will be expanding its growth horizons and diversifying its product line in innovative and exciting ways over the coming year.

Expansion into Africa “It was always part of OTTO’s broader plan to give the company a more local feel once we became the biggest wholly black-owned

6 – ReSource February 2016


While the letters above the door may change, OTTO’s commitment to high-quality products and services remains constant and -managed container solution provider in Africa,” says Sithole. The Level 2 BBBEE company has already supplied products and services to all of the major metropolitan municipalities in South Africa, including Buffalo City; the cities of Cape Town, Johannesburg, and Tshwane; Ekurhuleni; eThekwini; Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality; and Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality. “While we continue to have the capacity to deliver on larger metropolitan contracts, part of our national strategy is to do even more work with smaller municipalities. Through these projects, we will be assisting our clients to establish a greater number


and variety of waste containers to help keep public and private areas clean and litter free, especially in small towns and popular tourism destinations,” says Sithole. Since the company first became proudly South African, its capacity has grown almost twofold, with OTTO’s workforce, delivery network and stockholding becoming more streamlined and efficient as it grew. “Given our expansion, we are also planning on growTumi Sithole, CEO, OTTO ing our SADC footprint. Already, our solutions can be found as far afield as Namibia, Mozambique, Angola, and the island nations of Mauritius and Reunion. Following these projects’ successes, we feel it is only a matter of time before we start participating more fully in the markets of our neighbouring countries,” Sithole adds.

Cover Story Product variety OTTO already provides a variety of container options for almost all types of solid waste, from hazardous and municipal solid waste, to smaller collection bins for separating recycling. “We have the in-house expertise to create containers of virtually any size or shape our customers might require. We also boast dedicated service teams trained in managing container inventory and warranty management, affordable container repair and asset branding,” explains Sithole. Otto will also consult with clients in order to ensure the correct product is sourced, at the right price, to ensure orders are completed on time and within budget.

and green campaign that addresses littering, waste management and greening issues in the province. ‘Bontle ke Botho’ means ‘beauty is humane’. We at OTTO feel that we are ideally placed to support this initiative and we are planning to participate in local city clean-ups and awareness raising,” says Sithole. The company has already demonstrated its investment in making South Africa more beautiful. For the past two years, OTTO has participated in an initiative to supply different coloured recycling bins to cash-strapped municipalities to prevent them from falling behind the “zero waste to landfill” curve. “Recycling and diverting waste from landfill to promote a circular economy is becoming increasingly important. While we continue to support traditional municipal waste management services, our focus is also very much on creating green solutions, green jobs and enhancing our own internal sustainability efforts. For example, we collect, recycle and reconstitute old containers through our sustainable recycling programme.

“‘Bontle ke Botho’ means ‘beauty is humane’. OTTO is ideally placed to support this initiative and is already planning to participate in local city clean-ups and awareness raising.”

Keeping South Africa beautiful Otto aligns itself as well as its corporate investment thrust in support of government initiatives, including the recently launched Department of Environmental Affairs’ (DEA) Bontle ke Botho (BkB) campaign. BkB was recently launched in San Kopano (Alexandra Stadium) on 31 January this year. “BkB is the Gauteng Provincial Government’s clean

Additionally, our products are used to facilitate recycling and we can be called upon to repair and refurbish damaged containers,” concludes Sithole.

Coming soon… Otto’s brand might be undergoing a transformation, but the mainstays of localisation, commitment to black empowerment, African growth, and quality products and services remain the same. The name change is nothing but a final step in the broader move/strategy to give the company its South African heritage. With the new name, the company concludes its mission of finally becoming holistically and proudly South African. This rebranding will be announced to stakeholders soon and the rest of the industry can watch this space to find out how South Africa’s most recognisable name in kerbside waste containers will make its entry into the future of waste solutions.


New name, new logo, same bin (ISO 9001 and SANS 1494)



ReSource February 2016 – 7

Hazardous Waste

Preventing toxic road hazards A

t the recent Chemical & Allied Industry Association (CAIA) Responsible Care Awards, a number of leading waste management organisations were honoured for their contributions towards the ethical handling of hazardous and toxic substances. South Africa boasts a number of excellent haulage companies that go above and beyond meeting hazardous waste transport compliance standards. An example is the winner of the Responsible Care Haulier Award – Stellar Transport – who spoke to ReSource about some of the issues and dangers involved in the transport of hazardous goods.

Tender agreements According to Stellar MD Valerio D’Alessio, there are a number of challenges in the industry currently being addressed. “A problem facing many of the established hauliers of hazardous waste – including chemicals, explosives and hazardous waste – is that tender documents might require that suppliers adhere to certain safety standards; but, in practice, these are not upheld,” he explains.

Cross-border cost cutting In the haulage industry, tenders are required not only from municipal clients but also from the private sector. Locally, these documents typically stipulate that the company in charge of transporting goods needs to be audited by CAIA, be listed on the CAIA website and the transporter must be a signatory

The tender award process for freight safety is supposed to be determined on safety, but often has more to do with cost. Safety becomes an especially contentious issue when considering the cross-border transport of hazardous goods, where no shared compliance legislation is in place. By Frances Ringwood

of CAIA. “While South African transporters price accordingly, goods imported from elsewhere – like Botswana – cost less because these companies don’t have to comply with the same ethical standards. What suppliers then do is make a financial arrangement so that their goods are transported ex-works to clients. This overcomes the stipulations of local tenders and reduces costs, but it is counterproductive to safe transportation,” says D’Alessio.

Road safety big picture D’Alessio points out that, since 60% of his company’s business is conducted outside of South Africa’s borders, this loophole has

8 – ReSource February 2016

A core objective of the Chemical and Allied Industries’ Association is to increase the sustainability of the chemical industry in South Africa. Responsible Care®, a global voluntary initiative, is delivering solutions for the sustainability challenge. For more information, please contact: 011 482-1671 / www.caia.co.za / www.chemissa.co.za


Hazardous Waste a big impact on the South African haulage businesses as a whole. Additionally, it’s an impact that ultimately affects the safety of South Africa’s road users. “Think of what it means to have a driver qualified outside of South Africa driving across our borders. Many of these drivers do not have hazardous chemicals training and when they do, their training often isn’t accredited. What’s worse is that many of the companies receiving goods know that these hauliers don't adhere to local safety requirements, so they supply safety goggles and gas masks to drivers at their gates.”

Industry body purview While there are several industry bodies regulating the transport of hazardous goods, none have the capacity to enforce government legislation. They can function only as lobby groups, highlighting issues of industry concern in order for government to take the next step. For example, the Road Freight Association (RFA) is an industry body providing support services for its members, which include road safety, cross-border transport, labour relations and law enforcement. However, the organisation has no direct involvement with the tendering and contracting process. Gavin Kelly, technical and operations manager, RFA, details how cross-border

The best hazardous goods transport companies are committed to adhering to the highest international norms and standards

laws are formulated regarding the transport of hazardous materials, including hazardous waste. “Dangerous goods transport is subject to various pieces of legislation – including SABS and SANS that are drawn from, or are comprised of, international requirements (commonly drawn from the United Nations’ Orange Book). TRAINING Additionally, dangerous There are a number of reputable training courses goods legislation is continuavailable to transporters of hazardous goods in ally adapted and modified South Africa through CAIA. These include training through the UN and these in risk-based process safety management; Globally are adapted for local use, Harmonised System (GHS) safety data sheets; as required. In some cases, quantitative indicators of performance; executive and management process safety; process safety the UN regulations are acmanagement; product stewardship; and GHS cepted, in full, by countries. workshop and transportation of dangerous goods. Therefore, the standards are Of huge benefit to the industry would be a system always in flux and are being that would somehow broaden courses such as reviewed and updated,” he these to other Southern African countries, either through the Internet or via some kind of roadshow. states. Regarding the drawing of tender documents and awarding of tenders, Kelly explains, “We at the RFA do not get involved respond to the public’s concerns about the in any tenders relating to the transport of safe manufacture, storage and transport of goods (whether dangerous or not). Tenders hazardous goods. While signatories to the and contracts are processes and terms Responsible Care programme are regularly between the road freight operator and the updated with the latest national and internaclient. The RFA does not set any require- tional compliance standards, membership ments or conditions or clause in tenders is voluntary,” she says. As at 30 September 2015, CAIA had 157 Responsible Care or contracts. “Further, the RFA does not monitor opera- signatories committed to the implementators in terms of whether they meet stand- tion of this initiative within their companies. ards – these are controlled or regulated by “Members are regularly audited and subject the various authorities and agencies that are to third-party verification in order to ensure created to perform such duties. The opera- transparency and accountability,” Penfold tors would then be liable to the various sanctions that are prescribed,” he adds. The Globally Harmonised System seeks to standardise hazardous goods transport signage Industry response on fleet vehicles, to create an internationally The industry oversight body most directly recognisable code for road users to understand involved with the transport of dangerous goods is CAIA, which regularly communicates with its members and other stakeholders about industry issues and what’s being done to solve issues affecting the safe transport of hazardous goods. The organisation’s current president, Deidre Penfold, responds to the issue of cross-border transport and safety. “Our Responsible Care programme was launched this year to

Local standards for waste transport are usually drawn from international precedents – most frequently, the United Nations’ Orange Book on the safe transport of hazardous goods

ReSource February 2016 – 9

Hazardous Waste adds. By measuring and monitoring these However, even within South Africa’s borders and CAIA, there remains companies standards, CAIA then has the wherewithal that lag behind. to publicly report on the industry and its progress, as far as CAIA signatories are Lowering road deaths concerned. Such a report was released last CAIA has ambitions of extending its services year on 19 November at the Johannesburg into the rest of Africa in order to leverage off Country Club. The report included a number of gains in the waste management and its existing success to improve health and chemicals transport sectors; however, the safety standardisation to the cross-border implementation of international environment. However, the question remains as to whether there is any standards and legislation in way, other than that offered South Africa continues Dangerous goods by an internal industry to need some work. transport is subject body, to ensure greater The report indicated: to various pieces of cross-border haulage “There has been legislation that are drawn safety. This also raises selective incorporafrom, or comprised of, tion of aspects of the issues of whether international requirements the Globally Harmoand how companies re– most commonly, nised System (GHS) quiring the transport of the United Nations of classification and large amounts of hazardOrange Book ous waste are adequately labelling of chemicals rewarded for choosing repuinto South African legistable hauliers and deterred from lation. At each point of the exploring cheaper, less reputable routes? chemical value chain, there is a responsibility to manage chemicals in a safe Of course, no company wants the bad press and responsible manner. The principles of being involved in a hazardous spill or and potential benefits of product stewardroad-death incident, and smaller cross-border hauliers deserve to be in business too. ship practices still need to be entrenched Nevertheless, it appears that more needs in many signatories’ day-to-day operations. to be done to create standardised hazardThere has been no substantial increase in ous goods training and skills development the proportion of signatories that positively across Southern Africa, extending further report that product stewardship principles into the continent. form part of the company’s operations.” The best hazardous goods transport companies are committed to adhering to the All kinds of wastes are transported by road, including biomedical waste highest international norms and standards.

