Page 1

The official journal of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

Promoting integrated resources management

Fleet Management

ISSN 1680-4902 R50.00 (incl VAT) • Vol 17, No 1, Feb 2015

Mobile air quality solution


Plastics industry plans for growth


Reducing closure costs

Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa

Cleaner Production

Government grants enhance manufacturing


What waste managers want Showcasing chassis cabs


Hot Seat

Wasteman’s CEO, Jan Labuschagne, on acquiring the Gauteng-based, waste management solutions company Waste Giant P10

is printed on 100% recycled paper


When you dump used motor oil into drains, or dispose of it unsafely, you’re not only threatening the environment, you’re threatening your well-being too. Used oil is a hazardous waste that can contaminate drinking water. Always use ROSE approved collectors and recyclers to dispose of your used oil. For more information call the ROSE Foundation on 021 448 7492. Email: or visit:


contents ISSN 1680-4902, Volume 17, No.1, Feb 2015


Air Quality


Solid Waste


WasteCon 2014



The RéSource team stands firmly behind environmental preservation. As such, RéSource is printed on 100% recycled paper and uses no dyes or varnishes. The magazine is saddle stitched to ensure that no glues are required in the binding process.

Cover story

Mercedes-Benz South Africa’s Christo Kleynhans tells RéSource why waste managers need to select specific chassis cabs fit for purpose to lower total cost of ownership. 6 RéSource offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a cover story and a cover picture to promote their products and services to an appropriate audience. Please call Tazz Porter on +27 (0)11 465 5452 or +27 (0)82 318 9308 to secure your booking. The articles do not necessarily represent the views of the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa, or those of the publisher.


Solid Waste

President’s Comment


Editor’s Comment


IWMSA News WasteCon2014 review


Hot Seat Wasteman’s CEO, Jan Labuschagne, on acquiring the Gauteng-based waste management solutions company Waste Giant 10

20 23 24 20

Landfills 27

Cleaner Production Government grants enhance manufacturing


Green Buildings

Tshwane sets the air 8

Smart is the new green

in association with infrastructure news

12 14

Recycling Plastic industry plans for growth Recyclability by design Tyres are more than‘pieces of old takkie’ Turning waste into worth

Improving landfill management

Air Quality quality benchmark

Throwing out health waste hang-ups 60 000 new bins




RéSource February 2015 – 1


Dispose of your used oil here...

...and you could end up here. Up to 15 years imprisonment.

So for peace of mind, contact a NORA-SA approved collector or recycler to safely dispose of your used oil. Call 0860 NORA-SA (6672 72) for a collector in your area.

President’s Comment


What to expect The year will be already more than a month old when you read this message. I therefore trust that you still have some – perhaps distant – memories of a nice break spent with family and friends over the festive season. With energy levels recharged (luckily humans don’t require electricity to recharge), 2015 promises some interesting developments on the waste front.


ROM THE Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa’s (IWMSA) side, there are changes to be expected during the course of the year: • we are planning a membership drive focusing on the youth • membership applications will be streamlined to achieve a fair evaluation process and a shor ter turnaround time • our constitution will be revisited and updated to ensure alignment with the new SARS and other legal requirements; this will address ambiguities, for example, around nominations of office bearers and make provision for special/interim elections to deal with resignations and replacement of elected members, among other matters • our non-accredited training material has been updated and expanded and will be will be rolled out shor tly, while we also continue to offer accredited training courses. Changes to the constitution will be sent to our members for approval before they can be effected.

I therefore urge all members to please, respond to such a request when the time arrives. Government also has some changes in the pipeline for the waste sector: • we can look forward to more uniformity in the implementation of the Waste Act, thanks to the initiative by the Depar tment of Environmental Affairs (DEA) to develop and finalise a Waste Act implementation guideline • government is planning to amend the Waste Act and some regulations in the course of the year; detail on the planned amendments to the Act and regulations will be shared at the Industry Waste Management Forum meeting scheduled for 13 February at the offices of the DEA in Pretoria. The DEA is also planning a Waste Management Summit to be held in March 2015; details on the summit will also be shared at the same forum meeting. There are also interesting and exciting networking events coming up in 2015: • the IWMSA branches are planning waste

I trust that 2015 will be a fruitful year for all and that our combined efforts will result in improved waste management with more – but cleaner – recyclables reintroduced in a circular economy.” Suzan Oelofse, president, IWMSA management events on a monthly basis • Landfill 2015, organised by the Landfill Interest Group, will be held in Cape Town during October 2015 • ISWA 2015 World Conference is being held from 7 to 9 September in Antwerp, Belgium • Sardinia 2015, the International waste management and landfill symposium, will be held in Forte Village, Italy, from 5 to 9 October this year I trust that 2015 will be a fruitful year for all and that our combined efforts will result in improved waste management with more – but cleaner – recyclables reintroduced in a circular economy.

Patron members of the IWMSA

RéSource February 2015 – 3









Our target is to create a total of 10 000 jobs by the end of 2017.


REDISA turns waste into worth through a circular economy that connects all stakeholders to empower communities and solve environmental problems.

We’re on track to meet all our objectives set out in our 5-year roll-out plan. We are also proud of the impact the plan has made on the many people and communities both employed and supported by REDISA. Join the journey and see how we plan on continuing our road to success.

Note: All the above stats are as at December 2014.


/wasteintoworth |


Editor‘s Comment Publisher: Elizabeth Shorten Editor: Frances Ringwood Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Head of design: Hayley Mendelow Senior designer: Frédérick Danton Designer: Kirsty Galloway Chief sub-editor: Tristan Snijders Sub-editor: Beatrix Knopjes Contributors: Suzan Oelofse, Seakle Godschalk, Maryna Möhr-Swart, Jonathan Shamrock, Deepak John and Mari Blumenthal, Stacey Davidson Client services & Production manager: Antois-Leigh Botma Production coordinator: Jacqueline Modise Financial manager: Andrew Lobban Marketing specialist: Philip Rosenberg Digital marketing manager: Esther Le Roux Distribution manager: Nomsa Masina Distribution coordinator: Asha Pursotham Administrator: Tonya Hebenton Printers: United Litho Johannesburg Tel: +27 (0)11 402 0571 Advertising sales: Tazz Porter Tel: +27 (0)11 465 5452 Cell: +27 (0)82 318 3908

Publisher: No.4, 5th Avenue Rivonia, 2191 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Share Call: 086 003 3300 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 Annual subscription: R200.00 (incl VAT) South Africa ISSN 1680-4902 The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 675 3462 Email: All material herein is copyright-protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views and opinions expressed in the magazine do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher, editor or The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa, but those of the author or other contributors under whose name contributions may appear, unless a contributor expresses a viewpoint or opinion in his or her capacity as an elected office bearer of a company, group or association. © Copyright 2014. All rights reserved.

RéSource is endorsed by:

Resilience under pressure W ASTE MANAGEMENT professionals in Southern Africa face numerous pressures ranging from the constant requirement to monetise and fund daily activities, to legislation and selecting trustworthy ser vice providers who won’t let them down. The Februar y issue of RéSource touches on all these areas: from compliance, to acquisitions and implementing necessar y innovation. For example, on page 12, the stor y ‘Throwing out health waste hang ups’ continues the argument Delanie Bezuidenhout, CEO of the Southern African Vinyls Association, made at the latest WasteCon conference, about the need to think up new ways to recycle more PVC products in hospitals. Her call to innovate provides a cost-benefit analysis and includes a discussion of some of the legislation challenges the plan is likely to encounter. Also covering legislation and regulation, the stor y on recycling guidelines for PET bottles on page 20 goes over just a few of the many ways plasticbottle designers can approach liquids packaging to make their products more easily recyclable. The list presented in the ar ticle is not exhaustive and is meant as an awareness tool to prompt fur ther interaction between clients and industr y. Regarding ser vice providers, there has been a great deal happening in the private sector in the last few months. National all-round waste management company Wasteman has acquired Gauteng-based Waste Giant, in a move that will see Wasteman’s por tfolio expand in exciting new ways. To find out more, read what Wasteman CEO Jan Labuschagne says about these changes in the Hot Seat on page 10. Something that’s not changing, however, is trucking giant Mercedes-Benz South Africa’s (MBSA) commitment to ser vice. For a unique perspective on what ser vices and options clients can benefit from, see the Cover Stor y on page 6, where MBSA’s Christo Kleynhans gives RéSource an exclusive breakdown on ways to reduce total cost of ownership. Creating a list of good reads in a magazine such as this, which reflects a ficult and I would sayy ever y dynamic, mature and adaptable industr y, is difficult on ne piece ar ticle in these pages demands attention. But one ess from which stands out as par ticularly insightful comes SA A. On interacting with industr y association Plastics | SA. l page 22, the South African plastics fraternityy lays an n to out its extremely carefully thought-through plan increase recycling of its products for 2015. pa age Last off, look out for the WasteCon review on page y’s 14, a-not-to-be missed recap of the industr y’s biggest event. is On that note, I must say, I hope you enjoy this tissue of the magazine as much as I enjoyed putting it together.