10 – ReSource February 2016

Sustainability CoverHeroes strap

A continued commitment to the environment The South African waste management industry is becoming increasingly prominent in the public space, as civil society demands greater accountability from both industry and government. This consciousness, and conscience, of the importance of ethical waste management is something that underpins EnviroServ’s operations.


ivil society is more vocal on environmental issues and is looking to government and industry players to be responsible in their conduct. The spotlight on the waste management industry has seen substantial growth in the number of new entrants into the market and this has presented the industry with a set of new challenges. Now, more than ever, a knowledgeable, trusted and well-reputed waste management supplier is necessary.

Passionate market leader EnviroServ is a leading African waste management company with over 35 years’ experience. The company offers cost-effective and appropriate solutions to the complex hazardous and nonhazardous waste and chemical pollution problems facing industry and its customers. As a market leader in size, product offering,

footprint and technical capability, the company provides peace of mind with regard to legal compliance, safe handling and transportation. EnviroServ realises that its role in managing customers’ reputations is key and it is committed to a waste management strategy that supports the Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008) and, by association, the waste management hierarchy in its approach to waste management. Consequently, the company has an open-door policy for its customers, where the best sustainable solutions are investigated to suit customers’ specific needs. This is no easy task and, to do this, EnviroServ employees have to genuinely display a commitment to the environment. The company has a leading team of experts who are passionate and focused on customer service.

New group CE Dean Thompson is a qualified CA with many years of experience in IT, paper packaging and the gas industry

The new Dean The recently announced group chief executive, Dean Thompson, is one such person. Charged with EnviroServ’s overall strategy and all day-to-day management decisions, he has assured the market of a company that provides environmentally friendly waste management solutions. Thompson is reputed for being an innovator with a skillset the waste industry requires. He has vowed to assist EnviroServ in playing its part in managing the industry’s reputation. He is a collaborator who will engage stakeholders – including authorities, communities and even competitors – on doing things right. Above all, he will ensure that EnviroServ serves customers. Although new as group CE, Thompson is not new to the waste management industry. He was appointed to EnviroServ, by former CEO Des Gordon, as executive director at EnviroServ’s Solid Waste. He has a full understanding of the waste management industry and market needs. He is a strategic and task-driven leader and, with him at the helm, EnviroServ will retain its reputation as a waste management supplier of choice for most blue-chip companies looking for exceptional service and peace of mind.


If you scratch below the surface of a well-run landfill site you should find waste analysed under the SANAS system. The waste should be classified for the chosen site. The site should have a functioning Monitoring Committee with relevant external stakeholders. As leaders in responsible waste management we encourage you to scratch below the surface before you choose a landfill site. For the answers you should get go to ReSource February 2016 – 11 www.enviroserv.co.za and win peace of mind.


Sustainability Round-up

Future forward Kicking off the first edition of ReSource for 2016, here’s a look at new technologies, methodologies, trends and surveys, both locally and abroad, that are set to change the sustainability landscape for the year ahead. Will edible water bottles beat plastic? At the point where technologies have made it possible to recycle 100% of PET water bottles designed for recyclability, scientists may have overcome many of the environmental issues surrounding water bottle packaging all together. The new product is called Ooho and it looks like a blob of water that can be held between consumer’s fingers. The blob is created by freezing a ball of water and then wrapping it in layers of calcium chloride and brown algae membranes. Created at the Skipping Rocks Lab in London by Rodrigo Garcia Gonzalez, Guillaume Couche and Piere Paslier, the product recently received a $22 500 sustainability award from the European Union and product distribution is tipped to grow rapidly. Source: MentalFloss

Clear solar panels beat the heat Fully transparent solar cells have been created by researchers at Michigan State University and these panes have been reported to have the potential to turn every window, skylight and clear barrier into a power source. The patent holders report that they are close to getting the new type of photovoltaic solar cells production-ready. Similar products

12 – ReSource February 2016

have been created in the past but these are the first 100% clear cells. This was made possible by changing the way the cells absorb light by selectively absorbing the part of the solar spectrum that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Prototypes currently have a 1% efficiency but creators believe 10% should be possible, once production begins. Source: ExtremeTech

Water-absorbent concrete It might not sound like the most environmentally friendly technology available but, when paired with an underground rainwater or grey water harvesting tank, “magical” water-absorbent concrete could change the way property developers look at water recycling and reuse. Topmix Permeable concrete doesn’t become

Fully transparent solar cells have been created by researchers at Michigan State University and these panes have been reported to have the potential to turn every window, skylight and clear barrier into a power source

PVC is one of the most widely used polymers in the world and has the longest history of recycling among plastics

slick when wet; instead, water flows down and vanishes, allowing 36 000 millimetres of water to permeate per hour (traditional concrete allows through 300 millimetres of water per hour). Developed over six years, the product uses “no-fines” concrete as opposed to sand-based concrete. It consists of tiny granules of crushed granite packed loosely together to allow water to permeate. A downside of the technology is that it requires frequent maintenance, as large volumes of water can cause clogging beneath the top layer of concrete. This issue has already been overcome using “past-control”, developed by the same company that developed Topmix Permeable concrete. A further environmental advantage of the product is that it is longlasting with reduced maintenance costs, particularly for flood-prone areas. At the moment, it’s only available in the UK. Source: Science Alert

Vinyls survey unlocks sustainability key In October last year, the Southern African Vinyls Association (SAVA) released the results

Sustainability Round-up of its first ever PVC Recycling Survey into the state, scope and size of PVC recycling currently taking place in South Africa. The survey results revealed that, in 2014, a total of 32 397 tonnes of PVC was imported into South Africa, mainly in powder form. This mainly accounts for emulsion PVC used in coatings, dip-moulding and slushmoulded applications. The local PVC producer, petrochemical giant Sasol, only produces suspension PVC. Small quantities of rigid and flexible compounds were also imported during this period. Almost 80% of all the imported PVC powders originated from the following four countries: • South Korea – 33.2% • Germany – 17.6% • Thailand – 15.6% • China – 12.9%. PVC is one of the most widely used polymers in the world and has the longest history of recycling among plastics. However, when competing against inexpensive gas and oil used to make virgin material, in addition to issues such as additives used, exposure to heat

and contamination, is case is weakened, making PVC recycling even more challenging. Despite this, the tonnages recycled locally, since 2009, have increased by 16% to 18 488 tonnes recycled in 2014. In South Africa, there are currently approximately 40 PVC recyclers who procure separated, sorted recyclables from various sources such as collectors. Results of the survey show that previously difficult to reuse PVC products such as coated fabrics – i.e. billboards and advertising banners – are being recycled by local companies EcoSmart Solutions and Street Sleeper, using new plant technology.

CEO of Tesla Motors and is renowned for a number of groundbreaking innovations. The renewable battery contains the same components as batteries used to power electric vehicles. It’s a 7 kWh unit and ships at a cool $3 000. The larger 10 kWh unit is shipped for $3 500 and is recommended for the average South African home. These units store power from the grid and wind generators so that, during loadshedding, the power does not have to go down at all. Musk believes his invention has the potential to change energy and sustainability issues for the developing world in a positive and lasting way.

Source: SAVA

Source: Tesla Motors

Tesla unveils off-grid living solution Last year, South Africa-born inventor Elon Musk revealed a battery capable of powering an entire home off the grid. Musk is the

Water “blobs” may soon replace water bottles as a more sustainable way to produce hydration packaging


ReSource February 2016 – 13

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© 2016 Caterpillar. All Rights Reserved. CAT, CATERPILLAR, BUILT FOR IT™, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow,” the “Power Edge” trade dress ReSource as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.

January 2016 – 13

WasteCon 2016 The Changing Face of Waste Management 17th to the 21st of October 2016 Emperors Palace, Johannesburg, South Africa The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) proudly announces that its 23rd WasteCon flagship conference and exhibition will take place from the 17-21 of October 2016 at Emperors Palace, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa.

The theme: “The Changing Face of Waste Management” encompasses a myriad of topics such as: • Alternative waste treatment technologies • Markets and recycling – how is a downward cycle affecting this market? • Reclaimers and community based waste collection – what is the impact? • Diversion versus minimization – what should we be driving? • Integrated waste facilities – is it a way forward? • Waste management and innovation • The role of waste in the Circular economy • Changing behaviour, up the awareness • Municipality experiences implementing recycling initiatives • Industry experiences implementing the new waste regulations.

• Awareness campaigns on waste – sharing the message and methods • Job creation opportunities and initiatives – What is the industry doing? • Reporting research findings on waste related studies • Innovation in waste collection and transport systems • Viability of establishing alternative waste treatment technologies • Reverse Logistics as a means to support recycling • Innovation in recycling of waste • Waste-to-Energy • State of the art landfill design, construction and rehabilitation

Make sure that you diarize the 17 to 21 of October 2016 today and the join the Institute in counting the days to WasteCon 2016

For more information or to book please contact Gail Smit on +27(0)11-675-3462

email gail@iwmsa.co.za

Recycling Roadmap

The road ahead South Africa remains deeply entrenched in landfilling, with an estimated 90% of waste generated being disposed of at landfill. Prof Linda Godfrey at the CSIR presents her research through the Waste RDI Roadmap Implementation Unit on the need to move upwards in the waste hierarchy.


he Department of Science and Technology (DST) recognised the role that research, development and innovation (RDI) could play in achieving the objectives of the National Waste Management Strategy, in moving waste up the hierarchy and in transforming the South African waste sector in a way that could provide value for the South African economy. So, it embarked on a process in 2012 to develop a roadmap that would guide South Africa’s public and private sector investment in waste RDI over the next 10 years. The process – shaped by business, industry, government and academia – culminated in early 2015, with the publication of South Africa’s first Waste Research, Development and Innovation Roadmap (2015–2025). With an investment ask of about R3.9 billion, over the next 10 years, the successful implementation of the roadmap is expected to assist government and industry in significantly increasing the diversion of waste away from landfill towards value-adding alternatives, through more effective decisionmaking, faster insertion of context-appropriate technology, export of know-how and technology, and strengthened RDI capability and capacity.

us to achieve the goals set out in national policy, while addressing issues of environmental protection, economic development, and technological and social innovation in a more holistic and integrated manner,” explains Godfrey. Developing and implement-

Recovering 100% of the selected 13 key waste streams with high recycling potential would unlock R25.2 billion worth of resources per year into the South African economy ing a Waste RDI Roadmap that would drive innovation in the sector, implied that the status quo with respect to waste management in South Africa was unacceptable, and that a change in the management of waste, such as moving waste up the hierarchy, was required. “It was, therefore, necessary to

understand the local and global trends in waste management – where the world is moving – as well as the opportunities that arise through diverting waste from landfill, particularly in South Africa,” says Godfrey. A review of local and global trends showed that the waste sector is currently undergoing a major global paradigm shift from an end-of-pipe treatment of waste to a circular economy that sees waste as a resource. This shift is driven by issues such as population growth and urbanisation, the increasing quantities and complexity of waste, climate change, carbon economics, resource scarcity, commodity prices, energy security, globalisation, unemployment and tightening regulations. The trend analysis showed that there are economic opportunities in waste, as a secondary resource, particularly in waste streams such as organic waste, mainline recyclables, and large industrial waste streams. “Opportunity regions”, or new waste markets, have been identified, and include the emerging economies of Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa,

A top priority is diverting waste from landfill

Driving innovation “The 10-year Waste RDI Roadmap is anchored in the mandate of the DST,” explains Godfrey. “It aims to stimulate waste innovation (technological and non-technological), research and development, and human capital development through investment in science and technology. But, there is no intention to drive this alone.” The departments of Environmental Affairs and Trade and Industry are two key national government departments, which, through their mandates, are committed to changing the South African waste sector. “A partnership between departments allows

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Recycling Roadmap figure 1 The four phases of developing the Waste RDI Roadmap

Understanding the landscape and the reasons for SA to do something other than landfill Understanding the needs of business / industry and the opportunities they provide for RDI Understanding South Africa's ability to respond to these opportunities

with South Africa having been identified by Merrill Lynch of the Bank of America, as one of five emerging markets with “exciting opportunities” in the waste sector. However, waste management is now part of a global economy, which has both positive and negative impacts on a local waste sector, including increasing exports of secondary resources. It was also evident from the review that there are multiple approaches or solutions to managing waste within this global economy and that different paths, including different technology portfolios, exist in achieving sustainable integrated waste management in a country. This is particularly relevant for developing countries that often face medium-to-longterm issues regarding the sustainability of implemented technologies. “The review of local and global trends, and the resultant opportunities evident for the South African waste sector, provide strong motivation for strengthening local investment in alternative waste treatment technologies, as well as investment in research, development and innovation,” says Godfrey.

Unlocking value However, any investment in waste RDI must be justified in terms of the economic, social

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in South Africa, as the results do not consider the Global and local trends downstream value to a lo1 cal manufacturing economy Values in waste through the reintroduction of secondary resources. “By strengthening the local recycling economy, we have 2 the opportunity to contribute Opportunities for RDI towards addressing the triple challenge of poverty, inequality and unemployment in South Africa,” explains 3 Dr Henry Roman, director: Capability mapping Environmental Services and Technologies, DST, and custodian of the Waste RDI 4 Roadmap. Unlocking these Implementing Framework resources creates opportunities to increase the number of jobs and income opportunities – not only in the waste sector, but and environmental benefits. Understanding along the entire value chain. the economic benefits of moving waste up the hierarchy, away from landfilling and towards alternative solutions, was necessary The way forward In terms of implementation of the Waste to assess any resulting investment opportunities. Research undertaken by the CSIR RDI Roadmap, the CSIR was contracted showed that the 10% recycling achieved by the DST in April 2015 to implement in 2011 unlocked R8.2 billion worth of rethe 10-year plan, through the newly estabsources per year into the South Aflished Waste RDI Roadmap Implementation rican economy. Achieving the Unit. “Since the intention is to strengthen DST Waste RDI Roadmap waste RDI within the target of a 20% reduction (by weight) in national system of innovation, our focus industrial waste for 2015 has been on and a 60% reduction (by weight) in funding calls for R&D domestic waste to projects and technology upscaling. This has landfill by 2025, also included scholarwould unlock R17.4 ship calls for master’s billion worth of reLinda Godfrey is sources per year. Recovand doctoral studies,” the manager of the Waste RDI Roadmap ering 100% of the selected explains Godfrey. Implementation 13 key waste streams with high While the required Unit, which has recycling potential would unlock R25.2 bilinvestment for the been tasked by lion worth of resources per year into the Waste RDI Roadmap is the Department South African economy, which would otherabout R3.9 billion over of Science and Technology, and wise have been lost to landfill. Considering the next 10 years, this hosted by the CSIR, the resource value of recovered materials, money must still be seto implement the cured. “We’ve received plus circumventing costs of disposal and 10-year Waste some seed funding the social and environmental costs associRDI Roadmap ated with landfilling, these figures increase from the DST to begin significantly to R10.5 billion per year, R27.4 implementation of the billion per year and R46.5 billion per year, roadmap activities. However, full implementation will be dependent on using this seed respectively. These estimates of the benefits of recycling and recovery are considfunding to leverage local and international ered underestimates of the full potential funding, from both the public and private benefits of moving waste up the hierarchy sectors,” concludes Godfrey.

RecyclingCover Roadmap strap


waste management In December 2015, after three years of planning, South Africa’s first class of specialist postgraduate students in waste management graduated. Prof Linda Godfrey, manager of the Waste RDI Roadmap Implementation Unit, shares the details about this tremendous achievement.


national government initiative aimed at upskilling waste management professionals in South Africa has seen 10 students write their exams for a BSc Hons Environmental Science with specialisation in Waste Management at North-West University (NWU).

Background In 2012, under the guidance of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), a group of experts from the waste and skills development sectors met to discuss the skills required for an innovative waste sector in South Africa – in particular, the core waste management skills required and the possible implementation modalities for human capital development in the sector. The aim of these workshops was to identify the human capital development programmes necessary to transition the sector away from landfilling towards innovation and alternative waste treatment. Par ticipants of the exper t workshops held in July and August 2012 highlighted that, first, there is a pressing need for more specialist waste management skills at local government level, particularly for officials tasked with supervisory and managerial responsibilities. Concepts such as alternative technologies, the green economy, waste hierarchy, full-cost accounting, triple bottom line and closing the loop needed to be more widely understood

and implemented for new approaches to waste management to succeed. Second, with waste management only offered (at the time) as short modules in degrees such as engineering or environmental sciences, graduates from existing university programmes lacked sufficient specialised skills and practical knowledge in integrated waste management to be immediately functional in the waste industry.

Tertiary programme The overall conclusion of these 2012 workshops was that, to develop waste management professionals in South Africa, a professional skills development programme (at university level) was required – a programme that would, first, enable graduates of tertiary institutions to enter the waste sector, both public and private, well versed and prepared to contribute effectively, and, second, upskill persons already working within the sector. And so, in early 2013, the DST invited three South African universities, which had some existing teaching material on waste management, to develop the first specialist postgraduate degrees and/or diplomas in waste management. Two of the invited universities accepted the invitation – NWU (School of Geo- and Spatial Sciences) and the University of KwaZuluNatal (UKZN) (Faculty of Engineering). NWU was contracted to develop a BSc Hons

Waste Management and UKZN an MSc Eng Waste Management. The existing NWU BSc Hons Environmental Sciences degree was partially modified, which allowed the university to fast-track the degree preparation for roll-out in the 2015 academic year – as a pre-existing degree with specialisation.

Conclusion “The strength of the degree lies in the fact that the programme is presented by leading experts, from both the public and private sectors, who brought reallife issues and solutions to the table”, explains Dr Claudine Roos of NWU. One of the students who recently completed the waste management honours degree described the degree as “life-changing and relevant to the real issues in the waste management sector”. While the BSc Hons Environmental Science: Waste Management degree provides an excellent overview of integrated waste management, making these graduates attractive to both business and government, it is hoped that this degree will find particular traction in the local government sphere. The MSc Eng Waste Management is expected to be offered by UKZN from 2017.

TOP The North-West University BSc Hons Environmental Science: Waste Management class

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Plastic Recycling

Ocean plastic’s race against time The Race for Water Foundation is a Swiss non-profit organisation dedicated to preserving the world’s waters. South Africa recently participated in the foundation’s global study focused on assessing the risk posed to global oceans by microplastics – the preliminary results are startling. By Frances Ringwood


rofessor FRANKLIN ServanSchreiber is a member of the Swiss team from the Race for Water Foundation, which has been traveling the world’s oceans, visiting various island coastlines and testing the amount of microplastics in the sand to determine the extent of the problem and how it affects marine life. Normal plastic pollution, contributing towards giant trash gyre islands at various points in the ocean, tends to snatch newspaper headlines; however, microplastics could have already become a much bigger problem. In brief, microplastics are small pieces of plastic that have broken down to the size of fragments, sometimes just a few polymers thick. These particles are easily ingested by marine animals and can lead to increased instances of cancers, reduced fish and mammal species size, declining fertility and even more devastating effects for human populations reliant on fish as their main

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food source, Servan-Schreiber explains. Already, a number of studies show that 88% of our oceans are polluted with plastic and that gyres are no longer the biggest problem. “Plastic pollution is widespread, it is everywhere, and much of it starts inland,” he adds. “We already know, from previous studies, that 30% of fish in the open ocean have concentrations of plastic in their body fat. For carnivorous mammals, almost all are contaminated. For example, a recent

“We already know, from previous studies, that 30% of fish in the open ocean have concentrations of plastic in their body fat. For carnivorous mammals, almost all are contaminated.”

study out of Oregan found that all orcas have certain amounts of dangerous plastic compounds called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in their blubber. Another similarly destructive chemical found in the cetaceans’ fat reserves was dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT),” says Servan-Schreiber. Both PCBs and DDT – the chemical famous for causing cancers and bird deaths in the early 70s – are now banned, but their legacy of pollution and destruction remains and continues to grow to this day. What’s most chilling about the comparison is DDT raises alarms in the scientific community for how widespread it has become and PCBs and other microplastic pollution are approaching similar proportions, according to the study. While this is the first global study of its kind, many more have been conducted with different scopes and aims. What sets this one apart is that it will reveal how plastics travel across various ocean trade routes.