Frances Ringwood

RéSource February 2015 – 5

Cover Story

What waste managers


Mercedes-Benz Trucks product manager Christo Kleynhans talks to FRANCES RINGWOOD about what it takes to be a leader in the supply of waste management vehicles. Mercedes-Benz chassis cabs can be configured to suit just about any waste application

6 – RéSource February 2015


EHICLES ACCOUNT for some of the largest business investments made in many sectors. This is particularly true in waste management, where planning for lowest total cost of ownership (TCO) can be the single biggest factor determining a private company or municipality’s financial and operational success. Key to finding the right vehicle for a particular job is partnering with a solutions provider prepared to get to know the terrain in which vehicles operate, as well as providing support services that exceed clients’ expectations. Such is the case with Mercedes-Benz Trucks, which boasts an exceptional commitment to the waste management market.

Wide selection Getting the right vehicle for a particular job is the most important consideration for lowering TCO and entails the

Cover Story need for a wide selection of custom-made vehicles.“We have about 40 models that buyers can order right off our price cards, of which we will always have some stock available in the pipeline. In addition, as a major market player in the waste management sector, we have the capacity to custommake vehicles and we serve various clients with this requirement,” says Kleynhans.

Atego With some of its ‘off-the-shelf’ options, Mercedes-Benz Trucks offers three ranges – the Atego, Axor and Actros. “The Atego is a more lightweight chassis cab, going up to 15 t gross vehicle mass (GVM), with a 180 hp to 280 hp engine. Ategos are ideal for use as small compactors and water tankers in rural areas and smaller municipalities, explains Kleynhans.

Axor The Axor range is the most popular in the waste sector and it’s available in different GVM categories. “For example, the 1823/39 chassis cab is designed and configured specifically for the attachment of a small rear-end compactor. This is because of its short rear overhang, which allows the compactor body to fit close to the back axle. The driveline and transmission have also been designed very specifically for the stop-start application of a municipal compactor. This product operates optimally in environments where streets are typically narrower and the turning circle is quite small,” says Kleynhans. In the Axor range, Mercedes-Benz Trucks offers a wide variety of different models, including the 2628/45 three-axle model. This, again, features the specifically configured driveline, where the gearbox is ideally suited for stop-start applications. “This model presents a lightweight option in the three-axle range where the truck’s duty cycle isn’t overly demanding,” says Kleynhans. Next up in the range is the 33 t, 350 hp Axor – a more rugged vehicle, built for handling multiple shifts. “Often, private waste management companies will operate around the clock, and so the driveline of this vehicle is suited for this type of higher duty cycle,” he adds.

Actros Last but not least, there’s Mercedes-Benz Trucks’ Actros range: a flagship product that comes with all the bells and whistles. “This is a 33 t vehicle with a 320 hp engine. It

The Axor range is designed specifically for compaction

features an electronic braking system, as well as a retarder for hilly terrain. “The life expectancy of the Actros is much longer, and it comes standard with all the features for which the brand is known, including driver comfort. This type of chassis cab is sold to the bigger metropolitan municipalities, which would typically have higher activity cycles, as well as some of the bigger fleet management companies that require greater flexibility,” says Kleynhans.

Low environmental impact The waste management industry is particularly conscientious about its environmental impact, so having fleet vehicles that are compliant with global emissions best practice – while still being cost-effective – is crucial. “The entire waste management range complies with Euro III engine emissions standards and, additionally, we have the capability to supply engines compliant with Euro V standards on customer request,” says Kleynahns.

Superior service When it comes to lowering TCO, selecting the right truck for a specific purpose is only the first part of the equation; having axles, transmissions and drivelines featuring the latest technology, for improved efficiency, also contributes. However, most business owners in trucking agree that driver training also plays an essential role in minimising costs. “For this reason, MBSA provides an inhouse driver and vehicle management system called FleetBoard. This is unlike anything else on the market, because it’s integral to the vehicle and has the capability to rate a particular driver’s performance on a particular route.

“Another FleetBoard advantage is that it increases uptime, which is the amount of time that a vehicle spends on the road. The system’s on-board technology is able to diagnose faults before they happen, thereby lowering clients’ downtime liability,” explains Kleyhans.

Footprint With 35 selling dealers in South Africa, Botswana, and Namibia, Mercedes-Benz Trucks has a considerable presence in Southern Africa. In addition, there are 50 service outlets dotted across the map but these numbers don’t reflect the brand’s full service capability. “We also have on-site service workshops that are set up on clients’ premises to improve vehicle availability,” says Kleynhans.

Future vision Mercedes-Benz Trucks’ vision for 2015 is much the same as it has been year after year: to continue bringing the latest technology to market and push for the lowest possible TCO. Another factor staying constant is the emphasis on client service. “For Mercedes-Benz Trucks, it’s all about people and relationships. We want to offer innovations and services that excite our clients at every touchpoint; from the day of purchase to when the time eventually comes to resell,” concludes Kleynhans. *Christo Kleynhans, truck product manager, (MBSA)

RéSource February 2015 – 7

Air Quality

Tshwane sets the air The City of Tshwane currently maintains seven permanent air-monitoring stations: Bodibeng, Rosslyn, Booysens, Pretoria West, Olievenhoutbosch, Mamelodi and Ekandustria. All permanent stations are fully functional and report to the South African Air Quality Information System hosted by the South African Weather Services.


SHWANE HAS recently procured one air-quality mobile station. The main purpose of the mobile station will be to determine the highest concentrations occurring in the area covered by the network and to help officials to scientifically analyse the source of pollution. The station will be placed at different sites within the city, depending on changing needs and priorities.

The new air quality mobile station Ambient air quality mobile station replaces the street boxes that have been discontinued due to a lack of data integrity, as a result of faulty instruments caused by electrical spikes. The mobile station will be instrumental in the generation of baseline data of each jurisdiction or specific site. It will also provide site-specific estimates of trends and tendencies of air quality/ pollution. The results of the data from the mobile station will provide a framework for future work and planning, and should assist the development of comprehensive national and local air-quality management strategies and policy responses. The mobile station will also provide a database for research evaluation of numerous effects including: urban, land use, transpor tation planning, development and evaluation of abatement strategies, and development and validation of diffusion models. Tshwane's mobile ambient monitoring stations. This will monitor results which are to be sent to a laboratory

8 – RÊSource February 2015

Parameters to be measured In the mobile station, two analysers will measure and display the amount of par ticulate matter (PM10 & PM2.5), benzene, toulene and xylene levels. It will also measure meteorological

Air Quality

quality benchmark parameters like wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and solar radiation. The first location of the mobile sation will be at the Tshwane Fresh Produce Market to measure/monitor specifically dust, PM10 & PM2.5 and also other air-quality parameters as a result of several complaints on their products. This will be the first pilot siting of the station in response to complaints, and the collected data from the station will be sent to a laborator y to determine the source of pollution.

Ambient air quality mobile stations replace the street boxes that have been discontinued due to a lack of data integrity, as a result of faulty instruments caused by electrical spikes

RéSource February 2015 – 9

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Hot Seat

Acquisition changes waste

Wasteman, one of South Africa’s largest and most well-established waste management brands (with more than 30 years in the industry) has acquired the Gauteng-based, waste management solutions company – Waste Giant. FRANCES RINGWOOD speaks to Wasteman's CEO, Jan Labuschagne. hazardous waste streams in the industrial heartland of South Africa. We believe the market will see a focused and deliberate drive towards service excellence and growth (specifically in the Gauteng region), reflecting the dynamics of the Wasteman group.

Jan Labuschagne


hat changes can the market expect to take place at Wasteman as a result of the acquisition? JL The acquisition of Waste Giant will broaden our service offering, further secure business sustainability and add substantially to Wasteman’s national footprint, especially with regards to our activities in Gauteng. We now have one of the largest Gautengbased waste management companies with a modern fleet of specialised vehicles, access to the Genesis landfill site with an extended lifespan of more than 10 years; but more importantly, the development of the Vlakfontein landfill site will expand our activities into

10 – RéSource February 2015

By the same token, what kind of services, values and longterm company commitments will be staying the same? The company’s well-established market position and track record have enabled it to develop significant expertise and core competencies in a comprehensive range of service offerings in the waste management industry. We remain committed to providing a fully compliant, customercentric offering in all spheres of waste management, backed by a dedicated team of waste management specialists.

On what date did the acquisition occur? The acquisition was finalised on 1 December 2014 after the Competition Commission approval was received on 25 November 2014.

Can you provide more detail on the company’s application to the Competition Commission? We applied for approval on the basis that Wasteman is active in the collection and disposal of general waste in all provinces except for Gauteng, which is the province where the majority of Waste Giant’s activities occur. The transaction was assessed in terms of competitive conditions and public interest. No negative effect on employment stability will result, and it is envisaged that through the expansion associated with the acquisition, more employment opportunities will be created. Moreover, the commission stated explicitly: “The proposed transaction is unlikely to substantially prevent or lessen competition in the market for the collection and disposal of highly hazardous waste. The proposed transaction does not raise any public interest concerns.”

Wasteman runs a total of 12 facilities, which cover all nine provinces. One of the biggest advantages of the acquisition is that Wasteman has the use of the Genesis landfill in

ABOVE Construction work underway at Vlakfontein hazardous landfill site near Vereeniging, due to open later this year BELOW Henry Smal, CEO, Waste Giant

Gauteng. Where exactly is the Genesis site located and what are Wasteman’s future plans for the site? The Genesis landfill site is located in Turffontein close to the heart of Johannesburg’s commercial and industrial areas. Just off the M2 Freeway in Johannesburg, it is situated at 2 Fennell Street in Village Main. The site is available to the public and industry with competitive rates and a well-managed weighbridge and invoicing system to ensure accurate billing to our customers. We plan to build

Hot Seat

landscape forever new cells with a liner construction that conforms to a Class B landfill site classification, enabling us to accept additional waste streams.