Plastic Recycling Ocean science expedition Servan-Schreiber and other members of the Race for Water Foundation team, including foundation president and expedition leader Marco Simeoni, were in Cape Town recently to promote awareness about their 40 000 nautical mile expedition in a 21 m trimaran (a fast, seafaring craft) aimed at putting together the first truly global assessment of plastic pollution in the world’s oceans. “The trimaran was small and uncomfortable with no toilet. Scientists spent 300 days sailing from island-to-island, focusing their research on beaches near the Earth’s five major ‘trash hotspots’,” says Servan-Schreiber. The team’s island destinations include the Azores, the Bermudas, Easter Island, the Mariana Islands (Guam), Koror Island, the Chagos Archipelago, Rodrigues and Tristan da Cunha. Numerous prominent global organisations support their journey, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme and the Race for Water Odyssey. Cape Town, South Africa, is just one of the team’s many awareness stops – the other stops are at Bordeaux, France; New York City, USA; Panama Canal, Spain; Valparaiso, Chile; Hawaii, USA; Tokyo, Japan; Shanghai, China; and Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

Methodology “Through our research process, we are able to create snapshots of different stages of pollution. Islands were chosen as the sites for the study because that’s where life starts,” says Servan-Schreiber. “Our sampling is based on scientific protocols established by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, based in the United States. These dictate that we extract samples from 1 m to 2 m into the coastline site. It’s time-consuming but it needs to be done for our tests to be scientifically valid. We then sift the sand to determine the types of microplastic contaminants and look at a

While large plastics cause visible pollution and ocean gyres, micropollutants are much more pernicious – entering the food chain and causing a host of problems for marine life and people

number of other factors, including whether they bind readily with other carcinogenic pollutants,” he adds. One of the more distressing outcomes of the sampling is that in an area of just 50 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm, as many as six different types of plastics were found: indicating how widely and quickly different pollutants from around the world can travel. Servan-Schreiber adds that a further goal of the study was to learn from indigenous island populations and how they recycle to collect best practices and establish frameworks for making their recycling profitable. “This will help us add to a larger body of knowledge on how plastic recycling can create jobs and also how to bring the value of plastic back to industry,” he says.

Unsettling results “Some of the most alarming results of our research are that, in the next 10 years, there will be as much new plastic produced as there was throughout the entire history of plastic production to date. Plastic production will increase twentyfold and existing waste management processes are simply not sophisticated enough to keep up,” says Servan-Schreiber. Plastic pollution is now affecting the entirety of the food chain, with one university in the Netherlands finding that the plastics used in shopping bags are

being eaten by plankton, negatively affecting these oxygen-creating organisms that fulfill an essential ecological niche. “As these pollutants concentrate further up the food chain, humans will be affected and there is a huge problem in that no one has taken the time to fully realise the extent of this. What we can say, for sure, is this is going to hit us hard in the next decade,” he says.

Hoped-for outcomes In its efforts to find local solutions that work, the Race for Water Foundation team has found out about new technologies for turning unrecyclable plastics into useful fuel. If viable, this may prove to be a sustainable way to bring troublesome plastics back into production. Another valuable outcome from the expedition is the collection of data aimed at influencing policymakers as well as corporate brands to improve their wastemanagement practices. “Because, if something isn’t done soon, the plastics problem will reach crisis proportions,” concludes Servan-Schreiber.

Professor Franklin Servan-Schreiber is a member of a Swiss team that has been traveling the world’s oceans researching plastic pollution

SOUTH AFRICAN VISIT In an effort to spread awareness about the dangers of microplastics and other plastic pollution, the Race for Water Foundation team, including foundation president and expedition leader Marco Simeoni, visited a number of Cape Town schools to stimulate interest in recycling, as well as attended a morning-long conference supported by local experts and key stakeholders. At the same time, he visited two recycling plants to gain an understanding of how the South African market operates. The team interacted with a number of local plastics experts and organisations that pledged their support.

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strap PlasticCover Recycling

Dutiful design By designing plastic packaging for recyclability from the start, manufacturers can play a significant role in improving product perceptions, boosting recycling rates and stimulating South Africa’s circular economy. By Frances Ringwood


roduct packaging is an essentially creative exercise, responsive to and constructing new forms that may or may not resonate with consumers and their ultimate preferences, dreams, goals and ambitions. No one knew this better than the late Steve Jobs, of Apple fame, who is reputed to have dedicated a whole room to the practice of unboxing – literally just the opening of packaging. This continues to be an important part of packaging for Apple products because it sets the tone for consumers’ early relationship with the brand. Some years on, more and more megacorporations are embracing Apple’s philosophy of creating a seamless user experience from the outset. However, as local and overseas markets become more conscious of the need for green packaging and sustainability, style is no longer the single dominating factor influencing package design. A successfully designed product needs to excite users from the outset while also connecting with their inner need to contribute positively towards environmental stewardship. According to Annabe Pretorius of the South African Plastics Recyclers Organisation (Sapro), “South Africa is committing to the global movement of reducing the amount of packaging waste sent to landfill. In spite of these growing measurable consumer preferences, local brand owners operating in the plastics industry continue to struggle when it comes to creating truly green packaging.” An added

difficulty is that lifestyle changes in Africa, including longer lifespans and more singleperson households, have led to a greater demand for convenience and single-meal packaging options.

Opportunities in plastic While a variety of biodegradable, singlematerial and otherwise green packaging options exist, plastic is often unfairly maligned for its difficult-to-break-down properties. But, in South Africa, certain types of plastics actually comprise the leading waste stream being recovered through recycling and diverted from landfill. For example, last year, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling company Petco announced that it had grown its beverage bottle recycling rates from 16% in 2005 to 49% in 2014 and that Petco is catching up to Europe, which is nearing 60%. As the above evidence shows, concerted efforts to recycle plastics have the power to make this one of the most sustainable materials available on the local market. That being said, more buy-in from producers in terms of implementing packaging recyclability strategies would significantly assist existing plastic recycling numbers. Far from being constraining, these design requirements present new and interesting challenges,

Plastic is often blamed for visible pollution but it can be one of the most readily recyclable waste streams

“Transforming a brand into a socially responsible leader doesn’t happen overnight by simply writing new marketing and advertising strategies. It takes effort to identify a vision that your customers will find credible and aligned with their values.” Simon Mainwaring, brand consultant

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Cover strap Plastic Recycling forcing packing manufacturers and designers to come up with innovative solutions to meet the gold standard of style combined with environmentalism. However, apart from aesthetic marketing appeal, packaging also has to tick the boxes when it comes to product performance, sustainability and recyclability. While some brand owners are heeding the call for design with recyclability and the product’s end-of-life possibilities in mind, there is still a growing concern over the amount of packaging waste being sent to landfill. “Too often, aesthetic appeal becomes the only factor considered – rather than sustainability,” says Mandy Naudé, CEO, Polyco. To this end, Polyco is calling for a greater number of manufacturers to think a step further – to move beyond the retail shelf and focus on their products’ end-of-life options. “It is vital for brand owners to select a packaging material that is recyclable and currently being collected and recycled in South Africa, for use into new products.” says Naudé, adding that this approach encourages thinking about sustainable design from the start. “Brand owners can genuinely claim that they are contributing to a greener future by helping South Africa reduce the amount of material that gets sent to landfill. “They are the decision-makers who have a major influence and a responsibility that they can fulfil and help us to further our cause of reducing plastic packaging to landfill. It all starts with the design of the packaging.” Naudé stresses that the more product manufacturers and brand owners become aware of the impacts their products have on the environment, the more consumers and industry professionals can look forward to new frontiers in recycling and environmental protection.

Innovations for clear, lightweight and recyclable packaging solutions Traditionally, PP has had limited use in the packaging trays market due to its milky appearance. Milliken has recently launched its Millad NX 8000 clarifier solutions into the thermoformed trays market, achieving high-clarity, ultraclear PP. Millad NX 8000 is a clarifying agent that, when added to normal PP, achieves ultimate PP clarity. According to Carolyn Kellock, territory manager: South Africa, Milliken, “NX UltraClear PP offers a highly desirable set of performance and sustainability

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With packaging making up more than 50% of the total plastics consumption in Africa, visible litter continues to be a huge problem

Although most postconsumer packaging recyclers are geared to deal with the packaging components being made from varying polymer types, the labels and inks caps, closures and wraps being made from a different polymer than the pack itself continue to create problems benefits for thermoformed food packaging. As a mono-material solution, NX UltraClear PP can be easily recycled, unlike other multilayer materials. This supports a circular economy that results in end-oflife solutions in further applications, such as automotive, furniture, containers and appliances. NX UltraClear PP has a significantly lower density than other plastic material options, reducing the weight of a thermoformed part. PP’s density of 0.9 kg/ m³, compared to 1.37 kg/m³ for PET, simply lets converters produce more trays per kilogram,” Kellock explains. Additionally, PP boasts superior environmental performance, as it consumes the least amount of energy during production and produces the lowest carbon dioxide emissions when compared to other transparent plastics used in food packaging. NX UltraClear PP proves itself to be a sustainable alternative solution for food packaging.

Biggest impacts Manufacturers of plastic packaging solutions have many oppor tunities and exciting possibilities opening up for them as a result of consumer education, new technological advancements and new municipal systems. However, there are a number of impor tant strategic inter ventions that need to be set in motion if the plastics industr y is to meet new demands for innovative and competitive packaging solutions. According to Charles Muller, executive director, Packaging SA, one of the biggest ways to increase plastic recycling figures globally is for the brand owners to specify that a par t of their packaging must consist of recycled material. An inter vention that would assist both local and international recycling effor ts is to get businesses to actively embrace sustainability as a core value. “Due to the growing pressures from shareholders, businesses are becoming increasingly shor t-termed focused. This needs to change by creating a value shift away from a cost-driven mentality to being benefit driven and long-term focused,” comments Muller. In practice, such a focus would incorporate designing product packaging for recyclability from the star t, looking at the total life cycle of all products being produced as well as the number of times different materials can be recycled and exploring other avenues for reuse. “Suppor ting local sustainability, waste collection and recycling initiatives forms a key par t of this as well,” concludes Muller.