Has Wasteman always placed a significant emphasis on recycling or is this a relatively new development? We have for many years operated one of the largest commercially viable materials recycling facilities (MRF) at our Western Cape operations and more recently expanded at our Durban, Witbank and Johannesburg operations to accommodate both hazardous waste transfer stations and new MRFs.

Can you reveal what type of recycling technology you will be making available at Genesis? We are at present evaluating different technology solutions to be made available at Genesis and will announce these innovations when the final decision has been made.

Why is sorting and recycling so important for good waste management? Sorting and recycling is not just a method of handling waste in terms of the waste hierarchy pyramid, but is a way of exploiting renewable resources. With virgin resources such as wood fibre and plastic polymers becoming scarcer and more expensive, it is essential that we recycle as much as possible to ensure sustainability. The same principle goes for the saving of valuable landfill airspace, which is also becoming a scarce commodity. The South African waste management industry is still in its infancy when the sorting and recycling of waste stream statistics are compared to developed countries in North America and

Europe. We need to move up the waste hierarchy by diverting waste from landfill and recovering resources through recycling. In a recent article published in Engineering News, it was estimated that more than R36 billion per annum can be recovered by additional recycling and recovery.

In addition, Wasteman is developing a new highhazardous landfill facility, Vlakfontein, near Vereeniging due to open in 2015. Can you provide us with a little more detail about the engineering involved behind the landfill? The landfill site is located some 12 km north of Vereeniging and has a total area of 212 ha, which was licensed as an H:H facility by the Department of Environmental Affairs in June 2012. The permitted landfill footprint consists of seven cells and has a total design capacity of just over 6.5 million m3 of airspace. The landfill lining system that was approved for the site is the new Class A barrier (liner) system as per Diagram 1. The liner consists of several layers of compacted clay and two highdensity polyethylene geomembrane liners with built-in leakage detection and drainage layers. (See Diagram 1) The excavation method used to shape the cell is different from the traditional excavator and articulated tippers normally used. We used equipment normally associated with dam construction to shape the cell and to carry out the bulk earth work.

What type of waste streams will the facility be equipped to handle? Due to the fact that the site is licensed as an H:H facility and has a Class

A liner system, the site will be allowed to accept Type 1, 2, 3 and 4 wastes as per the national norms and standards for disposal of waste to landfill gazetted by the Department of Environmental Affairs on 23 August 2013.

Are there any other special initiatives being developed at the site? The site is part of a larger registered nature conservancy area, namely the

producers’ waste. Combining the knowledge and skills base for the collection, disposal and treatment of hazardous waste resident within the Wasteman group with the logistics and sales expertise of Waste Giant, provides additional synergies to exploit the hazardous waste market and, together with the development of Vlakfontein, will position the group for exponential growth. Vlakfontein will be only the second commercially available high-hazardous waste landfill in the Gauteng region and is centrally located relative to

DIAGRAM 1 The new Class A barrier (liner) system

Mount Ridge Conservancy. As the site is part of this conservancy, several environmental programmes are being developed to re-establish natural vegetation and to introduce wildlife to the area. This will be a first for any hazardous waste facility in South Africa.

the substantial industrial and mining operations in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, North West and the Free State. It is also particularly wellpositioned to attract hazardous volumes from waste producers in the Vaal area, and the Sasolburg, Vanderbijlpark precinct in particular.

How will the acquisition with Waste Giant boost Wasteman’s hazardous waste management capacity? Waste Giant has previously focused on the general waste market, although they have an excellent track record of managing smaller hazardous waste

t +27 (0)86 117 4448

RéSource February 2015 – 11

Solid Waste

Throwing out health It’s long been believed that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in hospital waste streams is unrecyclable, but Vinyls Association South Africa (Sava) CEO Delanie Bezuidenhout makes the case for an updated paradigm. BY FRANCES RINGWOOD


HE PVC industry has paved the way for transformation in the petroleumbased products sector by taking the lead when it comes to environmental stewardship. In spite of that, legacy challenges encompassing the myth that PVC cannot be recycled remain. “PVC is a versatile polymer; it can be used for anything from a rigid application, such as piping, to soft applications such as IV bags, tubing and oxygen masks in hospitals. Inflatable splints, blister packs for medicines, right up to car seats and flooring are PVC products. Sava does research around the use of PVC in health care; and it is not only versatile, it’s also highly recyclable on top of being a safe, high-per formance product,” says Bezuidenhout. Many of these products used in health care never even make contact with patients but, because of over-cautious laws promulgated in the 1980s, they are thrown away indiscriminately. The reason for this is laws were made at a time when HIV/Aids were peaking in the public awareness but little was understood at the time about the spread of the disease. However, rising costs of health-care waste management, not just in South Africa but the world over, have forced facilities to stop and rethink the way in which they deal with their health-care waste. “Now hospitals and clinics are faced with looking into new ways of diverting a significant amount of that waste so that it is separated from healthcare risk waste,” says Bezuidenhout.

Fact and figures

PVC drip bags are just one example of a PVC product used in hospitals with immense recycling potential

12 – RéSource February 2015

“The ageing population is expected to drive the use of medical polymers from 4 901 kilotonnes (kt) in 2013 to 7 149 kt in 2020. That equates to a compound annual growth of 5.6%. It is also expected that conventional materials such as glass and metal will be further replaced by high-performance polymers, increasing the use of PVC and polypropylene in hospitals,” says Bezuidenhout. Four years ago, when Bezuidenhout first presented this idea at WasteCon 2010, it was not well received. But, as time has passed, attitudes have changed and

Solid Waste

waste hang-ups many waste management professionals are coming around to the benefits of separating uncontaminated PVC products from both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams. “We have started to change the way that health-care risk waste is managed already. Hospital staff have been thinking about increasing separation and diversion to reduce both costs and the impact on the environment. There are also a lot of case studies and pilot projects from overseas demonstrating proof of concept,” says Bezuidenhout.

Legislation challenge According to Liesl Myburgh from the Mediclinic Hospital Group, hospitals in Gauteng have already started recycling PVC at some facilities, but there are legislation challenges. “Western Cape health-care is subject to different legislation. For example, drip bags which have never held any fluid other than water are classified as risk waste,” she says.

hospitals wanting to pursue this course of action. According to Bezuidenhout, these are: • contributing towards the overall environmental compliance for the facility • enhancing community relationships • there are specific economic benefits • avoiding long-term liability • providing facilities with some feel-good internal public relations material • increasing morale of staff when they know

VICTORIA PILOT STUDY A pilot study was undertaken by Sava’s Australian equivalent in Victoria at the Victoria Hospital in 2009. The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of separating and diverting reusable PVC waste from hazardous waste streams. The study yielded some surprising results. It was found that a third of hospital waste was general plastic and of that third about 25% was PVC. Victoria Hospital used 50 million IV fluid bags per annum. That’s 250 tonnes of material which can be diverted from landfill since starting the project. There are now six hospitals and a dialysis centre that divert PVC from their waste streams.

they are perceived to be do the right thing. There are also challenges associated with the idea. “There is a problem with infecCost-benefits analysis tion control; staff members in facilities It’s a fact that hazardous medical waste can be resistant to change; also there is is extremely costly to dispose of. However, a risk of contamination if separation is implementing a countrywide initiative to not done properly; storage space could also be a problem if yet another bin The aging population for another type of waste stream is expected to drive the was added to hosuse of medical polymers pitals’ existing from 4 901 kilotonnes (kt) bin sets and also achieving econoin 2013 to 7 149 kt mies of scale in 2020. That equates when it comes to to a compound annual the logistics of collecting and removgrowth of 5.6%.” Delanie Bezuidenhout, CEO, SAVA ing the products.” One way to divert reusable PVC materials from hospi- address some of those challenges is, tals would also cost money. Both forms of according to Bezuidenhout, to remember waste management are subject to addition- the phrase ’If in doubt, leave it out.’ Other al handling fees which also drive up costs. ways to mitigate changeover challenges “By looking at international case studies, include proper ongoing education of hospiit’s possible to extrapolate that the move tal staff on correct separating procedures towards greater PVC recycling can be cost- – something which is done already – and neutral for hospitals,” says Bezuidenhout. to have a specific champion of the idea at Nonetheless, there are advantages for healthcare facilities.

A variety of hospital staples are made of PVC, and many are needlessly thrown away even though they are not 'hazardous'

RéSource February 2015 – 13

Solid Waste

60 000 bins find

homes near the Vaal

Boitumelong Holdings MD John Sithole tells FRANCES RINGWOOD about the company’s unprecedented rise, culminating in one of the biggest orders since its consolidation in 2013 – a delivery of 60 000 bins to the Vaal area.