LEFT TO RIGHT Mandy Naudé, CEO, Polyco Annabe Pretorius, South African Plastics Recyclers Organisation Charles Muller, executive director, Packaging SA

OilCover Recycling strap

Taking plastic back to basics

New processes are able to convert plastics back to their original petrochemical molecules and salts. The technology is being pioneered in Japan and, now, Cape Town has established its own facility. By Frances Ringwood


pilot plastics-to-oil conversion plant unveiled in Cape Town recently is a first of its kind in South Africa and is set to have the capacity to turn 500 kg of plastic into 500 litres of oil per day. According to the City of Cape Town and its technology partner, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the pilot is planned to last six months and it is believed it will lead to new insights into creating fuel from waste diverted from landfill. The plant is situated at the city’s Kraaifontein Integrated Waste Management Facility. Opened on 4 December 2015, the facility represents a considerable investment into South Africa on behalf of the Japanese government, amounting to $1 million. In addition, Japan’s CFP Corporation and Kanemiya Company joined forces for this venture to provide specialist heating technology for the plant. Tetsuya Sato, international sales, CFP, has explained the company’s motivation for wanting to become more involved with African projects. “The Japanese market is shrinking and South East Asia is extremely competitive,” says Sato. Further, CFP is planning to expand the technology throughout many more African countries, anticipating profits of between ¥500 million and ¥1 billion (R134 million) in annual sales.

World-leading technology Japan has already demonstrated its commitment to developing plastics-to-oil technology. In 2011, the country’s Blest Corporation launched its new invention – the first plastics-to-oil conversion machine ever. By aligning world-leading experts with the City of Cape Town’s goal of becoming South Africa’s most sustainable city, much will be

achieved in terms of improved recycling rates, generating higher incomes for participants in the recycling value chain and creating jobs. The three types of plastic the facility aims to convert are polystyrene, polypropylene and polyethylene, mainly from plastic packaging. Prior to treatment, this feedstock will be separated, stored and washed. The plastic-to-oil technology uses pyrolysis to converted shredded plastics back to their basic components. If the product exhibits sufficient quality and can be produced at high enough volumes, it will be used for diesel-power generation – about 70% of

CFP is planning to expand the technology throughout many more African countries, anticipating profits up to R134 million in annual sales which will be used for the new plant’s own industrial processes. The experimental function of the plant is to test different ratios of the three plastics used as feedstock to determine what combinations yield the best quality fuel.

A first-of-its-kind plastics-to-oil plant has been unveiled in Cape Town; the plant will have the capacity to turn 500 kg of plastic into 500 litres of oil per day

CFP Corporation and the City of Cape Town in 2014 is an exciting step towards making a difference. The partnership has allowed us to share ideas and explore new possibilities,” commented Cllr Ernest Sonnenberg, mayoral committee member: Utility Services, City of Cape Town.

Plastics challenge Plastics recycling remains a major challenge for South Africa. Even Cape Town, with its impressive track record for waste minimisation, only manages to recycle 16% of its waste, with the rest being sent to landfill. “In terms of the National Waste Management Strategy of 2011, South Africa aims to achieve a recycling rate of 25% of the waste currently sent to landfill by the end of 2015. Considering this, we are naturally very keen to learn about new technologies that will help us to achieve that goal in a sustainable manner,” concluded Sonnenberg.

Recycling process “Rising volumes of waste material represent a global challenge that cannot be ignored. They threaten the health of the environment and human beings alike. This is not just a local problem but a global one. The agreement signed between JICA, the Cllr Ernest Sonnenberg, mayoral committee member: Utility Services, City of Cape Town

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Oil Recycling Cover strap

Don’t be crude,

keep up!

Generators of waste that comprises large volumes of oil and lubricants need to keep up with the latest registration and reporting requirements. Waste generators are advised to make use of government web tools and waste manifests to maintain legally compliant business practices. By Frances Ringwood


he safe disposal of hazardous waste has become a critical issue for business in South Africa, with measures of accountability being laid down in the Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008) and the National Waste Information Regulations of 2012,” says Raj Lochan, CEO of the Recycling Oil Saves the Environment (ROSE) Foundation. The ROSE Foundation is the South African non-profit responsible for managing the environmentally acceptable collection, storage and recycling of used oil. Lochan continues, “This legislation controls the collection of information on waste and waste management in South Africa, to fulfil the objectives of the National Waste Information System (Sawis).” Sawis is the waste information centre developed by the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), in 2005, to enable government and industry to capture data on the tonnages of waste generated, recycled and disposed of in South Africa on a monthly and annual basis.

• type of registration • DEA registration number • site name • province location • municipal location • Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code (for generators only) • year of registration. “A list of all matching registrations will be given below the search function,” says Lochan.

Registering on Sawis

Using Sawis effectively

All waste generators (not just generators of oil and lubricant wastes) producing in excess of 20 kg of hazardous waste a day are obliged, by law, to register with Sawis. Once registered, generators must submit information to Sawis within 90 days and the information must be based on actual volumes, not estimates. “Before registering with the DEA’s central registry, it is recommended that waste generators check that their site and/or activities are not already registered. On the Sawis website (http://sawic.environment.gov.za), there is a tab called ‘Search Registrations’ for this purpose,” says Lochan. He adds that this functionality allows waste generators to search against:

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Raj Lochan, CEO, Recycling Oil Saves the Environment (ROSE) Foundation

Waste generators are able to search for their unique site and for associated activities on the site. Worth remembering is that all such activities are listed against the site on which the activities take place. The site

and the associated activities are identified by their unique identity code; for example, a site will carry the ID: D00018, while the associated activities on the site will carry the ID: D00018-01, D00018-02, and so on. “For waste generators, if you find that your site is already registered, but not the specific activity, please log on to the central registry using the username and password provided to you and register any additional activities,” advises Lochan. “Also, if you find that your activity is already registered, please use the DEA registration number, username and password provided to you to access the central registry through the login. For more information on this, contact the DEA central registry administrator,” adds Lochan. For waste generators who find that their site and activity are not already registered, registration is essential. This can be facilitated through the ‘Register’ tab. Those wanting to double check whether or not they’re obliged to register can check the ‘Who should register’ tab.

Registration information required

All waste generators (not just generators of oil and lubricant wastes) producing in excess of 20 kg of hazardous waste a day are obliged, by law, to register with Sawis

The first requirement for Sawis registration is to select the registration type for which the waste generator is applying. Site users will select one type from the following list: hazardous waste exporter; hazardous waste generator; waste disposal; waste recovery/recycling; or waste treatment. “All newly registering companies and individuals are required to fill in some basic information about the registration type, the site, the company and the contact person.

OilCover Recycling strap Sawis is the waste information centre developed by the Department of Environmental Affairs to capture data on the tonnages of waste generated, recycled and disposed of in South Africa on a monthly and annual basis

Certain fields are compulsory (indicated by an *) and must be provided to ensure a successful registration,” explains Lochan. Upon saving their registration, an email will be sent to the person who registered (provided an email address has been entered), notifying them that their registration has been received and is awaiting authorisation by the department. “Depending on the validity of your registration, the responsible system administrator will either approve or decline your registration. You will be notified of your registration approval via email. Should no email address be provided, you will be notified telephonically, or via fax or post,” adds Lochan.All successful registrations are issued with a unique registration number from the DEA, as well as a username and password, which may be used to log in to the central registry to change any information as and when required.

Transport and documentation of hazardous waste When arranging for waste to be transported to a registered and licensed waste management facility, generators must have a waste manifest for each load of hazardous waste. According to Lochan, “A waste manifest is a set of documents that accompanies each

load of hazardous waste from the point of generation until it is responsibly and legally disposed of at a suitable, licensed or permitted facility. It controls and tracks hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator, until it reaches the waste management facility that will treat the waste, and safely dispose of it. Good news for used-oil generators is that National Oil Recycling Association of South Africa (NORA-SA) approved collectors provide this service and work with a standard waste manifest document for used oil. NORA-SA collectors fill in all the necessary details on the waste manifest, relieving used oil generators of this regulatory burden,” he adds. NORA-SA is a representative body facilitated by the ROSE Foundation so that businesses involved in the safe and effective collection and recycling of used oil are provided with essential industry support.

Penalties and fines “Any person convicted of an offence is liable to a substantial fine or imprisonment, depending on which section of the the Waste Act and the National Waste Information Regulations of 2012 (or other relevant laws) has been contravened,” comments Lochan. He recommends that waste generators constantly stay up to date with the latest legislative developments by maintaining contact with the DEA or, alternately, the ROSE Foundation, which regularly updates members on the latest legislative developments as well as providing a platform for workshops and other information-sharing sessions to encourage industr y excellence.

Those wanting to find out more about the registration process can do so online by visiting http://cr.environment.gov.za/index.php.

When arranging for waste to be transported to a registered and licensed waste management facility, generators must have a waste manifest for each load of hazardous waste

ReSource February 2016 – 25

Megan – Transporter, PE

Pieter – Recycler, PTA

Midrand Depot


Midrand Depot

Our Waste Tyre Management Plan is proving to be a success, over and over again. Of the 200 SMMEs we’re required to establish within 5 years, 170 226 are already up and running. Add to that the impact we’re making on our environment and you could say it’s a win­win­win situation. For more of our remarkable achievements, statistics and stories worth celebrating, please visit our website

Johanna – Depot Manager, Mossel Bay

Lebogang – Transporter, JHB

Cutting tyres

Vissershok Depot

Midrand Depot

Durban Depot

JOIN THE JOURNEY | www.redisa.org.za |

/wasteintoworth |

@wasteintoworth | +27 87 35-REUSE (73873)

Tyre Recycling

Beyond the burn Tyres can be a more efficient fuel source than coal – burning hotter and at a higher calorific value. But, when broken down by specialised processes, recycled tyres can be put to even better use for high-value end products, particularly in the South African market. By Frances Ringwood


he Internet is home to myriad blog posts and listicles saying how bad tyre burning is and that it’s environmentally damaging. However, cement kiln operators point out that stories such as this are very often based on scaremongering or at the very least incomplete information that has little basis in the realities of a coal-intensive, energy-hungry country like South Africa. Some of these same manufacturers have argued in national forums that the fact is, whether companies like cement manufacturers or steel smelters use coal as fuel or tyre pieces as fuel, scrubbers within the chimneys remove about the same amount of contaminants. That makes tyres and coal on par when it comes to the environmental aftermath of burning. There may even be an environmental benefit to burning tyres over alternatives. It is a well-known industry fact

The most environmentally responsible forms of tyre reuse include bumpers on road scrapers, replacing culverts for greater road safety, troughs for watering and feeding farm animals, and safety walls in factories that a 15 mm piece of tyre rubber, the same size as a piece of coal used in smelting or cement making, burns hotter for longer due to it having a higher calorific value. Nonetheless, burning rubber remains environmentally costly (as does coal); when tyres are burned without investment in scrubbing equipment, they may release extremely noxious and damaging emissions, including

dioxins and furans that are carcinogenic. There are a number of alternative thermochemical technologies available on the local and international market that claim to significantly reduce air pollution while producing ostensibly higher-quality by-products in the form of oil, steel and carbon black. Sustainability entrepreneur Jeanne Rose from the Xerus Project explains: “One such technology is pyrolysis, a seemingly simple process used to ‘reverse engineer’ carbonaceous matter. Pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. It involves a simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible.” The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements “pyro” (fire) and “lysis” (separating). “Pyro”, however, is a misnomer, as the only combustion that takes place in pyrolysis is the burning of fuel to provide thermal energy to the process. At face value, pyrolysis technology, which does not burn the tyres, should not generate harmful emissions; however, technologies must be evaluated on a case by case basis as the control of “absence of oxygen” is based both on good operating practice and sophisticated control systems. “Many of these alternative methods have had mixed reception in the local market due to the high cost of best-practice technology and operations as well as challenges to Tyre mulch may not enrich soil in the same way as wood but it is safe from termites, locks in moisture and protects the roots of young plants from the Sun

28 – ReSource February 2016

Suppliers of

BALING SYSTEMS www.macpresse.com

Industrial Shredding and Waste Reduction Equipment 022-7720307 info@treecycle.co.za

REFUSE DERIVED FUEL www.lindner-recycling.co.za

Tyre Recycling access consistent markets and uncertain profitability due to the commodity nature of the by-products,” warns Rose. A more established, environmentally friendly way to reuse and recycle tyres, and also a great way to provide high-value endproducts is to use mechanical process to reduce tyres down to the requisite sizes for reuse as a number of market-established goods. The most environmentally responsible forms of reuse rely simply on the mechanical breakdown of tyres. This is when tyres are used as bumpers on road scrapers, to replace culverts for greater road safety, as troughs for watering and feeding farm animals, and for safety walls in factories. This article focuses on local South African processes and methods for recapturing the most value from tyres, preventing them from ending up in landfill without resorting to burning of any kind.

Process selection Waste tyres are a huge problem the world over, not least because they comprise

about 90% air, meaning that they take up a huge amount of unnecessary space at landfills. Yes, tyres can be reused as whole or

Tyre crumb recovered from old tyres using a Saturn Granutech tyre recovery plant

partially broken-down pieces, as mentioned earlier, but another avenue that is creating an increasing number of sustainable businesses around South Africa is to process waste tyres down to tyre crumb of varying sizes, which is then converted into useful products for factories, agriculture, landscaping, municipalities, a bitumen additive

in roads and even as a substrate for wastewater treatment. Shaughn Frost, managing director of South African company Treecycle, explains the process in more detail. “We supply any type of tyre recycling equipment to the recycling industry to process, for example, the giant off-the-road (OTR) tyres used on loaders in the mining industry. Our machines can also handle baled loads of normal car tyres, but it’s an indication of the toughness and the quality of our tyre shredders that they can handle such large loads. What you need to understand is tyres are designed to last for as long as possible in extremely harsh conditions in order to keep passengers safe on the roads, trucks moving goods and earthmoving equipment working in the mining sector. That means extremely robust and effective machinery is needed to break them down.” Capable of shredding up to 50 tonnes of passenger tyres per hour or 30 tonnes of OTR tyre sections per hour, Treecycle’s huge Hammel 1 520 hp shredder is capable of handling OTR tyres the size of a fully

ReSource February 2016 – 29

The leader in the manufacturing and expert installation of durable safety surfacing in South Africa

Looking for non-slip durable flooring in your factory? Or for a flooring solution in waste storage areas?

You’ve found it! Contact MasterRubber today for an obligation-free quote on durable factory flooring with high-quality finish that is:

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Ask about our wet-pour custom solutions and off-the-shelf pre-made supplies. For sales enquiries ask for Riaan on 072 488 1648 or email riaan@masterrubber.co.za For admin-related queries call Antois-Leigh on 011 233 2600.


Tyre Recycling Suppliers of Industrial Shredding and Waste Reduction Equipment

Tyres | Car Bodies | Scrap Metal White Goods | Waste Wood www.hammel.co.za

30 – ReSource August 2015

Oversized and standard tyre reduction equipment www.tyrerecycling.co.za

Tyre Grinding and Granulation www.granutech.com

grown man in diameter. “Before we use our tyre loaders to load tyres into the machine, we first remove the steel bead inside the tyres with our range of Eagle equipment. Thereafter, large tyre pieces are cut down into more manageable ‘pizza slices’ for processing,” Frost explains. Once shredded, tyre pieces then move along a vibrating conveyor, where small pieces drop to the bottom of the unit and pieces that are still too coarse are fed back into the shredder to obtain a uniform size. “The process ultimately breaks down tyres into three components: nylon fibre, which can be reused in a number of ways including the manufacture of car seats, steel – which can be smelted – and tyre crumb. This tyre crumb is then resold on to secondary industries. They may use the tyre crumb as is or further refine the product for any number of industrial applications. Treecycle not only sells mobile Hammel shredders, which can be transported onsite to mines, but also Eagle International portable tyre processing equipment and Saturn Granutech shredder systems, which can be used as the basis for a whole separate business creating value-added usedtyre-based products.

End products There are a variety of fascinating environmentally friendly products that arise from reusing old tyres. These include carpet backing for green carpets – a popular phenomenon in the construction and decor sectors – as well as artificial, rubber grass and other types of flooring solutions. Sebastian Coy, managing director, MasterRubber, describes how tyre crumb is reused to create environmentally friendly, non-toxic products for a whole range of industries. “MasterRubber has developed a way to give used car and truck tyres a second lease on life by turning them into rubber surfacing, which can Steel recovered from the inside of tyres – there is also a little brass used in tyre manufacture as part of the air valves

022-7720307 info@treecycle.co.za Proud supplier to

30 – ReSource February 2016

Nylon fibre is another reusable component of waste tyres

be applied in municipal environments such as parks, walkways and as rubber mulch for landscaping and safe factory flooring – other uses include flooring for playgrounds, gyms, sports stadiums and even horse stables,” says Coy. “Through our service offering, we’ve provided products like Elastopave, which is an environmentally friendly and aesthetically pleasing path material used at the City of Johannesburg’s Mapetla Park,” he adds.

Waste into worth Stacey Davidson, executive director of the Recycling and Economic Development Initiative of South Africa (Redisa), highlights the economic opportunities as well as green job creation potential that is realised through high-value tyre reuse and recycling channels. “When tyres are sent to landfill, they take up valuable space as well present a health hazard by providing space for disease-carrying pests like mosquitos and rats to breed. That land space has a cost, as does the value of the main components in tyres, which are wasted when they’re thrown away. Each year, millions of rands’ worth of primary manufacturing materials is lost to South Africa in this way – this is why we need to create a new paradigm in South Africa that sees the value in turning waste into worth.” Redisa is South Africa’s national oversight body charged with improving waste-tyre recycling rates while stimulating green job creation and boosting the economy through the diversion of waste from landfill. “What we do is ultimately in support of the South African economy – waste tyres were once considered the least successfully managed waste stream in South Africa; since Redisa’s appointment, countries from around the world have begun looking to South Africa for our industry-leading tyre-handling insights and solutions,” concludes Davidson.

Green CoverWaste strap

Getting into nature’s groove Recycling equipment for green waste produced through forestry and agriculture not only represents a more sustainable way to live in harmony with nature than sending biomass to landfill, it also saves considerable space and money through the use of specialised technologies. By Frances Ringwood


n both the municipal and private sector environments, green waste can represent a massive and potentially quite costly problem. Green waste includes any woody material requiring specialised disposal methods or waste management services. In the municipal environment, such waste products might include dead trees struck by lightning, grass cuttings and accumulated leaves, and other organic, nitrogenous debris swept from pavements. In the private sector, green waste is generated through the commercial operation of a number of industries, including forestry, agriculture, landscaping and the hospitality industry (food wastes, too, are counted as green waste). Sending such waste by-products to landfill is not only incredibly wasteful in terms of space and cost, but also denies producers the chance to benefit from the potentially enormous profits, if the right waste is recycled in the right way. For example, farmers can use trimmed branches to create mulch to assist the growth of new trees and saw milling professionals can and do reuse wood shavings to create affordable, chipboard furniture. Green waste recycling equipment is highly specialised, delicate machinery. It requires correct specification from the start, regular servicing and proper operation to yield the best results. Anything

less than top machines, maintained and operated at maximal efficiency, and the cost savings and green benefits of the technology can be lost. Some of the top machines used in these applications include horizontal grinders, tub grinders, wood chippers and brush chippers. Far and above the

A good horizontal grinder is a long-term investment and it’s important to have that investment properly maintained in order to achieve the desired returns most versatile machine among these is the horizontal grinder, which, when used correctly, provides a one-stop solution to the majority of commercial, industrial and municipal green waste challenges.