FTER BEING awarded a tender to de- reflects all the best aspects of South liver 60 000 polyethylene ultraviolet Africa’s entrepreneurial spirit. stabilised plastic bins, each with a 240 ℓ capacity, to the Emfuleni Local Mu- Humble beginnings nicipality, including Vereeniging and Vander- Boitumelong Holdings star ted in the politibijlpark, Boitumelong Holdings has solidified cally tumultuous 1980s: a time when its position as a market leader. It is also the founder John Sithole could only have only wholly black-owned wheeled-bin manu- but dreamt that he would one day come to promote local manufacturing, black facturer on the African continent. “The Emfuleni order isn’t our largest entrepreneurship and the creation of local ever order but it’s cer tainly the biggest products and jobs. we’ve had since “I star ted out the company took as someone who It’s also a national ‘first’ came from the over Otto Industries South Africa and computer indusbecause Vaal-area residents Otto Waste Systems have never had wheeled bins tr y, but I was a in 2013. It’s also born entreprebefore – they previously used neur. I’ve sold a national ‘first’ because Vaal-area vir tually ever ythe 85 ℓ plastic variety residents have never thing you can without wheels.” had wheeled bins think of during before – they previously used the 85 l my career; from peaches and facecloths plastic variety without wheels,” explains to dinner sets,” he says. Sithole. After earning his business and IT qualiThe order for the new bins is already fications at some of the countr y’s top being delivered and will be ready for universities, Sithole went on to work in deployment around early March this year. IT for Hewlett Packard, but even then he Creating a company with the capacity dreamed of something bigger. “At the to provide wheeled bins at a municipal time, I had an eye on the sorghum beer scale did not come easily. The stor y of market. There were breweries in Alexandra Boitumelong’s rise is a long one that with a turnover of over R1 million per

14 – RéSource February 2015

month and, during the early 1980s, that was serious money. However, these breweries were owned by government and there was no hope for a black owner to come on board. I remember going up to the administrator of one of these breweries and telling him my plan. After wards he told me, “Ek dink jy’s mal [I think you’re mad].” But I went back ever y day after I got off work and eventually he relented and offered me a position in the business,” says Sithole. From there, he went on to own one of the biggest beer halls in Alexandra, selling up to 100 000 l per month. “The brewery was next to the local council building. So, one day, I overheard a group of council clerks talking about needing a company to go from house to house removing refuse. When the tender came out, I had positioned myself to win it but, at the time, I didn’t have a truck or the right people. So I rented an 8 tonne truck for R12 000 per month from a friend and hired 80 casual labourers to sweep the streets. That’s how Boitumelong Holdings was born,” says Sithole.

Rise and consolidation Today, Boitumelong Holdings owns an entire fleet of compactor trucks and also sells compactors through its logistics company. It also owns OEM Otto Industries South Africa and distributor Otto Waste Systems, among other waste management subsidiaries. “At first I impor ted plastic bins from Germany, but I saw the need to create jobs for local people. So I built up the business, and today we employ 70 staff and our ser vice footprint extends across the whole of South Africa into the other SADC countries,” Sithole concludes.



In retrospect

WasteCon 2014 kicked off at the start of October, where over 60 stands were manned, showing off the latest innovations in waste management

While W hile tthe he vastt maj majority joriity off S Souther outther A African friican count countries’ triies’’ wast waste te cont continues tinues ttoo go straight to landfill, waste-management stakeholders in the region have put their heads together to create sustainable targets for a more environmentally sensitive tomorrow. FRANCES RINGWOOD reports.


T THE beginning of October 2014, the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) had its 22nd biennial conference at the Lord Charles Hotel in Somerset West, Western Cape. More than 450 conference delegates from South Africa and around the world attended the conference. Delegates had the opportunity to visit 62 stands where local and international waste management companies showcased their products and latest research in the sector. In addition to the stands, there were more than 90 high-level technical talks and papers delivered on topics var ying from biogas management, to the correct disposal of polyvinyl products from

hospitals and much more. The biggest waste management event on the African continent, WasteCon 2014, cer tainly offered something for ever yone. The event kicked off with an opening golf day at Erinvale Golf Course followed by a threeday conference themed ‘Wired for Waste: Value | Grow | Sustain’. The Resource Innovation Tours were offered on the fifth day to round off the conference. Delegates went to the University of Stellenbosch’s Sustainability Institute, the first ecologically designed, socially mixed international community; the Lynedoch EcoVillage, Africa’s greenest hotel; Hotel Verde; and the Spier wine estate.

Wired for Waste The opening session was skilfully overseen by IWMSA committee member Richard Emer y, who said it best when he remarked, “Don’t expect to come away from this conference an exper t, there is just so much to learn and it’s impossible to take it all in in just a few shor t days.” Luckily, the organisers put together a compact disc loaded with all the speakers’ presentations for delegates to return home with and pore over at their leisure. WasteCon 2014 chairman Margot Ladouce gave the of ficial welcoming address by highlighting a focus on treating waste as a resource. IWMSA president Dr Suzan Oelofse introduced the conference

RéSource February 2015 – 15


IWMSA’s WasteCon committee did an excellent job of ensuring a seamless conferencing experience for attendees Stands were beautifully decorated with recycled products, showing that reuse adds value to resources in everyday life

theme – ‘Wired for Waste’ – which is sparked by two ideas. The first is that it conjures up notions around electricity and demonstrates how ideas are ‘sparked’ at the conference. The second is the image of weaver birds nesting on telephone poles – something we can learn from. These birds normally nest in trees, but when they can’t find trees in their natural habitat, they make use of what they have – telephone wires. “The birds teach us a valuable lesson: if we don’t have what we normally would use, we must be innovative and use what is available,” said Oelofse. Oelofse compared South Africa’s waste management to international averages. “Internationally, about 70% of municipal waste is still going to landfill; only 11% of municipal waste is treated thermally or is reused as waste to energy. The remaining

16 – RéSource February 2015

by learning from one another,” suggested Oelofse who concluded that “the IWMSA is there as a lifeline, a place where people can share their experiences in order to make their businesses more successful.” South Africa and its Southern African neighbours still have a long way to go to catch up with more developed countries in terms of better solid waste management, diversion from landfill and sustainability. However, presentations delivered at WasteCon2014 indicate that the various industr y bodies representing different waste streams have thoroughly worked out realisable plans to make a difference – and the IWMSA is always available to lend a hand.

Government support One of the many highlights was the Depar tment of Environmental Affairs (DEA) repor ting session on the new National Environmental Management Waste Amendment Act, Act 26 of 2014 (NEMWAA 2014) published on 2 June 2014. Mark Gordon, deputy director-general: Chemicals and Waste Management at the DEA opened this thought-provoking session at the conference. The topic of a circular economy, which focuses on extracting the maximum value out of a resource, received a lot of attention during the sessions and the DEA confirmed that government is promoting a restorative system in waste management. The DEA’s two-hour awareness-raising and repor ting session on the National Environmental Management Waste Amendment Act, Act 26 of 2014 (NEMWAA 2014) gave delegates the chance to familiarise themselves with the new Act. Mark Gordon kicked off the session by reiterating the DEA’s commitment to sustainable development. Gordon emphasised that industr y and government need to work together to help protect the environment and encourage engagement to effectively implement waste management best practice. He also stressed that there needs to be incentives for industr y when it comes to waste management.

“The situation in South Africa is that as much as 90% of municipal waste is destined for landfills.” 19% is recycled either mechanically, physically or biologically. By contrast, as much as 90% of South African municipal waste is destined for landfills.” So how do we get ‘Wired for Waste’? Oelofse offered some ideas: “Familiarise yourselves with the legislation because however we as waste management professionals proceed, it has to be legal in order for it to be sustainable.” Her second idea was to view challenges as oppor tunities and another is to identify business risks and manage these responsibly. “Learn from one another – there’s no point in reinventing the wheel. Even though you may think of someone in the same field as the opposition, there is more benefit to be had


“I think we are standing on the threshold of a new waste revolution in South Africa,” says Gordon. “There is a fantastic opportunity for the waste sector to char t its own path and government is here to suppor t you [industr y],” adds Gordon. Gordon also indicated the transformation of the waste sector in primarily three areas, namely regulator y reforms (NEMWAA 2014, regulations and the Industr y Waste Management Plan), institutional reforms (Waste Bureau and the Waste Management Council for South Africa and Technical Advisor y fora to follow) and economic reforms (pricing strategy, deposit systems, incentives and infrastructure). Gordon highlighted that the waste sector has many challenges, especially with urbanisation and constant consumer and lifestyle changes, but government and industr y should view waste as an opportunity and renewable resource. Another development is the introduction of the Waste Bureau, a specialist implementation entity of the depar tment. Kgauta Mokoena, chief director: Chemicals and Waste Policy, Monitoring and Evaluation at the DEA, said that the bureau will provide specialist ser vices on waste management and promote and facilitate minimisation, re-use, recycling and recover y of waste in South Africa. The bureau has been established by NEMWAA 2014 and is being resourced like all government entities and through among other means, the secondment of DEA staff until the position of the CEO and other posts in the Waste Bureau are filled. Anben Pillay, director: Waste Policy and Information Management at the Depar tment of Environmental Affairs, said their objective is “less waste, better managed”. He stated that waste is currently being under valued and the objective of the new pricing strategy is to put a correct price on waste in order to diver t it from landfill sites. The DEA encouraged industr y to engage and communicate the value of waste and work together with government. Pillay acknowledged that there are current systems in the industr y that are working well and that the pricing strategy should not

One of the interactive displays at WasteCon 2014 was HotRot’s display of its awardwinning natural organic waste treatment solution

undo all the good work that has already been done. The closing speech was delivered by Isaac Maredi, chief director of Sector Innovation and the Green Economy from the Depar tment of Science and Technology (DST). Maredi shared government’s commitment to bettering South African waste management practices. “We have listened with keen interest to your presentations on new and ongoing initiatives in the South African waste sector that will lead us away from our heavy reliance on landfilling, towards alternatives in waste prevention, reuse, recycling and recover y,” said Maredi. He also revealed impor tant recent research statistics compiled by his depar tment on the money that is being wasted through a general lack of understanding about how diversion from landfill can stimulate the economy and create jobs. “Recent research under taken by the DST indicates that at least R17 billion per year

in terms of resource value, or R36 billion per year in terms of resource value plus avoided costs, is lost to South Africa’s economy through disposal to landfill. That is before we even begin to measure the losses to a downstream manufacturing economy. This loss of resources, through landfilling, has a direct adverse impact on South Africa’s economy and its environment.” In response to this research, the DST already has in place a Waste Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Roadmap for South Africa. The main purpose of this roadmap is to guide national strategic and directed research and development and innovation in the waste sector, as well public and private sector investment in R&D and innovation. The Waste RDI Roadmap is aimed at maximising the diversion of waste from landfill, towards value-adding oppor tunities. These include oppor tunities that will

RéSource February 2015 – 17


lead to significant economic, social and environmental benefits for South Africa and the region, as well as those that will suppor t a sustainable regional secondar y resources economy. Acknowledging the urgency of mobilising these oppor tunities, Maredi indicated that the DST is developing the necessar y skill sets for the change to take place. “It is for this reason that the DST initiated, and provided, seed funding for the development of two new postgraduate degrees in waste management, an honours degree in environmental sciences with specialisation in waste management to be offered by Nor th West University from 2015, and an MSc Engineering degree in waste management to be offered by the University of KwaZulu-Natal from 2016.”