Evolving past the tub For many years, a tub grinder was the traditional equipment of choice for handling a variety of green waste applications. More recently, the horizontal grinder has come to the fore for its increased efficiency, greater control over end-product particle size and overall user safety. Also, because these machines are mechanised, they can keep

up with the higher volumes typical of largescale industry and busy, large municipalities. James Kamau, managing director of Mfangano Solutions, explains how his company’s Terex Environmental Equipment horizontal grinders (also called biomass grinders) are equipped for handling a variety of applications. “Our Terex diesel-powered horizontal grinders can be tracked or wheeled, making it easier for processed waste to be offloaded into a skip. These machines are valued among users for their robustness, primarily being used for land clearing, bark mulch production, municipal solid-waste handling and recycled construction and demolition processing.” There are numerous design features that assist horizontal grinder users to find the best possible horizontal grinder for their specific needs. For example, Terex produces both upswing and downswing machinery – the upswing units operate more quickly and tend to be preferred by those users wanting higher outputs. The downswing units are geared towards messier waste streams, particularly from municipalities or other waste producers who require greater flexibility. “The machines themselves are of superior quality but I believe what sets Mfangano’s offering apart is that we train and provide operators, so that buyers get the most out of their equipment. A good

ReSource February 2016 – 31

+27(11) 440 2072 c +27 (82) 747 1920 e sales@mfangano.co.za


www.mfangano.co.za Environmental waste management equipment We are SOLUTION DRIVEN and aim to move away from the conventional sales of equipment and rather focus on tailor made solutions for our diverse clients.


Green CoverWaste strap horizontal grinder is a longterm investment and it’s important to have that investment properly maintained in order to achieve the desired returns,” adds Kamau. The Terex horizontal grinders are also offered with threeand five-year service plans and are sold with a standard spare-parts pack included.

of which contribute towards creating a society that uses resources more carefully and produces less waste.”

Choosing the right partner

Robust design is a key selection criterion for capital equipment, along with after-sales service and operational efficiency

Enriching woody compost Even with good volumes of green waste, a key ingredient to ensuring that compost is of a high enough quality to be useful for agriculture, whether subsistence or commercial, is the addition of a living component to compost, such as microorganisms from worm tea, to assist with the breakdown of waste and optimal release of nutrients for plant growth. Carman Nottingham, director at South African vermiculture company Fertilis, underscores the importance of

enriching soils for good food production: “Solutions to recycle green waste responsibly and effectively don’t always have to be on an industrial scale. While some of our biggest clients are landscapers and gardeners, school- and privately owned vegetable patches are becoming trendier in South Africa. There is scope to think more broadly about green waste, incorporating other technologies like biogas systems, grey water and rainwater harvesting, all

Green waste disposal yields huge financial and environmental benefits by creating compost or wood chips to be reused in industrial applications, as well as smallerscale community projects. A good rule of thumb before selecting a horizontal grinder or other expensive piece of green waste processing equipment is to start with an idea of what the desired by-product needing to be created at the end of the process will be. Having a buyer for this product lined up and then speaking to friendly, knowledgeable local dealers about how to achieve the desired waste by-product results is the best way to recuperate capital equipment expenditure in the shortest possible time.

ReSource02+0816-Recy-Kahl.qxp_ReSource-Tyres 16.12.15 11:33 Seite 1

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KAHL Pelleting Plants for the Recycling Industry

Domestic Waste: Pellets or Fluff

KAHL Flat Die Pelleting Presses are Robust and Powerful

AMANDUS KAHL GmbH & Co. KG Dieselstrasse 5-9 · D-21465 Reinbek / Hamburg Phone: +49 40 727 71 0 · info@akahl.de


Wood: Pellets

Waste Tyres: Granulate

Sewage Sludge: Biomass: Pellets Pellets

Johannes Schuback & Sons (S.A.) PTY Limited, Johannesburg / RSA Phone: +27 11 7062270 · jsssa@mweb.co.za

ReSource January 2016 – 33


Super waste savings The diversion and beneficiation of organic waste from landfill has amazing potential. The biological treatment of all organic waste from a single shopping mall in the Western Cape saved hundreds of tonnes of carbon and hundreds of thousands of tonnes’ worth of valuable landfill space. By Michael Vice, Richard Emery & Chris Wise


ast quantities of solid waste are generated in the Western Cape, with a considerable portion of that consisting of readily biodegradable organic fractions. Waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies rely on such wastes as feedstock for creating energy output. If greater quantities of organic waste were diverted from landfill using these methods, it would not only save precious landfill space but also provide a more environmentally friendly solution. The following case study illustrates the efficacy of the commercial-scale wasteto-energy plant at Bayside Mall in Tableview, Cape Town, in diverting organic waste from landfill.

Project scope Bayside’s retail catchment includes the suburbs of Tableview, Bloubergstrand, Sunset Beach, Parklands and Melkbosstrand, and it has an annual foot count of more than 8 million people. The mall’s gross lettable area is about 45 464 m2. Its solid waste is managed on-site by WastePlan, who sorts all waste fractions from the mall’s common areas and smaller tenants into a number of recyclables and general waste fractions. According to the data captured by WastePlan, for a period of 40 months between May 2009 and August 2012, the mall sent an average of 55% of its waste to landfill (by mass), while it

Aerial view of Bayside Shopping Centre precinct, Cape Town (Google Earth, 2012)

recycled the remaining 45%. The general waste is then removed by a private contractor and landfilled. The general waste fraction comprises a significant quantity of comingled organic waste. From May 2009 to August 2012, Bayside improved its percentage of solid waste recycled from about 40% to 90% by volume, and 30% to 55% by mass. However, waste separation (recyclables from non-recyclables and organic waste) is not performed at source but is, instead, carried out by WastePlan

34 – ReSource February 2016

Mills & Otten cc Johannesburg Tel: (011) 486 0062 Fax: (086) 554 6573 Contact: Charles Mills / Kirstin Otten • • •

Environmental Consultants 1998/46338/23 info@millsandotten.co.za www.millsandotten.co.za

Cape Town Tel: (021) 671 7107 Fax: (021) 671 7107 Contact: Stephanie de Beer

Independent Environmental Consultants specialising in: Environmental Management Plans • Contaminated Land Management Audits – Environmental and Green Building • Training Environmental Authorisations (NEMA,NEMWA,NEMAQA,NWA)

Landfills TABLE 1 Average monthly waste characterisation at Bayside Mall (May 2009 – Aug 2012)

Waste description

Daily mass (kg/day)

Total solids (% of mass)

Volatile solids (kg/day)

Starches Meat and proteins Fruit and vegetables Liquid waste Total

150.7 107.0 302.4 10.2 570.2

50 20 12 10 -

67.8 19.3 32.7 0.9 120.6

after consumers have disposed of their waste inside the facility. If consumers were able to separate their waste at source, it would further improve the percentage of waste recycled and set aside organic material that can be used for other purposes. Apart from the general and recyclable waste fractions generated by its many tenants, Bayside also generates significant, readily biodegradable organic waste fractions from its anchor tenants – Checkers, Game and Woolworths. The anchor tenants had been using private contractors to remove their waste and dispose of it at landfill.

Engineered solutions

figure 1 Total waste characterisation for Western Cape by mass (2014 Baseline)

figure 2 MSW characterisation for Western Cape by mass (2014 Baseline)

In order to provide a suitable treatment plant for the mall’s solid waste, local environmental engineering company Jeffares & Green carried out prefeasibility and feasibility studies to understand how to minimise waste to landfill, as well as how to retain and beneficiate from the organic waste fraction. The studies concluded that the readily biodegradable organic waste could be treated in an anaerobic digester to produce biogas. The biogas could then be combusted to significantly minimise carbon emissions and produce electrical and

figure 3 Average monthly waste characterisation at Bayside Mall (May 2009 – Aug 2012)

If consumers were able to separate their waste at source, recycling rates would improve drastically, as would the amount of organic material that can be repurposed heat energy at a future date. In order to beneficiate from the total organic waste generated by the mall, a visual assessment was carried out in April 2013 at the waste areas and/or back-of-house of each of the mall’s tenants. The preliminar y design sought to incorporate the client’s par ticular requirements. The plant would need to be located at the mall’s back-of-house, near the existing waste compactor and recycling facility. The digester would need to be buried to save physical space, which would also help regulate temperatures to suppor t mesophilic digestion and optimum biogas production. It was also established with the client that there would potentially be three future uses of the biogas to generate energy, namely: continuous energy feed (constant kilowatt hours generation), peak demand lopping (instantaneous kilovolt amps saving), or methane bottling for sales. The digester would operate at mesophilic conditions between 35˚C and 39˚C, and the system would function below 1 kilopascal operating pressure. The detailed design of the plant was carried out in August last year, while construction began in Januar y this year. The plant was commissioned this July. The total cost of the plant, including VAT, was about R2.5 million, with an internal rate of return of 10.3% and a payback period of 10 years. The investment calculations do not incorporate the use of the energy generated by the biogas, but are simply the savings accrued by avoiding the landfill gate fee of the organic waste. As detailed in Bayside Mall’s organic waste quantities, shown in Table 1, the plant is fuelled by organic waste that is collected on a daily basis from two main sources, namely: food waste from large retailers and food waste from smaller retailers and common areas, in separate 240  ℓ wheelie bins. The macerated volume of the organic waste amounted to 0.6 m3, and about 25 m3 with a hydraulic

ReSource February 2016 – 35

Cover strap Landfills retention time of 21 days and an equal quantity of water. Comingled organic waste is separated on a sor ting table before being fed into the anaerobic digester. The organic waste is then fed into a macerator, which blends the waste, before feeding it into the digester. During commissioning, the digester was filled with specific seeding sludge to kick-star t the biological process, and the temperature was raised incrementally from 17˚C to 35 ˚C, over a period of three weeks, to suppor t the biological growth. The biogas generated in the anaerobic digestion process is then stored in a pressurised, semi-inflatable storage unit, after which it is immediately combusted to reduce the carbon emissions of the waste by about 710 TCO2 each year. The constancy of the biogas production quantity

and quality is being measured for a period of six months, after which a suitable engine will be used to generate thermal and electrical energy.

Conclusion The case study illustrated the beneficiation of 570 kg/d organic waste streams that are generated in a shopping mall each day. The biogas generated in the digestion process is briefly stored then combusted, which significantly reduces the carbon footprint of the mall by about 710 TCO2 each year, and diver ts about 200 000 tonnes of waste from landfill. From these results, the potential for the diversion and beneficiation of organic waste from landfill is clear. They also illustrate the efficacy of a small commercial waste-to-energy plant for the retail sector.

The Bayside Mall case study illustrated the beneficiation of 570 kg/day of organic waste generated by the centre's tenants

Reinforced concrete walls of an anaerobic digester

Acknowledgements The authors credit GreenCape for initiating the position paper on the potential for WtE in the Western Cape, as well as Jonathan Rens and Pierre van Ryneveld of Acucap Properties for their input in initiating and managing the Bayside Mall WtE project. The authors also acknowledge WEC Projects, which was the Fidic plant and designbuild contractors.

ReSource February 2016 – 37

Specialist Waste Management Consultants


Tel: +27 21 982 6570



Jan Palm Consulting Engineers

ReSource January 2016 – 37


Lining for the past, present and future This year, Aquatan is celebrating its 50th birthday. Clifford Gundle, an international pioneer in the linings industry, established Aquatan in 1966, creating a culture that has allowed the company to build on his legacy of innovation and excellence in creating leading environmental solutions.


quatan managing director Piet Meyer speaks to Frances Ringwood about creating a lasting legacy in linings.

Given that Southern Africa currently faces one of the worst droughts in almost 25 years, why is it important to protect available groundwater reserves? PM Rainwater percolates through waste in landfills. In the course of the water passing through matter, it extracts soluble or suspended solids or any other component of the material through which it passes. The final product is known as leachate. Leachate and volatile organic compounds (VOC) discharging from unlined or leaking

Aquatan’s Enhanced Barrier System draws fluid through the space between the two barriers, which then removes the heat and diffused volatile organics, while maintaining hydration of the clay component of the primary composite barrier

landfills run into the surface- and groundwater and have an acute and chronic impact on the environment, with a variety of serious consequences, including the pollution of water reserves needed to fulfil the country’s daily domestic, agricultural and industrial needs. That is why it is important to protect our available water sources in times of drought. Additionally, drought conditions can affect some barriers’ functionality. Available studies and recent investigations have highlighted the effect of heat on the durability of geosynthetics in general as well as the diffusion of VOC through barriers – even those legislated as being appropriate for local conditions.

38 – ReSource February 2016



FIND OUT ABOUT AQUATAN’S INNOVATIONS IN THE GEOMEMBRANE LINING BUSINESS In the 50 years since Aquatan was founded, it has consistently been recognised as the most innovative company in the geomembrane installation industry. It has been an IAGI-approved installation contractor for three years and is ISO 9001/2008 certified. Aquatan has also been awarded the SABS Certificate of recognition for its 20 years of loyalty, commitment to and compliance with the SABS Quality Management Certification scheme. Aquatan is the only Geomembrane installer in South Africa equipped to find discontinuities in a geomembrane lined facility below a capping layer. Aquatan’s unmatched experience in the Geomembrane installation business underscores our reputation for professionalism and reliability. Aquatan provides the TOTAL SOLUTION! In addition to our Geomembrane innovations, Aquatan’s HDPE, LLDPE, RFPP and EVA geomembranes are used in applications ranging from hazardous liquid or solid waste leach facilities, tunnels, canals, water features and underground water storage facilities.

For more information: Tel: +27(0)11 974 5271 Fax: +27(0)11 974 4111 E-mail: aqua@aquatan.com www.aquatan.com

We also construct floating covers for potable water, molasses storage and biogas containment reservoirs, small dams and tanks. ENHANCED BARRIER SYSTEM® Aquatan’s patented Enhanced Barrier System® (EBS) for waste sites is a technology that has gained international recognition for its dedicated and focused performance characteristics. The principle is to draw a fluid at a negative pressure through the geosynthetic barrier system to achieve: 1. Heat removal from Geosynthetic components 2. Post-loading hydration of the Geosynthetic Clay Liners 3. Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds This innovative technology, for which Aquatan holds the worldwide patent, expands conventional containment barrier boundaries for protecting the environment far into the future.

Landfills SA legislation calls for certain well-defined minimum standards for landfill barriers to protect groundwater resources. It is well known that temperatures in a landfill are often elevated, which affects the life expectancy of the barrier components. What affordable options are available to municipalities and clients to mitigate the effect of heat on the barrier components to meet the legislation requirements? Affordable is a relative concept. What is not affordable is that our surface- and groundwater resources become contaminated by leachate passing through the barrier. Elevated temperatures not only dramatically affect the life expectancy of the barrier components, but diffusion of hazardous VOCs also becomes more rapid. South Africa’s National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008) addresses this issue of “total solute seepage”, including the diffusion of volatile components and seepage through discontinuities in the primary barrier. To meet and exceed the minimum standards, Aquatan provides the

Enhanced Barrier System (EBS), which is a coupled solution where a fluid is drawn through the space between the two barriers, provided by the leakage detection system, at a negative pressure. The fluid removes the heat and diffused VOCs while, at the same time, keeping the clay component of the primary composite barrier hydrated for the life of the landfill.

Would it be possible for you to provide one or two examples of sites where this product was used, and what were the factors that led clients to choose Aquatan’s EBS for their projects?

site and functions as expected. It consists of 12 compartments – each of which are individually serviced by the EBS. The other facility was completed towards the end of last year. In this case, the heat-removal ability of the EBS was important to the client. This involves the drawing of moisturised air (moisture enhances the absorption of heat) through the void and is designed to be equipped with a passive water cooling system on the client’s request in due course.

How does Aquatan assist clients to make the best decision for their unique site?

Two of our most recent applications of the EBS system include a very large facility where VOC removal and hydration of the primary geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) were required. The system is in full operation at the Piet Meyer, managing director, Aquatan

Aquatan has a passion for sharing its 50 years of practical geosynthetic installation experience installing engineered systems (engineered by others) with clients and is very often consulted by engineers to develop practical, workable solutions and offer advice on geomembrane applications. We also provide our own engineered solutions, verified by registered professional engineers.

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Innovative. Global. Future-oriented. Experience environmental technologies.

Register now online! www.ifat.de/tickets/en

May 30–June 3, 2016 World‘s Leading Trade Fair for Water, Sewage, Waste and Raw Materials Management

Discover the potential of future-oriented strategies, products and services. Come along to the world’s leading trade fair for environmental technologies and experience exciting live demonstrations for yourself—of complex processes and applications, machinery, systems and vehicles. Future-proof technology, up-close and practical. Welcome to IFAT 2016! IFAT worldwide—Visit the IFAT fairs around the globe: May 5–7, 2016 www.ie-expo.com

Follow us on:

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Spring 2017 www.ifat-eurasia.com

Autumn 2017 www.ifatforum-africa.com

Information: MMI South Africa (Pty) Ltd. | Johannesburg Tel. +27 11 476-8093 | elaine.crewe@mmi-southafrica.co.za


Round-up African Mining Indaba

Pro-Pak Africa 2016

Cape Town International


Convention Centre, CPT

w www.propakafrica.co.za t Simon Blair on +27 (0)11 835 1565 e simonb@specialised.com

8–11 Feb 2016

w www.miningindaba.com e fred.noce@miningindaba.com

Africa Energy Indaba 16–17 February 2016

15–18 March 2016

Power & Electricity World Africa 15–16 March 2016

Sandton Convention Centre, JHB

w www.africaenergyindaba.com t +27 (0)11 463 9184 e info@energyindaba.co.za

w www.terrapinn.com/exhibition/ power-electricity-world-africa t +27 (0)11 516 4000 e enquiry.za@terrapinn.com

Pro-Plas Africa Conference

Solar Show Africa 2016

Expo Centre, NASREC, JHB SOUTH w www.proplasafrica.co.za t Simon Blair: +27 (0)11 835 1565 e simonb@specialised.com

15–16 March 2016

Sandton Convention Centre, JHB w www.terrapinn.com/exhibition/ water-africa t Brian Shabangu +27 (0)11 516 4015 e brian.shabangu@terrapinn.com

African Utility Week 12–14 May 2015

Sandton Convention Centre, JHB

15–18 March 2016

Water Show Africa 2016

15–16 March 2016

Cape Town International Convention Centre, CPT w www.african-utility-week.com t +27 (0)21 700 3509

WasteCon 2016 17–21 October 2016

Sandton Convention Centre, JHB w www.terrapinn.com/exhibition/ solar-show-africa t Brian Shabangu +27 (0)11 516 4015 e brian.shabangu@terrapinn.com

Emperor’s Palace, JHB w www.wastecon.co.za t Gail Smit: +27(0)11 675 3462 e iwmsa@telkomsa.net

Index to Advertisers Aquatan 38 A-Thermal OBC CAIA 8 Barloworld Equipment 13 African Energy Indaba 36 Amandus Kahl 33 Enviroser v 11 Envitech Solutions 10

40 – ReSource February 2016

Jan Palm




Kaytech 4

Polyco 20

MasterRubber 29

Redisa 26

Mfangano Solutions


ROSE Foundation NORA

MMI South Africa


ROSE Foundation

Mills & Otten



OTTO Waste Solutions



28 & 30

WasteCon 14


Dispose of your used oil here...

...and you could end up here. Up to 15 years imprisonment.

So for peace of mind, contact a NORA-SA approved collector or recycler to safely dispose of your used oil. Call 0860 NORA-SA (6672 72) for a collector in your area.

environmentally responsible


The A-Thermal chemical division is able to treat the following hazardous waste through thermal destruction: laboratory waste chemicals pesticides expired pure organo-chloride and organosulphide waste permanent destruction of persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) cyanide waste decontamination of containers used in the chemical and pesticides industry sludges and wastewater/liquids contaminated with organo-chlorides heavymetal contaminated waste such as mercury waste

safe thermal treatment

of hazardous and toxic waste

Pharmaceutical Division

The A-Thermal pharmaceutical division specialises in permanent, secure destruction of pharmaceuticals. Waste treated includes: finished pharmaceutical products (expired and discontinued) intermediate products raw materials quality assurance retention samples natural, homeopathic or complimentary medicine clinical trials laboratories in pharmaceutical industries medical devices cosmetic industries schedule 5 – 6 drugs (overseen by full-time on-site pharmacist)

CONNECT NOW 28 Keramiek Street | Clayville | Olifantsfontein | 1665 t +27 (11)316 1800 | f +27 11 316 4999 | e info@athermal.co.za


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Resource Jan/Feb 2016  

Monitor latest developments in waste management and cleaner production through the official magazine of the Institute of Waste Management of...

Resource Jan/Feb 2016  

Monitor latest developments in waste management and cleaner production through the official magazine of the Institute of Waste Management of...

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