Green event Ever ything at WasteCon 2014 was planned to suppor t the drive to minimise waste to landfill, with Ladouce informing attendees

that the event had adopted 13 sustainability elements. For example, the delegates’ conference bags were made out of recycled con-

the Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital following the event. In addition, reusable glass Consol bottles were handed out to all who attended and those could be filled with water from coolers posted at the venue entrances. Another sustainability element was implemented at the evening function at the end of the first day hosted by Cavalli Estate. At the venue, decorations were supplied by an organisation called Too Good to Waste, made from up-cycled materials which were also available for sale. These are just a few examples of the many inter ventions selected by the conference organisers to make WasteCon 2014 a truly green conferencing experience.

Recent research undertaken by the DST indicates that at least R17 billion per year in terms of resource value, or R36 billion per year in terms of resource value plus avoided costs, is lost to South Africa’s economy through disposal to landfill ference banners and the ser vice provider chosen to make the bags was an organisation focusing on commitment to community development and empowering the unemployed. Returned bags were also earmarked for donation to single mothers through

18 – RéSource February 2015

KAHL Pelleting Plants for the Recycling Industry

Domestic Waste: Pellets or Fluff

KAHL Flat Die Pelleting Presses are Robust and Powerful

AMANDUS KAHL GmbH & Co. KG Dieselstrasse 5-9 · D-21465 Reinbek / Hamburg Phone: +49 40 727 71 0 ·

Wood: Pellets

Waste Tyres: Granulate

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Plastics industry plans Plastics|SA is in the process of developing implementation and operation plans for four industry initiatives that are specifically aimed at stimulating growth in the plastics industry.


LASTICS | SA executive director Anton Hanekom tells RéSource that the first initiative in this plan is the aspirational vision of ‘Zero Plastics to Landfill by 2030’, which was agreed to by polymer associations, retailers and other interested parties at the Plastics | SA strategic session which took place early last year. This initiative focuses on recycling and sustainability projects in the plastics industry, and aims to develop and implement strategies, which will enable the plastics industry to increase recycling rates. It also looks at strategies to develop alternative technologies for creating energy and fuel from plastic waste. Hanekom notes that these technologies will enable the plastics industry to deal with waste that has not been collected or used for recycling. “The South African plastics industry converts 1.4 million tonnes of virgin plastic materials into plastic products every year, with about 280 000 tonnes recycled material into new products,” Hanekom says. He highlights that Plastics | SA is also looking at stimulating growth by increasing

20 – RéSource February 2015

exports and replacing imported plastic products with locally manufactured products.

Buy local “South Africa has a relatively small plastics market, far from larger markets, with no strong ‘buy local’ drive from consumers. Therefore, Plastics | SA is working on increasing exports into Africa as part of our regional integration strategy, which will enable the plastics industry to take advantage of markets in Africa,” he explains. Hanekom points out that – over the past 15 years – plastic imports from Asia, particularly China, India and South Korea, have increased significantly, resulting in local plastic manufacturing sectors, such as medical syringe manufacturers, closing down. “We have to look at ways of creating new initiatives to replace the imports that are coming in,” he stresses. Hanekom suggests that imported plastic products from Asia are significantly cheaper, but are not of the same quality and standards as the plastic products produced locally. “However, because consumers are

under financial pressure, they often select the cheapest option. This has an impact on the local industry, as the more import products we buy in South Africa, the more jobs we export.” He notes that Chinese plastic manufacturers can produce more products, as they can continuously manufacture a plastic product using one machine without having to change moulds. However, in South Africa, moulds need to be changed daily to produce different plastic products for the volumes required by the market, adding to a number of factors that make South Africa uncompetitive.

Regulation chokehold Another challenge that the local plastics industry faces is the costs involved in complying with local legislation and regulation. “Compliance costs could add from about 5% to 15% to the baseline costs of the product. Often, imported products do not need to comply with the same regulations, making the playing fields uneven,” Hanekom explains. Owing to the increase in plastic imports, Plastics | SA is also focusing on improving innovation and skills development in the industry. “We need to be more creative regarding the type of products we manufacture in South Africa,” he says, adding that most plastic products are commodities such as bottles and bags, and that there is a lot of local competition in these areas. “We need to think about how we can create niche products that can be exported. It is all about adding value to our products, which is linked to skills development. We need more skilled people in South Africa who will be able to operate high


for growth level technology and equipment, which, in turn, will enable the local plastics industry to develop niche products.” Hanekom notes that innovation, research and development, and investment in new technologies will fur ther improve the growth of the plastics industry and our competitiveness. He points out that plastics manufactures invested significantly in new technologies in the early 2000s. “However, because of the pressures plastics companies currently face, there is less focus on innovation and R&D, and more focus on survival.” Plastics | SA will also consider the establishment of private-public par tnerships, particularly with the South African government. “Plastics impact on all industries and we need to create clusters around these industries and find ways of getting

involved in national projects such as the Strategic Infrastructure Projects. Plastic is used in construction, for example, and we

It is all about adding value to our products, which is linked to skills development. We need more skilled people in South Africa to operate high-level technology.” Anton Hanekom, executive director, Plastics|SA need to find ways to make plastic a part of these programmes and part of the National Infrastructure Plan,” he explains.

Hanekom concludes that securing government tenders will further stimulate growth in the plastics industry. RéSource February 2015 – 21

Association Focus

Top green accolades Every two years, organisations in the Eastern Cape are encouraged to participate in the Top Green Organisation awards. The prestigious gala banquet held towards the end of last year was coordinated and sponsored by the Eastern Cape Department of Economic Development, Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEDEAT) and the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa.

Four categories of the EASTERN CAPE TOP GREEN ORGANISATION AWARDS Large Organisation High Environmental Impact • Winner and Platinum award – Volkswagen Group South Africa (VWSA)

• Runner-up (2nd place) and Platinum award


Y COMPETING, industries are enabled in confronting environmental management challenges. This year’s entrants demonstrated new and excellent practices, which maximise environmental resources while improving air quality, energy efficiency, water usage, and reducing, reusing or transforming waste into a resource. DEDEAT executive council member Sakhumzi Somyo explains, “The aim of these awards is to promote and recognise the achievements of organisations that comply with legislation and govern responsible environmental management practices in the Eastern Cape. It also fosters better relationships between government, industr y, business and other organisations.”

with permit requirements. Por t of Ngqura was commended for its commitment to environmental management and being a poison-free por t. The Waste Trade Company, winner of the medium-size organisation with medium environmental impact categor y, was acknowledged for its dedication to environmental education and extensive community engagement. Uitenhage Despatch Development Initiative proved that dynamite comes in small packages, winning first prize in the small organisation with low environmental impact categor y as a result of its impressive Eco Hub model. The Eco Hub model includes seedling incubation, growing vegetables and medicinal plants, waste recycling, compost making, and ar ts and crafts.

Award winners Volkswagen Group South Africa (VWSA) was the winner of the large organisation with high environmental impact categor y. Applauded for its approach to cleaner production, judges were also impressed by the degree to which VWSA’s environmental targets permeate the entire business. Coega Development Corporation (CDC) and Transnet National Por ts Authority’s Por t of Ngqura jointly won first place in the medium-size organisation with high environmental impact categor y. CDC was recognised for ensuring tenants comply

22 – RéSource February 2015

Conclusion Somyo says that the Top Green Organisation awards are essential in fostering and nurturing a progressive society that protects the unique Eastern Cape environment. “These awards are not solely about enforcement but rather aim to develop green economy capabilities and demonstrate ecological leadership in the Eastern Cape.” Judging was conducted through site visits and the appointment of an independent auditor.

– Mercedez-Benz South Africa (MBSA)

• Runner-up (3rd place) and Platinum award – General Motors of South Africa (GMSA)

• Certificate of participation and Gold award – Goodyear South Africa

Medium Organisation High Environmental Impact • Winner and Gold award – Coega Development Corporation

• Winner and Gold award – Transnet National Ports Authority (TNPA) Port of Ngqura

• Runner-up (2nd place) and Silver award – Langkloof Bricks

• Runner-up (3rd place) and Silver award – East London IDZ SOC

• Certificate of participation and Bronze award – Sunningdale Dairies

Medium Organisation Medium Environmental Impact • Winner and Gold award – The Waste Trade Company

• Runner-up (2nd place) and Silver award – FloorworX Africa

• Runner-up (3rd place) and Silver award – CHEP South Africa (Port Elizabeth)

• Certificate of participation and Silver award – Ronnies Motors

Small Organisation Low Environmental Impact • Winner and Bronze award – Uitenhage Despatch Development Initiative

• Runner-up (2nd place) and Bronze award – Kabega Primary School

• Runner-up (3rd place) and Bronze award – Stirling Primary School

• Certificate of participation and Bronze award – Urban Gardens


Recyclability by design PETCO, a recycling company specialising in the recycling of PET bottles and products, has recently released a helpful guide for all those involved in the development, design, marketing and procurement of PET packaging, on design for recycling. Here are some highlights.


N SOUTH AFRICA, as with the rest of easily separated in the recycling process. the world, more and more people are It is recognised however, that to prorealising the benefits of sustainable vide the technical properties required development, with government playand satisfy user needs, sometimes a ing a leading role in simulating awareness combination of different types of material and action. is required. Under these circumstances, It is therefore important for companies to materials of different densities should be reduce the environmental impacts used to facilitate the separation of products and services through of incompatible materials during their entire life cycle. Companies mechanical shredding or crushfailing to address environmental ing, or during the subsequent performance in product design water-based washing process. and development will find it Fillers that change the increasingly difficult to density of the plastic compete in the global should be avoided market. and their use miniSUMMARY Packaging should mised in general, • Design PET be designed to as they lower the containers with the satisfy technical, quality of the recyrecycling process consumer and cuscled material. in mind • Sustainable tomer needs in a recycling starts with Identification way that minimisa recyclable bottle To facilitate the es environmental • Include PET in your visual identificaimpact. This means packaging tion of plastic that – among other • Stimulate transparency for a types during things – packaging recyclable bottle. manual separashould be designed The above tion, major plastic to use the minimum considerations are components (conamount of resources not exhaustive and tainers, caps and for purpose and, once have been extracted lids) should carry a it has completed its from a longer, more detailed document. material identifier. job, the scope for recovTo obtain the The symbol should ery maximised. document, contact be shown clearly PETCO directly. Choosing material types and ideally moulded Understanding the into the container or extent to which differin the case of films, ent polymers can be lightly and repeatrecycled together can edly printed across improve design for the material. recycling outcomes. Composite The aim is to minimaterials and mise the number barrier layers of different plastics Where a comused, and to specify posite mateplastics that can be rial is necessary, recycled together or

consideration should be given to the use of thin layers (for example, nylon or vapour deposition). Lightweight plastic laminates, especially those of thickness <100 microns, are not cost-effective to recycle. Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) can be acceptable. However, the specific requirements for acceptability are not generally achievable by recyclers and recovery rates of the PET would be low.

Colourful plastics Coloured plastic material has a much lower economic value than non-pigmented plastic. Designers are encouraged to consider alternatives such as sleeves, if colour is necessary. Also, avoid direct printing onto PET as it may interfere with automated sorting machinery that uses NIR spectroscopy to identify the nature of the plastic.

Additives and labelling Adhesive use and sur face coverage should be minimised, and sleeves and safety seals should be designed to completely detach from the container or else they become contaminants. These also need to be water soluble at 60°C to 80°C and hot-melt alkali-soluble adhesives are those of choice. Paper labels are not ideal and these labels on plastic film represent a significant problem to conventional recycling.

Final word Designers should consider the possibility of including recycled plastics in their packaging for both environmental and commercial reasons. The specification of recycled materials in the design of new products suppor ts the recover y of plastics by providing a market for reprocessed material. Other advantages include a potential cost saving, marketing benefits and reduced environmental impact.

RéSource February 2015 – 23


Tyres are more than Waste tyres can be a hazard in landfills, but a resource and a business opportunity in the right hands. FRANCES RINGWOOD looks at some of the benefits of tyre recycling.


IVEN THE bulkiness of tyres, the environmental problems they cause, combined with meaningful recycling potential, tyres may be one of the world’s most challenging waste streams, but they can also be one of the most beneficial. Waste tyres comprise about 70% air, meaning that they monopolise valuable space when land for disposal is at a premium. Not only that, when tyres are simply sent straight to landfill, a number of problems can occur, including the trapping of methane, which causes tyres to rise to the sur face. This action can potentially damage geosynthetic lining layers used to protect ground and sur face water. For these and other reasons, recycling is by far the better option.

by reducing rubber components back to hydrocarbons and other basic components. Carbon black, steel and syngas are other by-products besides fuel, which is either available as an oily liquid or gas. When carried out using technologically advanced machinery, high-quality by-products from this process will create greater value and reuse potential. Modern methods also create virtually no waste.

Grinding and cutting In order to recycle tyre materials, tyres must be crushed and then separated completely into their original components. Shredders or rotor cutters are used to process these components into crumb and powder for reuse. This process is achievable using warm grinding and flat-die granulation mills.

Pyrolysis Burning tyres is conducted via specialised machinery and generates energy from tyres

24 – RéSource February 2015

Warm grinding Warm grinding takes place at room

temperature. For this reason, it is also called ambient grinding. For this process, tyre chips are crushed in fast-running granulators or mills without being made brittle. By means of granulators connected in series, the product is reduced gradually to the requisite size.

Flat-die granulation mills The flat-die pellet mill works according to the pan grinder roller principle. In this process, tyres are cut and ground into smaller and smaller chips. Forces of up to 120 bar are then applied to these tyre parts as they are crushed, which shears the rubber, steel and textile components apart.

Weighing the benefits It’s difficult to say which of these methods for recycling is better, as each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Pyrolysis technologies are constantly being


‘pieces of old takkie’

ABOVE LEFT Some ecowarriors are so committed to waste-tyre recycling that they build whole houses, called Earthships, out of the material ABOVE Waste-tyre recycling plant

refined so that value recovered from secondary by-products is increased. The rubber pellet attained by warm grinding has a much larger surface area on a micro-scale than the cold ground crumb, making it more suitable to interact with various binding agents so polymers can be added. These crumbs are used as filler in the caoutchouc industry – producing products such as latex gloves, condoms and balloons – for example. The main disadvantage lies in the high energy demand resulting from the technique’s multiple crushing phases and wear on parts. The benefit of flat-die granulation is the tyre material is not reduced to small pieces

by geometrically shaped cutting edges, but only by the shearing forces produced between the grinding tools and in the product. As a result, wearing of grinding tools does not have any influence on the granulation result. In addition, flat-die granulation capacity can go up to two-and-a-half tonnes of tyres being recycled per hour at the average plant per granulation press in a multi-shift operation. By mounting several units in parallel, plant capacities can be increased. Average yields for pyrolysis are comparable but these figures rely heavily on the quality of the machinery selected.

Application for products High-quality steels can be reused in blast furnaces for steel production or as additional concrete reinforcement for construction. When it comes to crumb and meal, the addition of polyurethane (PU) binders

makes the material appropriate for artificial turf. Another possibility is the addition of these substances to topsoil, which improves its compaction and drainage. By combining tyre crumb with certain other types of crumb, such as recycled thermoplastics instead of PU binders, elastomer compounds can be produced in a special extrusion processes. By means of extrusion or injection moulding, a large number of products can be produced from these materials. Civil engineering is another application. When added to asphalt, the asphalt’s properties for road construction are improved, as the rubber asphalt reduces noise emissions by up to nine decibels. Also, the temperature stability of the road surface increases, so that the formation of lane grooves in summer is reduced. The application possibilities for recycled tyres are almost endless.

RéSource February 2015 – 25


Turning waste

into worth


N SOUTH AFRICA, we have millions of waste tyres lying in dumps and stockpiles or scattered across the countr y in residential, industrial and rural areas. Tyres are designed to be tough and nearly indestructible, which is good when they are in use, but a problem when they reach me the end of their working life. While some ing waste tyres make their way to recycling rks facilities via formal and informal networks of collectors, many of them are burned for oxic their scrap metal content, releasing toxic fumes and liquids in the process. ent Redisa, as gazetted by the Depar tment of Environmental Affairs, has developed an environment in which a new tyre recycling industr y can function, and succeed – resulting in an increase of job creation oppor tunities countr ywide. Redisa’s core role is to create job oppor tunities and sup-ses por t small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs), and it does so by creatingg a circular economy within the tyre industrr y.


details how the company is creating jobs and sustaining local livelihoods.

Milestones Our business is to turn waste into worr th, hat and specifically the millions of tyres that rica are scrapped as waste in South Africa ept ever y year. The waste-into-wor th concept has been successfully implemented and we have achieved a number of notewor thy milestones. From 1 December 2013 to the end of December last year, Redisa established 34 depots operational across the countr y. In addition, Redisa is currently collecting tyres from 1 476 dealers, and as the Redisa Plan continues in its fiveyear roll-out, more dealers and collection points will be collected from nationwide. Our strategy for the future is to continue to meet the requirements as outlined in the Redisa Plan, par ticularly in line with suppor ting the development of SMMEs and recyclers, which will fur ther drive the development of the tyre recycling industr y in South Africa. This development will be achieved predominantly through investment in infrastructure, business suppor t,

26 – RéSource February 2015

At this stage, the tyre industry is the only one in South Africa whose waste is being dealt with in an integrated, coordinated way

and research into new applications for waste. The plan was developed to address the waste-tyre problem, in a manner that stimulates job creation and entrepreneurial development. As Redisa gains momentum, used tyres will grow in value. No longer seen as waste, they will vanish from our landfills and instead re-enter the economy as recovered raw materials, fuel, waste bins, paving, ar tworks, corporate gifts and even fashion accessories.

Looking at waste differently The key to turning waste into worth is to start looking at waste differently. The gradual increase of waste generated in South Africa is leading to an increasingly polluted environment in which South Africans, particularly those in the informal sector, are forced to live. This challenge has left the country with no other option but to seek measures to divert waste away from landfills to other waste management options such as the reuse, recycling and recovery of products, as well as energy generation. At this stage, the tyre industry is the only one in South Africa whose waste is being dealt with in an integrated, coordinated way. What’s more, Redisa’s system is the only one in the world that has 100% industry compliance with one waste management plan (100% of tyre manufacturers and importers are registered with Redisa and pay R2.30 per kilogram to outsource their tyre recovery and recycling liability to us). Job creation and small business development are a major part of our business plan, and our five-year target is to create 10 000 jobs and 200 business entities that collect, store and recycle waste tyres. Already, 1 617 jobs have been created and 162 small businesses established. The value of small businesses can not be underestimated, as many are seen as the lifeblood of the economy and generate millions in revenue for South Africans annually. It is our firm belief that by promoting a new recycling industry and developing sustainable SMMEs, we will have a direct Stacey Davidson, impact on the director of the Recycling and Economic economy through Development Initiative job creation. of South Africa (Redisa)


Improving landfill management Municipalities need to make financial provision for the eventual rehabilitation and closure of landfills. BY EAKLE GODSCHALK*, MARYNA MÖHR-SWART* AND JONATHAN SHAMROCK**


ASTE MANAGEMENT is one of the typical functions of local authorities in South Africa. A final step in the waste management process is disposal to landfills. All local municipalities, therefore, are responsible for managing one or more municipal landfills. Landfills are waste disposal facilities specially designed to receive and hold such waste indefinitely. Landfills have engineered designs and a predetermined lifespan (which may run into decades), after which they have to be rehabilitated and closed. A landfill can have negative impacts on the environment – especially water resources – during its operation as well as after closure. Therefore, strict specifications have been laid down for the rehabilitation and closure of landfills. In South Africa, this has been codified in the Minimum Requirements for Waste Disposal by Landfill (2nd edition, Depar tment of Water Affairs & Forestr y 1998), according to the most recently amended regulations.

Financial provision When considering the cost of managing landfills, the costs of rehabilitating and closing the landfill after it has reached the end of its operational lifespan is often downplayed. There are two main reasons for this. First, the timing of this cost is often not within the shor t and medium planning timeframes of officials, due to the long lifespan of a landfill. Secondly, it is not so easy to determine landfill closure costs, especially because of the long time

scales involved and the technical nature of landfill capping requirements. Making financial provision for final closure and rehabilitation of landfills is a requirement of GRAP accounting standards. This provision is a financial liability that grows over time until the closure of the landfill. In 2010, the Auditor General star ted issuing audit qualifications to municipalities for not disclosing a provision for landfill closure in their annual financial statements. This prompted many municipalities to star t looking at this issue but no standardised methodology was available.

Calculating closure costs One of the factors limiting municipalities’ ability to calculate the provision to be disclosed was the lack of a standard methodology for determining the scope and quantity of the provision for landfill closure. To fill this gap, environmental consultancies Environmental & Sustainability Solutions, in collaboration with Jones & Wagener Engineering and Environmental Consultants developed the Municipal Landfill Closure Costing Model (MLCCM). The model provides a standardised framework for determining the financial provision to be disclosed in the annual financial statements of municipalities. A comprehensive approach regarding the scope of closure costs is adhered to, as it provides the best possible information for accounting, planning and management purposes. In this comprehensive approach, landfill closure costs are made

RéSource February 2015 – 27

Landfills environmental impacts is available.

Rehabilitation and closure costs Final rehabilitation and closure costs are expended in the year of closure, and a number % of total closure costs Variable affected by variable of subsequent years, to ensure ef fective Size of landfill already used 90.8 closure. The landfill Environmental impacts 31.3 needs to undergo final Availability of capping material 19.2 shaping and compactAvailability and management of topsoil 12.5 ing in order to prevent Availability of technical data 7.9 rainwater from forming Existence of monitoring committee 7.9 pools, which can lead Compacting and trimming practices 5.6 to seepage through the landfill into the groundLicensed or not licensed 5.4 water. The landfill is TABLE 1 Impact of variables on landfill then capped with selected capping mateclosure costs rial (either a suitable type of clay or a up of three main components: geosynthetic liner) to reduce rainwater • pre-closure planning costs infiltration. Topsoil is added on top of the • actual rehabilitation and closure costs capping layer and is vegetated to prevent • post-closure monitoring and mainte- erosion of the landfill capping layers. nance costs. To fur ther prevent erosion of the landfill, The model includes 21 cost elements a stormwater control system needs to be associated with any of the three installed (if not yet in place). In areas with main components. high rainfall, leachate seepage control systems need to be added. In the case of Pre-closure planning costs large landfills where the risk of gas formaPlanning costs for landfill closure are tion is higher, a gas control system may directly associated with the activity and also have to be added. It also includes timing of closure, and should therefore costs associated with the erection of a be regarded as an integral par t of the proper fence (if not yet in place), decomclosure costs itself. These costs usually missioning of any infrastructure and erecinclude the costs of applying for a landfill tion of end-use-related infrastructure. closure licence, the basic assessment with accompanying public par ticipation Post-closure monitoring process, and finalising end-use plans and This component includes costs associated closure designs. This may be an expen- with post-closure environmental monitorsive process, especially if little technical ing, as well as ongoing maintenance and information on the landfill and potential management. When the landfill subsides

over time, it needs to be rectified to prevent water ponding on the surface. Drainage systems must be maintained, vegetation managed and fires controlled to ensure continued stability and prevent erosion. Leachate and gas that may emanate from the landfill also need to be managed, and lastly, water and gas monitoring (if applicable) needs to take place. This phase usually lasts for 30 years after closure.

Cost variables The various components of landfill closure costs are affected by a number of variables. The MLCCM includes 19 such variables. These include, for example, obvious aspects such as size of the area already used for disposing waste, the expected remaining lifespan of the landfill, the current condition of the fence, and whether the landfill is situated in a water-deficit or -surplus area. The quality of available information, the quality of operational management of the landfill and availability of closure material also impact on several cost elements.

Municipalities’ influence over cost Some variables that affect closure costs are outside the control of municipalities, such as whether the landfill is situated in a water-surplus or -deficit area. However, most variables can be influenced by municipalities, which, therefore, have an oppor tunity to manage future closure costs. The impact of improving landfill management practices on the financial provision is quantified by means of scenarios. This enables municipalities to prioritise improvement measures to maximise the potential reduction in landfill closure costs. Other considerations such as regulator y compliance are also taken into account when developing an action

28 – RéSource February 2015

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Environmental Consultants 1998/46338/23

Cape Town Tel: (021) 671 7107 Fax: (021) 671 7107 Contact: Stephanie de Beer

Independent Environmental Consultants specialising in: Environmental Management Plans x Contaminated Land Management Audits – Environmental and Green Building x Training Environmental Authorisations (NEMA,NEMWA,NEMAQA,NWA)

Landfills plan for improving the management of the landfill.

Main cost drivers Although circumstances between landfills differ, an analysis of the results of 58 valuations of 35 landfills since 2011 reveals generic trends that can be used in developing strategies to improve landfill management practices and, at the same time, minimise future landfill closure costs. It was found that eight variables affect cost elements that account for 5% or more of total closure costs (Table 1). Several variables affect more than one cost element. The relative impor tance of variables at different landfills differs vastly.

Size of landfill already used

of water pools in the landfill will reduce impacts on groundwater. Monitoring of the formation of gas and installing gas control systems, where appropriate, will also minimise negative impacts. Proper compacting and covering practices will help prevent negative environmental impacts. A major contributing factor to increased closure costs is the absence of proper groundwater monitoring at many landfills. In the absence of proof to the contrar y, based on water monitoring, it must be assumed that negative impacts on groundwater sources may occur. This automatically increases closure costs. By

to that which was generated during the licence application process are needed for the development of the closure plan; for example, a geotechnical investigation. If such information is lost, expensive technical investigations may need to be conducted again when planning for closure. Also, the existence of a landfill monitoring committee, including all relevant stakeholders during the operational phase of the landfill, would make the process of consultation with interested and affected par ties in the closure planning process more effective. This does have a positive impact on pre-closure planning costs. Fur thermore, current compacting and trimming practices directly affect compacting and shaping costs during closure of the landfill. It also reduces postclosure maintenance costs. As the purchase and maintenance of compacting equipment is expensive, this aspect of landfill management is often neglected. Finally, the licensing of a landfill also affects future pre-closure planning costs. In the absence of an operating licence for the landfill, a separate licence for closure of the landfill will have to be obtained at significant additional cost.

By quantifying the financial impacts of various variables on closure costs, the main drivers of closure costs at a specific landfill can be identified

The size of the area of the landfill that has already been used for waste disposal is by far the most impor tant driver of landfill closure costs, and should receive top priority in any landfill management action plan. Reduction of the volume of waste entering the landfill also increases the lifespan of the landfill. This increases the discounting period and reduces the discounted provision disclosed in the financial statements. The most effective way of reducing the size of the landfill is reducing the volume of waste deposited on the landfill. Awareness programmes for the reduction of waste generation, separation of waste at source and accompanying recycling programmes are the most effective strategies to reduce the waste streams to the landfill. In addition, such programmes can create entrepreneurial oppor tunities and employment, and it is also beneficial to the environment. The size of the por tion of the landfill used for disposal can be reduced by dumping waste in a concentrated area rather than spreading it all over the landfill, and by using the current disposal area or cell to its maximum height before opening a new area or cell.

Environmental impacts Environmental impacts associated with landfills also have a major impact on closure costs. This relates in par ticular to the impact on groundwater and surface water sources, leachate emanating from the landfill, and gas problems. The installation of liners and the prevention

investing in effective water monitoring, municipalities can often reduce the calculated provision.

Availability of capping material for closure The presence or absence of suitable capping material on-site or in the vicinity of the landfill has a major impact on capping costs. In none of the municipalities investigated was information on the availability of capping material available. By assessing the availability of capping material and securing future access to such material, for example, by establishing a capping material stockpile area on-site where selected soil can be placed over the life of the facility, capping costs can be reduced significantly.

Availability and management of topsoil for closure The availability of suitable topsoil for closure is equally impor tant. Assessing the availability and securing future access to such material will reduce future closure costs. If suitable topsoil for closure is available onsite, it should be managed properly in order to ensure that it retains its useful characteristics for future use during closure.

Other variables Technical



Conclusion The annual valuation of the closure costs of a landfill can be used for much more than only to calculate the financial provision for the final closure and rehabilitation of the landfill. By quantifying the financial impacts of various variables on closure costs, the main drivers of closure costs at a specific landfill can be identified. This enables the municipality to develop landfill management improvement plans to reduce future closure costs and simultaneously to improve current landfill management practices and enhance compliance with regulations.

THE AUTHORS (From left) *Seakle Godschalk, Maryna MĂśhr-Swart of Environmental & Sustainability Solutions and **Jonathan Shamrock of Jones & Wagener Engineering and Environmental Consultants

RĂŠSource February 2015 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 29

Cleaner Production

Government grants enhance manufacturing provides evidence for there being good uptake of government grants for the manufacturing sector, though he points out that the lion’s share is skewed to larger companies.



N JUST LESS than two years, the government has awarded over R4 billion in grants to 524 applications under the Manufacturing Competiveness Enhancement Programme (MCEP) through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC). From an aggregate level, this is proving to be an extremely successful initiative and has helped preserve over 100 000 jobs. Most of this grant funding has been skewed towards the largest companies (with historical assets of greater than R200 million). The

smallest businesses (with historical assets of less than R5 million) have received roughly 4% of this grant funding. In June this year, the DTI tightened certain of the grant conditions to ensure that as many companies are supported as possible, which was the initial intention of the MCEP programme when introduced in June 2012. The remaining available MCEP grant funding of R1.8 billion will hopefully be spread more equitably among all companies in South Africa. This grant is extremely attractive and has helped many organisations in the

manufacturing sector invest in technologies that would otherwise be unfeasible. A specific category under MCEP caters directly for green technology and resource efficiency improvement. This has helped many companies undertake projects that have led to cleaner production and resource efficiency – an important investment to ensure long-term financial and environmental sustainability, which ultimately leads to greater competitiveness in the local and global economy. Electricity tariffs are increasing faster than inflation and the recent announcement

30 – RéSource February 2015

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<= R 5m 4%

by the National Energy Regulator allowing Eskom to increase 2015/16 tariffs by more than 12% will further exacerbate this situation. Businesses can no longer afford to continue running inefficient equipment and processes, as energy costs are fast becoming a significant portion of total operating expenses. The initial capital investment required for green technologies can be exorbitant, with long payback periods (depending on the type and complexity of the installation). The MCEP grant has drastically improved the attractiveness of such initiatives, and businesses that have taken advantage of this grant to reduce their energy costs will be much better positioned to withstand future electricity increases.

Financial benefits The financial benefits of using the MCEP grant is best illustrated using an example. A manufacturing client in Johannesburg is considering installing a 200 kWp PV solar system on their building to supplement electricity usage from Eskom.

FIGURE 1 MCEPawarded grants in rands, split by company size (historical assets)

Cleaner Production > R5m, <=R30m 10%

> R20 00m 61% %

Some initial conditions: • cost of electricity is roughly 88 c/kWh (excl. VAT) • the capital investment for this 200 kWp PV solar system is roughly R 3.5 million (excl. VAT) • installed system has expected lifespan of more than 20 years if well maintained • the system will produce roughly 350 000 kWh per annum • all the power produced will be consumed directly by the site (i.e. no power will be fed back to grid) • an accelerated depreciation benefit is available from SARS, which allows full deprecation for green technologies in three years (50% in the first year, 30% in the second and 20% in the third). The financial feasibility of this PV solar system is considerably more attractive with

> R30m, <=R200m 25 5%

the MCEP grant and makes the decision to install this renewable energy solution quite compelling. In addition, the MCEP grant is well known throughout the manufacturing sector and many businesses have managed to use this grant to ensure the continued sustainability of their operations. With almost 70% of the total grant already awarded, there is not much left and we can only hope that government are able to implement a new grant programme when MCEP is fully subscribed. Deepak John, director of New Southern Energy

RéSource February 2015 – 31

Cat ®. Excellent at Groundwork. Barloworld and Caterpillar are committed to sustainable development. This will require unprecedented levels of resources, changes of attitudes and an insight to a greener future. That’s why the Cat people are hard at work developing innovative products, services and solutions for the future.

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Green Buildings

is the new green writes on the rise of megacities and a case for smart integration. MARI BLUMENTHAL


ESEARCH HAS recently revealed that, by 2020, 56% of the world’s population will live in urban areas and more than 35 cities globally will grow to become megacities by 2025. The research, conducted by Frost & Sullivan, in partnership with Hitachi, examined the trends that are putting increasing pressure on existing infrastructure, recognising the importance of social innovation in developing a new generation of smart technology so societies can function sustainably and with increased efficiency. There has been a business and industry realisation that innovation is not just a simple strategic option for financial gain but an opportunity to address human challenges. Social innovation has a tremendous impact in terms of bringing a better quality of life to the end user, not to mention the wider implications for the environment – particularly in a world that is fast becoming urbanised.

Internet of Things A large part of this transformation is the integration of smart products and Internet technologies which allow systems to react and communicate to changing environments. The research showed that green products and services will be enhanced or even replaced by smart products and services. Smart products can drive efficiency and reduce waste through intelligent sensing technology, which, when connected to other smart devices, forms the Internet of Things. We are seeing the development of a world where everyday objects are linked to the Internet, creating increasingly connected societies.

The objects can be controlled remotely, driving productivity and contributing to waste reduction through their ability to capture, store and broadcast vast amounts of data. According to Frost & Sullivan: “Enabled by the Internet of Things, machine-to-machine communication and over 80 billion connected devices globally, digital intelligence will be the key driver of efficiency and sustainability across a vast array of applications.” The convergence of green and smart technology has the potential to turn smart buildings and homes into a mainstream reality in two to three years. The creation of such smart buildings with energy management systems has also paved the way to innovative approaches to saving energy, such as systems that supply electricity from a car battery to a building for back-up or peak power.

Rise of the machines? The opportunities do not stop there: this technology can go far beyond devices in our homes and can ultimately help to create smart cities with integrated and intelligent infrastructure connecting the healthcare, energy, construction, transportation, and governance sectors. The report predicts that the market for smart cities will reach a phenomenal value of $1.57 trillion by 2020, when 15 smart global cities will exist. “We will also see smart concepts leading to the growth in the development of smart and sustainable cities with some cities even built from scratch, using the latest intelligent and green initiatives to reduce energy consumption and improve efficiencies in all facets of

ABOVE LEFT Durban has won grant funding in the past for being Africa’s smartest city ABOVE Konza City in Kenya has already started construction and is planned to be Africa’s own ‘silicon valley’ – a smart city from the start

human life,” according to the report. Key to creating a successful smart city is the convergence and coordination of infrastructure. Technology giant Hitachi has been conducting research in South Africa and Africa recently on how best to marry technological innovation with social infrastructure. Klaus Dieter Rennert, CEO, Hitachi Europe, says: “This is what will really tip the scales in favour of social innovation – when innovation truly answers individual citizens’ problems.”

Benefits Smart cities are not the silver bullet to solving the challenges developing from urbanisation, but the emergence of this phenomenon can act as an important platform in delivering solutions that create social sustainability. Smart cities maximise benefits to residents while minimising adverse effects on the environment and the economy. Simply put, smart cities support changing lifestyles that are urban and enjoyable, as well as being environmentally friendly. Cities will be the epicentre of people, ideas, challenges and opportunities in the future, so it is crucial that governments, businesses and individuals work together to make these cities as smart as possible. Social innovation has real potential to bring about positive change to the lives of individuals and societies and as Rennert says: “If people truly see the improvements to their lives, environment and society, they will see the value of investing in it.” Now it is a matter businesses and stakeholders starting to unify to make this vision a reality in our global megacities.

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ReSource February 2015  

The February 2015 edition of ReSource.

ReSource February 2015  

The February 2015 edition of ReSource.